Fractals/Iterations in the complex plane/pcheckerboard
Task edit
How to show dynamics inside parabolic basin ?
Parameter c is a parabolic point
Attractor (limit set, attracting cycle / fixed point )
 belongs to Julia set ( not as in other cases )
 is weakly attracting ( lazy dynamics)
Algorithm edit
Color depends on:
 sign of imaginary part of numerically approximated Fatou coordinate (numerical explanation )
 position of under in relation to one arm of critical orbit star: above or below ( geometric explanation)
Name of the algorithm edit
 Parabolic chessboard = parabolic checkerboard
 zeros of qn  use only interior of Filled Julia sets on real slice of Mandelbrot set ( c is a real number, iaginary part is zero)
 Binary decomposition ( method = BDM ) in parabolic case
 Tessellation of the Interior of Filled Julia Sets ( Tomoki Kawahira in Semiconjugacies in Complex Dynamics with Parabolics)
 internal tiling
Steps edit
First choose:
 choose target set, which is a circle with :
 center in parabolic fixed point
 radius such small that width of exterior between components is smaller then pixel width
 Target set consist of fragments of p components ( sectors). Divide each part of target set into 2 subsectors ( above and below critical orbit ) = binary decomposition
Steps:
 take = initial point of the orbit ( pixel)
 make forward iterations
 if points escapes = exterior
 if point do not escapes then check if point is near fixed point ( in the target set)
 if no then make some extra iterations
 if is then check in what half of target set it ( binary decomposition)
How to find trap ? edit
Steps for parabolic basin
 choose component with critical point inside
 choose trap
 decompose trap disk for binary decomposition = divide into 2 parts : above and beyond the critical orbit
Trap features:
 is inside component with critical point inside
 trap has parabolic point on it's boundary
 center of the trap is midpoint between last point of critical orbit and fixed point
 radius of the trap is half of distance between fixed point and last point of critical orbit
Target set
 for periods 1 and 2 in case of complex quadratic polynomial : circle
 for periods >2: curvilinear sectors of circle around fixed point, 2 triangles described by :
Nota that one trap for components is bigger then two traps for BDM
 trap for componets : triangle
 trap for BDM : triangle
where
 z1, z2 are the last point of external rays bounding component ( usually the biggest one, with critical point inside )
 is the critical point, or it's forward image in case thet critical orbit arm is not straight line
 is parabolic fixed point
Because of lazy dynamics one stops the computation before critical orbit and external rays land on the parabolic fixed point. The remaining gap is filled (approximated) with line from the last point to the landing point.

computed and approximated parts
How to compute preimages of critical point ? edit
Here a and b are 2 inverse ( or backward ) iterations ( multivalued with argument adjusted ) used in the program Mandel by Wolf Jung:
 1st inverse function = key a =
 2nd inverse function = key b =
"Use the keys a and b for the inverse mapping. (The two branches are approximately mapping to the parts A and B of the itinerary.)
/* *****************************************************************************************
*************************** inverse function of f(z) = z^2 + c ****************************
*******************************************************************************************
*/
/*f^{1}(z) = inverse with argument adjusted
"When you write the real and imaginary parts in the formulas as complex numbers again,
you see that it is sqrt( c / c^2 ) * sqrt( c^2  conj(c)*z ) ,
so this is just sqrt( z  c ) except for the overall sign:
the standard squareroot takes values in the right halfplane, but this is rotated by the squareroot of c .
The new line between the two planes has half the argument of c .
(It is not orthogonal to c ... )"
...
"the argument adjusting in the inverse branch has nothing to do with computing external arguments. It is related to itineraries and kneading sequences, ...
Kneading sequences are explained in demo 4 or 5, in my slides on the stripping algorithm, and in several papers by Bruin and Schleicher.
W Jung " */
complex double fa(const complex double z0){
double t = cabs(c);
t = t*t;
complex double z = csqrt(c/t)*csqrt(tz0*conj(c));
return  z;
}
complex double fb(const complex double z0){
double t = cabs(c);
t = t*t;
complex double z = csqrt(c/t)*csqrt(tz0*conj(c));
return z;
}
complex double give_preimage_a(complex double z0){
int i;
int iMax = child_period;
complex double z = z0;
for (i = 0; i < iMax; ++i){
z = fa(z); }
return z;
}
complex double give_preimage_b(complex double z0){
int i;
int iMax = child_period;
complex double z = z0;
for (i = 0; i < iMax1; ++i){
z = fa(z); }
z = fb(z);
return z;
}
int Draw_preimages(complex double z0, unsigned char iColor, unsigned char A[]){
complex double z = z0;
int i;
int iMax = 100;
for (i = 0; i < iMax; ++i){
z = give_preimage_a(z);
dDrawPoint(z, iColor, A);
}
z = z0;
z = give_preimage_b(z);
dDrawPoint(z, iColor, A);
for (i = 0; i < iMax  1; ++i){
z = give_preimage_a(z);
dDrawPoint(z, iColor, A);
}
return 0;
}
dictionary edit
 The chessboard is the name of this decomposition of A into a graph and boxes
 the chessboard graph
 the chessboard boxes :" The connected components of its complement in A are called the chessboard boxes (in an actual chessboard they are called squares but here they have infinitely many corners and not just four). " ^{[1]}
 the two principal or main chessboard boxes
 trap = target set = attracting petal
Visualizing Structures with the Chessboard Graph
"An often used and very useful technique of visualization of ramified covers (and partial cover structures that are not too messy) consists in cutting the range in domains, often simply connected, along lines joining singular values, and taking the preimage of these pieces, which gives a new set of pieces. The way they connect together and the way they map to the range give information about the structure." Arnaud Chéritat Near Parabolic Renormalization for Unicritical Holomorphic Maps by Arnaud Chéritat
description edit
"A nice way to visualize the extended Fatou coordinates is to make use of the parabolic graph and chessboard." ^{[2]}
Color points according to :^{[3]}
 the integer part of Fatou coordinate
 the sign of imaginary part
Corners of the chessboard ( where four tiles meet ) are precritical points ^{[4]}
or
1/1 edit
The parabolic chessboard for the polynomial z + z^2 normalizing * each yellow tile biholomorphically maps to the upper half plane * each blue tile biholomorphically maps to the lower half plane under * The precritical points of or equivalently the critical points of are located where four tiles meet"^{[5]}
Images edit
Click on the images to see the code and descriptions on the Commons !

BDM only in the interior

BDM in both exterior ( superattracting) and interior ( parabolic)

only one basin: exterior ( superattracting)

on the cusp of main cardioid

from main cardioid to period 2

between period 2 and 4 along 1/2 ray

0/1 = 1/1

1/2

1/3

1/4

5/11
evolution on the escape route 0
 start with nucleus of component with period 1 (c = 0)
 go along internal ray for angle = 0
 parabolic point (c = 1/4)
 on the external ray for angle 0


superattracting

attracting

parabolic

only one basin: exterior ( superattracting), Julia set discontinous

various number of star branches

0/1 = 1/1

invariant curves inside main boxes

d=2

d=3

d=4

d=5

structural chessboard of first renormalization of the degree 2 parabolic Blaschke product, cylinders highted with a normal map.
Examples :
 Tiles: Tessellation of the Interior of Filled Julia Sets by T Kawahira^{[6]}
 coloured cauliflower by A Cheritat ^{[7]}
code edit
For the internal angle 0/1 and 1/2 critical orbit is on the real line ( Im(z) = 0). It is easy to compute parabolic chessboard because one have to check only imaginary part of z. For other cases it is not so easy
0/1 edit
Cpp code by Wolf Jung see function parabolic from file mndlbrot.cpp ( program mandel ) ^{[8]}^{[9]}
To see effect :
 run Mandel
 (on parameter plane ) find parabolic point for angle 0, which is c=0.25. To do it use key c, in window input 0 and return.
C code :
// in function uint mndlbrot::esctime(double x, double y)
if (b == 0.0 && !drawmode && sign < 0
&& (a == 0.25  a == 0.75)) return parabolic(x, y);
// uint mndlbrot::parabolic(double x, double y)
if (Zx>=0 && Zx <= 0.5 && (Zy > 0 ? Zy : Zy)<= 0.5  Zx)
{ if (Zy>0) data[i]=200; // show petal
else data[i]=150;}
Gnuplot code :
reset
f(x,y)= x>=0 && x<=0.5 && (y > 0 ? y : y) <= 0.5  x
unset colorbox
set isosample 300, 300
set xlabel 'x'
set ylabel 'y'
set sample 300
set pm3d map
splot [2:2] [2:2] f(x,y)
1/2 or fat basilica edit
Cpp code by Wolf Jung see function parabolic from file mndlbrot.cpp ( program mandel ) ^{[10]} To see effect :
 run Mandel
 (on parameter plane ) find parabolic point for angle 1/2, which is c=0.75. To do it use key c, in window input 0 and return.
C code :
// in function uint mndlbrot::esctime(double x, double y)
if (b == 0.0 && !drawmode && sign < 0
&& (a == 0.25  a == 0.75)) return parabolic(x, y);
// uint mndlbrot::parabolic(double x, double y)
if (A < 0 && x >= 0.5 && x <= 0 && (y > 0 ? y : y) <= 0.3 + 0.6*x)
{ if (j & 1) return (y > 0 ? 65282u : 65290u);
else return (y > 0 ? 65281u : 65289u);
}

trap for components
1/3 edit

chessboard

target set ( precritical points)
Numerical approximation of Julia set for fc(z)= z^2 + c child_period = 3 internal argument in turns = 1 / 3 parameter c = 0.1250000000000000 +0.6495190528383290*I fixed point alfa z = a = 0.2500000000000000 +0.4330127018922194*I external angles of rays landing on the fixed point : t = 1/7 t = 2/7 t = 4/7 critical point z = zcr = 0.0000000000000000 +0.0000000000000000*I precritical point z = z_precritical = 0.2299551351162811 0.1413579816050052*I external argument in turns of first ray landing on fixed point = 1 / 7
1/4 edit

BDM for both exterior and interior
Julia set for fc(z)= z^2 + c internal argument in turns = 1/4 parameter c = 0.2500000000000000 +0.5000000000000000*I fixed point alfa z = a = 0.0000000000000000 +0.5000000000000000*I critical point z = zcr = 0.0000000000000000 +0.0000000000000000*I precritical point z = z_precritical = 0.2288905993372869 0.0151096456992677*I external angles of rays landing on fixed point: 1/15, 2/15, 4/15, 8/15 ( in turns)
5/11 edit

extarnal rays and critical orbit (11arm star)
Numerical approximation of Julia set for fc(z)= z^2 + c parameter c = ( 0.6900598700150440 ; 0.2760264827846140 ) fixed point alfa z = a = ( 0.4797464868072486 ; 0.1408662784207147 ) external angle of ray landing on fixed point: 341/2047
See also edit
 parabolic perturbation
 Checkerboard in Hyperbolic tilings by User:Tamfang : images and Python code
 https://plus.google.com/110803890168343196795/posts/Eun6pZVkkmA
 shadertoy: Orbit trapped julia Created by maeln in 2016Jan19
 Holomorphic checkerboard by etale_cohomology
 Sepals of cauliflower
 wikipedia :Zebra striping in computer graphics
 aproximation cauliflower by the true tree: tree which converge to the cauliflower julia set. the set of vertices is in one to one correspondence with the grand orbit of the critical point of z squared plus one quarter.^{[11]}
references edit
 ↑ Near parabolic renormalization for unisingular holomorphic maps by Arnaud Cheritat
 ↑ About Inou and Shishikura’s near parabolic renormalization by Arnaud Cheritat
 ↑ Applications of nearparabolic renormalization by Mitsuhiro Shishikura
 ↑ Complex Dynamical Systems by Robert L. Devaney, page
 ↑ Antiholomorphic Dynamics: Topology of Parameter Spaces and Discontinuity of Straightening by Sabyasachi Mukherjee
 ↑ tiles by T Kawahira
 ↑ checkerboards by A Cheritat
 ↑ commons:Category:Fractals created with Mandel
 ↑ Program Mandel by Wolf Jung
 ↑ Program Mandel by Wolf Jung
 ↑ Oleg Ivrii (Tel Aviv University), "Shapes of trees"