This wikibook is about : how to make fractals (:-)) It covers only topics which are important for that (:-))


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This book is still under development. Please help us

  "What I cannot create, I do not understand." Richard P. Feynman


  1.   Introduction
  2.   Introductory Examples
  3. Mathematics for computer graphic: numbers, sequences, functions, numerical methods, fields, ...
  4. Programming computer graphic: files, plane, curves, ...
    1. plane transformations
  5. Fractal software
  6. Fractal links

Fractals made by the iterations



  1.  Definitions
  2. Iterations : forward and backward ( inverse ) and critical orbit
    1. Fractional iterations
  3. critical orbit
  4. Periodic points or cycle
    1. periodic points of complex quadratic map
    2. Period
  5. How to analyze map ? How to read location from the image?
  6. How to construct map with desired properities ?
  7. Algorithms ( graphical (coloring, transformations), numerical, symbolic, other)
  • (angle) doubling map
  • logistic map
  • real quadratic map
  • tent map

Iterations of complex numbers :2D

  • complex-analytic formulas (like Mandelbrot set and Julia set)
  • non-complex-analytic formulas (like Mandelbar and Burning Ship)
  1. Analysis
  2. Herman rings
Chebyshev polynomials

Dynamic plane: Julia and Fatou sets

  1. coloring the dynamic plane and the Julia and the Fatou sets
  2. Julia set
    1. with an non-empty interior ( connected )
      1. Hyperbolic Julia sets
        1. attracting : filled Julia set have attracting cycle ( c is inside hyperbolic component )
        2. superattracting : filled Julia set have superattracting cycle( c is in the center of hyperbolic component ). Examples : Airplane Julia set, Douady's Rabbit, Basillica.
      2. Parabolic Julia set
      3. Elliptic Julia set: Siegel disc - a linearizable irrationaly indifferent fixed point
    2. with empty interior
      1. disconnected ( c is outside of Mandelbrot set )
      2. connected ( c is inside Mandelbrot set )
        1. Cremer Julia sets -a non-linearizable irrationaly indifferent fixed point
        2. dendrits or Dendrite Julia sets ( Julia set is connected and locally connected ). Examples :
          1. Misiurewicz Julia sets (c is a Misiurewicz point )
          2. Feigenbaum Julia sets ( c is Generalized Feigenbaum point: the limit of the period-q cascade of bifurcations and landing points of parameter ray or rays with irrational angles )
          3. others which have no description
  3. Fatou set
    1. exterior of all Julia sets = basin of attraction of superattracting fixed point (infinity)
      1. Escape time
      2.  Boettcher coordinate
      3.  Orbit portraits and lamination of dynamical plane
      4. Dynamic external rays
    2. Interior of Julia sets:
      1.   Basin of attraction of superattracting periodic/fixed point - Boettchers coordinate , c is a center of period n component of Mandelbrot set
        1. Circle Julia set ( c = 0 is a center of period 1 component)
        2. Basilica Julia set ( c = -1 is a center of period 2 component)
      2.   Basin of attraction of attracting periodic/fixed point - Koenigs coordinate
      3.   Local dynamics near indifferent fixed point/cycle
        1.   Local dynamics near rationally indifferent fixed point/cycle ( parabolic ). Leau-Fatou flower theorem
          1. petal of the Leau-Fatou flower
          2. Repelling and attracting directions
          3. Rays landing on the parabolic fixed point
          4. parabolic checkerboard
          5. parabolic perturbation
          6. Fatou_coordinate
            1. Fatou_coordinate for f(z)=z/(1+z)
            2. Fatou_coordinate for f(z)=z+z^2
            3. Fatou_coordinate for f(z)=z^2 + c
        2.   Local dynamics near irrationally indifferent fixed point/cycle ( elliptic ) - Siegel disc

Parameter plane and Mandelbrot set

  1. Topological model of Mandelbrot set : Lavaurs algorithm and lamination of parameter plane
  2. structure of Mandelbrot set and ordering of hyperbolic components
    1.   family: real slice of Mandelbrot set.
      1. periodic part: period doubling cascade. Escape route 1/2
      2. the Myrberg-Feigenbaum point of   family
      3. chaotic part main antenna is a shrub of   family
  3. Transformations of parameter plane
  4. Sequences and orders on the parameter plane
  5. Parts of parameter plane
    1. exterior of the Mandelbrot set: escape time, Level Set Method ( LSM/M), Binary Decomposition Method (BDM/M)
      1. External (Parameter) Rays of:
        1. the wake ( root point)
        2. the principle Misiurewicz points for the wake k/r of main cardioid
        3. subwake (root points, tuning and internal address)
        4. branch tips of the shrub ( Misiurewicz points)
        5. islands ( root point, Douady tuning)
    2. Interior and the boundary : components
      1. Number of the Mandelbrot set's components
      2. Boundary of whole set and it's components
        1. parabolic points: root points and cusps
        2. unroll a closed curve and then stretch out into an infinite strip
        3. Misiurewicz points
          1. Devaney algorithm for principle Misiurewicz point
      3. interior of hyperbolic components
        1. centers of hyperbolic components = nuclesu of Mu-atoms
        2. Internal rays
      4. Islands
        1. the biggest island of the wake
        2. distortion of mini Mandelbrot sets
        3. islands ( root point, Douady tuning)
    3. Points ( parameter of the iterated function)
  6. speed improvements
  7. coloring algorithm
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