Lombard/Prepositions and prepositional locutions

Lombard language course
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Prepositions and prepositional locutions
Adverbs and adverbial locutions
Pronominal and adverbial particles
Negation
Other constructions replacing the adverbs "easily" and "hardly"
Conjunctions and conjunctive locutions

Lombard The reference orthography for this page of Lombard course is New Lombard orthography

List of prepositions edit

Prepositions are words used to relate nouns or phrases. The prepositions are listed below (the list is made in the Milanese dialect, but the possible variants in the different dialects are indicated in the tables), their use will be explained in the following paragraphs.

de edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
de [1] MI /de/
da Br TI /da/
  1. "de" and "da" in Lombard are variants of a single preposition, however in the Milanese dialect there is a tendency to use "de" where the Italian language uses "di " and "da" where the Italian language uses "da".

a edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
a MI /a/

in edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
in MI /ĩː/

con[1] edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
con MI /cũː/
  1. cont before vowel

in su[1] edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
in su MI /ĩːˈsy/
in soeu Lagh /ĩːˈsø/
soeu BG /sø/
  1. often abbreviated with "su" in the most italianized dialects, always abbreviated in Eastern Lombard

per edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
per MI /per/
par Lagh /par/

intra[1] edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
intra MI /ˈĩːtra/
infra MI /ˈĩːfra/
  1. often abbreviated with "tra", always abbreviated in Eastern Lombard

vers edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
vers MI /'vɛrs/
invers MI /ĩːˈvɛrs/


che edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
che MI /ke/
ca VA /ka/


come[1] edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
come MI /ˈkume/
  1. often abbreviated to "'me"

sora edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
sora MI /'sura/

sota edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
sota MI /'sɔta/


oltra edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
oltra MI /ˈultra/
olter MI /ˈulter/
voltra MI /ˈvultra/


pu edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
pu MI /ˈpy/


asca edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
asca MI /ˈaska/


second edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
second MI /ˌseˈkũːt/
segond MI /ˌseˈɡũːt/


senza edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
senza MI /ˈsẽːsa/


amalastant edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
amalastant MI /amalaˈstãːt/


condemanch edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
condemanch MI /kũːdeˈmaŋk/

entro edit

Variant Dialects Pronunciation IPA
entro MI /ˈentro/

In addition to the prepositions, there are locutions that play the role of prepositions (prepositional locutions), they will be seen in the following paragraphs (in milanese dialect; to know the dialectal variants, please refer to the consultation of Lombard language Wiktionary).

Prepositions to connect sentences edit

As will be said about the Construction of the sentence there are cases in which the sentences can be connected each other through prepositions, followed by a verb in the infinitive.

We can classify the following cases:

  • sentences with gerundial complement
  • sentences of purpose
  • consecutive sentences
  • sentences of deprivation
  • sentences of necessity or convenience

Another use is the one of the verbs with servile function governed by Preposition, dealt with in the module about servile verbs

Sentences with gerundial complement edit

For these sentences, see the module about gerundive complements

Sentences of purpose edit

They are subordinate sentences that specify the purpose for which what is described in the main sentence is done. Can be introduced:

  • by the Preposition "de" if the subordinate clause specifies the specific purpose for which the subject of the main clause is intended.
Example:
La firlaforla l’è l’arnes de fà i bus in del mur. (dialect: MI )
(The drill is the tool for making holes in the wall)
  • by the preposition "per" in all cases of purpose sentences, the alternative use to the preposition "de" seen above is also possible.
Example:
A son scapad via per minga fàss ciapà. (dialect: MI )
(I fled to don't get caught)
La firlaforla l’è l’arnes per fà i bus in del mur. (dialect: MI )
(The drill is it is the tool for making holes in the wall)
  • by the prepositional locution "cont el fin de" (alternative to per when you want to emphasize that something has been designed by paying attention to the achievement of a certain purpose)
Example:
La Noeuva Ortografia Lombarda l’è on'ortografia cont el fin de ciapà dent tute I variante locai de la lengua lombarda.
The New Lombard orthography is a spelling in order to understand all the local variants of the Lombard language.

Consecutive sentences edit

They are subordinate sentences that represent the consequence of the action specified in the main sentence It is constructed by inserting adverbs such as "tant", "inscì", "assee" in the main clause and introducing the secondary clause with the Preposition "de":

Example:
L'è stad tant svelt de finì in cinch minut. (dialect: MI )
(It was quick enough to finish in five minutes)
L'hà caminad inscì tant de stracàss (dialect: MI )
(He walked so much that he got tired)

Sentences of deprivation edit

They are subordinate sentences that represent an action that has not been performed. The secondary clause is introduced by the Preposition "senza":

Example:
He worked without eating. (dialect: MI )
(Lù l’ha lavorad senza mangià)

Sentences of necessity or convenience edit

They are subordinate clauses that represent an action that is necessary or convenient to do. The secondary clause is introduced by the Preposition "de": The verb of the main clause is vessegh (vesser + adverbial particle "ghe") or havégh

Example:
A gh'è nagot de di (dialect: MI )
(There is nothing to say)
(A) gh'hoo nagot de fà (dialect: MI )
(I have nothing to do)

....

Preposition to connect nouns edit

Prepositions and prepositional locutions of time edit

Preposition + article? Usage / meaning / complement Example Example in English
(none
Preposition)
NO fixed time - days of the week
(unusual action)
lunedì on Monday
NO fixed time - days of the week and phase of the day
(unusual action)
lunedì matina on Monday morning
YES fixed time - dates el 15 de sgiugn on June 15th
de NO fixed time - days of the week
(usual action)
de lunedì on Monday
NO fixed time - some expressions De 'sti di these days
NO fixed time - seasons of the year[1] d'estad in summer
YES / NO → as the preposition "a" for a specific time continued time; means "starting from", "since" Son stad 'dree a lavorà di vot ore de la matina I've been working since eight o'clock in the morning
a NO fixed time - particular public holiday a Natal at Christmas
YES fixed time - hours ai vundes hours at eleven
YES fixed time - ahead of an expression that indicates a particular moment a la fin de la sgiornada at the end of the day
de ... a YES continued time - time extremes of a time interval dalla mattina alla sera from morning to evening
de ... con YES continued time - time extremes of a time interval only in the expression "d'on dì con l'alter" and similar[2] d'on ann con l’alter from year to year
in YES (in de) fixed time - ahead of years, centuries ... in del 1985

in del secol quell di vint

in 1985

in the twentieth century

NO fixed time - ahead the seasons of the year[1] in estad in summer
YES (in de) fixed time - ahead of the parts of the day in de la matina in (within) the morning
intra / infra / tra / fra NO fixed time - to mean a moment a specific time later tra des minut in ten minutes
de chì a / entro YES/NO → as the preposition "a" for the fixed time fixed time - to express a maximum time limit forward in time
with respect to the current time
de chì a des minut
de chì a Natal
in ten minutes
by Christmas
de lì a / entro YES / NO → as Preposition "a" for the fixed time determined time - to express a maximum time limit forward in time
with respect to a past moment
de lì a des minut
de lì a Natal
in ten minutes
by Christmas
dopo / de poeu de YES / NO
→ as the preposition "a" for the fixed time
fixed time - after after la fine de la scuola / de poeu de la fin de la scuola after the end of school
oltra YES fixed term - beyond oltra el mes de masg a riva l'estad beyond the month of May summer comes
fina a YES / NO
→ as the preposition "a" for the fixed time
continued time - until fina a la fin de la scola until the end of school
prima de / inanz de YES / NO
→ as the preposition "a" for the fixed time
fixed time - before prima de the end of the school / inanz de the end of the school before the end of the school
per NO continued time - duration Hoo lavorad per cinch ore I worked for five hours
in the cors de YES fixed time - during in del cors de la partida during the match

Prepositions to indicate approximation edit

To indicate an approximate time in cases where normally, to indicate a precise moment, the preposition "a" is required, the preposition "in su" or "vers" is used instead. (when specifying time (hours), only "vers" can be used.

Example
Se vedom ai ses ore (See you at six) - [precise time]
Se vedom vers i ses ore (See you around six) - [approximate time]
Se vedom al calà del sol (See you at sunset) - [precise time]
Se vedom in sul calà del sol (See you around sunset) - [approximate time]


  1. a b both "de" and "in" are suitable
  2. possible as an alternative to "d'on dì a l'alter"

Prepositions and prepositional locutions of place edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
a YES a) state in place - precise place not limited (excluding addresses and city, town and village names, god and saints.)

b) motion to place - precise place not limited (excluding addresses and city, town and village names, god and saints.)

a) Stoo de cà al quint pian
b) Voo al quint piani
a) I live on the fifth floor
b) I go to the fifth floor
NO a) state in place - cities and towns

b) motion to place - cities and towns

a) Stoo de cà a Milan

b) Voo a Milan

a) I live in Milan

b) I'm going to Milan

de YES motion from place - excluding cities, towns, villages
Vegni del quint pian I come fromthe fifth floor
NO motion from place – cities, towns, villages Son vegnud de Milan I came from Milan
YES motion by place - excluding cities, towns, villages and substantives indicating professions
Passi del quint pian I pass fromthe fifth floor
NO motion from place – cities, towns and villages Passi de Milan I pass throught Milan
in NO a) state in place -addresses

b) motion to place - addresses

a) in via Milano; a1) in via Milano 33

b) in Milano Street

a) in Via Milano; a1) at Milano Street, 33

b) to Milano Street

NO a) state in place - expressions with "countryside", "mountain" and the like

b) motion to place - expressions with "countryside", "mountain" and the like

a) Stoo de cà in campagna

b) Voo in campagna

a) I live in the countryside

b) I go to the countryside

NO a) state in place - expressions with "terra" (ground) and "let" (bed)

b) motion to place - expressions with "terra" (ground) and "let" (bed)

a) L'è distes in terra

b) L'è borlad sgiò in terra

b) L'è andad in let

a) He is lying on the ground

a) He fell to the ground

a) He went to bed

NO a) state in place - states and geographical regions

b) motion to place - states and geographical regions

a) Stoo de cà in Lombardia

b) Voo in Lombardia

a) I live in Lombardy

b) I go to Lombardy

NO when talking about the place in relation to its function and you don't want to indicate a particular place
YES ( → in de) in other cases except those indicated in the lines above
a) state in place - within a precise circumscribed place

b) motion to place - within a precise circumscribed place

a) Sont in ofizzi

Voo in ofizzi

b) Sont in de l'ofizzi del sindich

a1) Voo in de l’ofizzi del sindich

a) I'm in office

I go to the office

b) I'm in the mayor's office

a1) I go to the mayor's office

in de[1] SI → in de a) state in place - nouns that indicate professions

b) motion to place - nouns that indicate professions

c) motion by place - nouns indicating professions

a) Sont in del sindich

b) Voo in del sindich

c) Pass in del sindich

a) I am at the mayor’s

b) I go to the mayor

c) I pass by the mayor

de...in NO a) motion by place / from place to place - through places of the same type El viasgia de paes in paes He travels from country to country
for YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) b) motion to place - with the verb "partì" (to leave) a) Lù l’è partid per Milan a) He left for Milan
YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) b) motion by place - going around continuously a) El sgira for the city a) He walks around the town
NO b) State in place - only in the phrase "per strada" (om the road, street…) a) L'hoo trovad per strada a) I found it on the street
sora [2] YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in place / motion to place / motion to place – above, over, (on) Sora ‘l tecc Above the roof, (On the roof)
in su YES state in place / motion to place - on a) in sul tavol a) on the table
YES state in place / motion to place - books and internet sites or similar in sul liber

in sul sit de la Wikipedia

in the book

on the wikipedia site

de là de YES (excluding city, towns and village names, god and saints.) state in place / motion to place - beyond La cà l'è de là di alber The house is beyond the trees
dedent de/dedent a YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in place – inside
foeura de YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in place - outside
foeura de NO state in place - out The era foeura de post It was out of place
foeura[3] NO state in place - out Se vedeva che la vegniva de fuori cità You could tell she was from out of town
sota[4] YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in place / motion to place – below, under El gat l'è sota 'l tavol The cat is under the table
adree adree a YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in place / motion by place – along and very close to adree adree a l mur along and very close to the wall
a la papala de YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) status in place & relationship (in front of & in a way to be seen publicly) a la papala de tucc in front of everyone
apos a /depos a YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in place - behind (but very close) apos a l’uss (just) behind the door
arent a / visin a YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in place / motion to place – near, next to El gat l'è arent al can The cat is next to the dog
apress a / tacad a YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in place / motion to place – beside, very close to Stoo de cà apress a Milan I live very close to Milan
de dree a / de dree de YES (city, town and village names, god and saints. excluded) state in place / motion to place - behind (at a fixed distance) El can l'è de dree al gat The dog is behind the cat (and is not running after him)
denanz a / denanz de YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in place / motion to place - in front La gesa l'è denanz al municipi The church is in front of the town hall
adree a YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in place - after (in pursuit) El can l'è adree al gat The dog is after the cat (and wants to catch up him)
YES (excluding city, tonw and village names, god and saints.) state in place - along Adree a la riva del mar Along the seashore
de fianch a / de fianch de YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in place / motion to place – alongside, beside El gat l'è de fianch a la porta The cat is alongsidethe door
a travers a / a travers de YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) motion by place – across, through El gat l'è passad a travers di cespuli The cat went through the bushes
vers[5] YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) motion to place - direction - towards Semm 'dree a caminà vers Milan We are walking towards Milan
sgiò de NO motion from place (with place = predefined or desired position or route) - out L'è andad sgiò de strada He went off the road
YES motion by place (with place = road you are about to travel) - for L'è andad sgiò d' ona strada He went a road
in di pagn de YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in a figurative place - in the shoes of
infra / intra / tra / fra YES / NO →

as for the preposition "in"

state in place / motion to place – between or among two or more elements El gat l'è infra la cadrega e 'l sofa The cat is between the chair and the sofa
in mez a YES (excluding city, town and villages names) state in place / motion to place - in the middle of El gat l'è in mez a la stanza The cat is in the middle of the room
in fond a YES (excluding city, town and villages names) state in place / motion to place - at the bottom of, in the back of El gat l'è in fond a the room The cat is in the back of the room
in fris a YES (excluding city, town and villages names) motion by place – along and very close to in fris al fiume along and very close to the river
in pari a YES (excluding city, town and villages names) state in place (even in motion) – on the side of, neither a little in front nor a little behind El gat el corr in pari al can the cats runs on the side of the dog
intorna de / intorna a YES (excluding city, town and villages names) state in place / motion to place - around El gat el corr intorna al tavol The cat runs aroundthe table
lì adree a YES (excluding city, town and villages names) state in place – in the vicinity of, near El sta de cà lì adree a Milan He lives near Milan
lontan de YES (excluding city, town and villages names) state in place, motion to place - away from El gat l'è lontan del tavol The cat is away from the table
in quell de NO state in place / motion to place (just for cities town and villanges, alternative to the preposition "a") Se sem incontrad in quell de Milan We met in Milan
foeura de SI (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints., in that case only "foeura") state in place / motion to place foeura del guss

Foeura Milan

Out of the shell

Outside Milan

in di part de YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in place / motion to approximate place for geographical names – somewhere near El stà de cà in di part del Vigentin He lives near Vigentino
dessoravia de YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) state in place - even above / just above Havéghen dessoravia del coo
contra de / contra a /contra YES state in place - against

Note

  1. however, there is a tendency to italianize using simply "de/da"
  2. "sora de" ahead of subject personal pronouns
  3. Beware of the small difference in use compared to "foeura de" used without article. This Preposition is rarely used, and almost always to construct adverbial locutions such as "foeura zona". The difference between "foeura" and "foeura de" is small since, constructing the adverbial locutions "foeura de", unlike "foeura" it is used when one wants to describe a condition that is far from what would be the right one (for example "foeura de post" means not being in the right place, "foeura de misura" which means a departure from the right measure, instead "foeura zona" means not being in that area but there is no right and wrong area. )
  4. "sota de" ahead of subject personal pronouns
  5. "vers de" ahead of subject personal pronouns

Argument prepositions edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
de YES to specify something on someone in particolar
NO in a more generic sense
argument – related to the predicate Sem 'dree a parlà de animai selvadigh

Sem ‘dree a parlà del scorbat

We are talking about wild animals

We are talking about the crow

in su[1] YES argument - related to a noun Sem 'dree a fà on discors in su animai selvadigh We're having a talk about wild animals
sora[1] YES argument - related to a noun Sem 'dree a fà on discors sora i animai selvadigh We're having a talk about wild animals
a proposit de YES argument - related to a noun Sem 'dree a fà on discors a proposit di animai selvadigh We're having a talk about wild animals

Note

  1. a b The usage of "in su" or "sora" is equivalent

Origin preposition edit

The preposition "de" is used and it works as the same preposition used for motion from place (see above). Example:

(English) He was born to a Piedmontese father
(Lombard) L'è nassud d'on pader piemontes

Prepositions and prepositional locutions of relationship edit

Preposition + articles? Complement / use Example Example in English
with YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) relationship with another entity Cont el Giovann voo minga d'acord With John I don't get along
infra / intra / fra / infra[1] YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) relationship within a group Infra de num l’è sucessa ona roba strana Something weird happened between us
in di confront de YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) relationship to another entity Te se see minga comportad ben in di confront del Giovann You have not behaved well towards John
  1. infra de” before Subject personal pronouns

Prepositions to construct comparatives edit

"de", "che", come, compagn de, istess de, al pari de; for their use see ►►► "adjective degrees"

Prepositions and prepositional locutions of agent / cause / efficient cause / dependence edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
de YES (excluding city, towns and village names, god and saints.) effective agent / cause L'edifizzi l'è stad trad sgiò del teremot The building was knocked down bythe earthquake
YES (excluding city, ton and village names, god and saints.) dependens El prezzi de la benzina el dipend del prezzi del petroli The price of petrol depends onthe price of oil
YES/NO cause (only for feelings or physical discomfort) El barbon l'è mort de(l) frecc The homeless man died of cold
for YES (excluding city, towns and village names, god and saints.) cause (always) El barbon l'è mort per el frecc The clochard died from the cold
per via de NO when the following noun is plural and normally would be preceded by a partitive article, or in cases not usually preceded by article

YES in other cases

cause (always) El barbon l'è mort per via del frecc The clochard died due to the the cold
a caosa de NO when the following noun is plural and normally would be preceded by a partitive article, or in cases not usually preceded by article

YES in other cases

cause (always) El barbon l'è mort a caosa del frecc The clochard died due to the the cold
in reson de NO when the following noun is plural and normally would be preceded by a partitive article, or in cases not usually preceded by article

YES in other cases

cause by reason of
in virtù de NO when the following noun is plural and normally would be preceded by a partitive article, or in cases not usually preceded by article

YES in other cases

cause by virtue of


Prepositions and prepositional locutions of means edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
with[1] NO in cases not normally preceded by an article

YES in other cases

mean (tool used) Hoo fad el bus con la firlaforla I made the hole with the drill
in NO mean (of transport) Voo a cà in machina I go home by car
per NO mean (of telecommunication) El parla per television He talks on television
grazzie a NO when the following noun is plural and normally would be preceded by a partitive article, or in cases not usually preceded by article

YES in other cases

mean (generic), with emphasis on a derived benefit L'hà riessid a passà l'esam grazzie a quell liber là. He managed to pass the exam thanks to that book
per mez de NO when the following noun is plural and would normally be preceded by a partitive article or in cases not usually preceded by an article

YES in other cases

mean (generic) I hann menad inanz la soa ricerca de lor per mez de espriment They carried out their research by means of experiments
de YES mean (when the mean has allowed or allows to learn, understand, recognize ... something) I recognized him de la vos I recognized him ??thanks to the voice
NO in some other rare expression Tegnì de man (on quaivun) Hold (someone’s) hands
  1. "cont" before vowel

Prepositions of abundance and lack edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
de NO when the following noun is plural and normally would be preceded by a partitive article, or in cases not usually preceded by article

YES in the other cases

abundance El cavagn l'è pien de nos

El cavagn l'è pien di nos che t'hee comprad

The basket is full of nuts

The basket is full of the nuts you bought

NO when the following noun is plural and normally would be preceded by a partitive article, or in cases not usually preceded by article

YES in the other cases

lack


Prepositions of deprivation edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
of NO in cases not usually preceded by article

YES in the other cases

deprivation Privà on quaivun del pan
Deprive someone of the bread

Prepositions and prepositional locutions of companionship and union edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
con YES companionship and union Mi son con la mia morosa I am with my girlfriend
insema a YES companionship Mi son insema a la mia morosa I am with my girlfriend
intra/intra / intra / intra[1] YES companionship Lù a l'è intra i tosane It's among the girls
  1. construction with "intra" is a "state in place" which in the sense figurative represents companionship

Concessive prepositions edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
con YES concessive Cont el frecc che ‘l faseva sont sortid istess With the cold weather it was I went out anyway
amalastant YES concessive Amalastant el frecc che faseva sont sortid istess Despite it was cold, I went out anyway
a dispet de YES concessive - in spite of A dispet de la sua apparenza l’era divers In spite of his appearance he was different
a onta de YES concessive - in spite of


Nominative prepositions edit

Preposition + article? Complement / usage Example Example in English
of NO naming La cità de Milan The city of Milan


Prepositions of distance edit

Preposition + article? Complement / usage Example Example in English
a (...de) NO ahead of city, town and village names, god and saints.

YES in the other cases

distance Sem rivad a des chilometri de Vares We have arrived 10 kilometers from Varese


Distributive prepositions edit

Preposition + article? Complement / usage Example Example in English
a ...a NO distributive - in some other sentences Caminèm a du a du Let’s walk two by two
per NO distributive - in some other sentences Caminèm in fila per du we walk in line for two
NO distributive - distribution of something Ghe n'è assee per tucc There is enough for everyone

Prepositions of material edit

Preposition + article? Complement / usage Example Example in English
of NO material El rampin l'è de ferr The hook is (made) of iron


Addiction prepositions edit

Preposition + article? Complement / usage Example Example in English
asca YES addition – wich means "and in addiction there ‘s also" Cent franch asca i interess One hundred francs plus interests
pu YES addition – wich means "wich are added to" Cent franch pu i interess One hundred francs plus interests


Prepositions and prepositional locutions of exclusion and deprivation edit

Preposition + article? Complement / usage Example Example in English
senza[1] YES deprivation - without Senza de mi el ghe sariss mai stad Without me there would never have been it.
foeura che / via che YES exclusion - except Tucc i dialet de la lombardia foeura che / via che 'l Mantovan i partegnen a la lengua lombarda. All dialects of Lombardy except Mantuan belong to the Lombard language
condemanch YES exclusion - except
  1. "senza de" before subject personal pronouns

Prepositions of quality edit

Preposition + articles? Complement / usage Example Example in English
de NO quality L'è on oget de valor It is a valuable object
(English language uses adjectives instead of "de" + noun)
con NO quality (thanks to odue to something owned or belonging) On om cont ona longa barba A man with a long beard


Prepositions of punishment/sentence edit

Preposition + articles? Complement / usage Example Example in Italian
a NO punishment/sentence to be served L'è stad condanad a des ann de prison He was sentenced to ten years in prison
de NO fine given or to be given He is stad multad de desmila euro He was fined ten thousand euros
(no preposition in English)


Partitive prepositions edit

Preposition + article? Complement / usage Example Example in English
de NO in the cases not normally preceded by an article

YES in the other cases

distributive Domà trii de lor a inn boni de scriver Just three of them are able to write
intra /infra / tra /fra[1][2] NO in the cases not normally preceded by an article

YES in the other cases

distributive Domà trii infra de lor a inn boni de scriver Just three among of them are able to write
  1. infra de.. ahead of [ [Lombard /Subject personal pronouns|subject personal pronouns]]
  2. the construction with infra is a "state in place" construction which in a figurative sense has a partitive function"

Prepositions and prepositional locution of limitation edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
of NO limitation - something possessed by the subject L'è curt de cervell He is short on brains
in sgener de NO limitation - general In sgener de In terms of
intuitù de NO limitation - general concerning, regarding
in quant a YES limitation - general In quant a la matematica l'è assee bravo As for mathematics, he's quite good
for YES limitation - opinions Per el Giovann l'è inscì In John 's opinion that’s how it is
second /segond YES limitation - opinions Second el Giovann l'è inscì In John 's opinion that’s how it is
a segonda de (abbreviation segonda) /a secondo de (abbreviation second) YES limitation a segonda de depending on

Prepositions for the direct object and for the term complement edit

Preposition + article? Complement / usage Example Example in English
(no
prepositions)
YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) object - affirmative form El gat l'ha mangiad la polpeta

El gat l'hà mangia ona polpeta

The cat ate the meatball

The cat ate a meatball
(English language also does not use prepositions)

YES (except for city, town and village names, god and saints.) direct object - negative form in cases where the noun in the direct object
wants the definite article
or the indefinite one if you want to mean "all excet one or some item"
El gat l'hà mangiad minga la polpeta

El gat l'hà mangiad nò ona polpeta

the cat didn't eat the meatball

The cat didn't eat a meatball (he ate them all but one)
(English language also does not use prepositions)

of NO direct object - negative in the other cases El gat l'hà mangiad minga de polpete
The cat didn't eat meatballs
(English language does not use prepositions instead)
a YES (excluding city, town and village names, god and saints.) term (always) Gh'hoo dad ona polpeta al gat
I gave a meatball to the cat


Prepositions of purpose and advantage edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in Italian
de NO purpose – if you want to indicate that a thing is specially designed for that purpose i scarp de tennis tennis shoes
for YES (except city, trowns and village names, god and saints.) purpose - if you want to indicate that the action described by the predicate is done for a purpose El lavora for la soa vita

He works 'for' his life

YES (except city, towns and village names, god and saints.) advantage (for/to the benefit/advantage of) El lavora per i sò fioeui He works for his children

Prepositional locutions of disadvantage edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
contra de / contra a /contra YES disadvantage - against
a svantagg de / a dagn de YES disadvantage - for the detriment of / to the disadvantage of

Prepositions of separation and estrangement edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in Italian
de YES (except city, town and village names, god and saints.) separation Separém i boni di cativ Let’s separate the good from the bad
YES (except city, town and village names, god and saints.) estrangement I boni a s'inn slontanad di cativ The good ones have moved away from the bad ones

Prepositions to build the predicative complement edit

Usually the predicate complement of the subject is not introduced by Preposition:

Examples:
El Lessi l'è considerad on geni (Alexios is considered a genius)
El Valeri l'è stad elensgiud sindich (Valerio was elected mayor)

However, there are cases where prepositions are used, for example:

→ Preposition "come"

Example:
L'è stad ciapad come garzon (He was hired as an apprentice)

→ Preposition "de"

Example:
El fa de testimoni (He acts as a witness)

Prepositions of quantity edit

Prepositions to say the number of elements constituting an entity edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
de NO quantity (referring to the entities constituting the entity represented by the preceding noun) Ona partida de des toch
La partida l'era de des toch
A set of ten pieces
The set was ten pieces
in NO quantity (number of elements that make up a group) Serom in trii We were three / We were three of us
(none
preposition)
NO quantity (number of elements regardless of the idea of a group) I eren trii They were three

Preposition to say the number of parts an entity is divided into edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in Italian
in NO quantity (number of parts an entity is divided into) Sparti in trè part To divide into three parts

Prepositions to say the price edit

Prepositions are not used to indicate the price of an object:

Examples:
El compiuter el costa cinch-cent euri (The compiuter costs 500 euros)

To say the price something is sold or bought, the preposition "a" is used

Example:
L'hoo comprad a cinch-cent euri (I bought it for 500 euros)
L'hoo vendud a cinch-cent euri (I sold it for 500 euros)


Prepositions to be indicative of approximation edit

In evaluations, measurements and assumptions in the cases where no preposition is normally required, the input of the preposition "in su'" is equivalent to saying "roughly", "about" or "approximately"

Example
El pesa in sui sessanta chilogram (It/He weighs about sixty kilograms, It/He weighs approximately sixty kilograms)

Conversely, if you want to indicate an interval, use "infra" / "intra" / "tra " / "fra" .... "e"

Example
El palazz l'è alt intra (i) trii e (i) quindes meters (The palace is between three and fifteen meters high)

Prepositions of estimation edit

To indicate the estimated value of something, the preposition "per" is used:

Example:
Quest anell chì l'è stad stimad per cinch-cent milion (This ring was valued at five hundred millions)

What was said in the previous paragraph applies to approximations and intervals, that is to say the prepositions in su or infra...e must be used.


Prepositions to specify the age edit

Prepositions are not used to indicate a person's age:

Examples:
El Lessi el gh'ha quarant'ann (Alexios is forty years old)

To specify the age when something happened we use the preposition "a"

Example:
Lù l'è andad in spos a vint ann (He got married at the age of twenty)

By the same way, an approximate age can be indicated by preceding the preposition "in su" istead of "a"


Transformation prepositions edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
in NO different types of transformation El liber l'è stad tradot in Lombard The book has been translated into Lombard

Prepositions and prepositional locution of swap and substitution edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in Italian
per YES (except for city, town and village names, god and saints.) swap, exchange L'ha scambiad ona roba per l'altra He swapped one thing for the other
inveci de /inscambi de YES (except for city, town and village names, god and saints.) swap (1) L'ha ciapad su ona roba inveci de l'altra
(2) L'ha ciapad su ona roba inscambi de l'altra
(1) He picked up one thing instead of the other
(2) He picked up one thing instead of the other / He picked up one thing in exchange for the other
al post de YES (except for city, town and village names, god and saints.) substitution L'ha metud on roba al post de l'altra He put one thing in place of the other / He put one thing instead of the other
in nom de YES (except for city, town and village names, god and saints.) substitution - in the name of

Prepositions of manner edit

Complements of manner are usually expressed through adverbs, sometimes they are also expressed through adverbial locutions which can be made up by:

con + noun

Example:
Hoo lavorad con impegn (I worked with effort)

de + adjective

Example
Hoo lavorad de crapon (I worked stubbornly)

however, there are numerous locutions constructed with other prepositions. Examples: sul seri → (1) really; (2) seriously per nom → by name

Prepositions to indicate feelings, moods and conditions edit

Usually feelings, moods or conditions are expressed by adjectives.

Examples:
El Lessi l'è feliz (Alezios is happy)

Sometimes you can write "in" + feeling / moods / condition

Example:
El paes l'è in agitazzion (The village is in turmoil)


Attention: in the cases where in Lombard there are no nouns to describe certain conditions but verbs used as a noun are used instead, the translation by this way with the preposition "in" is not possible, contrarywise you have to use the construction "adree a + verb in the infinitive" (curtailment "'dree a +..."). For example, since there is no noun to say "arrival", the verb "to arrive" (or "to come"), which in Lombard is "rivà" / "ruvà" is used instead as if it were a noun. "the arrival" is therefore expressed in Lombard by "el rivà" but “arriving” cannot be translated to "in rivà" but must be translated with "'dree a rivà"

Example:
A gh'è on temporal (che l'è) 'dree a rivà (There is a storm (that is) coming)
A gh'è on temporal che l'è 'dree a rivà (There is a storm that is coming)

Prepositions of circumstance edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
con NO circumstance It was raining col sol It was raining raining while the sun was shining
(in Lombard language it is expressed as "It was raining raining with the sun")

Prepositional locutions of relation edit

Preposition + article? Complement / use Example Example in English
a l'uso de NO relation (similarity) - in the likeness of
front a YES relationship (with something or someone to deal with)
- faced with
in di confront de YES relationship – (1) against; (2) toward; (3) towards
sul gust de YES relation - similar to (in terms of style) Quest vestid chì a l'è fad sul gust de quell de vint ann fa. That dress is made in the stile of the one from twenty years ago.
a foeusgia de /a fosgia de NO relation - similar to (in terms of shape), in the shape of, in the form of, shaped like
a forma de NO relation - similar to (in terms of shape), in the shape of, in the form of, shaped like
a moeud de NO relation - similar to (in terms of manner), like
a l'usanza de YES relation - according to the custom of

Prepositions to form phrasal verbs edit

Some verbs change their meaning when they are followed by a preposition or an adverb.
►►► see ►►► Lombard/Phrasal verbs