Lombard/Pronominal and adverbial particles

Lombard language course
Morphology of Lombard language

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PronounsSubject personal pronouns •• Object and term personal pronouns •• Pronominal and adverbial particles - Demonstrative pronouns •• Possessive pronouns •• Indefinite pronouns
VerbsMoods and tenses •• Infinitive •• Gerund and gerundial complements •• Participle - Present Indicative •• Past Indicative (Perfect Indicative) •• Imperfect Indicative •• Past Perfect Indicative •• Simple Future Indicative •• Compound Future Indicative •• Present Subjunctive •• Past Subjunctive (Perfect Subjunctive) •• Imperfect Subjunctive •• Past Perfect Subjunctive •• Present Conditional •• Past Conditional •• Present Imperative •• Future Imperative •• Continuous construction ••• Irregular verbs
••• Auxiliary verbs
••• Modal verbs
••• Phrasal verbs
Prepositions and prepositional locutions
Adverbs and adverbial locutions
Pronominal and adverbial particles
Negation
Other constructions replacing the adverbs "easily" and "hardly"
Conjunctions and conjunctive locutions

Lombard The reference orthography for this page of Lombard course is New Lombard orthography

Pronominal particles (and adverbial particle “ghe”) Edit

Western Lombard Edit

Pronominal particles (not in suffix form) are placed before the predicate, when there is more than one type follow the order of the table below.
Attention: they can be used for verbs in the moods indicative, subjunctive or conditional, instead in the other cases the suffixes are used (see the following paragraph).

Attention: it is not a pronominal particle
but an adverbial one in function of:

Complement of state in place
Complement of motion to place
Complement of motion through place
or it is pronominal in function of:
Complement of topic 1
Complement of term
Complement of advantage
Direct object Complement of topic 2
Complement of motion from place 3 attention
Complement of specification
Partitive complement
1^sing. ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] me[4]ma[5]am/ m'[6] me[4]ma[5]ma / m'[6] ne
2^sing. ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] te[7]ta[8]at / t'[9] te[7]ta[8]at / t'[9] ne
3^sing. "m" ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] el[10]al[11] ne
3^sing. "f" ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] la ne
1^pl. ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] ne[12] ne[13] ne
2^pl. ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] ve[14]an / v'[15] ve[14]av / v'[15] ne
3^pl. "m" ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[6] ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[6] je[16]

ja / ia[17]
ai /ei[18]

ne
3^pl. "f" ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] ghe[1]ga[2]agh / gh'[3] je[19]

ja / ia[20]
ai /ei[21]

ne
Reflexive - se se -

Dialects Edit

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l MI
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l VA
  3. a b c d e f g h i j agh before vowel, "gh'" before consonant in PV
  4. a b MI
  5. a b VA
  6. a b c d "at" before vowel, "t'" before consonant in PV
  7. a b MI
  8. a b VA
  9. a b "at" before vowel, "t'" before consonant in PV
  10. MI
  11. VA
  12. MI
  13. MI
  14. a b MI
  15. a b "av" before vowel, "v'" before consonant in PV
  16. MI when using it, you should not use the universal weak pronoun a
  17. Lagh -MI (archaic) when using it, you should not use the universal weak pronoun a
  18. when using it, you should not use the universal weak pronoun a
  19. MI when using it, you should not use the universal weak pronoun a
  20. Lagh -MI (archaic) when using it, you should not use the universal weak pronoun a
  21. when using it, you should not use the universal weak pronoun a

In addition:
en = a (Universal weak subject personal pronoun) + ne and when the univesal pronoun is optional 'en or ne is used depending on the phonetics
em (archaic)= a ( Universal weak subject personal pronoun)) + me
1 complement of topic that in extended form would be introduced by the preposition "sora" or "in su" (or, soeu...)
2 complement of topic that in extended form would be introduced by the preposizzion "de" (in dialet Milanes o "da" depending on the dialect...)

3 complement of motion from place that in estende form would be introduced by the preposizzion "de" (o "da" depending on the dialect...)

Attention: Its usage as a complement of motion from place is not allowed in all the dialects; for example it is allowed in Laghee dialect but it is not allowed Milanese dialect.

In the dialects where it cannot be used as a complement of motion from place the estende form "via / via de lì / via de là" is used istead as a complement of motion form place.

Examples:

El ne va (Laghee dialect)

El va via de là (MIlanes dialect)

In addition:
There i salso the passivating impersonal pronominal particle "se" (o sa depending on the dialect) which is used to construct the impersonal or passive impersonal forms.
►see►►Lombard/Verbal diathesis

Eastern Lombard Edit

Attention: it is not a pronominal particle
but an adverbial one in function of:

Complement of state in place
Complement of motion to place
Complement of motion through place
or it is pronominal in function of:
Complement of topic 1
Complement of term
Complement of advantage
Direct object Complement of topic 2
Complement of motion from place 3 attention
Complement of specification
Partitive complement
1^sing. ghe[1] me[2] me[2] ne
2^sing. ghe[1] te[3] te[3] ne
3^sing. "m" ghe[1] ghe[1] la[4] ne
3^sing. "f" ghe[1] ghe[1] la ne
1^pl. ghe[1] me[5] me[6] ne
2^pl. ghe[1] ve[7] ve[7] ne
3^pl. "m" ghe[1] ghe[1] ja / ia[8]
ne
3^pl. "f" ghe[1] ghe[1] ja / ia[9]
ne
Reflexive - se se -

1 Complement of topic that in extended form would be introduced by the preposition "sora" or "in su" (o su, soeu...)
2 Complement of topic that in extended form would be introduced by the preposition "de" (o "da" dependig on the dialects...)

3 Complement of motion to place that in extended form would be introduced by the preposition "de" (o "da" depending on the dialects...).

In addition:
There i salso the passivating impersonal pronominal particle "se" (o sa depending on the dialect) which is used to construct the impersonal or passive impersonal forms.
►see►►Impersonal passive form
►see►►Impersonal active form

Dialects Edit

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l BG
  2. a b BG
  3. a b BG
  4. BG
  5. BG
  6. BG
  7. a b BG
  8. BG
  9. BG

References Edit

Pronominal particles as a suffix Edit

Western Lombard Edit

Attention: they can be used for infinitive, gerund moods and imperative mood in 1st and 2nd person

Attention: it is not a pronominal particle
but an adverbial one in function of:

Complement of state in place
Complement of motion to place
Complement of motion through place
or it is pronominal in function of:
Complement of topic 1
Complement of term
Complement of advantage
Direct object Complement of topic 2
Complement of motion from place 3
Complement of specification
Partitive complement
1st sing. -gh -m -m -nn/-n[1]
2nd sing. -gh -t -t -nn/-n[1]
3rd sing. "m" -gh -gh -ll / -l[1] -nn/-n[1]
3rd sing. "f" -gh -gh -lla / -la[1] -nn/-n[1]
1st pl. -gh -n /-nn -n /-nn[1] -nn/-n[1]
2nd pl. -gh -v[2] -v[2] -nn/-n[1]
3rd pl. "m" -gh -gh -i -nn/-n[1]
3rd pl. "f" -gh -gh -i -nn/-n[1]
Reflexive - -ss[3]

-s[4]

-ss[5]

-s[6]

-

1 Complement of topic that in extended form would be introduced by the preposition "sora" or "in su" (o su, soeu...)
2 Complement of topic that in extended form would be introduced by the preposition "de" (o "da" dependig on the dialects...)

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k in NOL the letter is doubled in cases where the accent falls on the preceding vowel
  2. a b MI
  3. added to the infinitive or to the gerund in MI
  4. added to the imperative in MI
  5. added to the infinitive or to the gerund in MI
  6. added to the imperative in MI

Esatern Lombard Edit

Attention: they can be used for infinitive mood and imperative mood in 1st and 2nd person

Attention: it is not a pronominal particle
but an adverbial one in function of:

Complement of state in place
Complement of motion to place
Complement of motion through place
or it is pronominal in function of:
Complement of topic 1
Complement of term
Complement of advantage
Direct object Complement of topic 2
Complement of motion from place 3
Complement of specification
Partitive complement
1st sing. -ga -m -m -nn/ -n[1]
2st sing. -ga -t -t -nn/ -n[1]
3rd sing. "m" -ga -ga -ll / -l[1] -nn/ -n[1]
3rd sing. "f" -ga -ga -lla /-la[1] -nn/ -n[1]
1st pl. -ga -n -n -nn/ -n[1]
2nd pl. -ga -s[2] -s[2] -nn/ -n[1]
3rd pl. "m" -ga -ga -i -nn/ -n[1]
3rd pl. "f" -ga -ga -le -nn/ -n[1]
Reflexive - -ss

-s

-ss

-s

-
  1. a b c d e f g h i j in NOL the letter is doubled in cases where the accent falls on the preceding vowel
  2. a b BG

How to add suffixes Edit

Western Lombard Edit

(examples in Milanese dialect)

Note: The gerund it exists only in some dialect of southern Lombardy and imported from the Italian language [1]

1st conjugation Edit

Suffix to be added Rule
for the infinitive
Examples Rule for the imperative Examples Rule
for the gerund
Examples
-m add -m mangià → mangiàm 2nd person singolar

mangia → mangiom


2nd person plural

mangé → mangem

add -om mangiand → magiandom
-t add -t mangià → mangiàt add -ot mangiand → magiandot
-gh add -gh mangià → mangiàgh 2nd person singolar

Replace the suffix with -egh

(*with the exception of monosyllabic verbs, for which -gh is added)

1st person plural

add -igh

2nd person plural

Replace the suffix with -eegh

2nd person singolar

mangia → mangegh

da → dagh

1st person plural

mangem → mangemigh

2nd person plural

mangé → mangeegh

dé → deegh

add -om mangiand → magiandom
-n add -nn mangià → mangiànn add -on mangiand → magiandon
-v add -v mangià → mangiàv add -ov mangiand → magiandov
-ss add -ss mangià → mangiàss 2nd person singolar
replace the suffix with -es
(i after g o c is removed)

1st person plural

add -es
2nd person plural
replace the suffix with -eeves and move the accent to ee

2nd person singolar

mangia → manges
1st person plural

mangèm → mangèmes

2nd person plural
mangé → mangeeves

add -os mangiand → magiandos
-nn add -nn mangià → mangiànn 2nd person singolar
replace the suffix with -en'''

(i after g o c is removed)

(*except for monosyllabic verbs, for which -nn is added)

1st person plural

add -en
2nd person plural
replace the suffix with-een
(i after g o c is removed)

2nd person singolar
mangia → mangen

da → dann

1st person plural

mangèm →mangèmen
2nd person plural
mangé→ mangeen

dé → deen

add -on mangiand → mangiandon
-ll add -ll mangià → mangiàll replace the suffix with -el
(i after g o c is removed)
mangia → mangel add -ol mangiand → mangiandol
-la add -lla mangià → mangiàlla replace the suffix with -ela
(i after g o c is removed)
mangia → mangela add -ol mangiand → mangiandola
-i add -i mangià → mangiài replace the suffix with -ei
(i after g o c is removed)
mangia → mangei add -oi mangiand → mangiandoi

2nd conjugation Edit

Suffix to be added Rule
for the infinitive
Examples Rule for imperative Examples Rule
for the gerund
Examples
-m add -m piasé → piasém add -om piasend → piasendom
-t add -t piasé → piasét add -ot piasend → piasendot
-gh add -gh piasé → piaségh 2nd person singolar

replace the suffix with -egh

1st person plural

replace the suffix with -égh

2nd person plural

add -igh

2nd person singolar

ved → vedegh

1st person plural

vedì → vedégh

2nd person plural

vedèm → vedèmigh

add -ogh piasend → piasendogh
-n add -nn piasé → piasénn add -on piasend → piasendon
-v add -v piasé→ piasév add -ov piasend → piasendov
-ss add -ss piasé→ piaséss 2nd person singolar
replace the suffix with -es
(i after g o c is removed)

1st person plural

...
2nd person plural
replace the suffix with -eeves and move the accent to ee

2nd person singolar

piàs → piases

1st person plural

2nd person plural
piasì → piaseeves

add -os piasend → piasendos
-nn add -nn vedé → vedénn 2nd person singolar
replace the suffix with -en'''

(i after g o c is removed)

1st person plural

...
2nd person plural
replace the suffix with-én
(i after g o c is removed)

2nd person singolar
ved → veden

1st person plural

...
2nd person plural
vedì → vedeen

add -on vedend→ vedendon
-ll add -ll vedé → vedéll replace the suffix with -el
(i after g o c is removed)
véd → vedel add -ol vedend→ vedendol
-la add -lla vedé → vedélla replace the suffix with -ela
(i after g o c is removed)
véd → vedela add -ola vedend→ vedendola
-i add -i vedé → vedéi replace the suffix with -ei
(i after g o c is removed)
véd → vedei add -oi vedend→ vedendoi

3rd conjugation Edit

Suffix to be added Rule for the infinitive Examples Rule for the imperative Examples Rule
for the gerund
Examples
-m replace the suffix with -om
add -iom after g o c
add -som after ù
scriver → scrivom
lensger → lengiom

tradù → tradusom

add -om scrivend → scrivendom
-t replace the suffix with -et
add -som after ù
scriver → screvet
lensger → leget
tradù → traduset
add -ot scrivend → scrivendot
-gh replace the suffix with -igh
add -sigh after ù
scriver → scrivigh
lensger → ligigh
tradù → tradusigh
2nd person singolar

replace the suffix with -egh

2nd person singolar

add -igh

2nd person singolar

replace the suffix with -eegh

2nd person singolar

scrìv → scrivegh

1st person plural

scrivem → scrive,gh

2nd person plural

scrivì → scriveegh

add -ogh scrivend → scrivendogh
-n replace the suffix with -en
add -sen after ù
scriver → scriven
lensger → legen
tradù → tradusen
add -on scrivend → scrivendon
-v replace the suffix with -ev
add -sev after ù
scriver → scrivev
lensger → legev
tradù → tradusev
add -ov scrivend → scrivendov
-ss replace the suffix with -s
(solo una "s")
add -sess after ù
lensger→ lenges 2nd person singolar
add -es
(i after g o c is removed)

1st person plural

add -es
2nd person plural
aggiungi -eeves e porta l'avvento sopra "ee"

2nd person singolar

scond → scondes

1st person plural

scondem → scondemes

2nd person plural
scondì → scondeeves

add -os scrivend → scrivendos
-nn replace the suffix with -en lensger → lensgen 2nd person singolar
cambia el sufiss con -en'''

(i after g o c is removed)

1st person plural

...
2nd person plural
replace the suffix with-een
(i after g o c is removed)

2nd person singolar
scond → sconden

1st person plural

...
2nd person plural
scondì → scondeen

add -onn lensgend→ lensgendonn
-ll replace the suffix with -el
add -ll after ù
lensger→ lensgel
tradù → tradull
add -el lénsg → lensgel add -ol scrivend → scrivendol
-la replace the suffix with -ela

add -lla after ù

lensger → lensgela

tradù → tradùlla



add -ela lensg → lensgela add -ola
legend→ legendola
-i add -ei

add -i after ù

lensger → lensgei

tradù → tradùi



add -ei lénsg → lensgei add -oi
legend→ legendoi

4th conjugation Edit

Suffix to be added Rule
for the infinitive
Examples Rule for the imperative Examples Rule
for the gerund
Examples
-m add -m fornì → fornìm add -om fornend → fornenendom
-t add -t fornì → fornìt add -ot fornend → fornendom
-gh add -gh fornì → fornìgh 2nd person singolar

replace the suffix with -egh

(*except for monosyllabic verbs, to which -gh is added)

2nd person singolar

replace the suffix with -éegh

2nd person plural

add -igh

2nd person singolar

finiss → finissegh

dì → digh

2nd person singolar

disì → diseegh

2nd person plural

desem → disemigh

add -ogh fornend → fornendogh
-n add -nn fornì → fornìnn add -on fornend → fornendon
-v add -v fornì → fornìv add -ov fornend → fornendov
-ss add -ss fornì→ fornìss 2nd person singolar
cambia 'l sufiss con -isses (for inchoative verbs)

or replace the suffix with -es (for non-inchoative verbs)

1st person plural
replace the suffix with -issemess (for inchoative verbs)

o replace the suffix with -emes (for non-inchoative verbs)
2nd person plural
replace the suffix with -eeves

2nd person singolar

cusiss → cusisses

1st person plural

cusissem → cusissemes

sentem → sentemes

2nd person plural
cusì → cuseeves

add -os fornend → fornendos
-nn add -nn fornì → fornìnn 2nd person singolar
replace the suffix with -en (for inchoative verbs)

or replace the suffix with -issen (for non-inchoative verbs)

(i after g o c is removed)

(*except for monosyllabic verbs, to wich -nn is added)

1st person plural
...
2nd person plural
replace the suffix with -en (for inchoative verbs)

or replace the suffix with -isseen (for non-inchoative verbs)
(i after g o c is removed)

2nd person singolar
finiss → finissen

senta → senten

di → dinn
1st person plural
...
2nd person plural
finì → finisseen

sentì → senteen

add -on fornend→ fornedon
-ll add -ll fornì → fornìll replace the suffix with -issel (for inchoative verbs)

o replace the suffix with -el (for non-inchoative verbs)

finiss → finissel
senta → sentel
add -ol fornend→ fornendol
-la add -lla fornì → fornìlla replace the suffix with -issela (for inchoative verbs)

o replace the suffix with -ela (for non-inchoative verbs)

finiss → finissela
senta → sentela
add -ola fornend→ fornendola
-i add -i fornì → fornìi replace the suffix with -issei (for inchoative verbs)

o replace the suffix with -ei (for non-inchoative verbs)

finiss → finissei
senta → sentei
add -oi fornend→ fornendoi

Combined suffixes Edit

The suffixes can also be more than one but at most two, in this case we are talking about combined suffixes. The order of the suffixes is that of the table. Suffixes consisting only of consonants are added to the end of the word with an "e" in between (in milanese o or an other vowel depending on the dialect, for example it’s quite evident that in Varesino dialect "a" is used instead)

for example: -gh + -ll = -ghel , -m + -nn = -men , -ss + -el = -ssel; the only exception is the first person plural (num) which for phonetic reasons is replaced by the first person singular, i.e., for example: -n + -el does not become -nel , but -mel, like the singular.

Examples:

Eastern Lombard Edit

The manner of adding suffixes is similar to that of Western Lombard.