The reference orthography for this page of Lombard course is New Lombard orthography

## Pronominal particles (and adverbial particle “ghe”)

### Western Lombard

Pronominal particles (not in suffix form) are placed before the predicate, when there is more than one type follow the order of the table below.
Attention: they can be used for verbs in the moods indicative, subjunctive or conditional, instead in the other cases the suffixes are used (see the following paragraph).

Attention: it is not a pronominal particle
but an adverbial one in function of:

Complement of state in place
Complement of motion to place
Complement of motion through place
or it is pronominal in function of:
Complement of topic 1
Complement of term
Direct object Complement of topic 2
Complement of motion from place 3 attention
Complement of specification
Partitive complement
1^sing. ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] me[4]ma[5]am/ m'[6] me[4]ma[5]ma / m'[6] ne
2^sing. ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] te[7]ta[8]at / t'[9] te[7]ta[8]at / t'[9] ne
3^sing. "m" ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] el[10]al[11] ne
3^sing. "f" ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] la ne
1^pl. ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] ne[12] ne[13] ne
2^pl. ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] ve[14]an / v'[15] ve[14]av / v'[15] ne
3^pl. "m" ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[6] ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[6] je[16]

ja / ia[17]
ai /ei[18]

ne
3^pl. "f" ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] je[19]

ja / ia[20]
ai /ei[21]

ne
Reflexive - se se -

#### Dialects

1. agh before vowel, "gh'" before consonant in PV
2. a b
3. a b
4. a b c d "at" before vowel, "t'" before consonant in PV
5. a b
6. a b
7. a b "at" before vowel, "t'" before consonant in PV
8. a b
9. a b "av" before vowel, "v'" before consonant in PV
10. MI when using it, you should not use the universal weak pronoun a
11. Lagh -MI (archaic) when using it, you should not use the universal weak pronoun a
12. when using it, you should not use the universal weak pronoun a
13. MI when using it, you should not use the universal weak pronoun a
14. Lagh -MI (archaic) when using it, you should not use the universal weak pronoun a
15. when using it, you should not use the universal weak pronoun a

en = a (Universal weak subject personal pronoun) + ne and when the univesal pronoun is optional 'en or ne is used depending on the phonetics
em (archaic)= a ( Universal weak subject personal pronoun)) + me
1 complement of topic that in extended form would be introduced by the preposition "sora" or "in su" (or, soeu...)
2 complement of topic that in extended form would be introduced by the preposizzion "de" (in dialet Milanes o "da" depending on the dialect...)

3 complement of motion from place that in estende form would be introduced by the preposizzion "de" (o "da" depending on the dialect...)

Attention: Its usage as a complement of motion from place is not allowed in all the dialects; for example it is allowed in Laghee dialect but it is not allowed Milanese dialect.

In the dialects where it cannot be used as a complement of motion from place the estende form "via / via de lì / via de là" is used istead as a complement of motion form place.

Examples:

El ne va (Laghee dialect)

El va via de là (MIlanes dialect)

There i salso the passivating impersonal pronominal particle "se" (o sa depending on the dialect) which is used to construct the impersonal or passive impersonal forms.
►see►►Lombard/Verbal diathesis

### Eastern Lombard

Attention: it is not a pronominal particle
but an adverbial one in function of:

Complement of state in place
Complement of motion to place
Complement of motion through place
or it is pronominal in function of:
Complement of topic 1
Complement of term
Direct object Complement of topic 2
Complement of motion from place 3 attention
Complement of specification
Partitive complement
1^sing. ghe[1] me[2] me[2] ne
2^sing. ghe[1] te[3] te[3] ne
3^sing. "m" ghe[1] ghe[1] la[4] ne
3^sing. "f" ghe[1] ghe[1] la ne
1^pl. ghe[1] me[5] me[6] ne
2^pl. ghe[1] ve[7] ve[7] ne
3^pl. "m" ghe[1] ghe[1] ja / ia[8]
ne
3^pl. "f" ghe[1] ghe[1] ja / ia[9]
ne
Reflexive - se se -

1 Complement of topic that in extended form would be introduced by the preposition "sora" or "in su" (o su, soeu...)
2 Complement of topic that in extended form would be introduced by the preposition "de" (o "da" dependig on the dialects...)

3 Complement of motion to place that in extended form would be introduced by the preposition "de" (o "da" depending on the dialects...).

There i salso the passivating impersonal pronominal particle "se" (o sa depending on the dialect) which is used to construct the impersonal or passive impersonal forms.
►see►►Impersonal passive form
►see►►Impersonal active form

1. a b
2. a b
3. a b

## Pronominal particles as a suffix

### Western Lombard

Attention: they can be used for infinitive, gerund moods and imperative mood in 1st and 2nd person

Attention: it is not a pronominal particle
but an adverbial one in function of:

Complement of state in place
Complement of motion to place
Complement of motion through place
or it is pronominal in function of:
Complement of topic 1
Complement of term
Direct object Complement of topic 2
Complement of motion from place 3
Complement of specification
Partitive complement
1st sing. -gh -m -m -nn/-n[1]
2nd sing. -gh -t -t -nn/-n[1]
3rd sing. "m" -gh -gh -ll / -l[1] -nn/-n[1]
3rd sing. "f" -gh -gh -lla / -la[1] -nn/-n[1]
1st pl. -gh -n /-nn -n /-nn[1] -nn/-n[1]
2nd pl. -gh -v[2] -v[2] -nn/-n[1]
3rd pl. "m" -gh -gh -i -nn/-n[1]
3rd pl. "f" -gh -gh -i -nn/-n[1]
Reflexive - -ss[3]

-s[4]

-ss[5]

-s[6]

-

1 Complement of topic that in extended form would be introduced by the preposition "sora" or "in su" (o su, soeu...)
2 Complement of topic that in extended form would be introduced by the preposition "de" (o "da" dependig on the dialects...)

1. in NOL the letter is doubled in cases where the accent falls on the preceding vowel
2. a b
3. added to the infinitive or to the gerund in MI
4. added to the imperative in MI
5. added to the infinitive or to the gerund in MI
6. added to the imperative in MI

### Esatern Lombard

Attention: they can be used for infinitive mood and imperative mood in 1st and 2nd person

Attention: it is not a pronominal particle
but an adverbial one in function of:

Complement of state in place
Complement of motion to place
Complement of motion through place
or it is pronominal in function of:
Complement of topic 1
Complement of term
Direct object Complement of topic 2
Complement of motion from place 3
Complement of specification
Partitive complement
1st sing. -ga -m -m -nn/ -n[1]
2st sing. -ga -t -t -nn/ -n[1]
3rd sing. "m" -ga -ga -ll / -l[1] -nn/ -n[1]
3rd sing. "f" -ga -ga -lla /-la[1] -nn/ -n[1]
1st pl. -ga -n -n -nn/ -n[1]
2nd pl. -ga -s[2] -s[2] -nn/ -n[1]
3rd pl. "m" -ga -ga -i -nn/ -n[1]
3rd pl. "f" -ga -ga -le -nn/ -n[1]
Reflexive - -ss

-s

-ss

-s

-
1. in NOL the letter is doubled in cases where the accent falls on the preceding vowel
2. a b

### Western Lombard

(examples in Milanese dialect)

Note: The gerund it exists only in some dialect of southern Lombardy and imported from the Italian language [1]

#### 1st conjugation

for the infinitive
Examples Rule for the imperative Examples Rule
for the gerund
Examples
-m add -m mangià → mangiàm 2nd person singolar

mangia → mangiom

2nd person plural

mangé → mangem

-gh add -gh mangià → mangiàgh 2nd person singolar

Replace the suffix with -egh

(*with the exception of monosyllabic verbs, for which -gh is added)

1st person plural

2nd person plural

Replace the suffix with -eegh

2nd person singolar

mangia → mangegh

da → dagh

1st person plural

mangem → mangemigh

2nd person plural

mangé → mangeegh

dé → deegh

-ss add -ss mangià → mangiàss 2nd person singolar
replace the suffix with -es
(i after g o c is removed)

1st person plural

2nd person plural
replace the suffix with -eeves and move the accent to ee

2nd person singolar

mangia → manges
1st person plural

mangèm → mangèmes

2nd person plural
mangé → mangeeves

-nn add -nn mangià → mangiànn 2nd person singolar
replace the suffix with -en'''

(i after g o c is removed)

(*except for monosyllabic verbs, for which -nn is added)

1st person plural

2nd person plural
replace the suffix with-een
(i after g o c is removed)

2nd person singolar
mangia → mangen

da → dann

1st person plural

mangèm →mangèmen
2nd person plural
mangé→ mangeen

dé → deen

-ll add -ll mangià → mangiàll replace the suffix with -el
(i after g o c is removed)
mangia → mangel add -ol mangiand → mangiandol
-la add -lla mangià → mangiàlla replace the suffix with -ela
(i after g o c is removed)
mangia → mangela add -ol mangiand → mangiandola
-i add -i mangià → mangiài replace the suffix with -ei
(i after g o c is removed)
mangia → mangei add -oi mangiand → mangiandoi

#### 2nd conjugation

for the infinitive
Examples Rule for imperative Examples Rule
for the gerund
Examples
-gh add -gh piasé → piaségh 2nd person singolar

replace the suffix with -egh

1st person plural

replace the suffix with -égh

2nd person plural

2nd person singolar

ved → vedegh

1st person plural

vedì → vedégh

2nd person plural

vedèm → vedèmigh

-ss add -ss piasé→ piaséss 2nd person singolar
replace the suffix with -es
(i after g o c is removed)

1st person plural

...
2nd person plural
replace the suffix with -eeves and move the accent to ee

2nd person singolar

piàs → piases

1st person plural

2nd person plural
piasì → piaseeves

-nn add -nn vedé → vedénn 2nd person singolar
replace the suffix with -en'''

(i after g o c is removed)

1st person plural

...
2nd person plural
replace the suffix with-én
(i after g o c is removed)

2nd person singolar
ved → veden

1st person plural

...
2nd person plural
vedì → vedeen

-ll add -ll vedé → vedéll replace the suffix with -el
(i after g o c is removed)
véd → vedel add -ol vedend→ vedendol
-la add -lla vedé → vedélla replace the suffix with -ela
(i after g o c is removed)
véd → vedela add -ola vedend→ vedendola
-i add -i vedé → vedéi replace the suffix with -ei
(i after g o c is removed)
véd → vedei add -oi vedend→ vedendoi

#### 3rd conjugation

Suffix to be added Rule for the infinitive Examples Rule for the imperative Examples Rule
for the gerund
Examples
-m replace the suffix with -om
add -iom after g o c
scriver → scrivom
lensger → lengiom

-t replace the suffix with -et
scriver → screvet
lensger → leget
-gh replace the suffix with -igh
scriver → scrivigh
lensger → ligigh
2nd person singolar

replace the suffix with -egh

2nd person singolar

2nd person singolar

replace the suffix with -eegh

2nd person singolar

scrìv → scrivegh

1st person plural

scrivem → scrive,gh

2nd person plural

scrivì → scriveegh

-n replace the suffix with -en
scriver → scriven
lensger → legen
-v replace the suffix with -ev
scriver → scrivev
lensger → legev
-ss replace the suffix with -s
(solo una "s")
lensger→ lenges 2nd person singolar
(i after g o c is removed)

1st person plural

2nd person plural
aggiungi -eeves e porta l'avvento sopra "ee"

2nd person singolar

scond → scondes

1st person plural

scondem → scondemes

2nd person plural
scondì → scondeeves

-nn replace the suffix with -en lensger → lensgen 2nd person singolar
cambia el sufiss con -en'''

(i after g o c is removed)

1st person plural

...
2nd person plural
replace the suffix with-een
(i after g o c is removed)

2nd person singolar
scond → sconden

1st person plural

...
2nd person plural
scondì → scondeen

-ll replace the suffix with -el
lensger→ lensgel
-la replace the suffix with -ela

lensger → lensgela

legend→ legendola

lensger → lensgei

legend→ legendoi

#### 4th conjugation

for the infinitive
Examples Rule for the imperative Examples Rule
for the gerund
Examples
-gh add -gh fornì → fornìgh 2nd person singolar

replace the suffix with -egh

(*except for monosyllabic verbs, to which -gh is added)

2nd person singolar

replace the suffix with -éegh

2nd person plural

2nd person singolar

finiss → finissegh

dì → digh

2nd person singolar

disì → diseegh

2nd person plural

desem → disemigh

-ss add -ss fornì→ fornìss 2nd person singolar
cambia 'l sufiss con -isses (for inchoative verbs)

or replace the suffix with -es (for non-inchoative verbs)

1st person plural
replace the suffix with -issemess (for inchoative verbs)

o replace the suffix with -emes (for non-inchoative verbs)
2nd person plural
replace the suffix with -eeves

2nd person singolar

cusiss → cusisses

1st person plural

cusissem → cusissemes

sentem → sentemes

2nd person plural
cusì → cuseeves

-nn add -nn fornì → fornìnn 2nd person singolar
replace the suffix with -en (for inchoative verbs)

or replace the suffix with -issen (for non-inchoative verbs)

(i after g o c is removed)

(*except for monosyllabic verbs, to wich -nn is added)

1st person plural
...
2nd person plural
replace the suffix with -en (for inchoative verbs)

or replace the suffix with -isseen (for non-inchoative verbs)
(i after g o c is removed)

2nd person singolar
finiss → finissen

senta → senten

di → dinn
1st person plural
...
2nd person plural
finì → finisseen

sentì → senteen

-ll add -ll fornì → fornìll replace the suffix with -issel (for inchoative verbs)

o replace the suffix with -el (for non-inchoative verbs)

finiss → finissel
senta → sentel
-la add -lla fornì → fornìlla replace the suffix with -issela (for inchoative verbs)

o replace the suffix with -ela (for non-inchoative verbs)

finiss → finissela
senta → sentela
-i add -i fornì → fornìi replace the suffix with -issei (for inchoative verbs)

o replace the suffix with -ei (for non-inchoative verbs)

finiss → finissei
senta → sentei