Cookbook:Fruit

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This is a list of all the fruits generally considered edible by various cultures and used for culinary purposes. Some are not widely used and would be hard to get a hold of, but they offer interesting alternatives to the common or garden varieties.

There exist also many fruits that are certainly edible and locally popular but for various reasons have not become widespread in their use. Often this is due to marketing considerations, more than anything.

ClassificationEdit

The concept of a fruit in a culinary sense is fairly arbitrary, and it differs from the botanical sense of the word. Consequently, items that are botanically classified as fruits, but are usually referred to in cooking as "vegetables" (such as the tomato) will be in the vegetables section, and not here. For a discussion of the botanical vs. culinary definitions of that part of a plant called the "fruit" see Fruit at Wikipedia.

BerriesEdit

In the culinary sense, berries are typically very small fruits, often (but always) with negligible seeds. It is a somewhat arbitrary category, and different cultures may have different definitions of the term. Culinary berries should not be confused with botanical berries.

List of FruitsEdit

Because foods considered fruits have a wide range of native habitats, characteristics, uses, and phylogenies, it is extremely difficult to divide them into discrete categories. The list of fruits on this page categorizes them based on climate and geography for convenience and consistency, but it is not the only way to classify them.

Temperate fruitsEdit

Fruits of temperate climates are almost universally borne on trees or woody shrubs or lianas. They will not grow adequately in the tropics, as they need a period of cold (a chilling requirement) each year before they will flower. The apple, pear, cherry, and plum are the most widely grown and eaten, owing to their adaptability. Many other fruits are important regionally but do not figure prominently in commerce. Many sorts of small fruit on this list are gathered from the wild, just as they were in Neolithic times. The Rosaceae dominates the temperate fruits, both in numbers and in importance. The pome fruits, stone fruits, brambles, and strawberry are all members of Rosaceae.

List of temperate fruitsEdit

  • American grape: North American species (e.g., Vitis labrusca) and American-European hybrids are grown where Vitis vinifera is not hardy and are used as rootstocks
  • Apple and crabapple (Malus spp.)
  • Apricot (Prunus armeniaca)
  • Barberry (Berberis spp.)
  • Bearberry (various Arctostaphylos spp.)
  • Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) or whortleberry or Blueberry (UK)
  • Blackberry (Rubus spp.), of which there are many species and hybrids, such as dewberry, boysenberry, and loganberry
  • Blueberry (various Vaccinium spp.)
  • Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argenta), which grows wild in the prairies of Canada
  • Cherry, sweet, sour, and wild species (Prunus avium, P. cerasus, and others)
  • Chokeberry also called cooking apple (Aronia spp.)
  • Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus)
  • Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)
  • Cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos or macrocarpon)
  • Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum)
  • Currant (Ribes spp.), red, black, and white types
  • Elderberry (Sambucus spp.)
  • Goji berry (Lycium barbarum or chinense)
  • Gooseberry (Ribes spp.)
  • Goumi (Elaeagnus multiflora)
  • Haw, the fruit of the hawthorn (Crataegus spp.)
  • Huckleberry (various Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp.)
  • Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba)
  • Juneberry or saskatoon (Amelanchier spp.)
  • Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), also called kiwi or Chinese gooseberry
  • Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), also called cowberry
  • Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica)
  • Medlar (Mespilus germanica)
  • Melon (Cucumis melo)
  • Mulberry (various Morus spp.)
  • Nannyberry or sheepberry (Viburnum spp.)
  • Pawpaw (Asimina triloba, not to be confused with Carica papaya, which is called pawpaw in some English dialects)
  • Peach and its variant the nectarine (Prunus persica)
  • Pear (Pyrus spp.), European and Asian species
  • Persimmon (various Diospyros spp.)
  • Plum (various Prunus spp.), of which there are several domestic and wild species; dried plums are called prunes
  • Prickly pear (Opuntia spp.)
  • Quince (Cydonia oblonga and Chaenomeles spp.)
  • Raspberry (various Rubus spp.)
  • Rhubarb
  • Rowan or mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia)
  • Saguaro (Carnegiea spp.)
  • Seaberry or sea buckthorn (Hippophae spp.)
  • Sorb or sorb apple (Sorbus domestica), the fruit of the service tree
  • Strawberry (Frigaria spp.)
  • Sunberry or wonderberry (Solanum spp.)
  • Tayberry (Rubus fruticosus x R. idaeus), a cross between Raspberry and Blackberries
  • Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris)
  • Wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius)
  • Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum, Lycium spp.)

Mediterranean and subtropical fruitsEdit

Fruits in this category are not hardy to extreme cold, as the preceding temperate fruits are, yet tolerate some frost and may have a modest chilling requirement. Notable among these are natives of the Mediterranean.

List of subtropical fruits:Edit

Tropical fruitsEdit

Tropical fruit share an intolerance of frost.

 
tropical fruit

List of tropical fruitsEdit

See alsoEdit