Lombard/Dictionaries and Wiktionary

Lombard Language Course
Learning the Lombard Language

Alphabet - Phonology - Dictionaries and Wiktionary - Conversion into the New Lombard Orthography - Morphology - Sentence syntax - Lexicon - Literature

Lombard language dictionaries


In the module about the orthography it was explained that Lombard historically has never had a common orthography, but there are different orthographies, each linked to the literary tradition of the main town and cities. For this reason it is difficult to find real dictionaries of Lombard language on the market, which as already mentioned is a cluster of dialects, but rather dictionaries of local dialects written in their historical orthographies. Furthermore, the available dictionaries do not give definitions in Lombard, but in reality translations from Lombard to Italian or from Italian to one of the variants of Lombard in a certain orthography. Furthermore, as regards the dictionaries, those available online are written in an archaic Italian, that of the mid-nineteenth century. Anyone wishing to write Lombard using the New Lombard Orthography could however get into trouble due to the need to convert words written with another orthography into the New Lombard Orthography. Precisely for this reason, within this course there will be modules whose purpose is to help in this orthographic conversion into the New Lombard Orthography, while the Lombard language wikictionary, written above all in New Lombard Orthography, aims to show within the same page the different ways of writing and pronouncing the same word in the different variants of the Lombard language.

Dictionaries available on line


Among the dictionaries that can be consulted online we can list:

Dictionaries Orthographies Dialects Importance

of the orthography in the past
(before 1950)[1]

of the orthography
How to convert
in to
F. Cherubini, Vocabolario milanese-italiano, 1814

F. Cherubini, Vocabolario milanese-italiano, 1839 → 1856 C. Arrighi, Dizionario milanese-italiano: col repertorio italiano-milanese, 1896 G. Capis, G. A. Biffi, Varon milanes de la lengua de Milan e Prissian de Milan de la parnonzia milanesa, 1750 Banfi, Vocabolario Milanese-italiano a uso della gioventù

Classical Milanese Orthography MI   FO   FO
G. B. Melchiori, Vocabolario bresciano-italiano: con appendice e rettificazioni, 1817 (Vol.1)

G. B. Melchiori, Vocabolario bresciano-italiano: con appendice e rettificazioni, 1817 (Vol.2)

Classical Brescian orthography[2] BS RAR -
Vocabolario ortografico italiano-bresciano di Giovanni Scaramella Giovanni Scaramella’s orthography BS - RAR
B. Samarani, Vocabolario cremasco-italiano, 1852 Classical Cremasque orthography
(by Bonifacio Samarani)
A. Peri, Vocabolario cremonese italiano, 1847 Classical Cremasque orthography
(by Angelo Peri)
Sito web del dialetto di Albosaggia
Vocabolario italiano-dialèt bośàc'
Vtel - RAR
Vocabolario Pavese-italiano e Italiano-pavese Classical Pavese orthography
by Carlo Gambini[2]
Vocabolario Pavese-Italiano con l'aggiunta delle frasi più comuni Classical Pavese orthography
by Rodolfo Manfredi[2]
Vocabolario dialettale di Chiuro e Castionetto Orthography by the IDEVV[3] Vtel - RAR
Vocabolario Bergamasco-Italiano di Stefano Zappettini del 1859 Close to theclassical Milanese Orthography BG RAR -
Piccol dizionario del dialetto pizzighettonese a cura di Pietro Bonardi e Jessica Bettinelli CrCR - RAR
A. Tiraboschi, Vocabolario dei dialetti bergamaschi antichi e moderni, 1873

C. Francia, E. Gambarini, Dizionario bergamasco-italiano e italiano-bergamasco, 2005[4]

Orthogfraphy of the Duchy BG   MED   MED
Pietro Monti, Vocabolario dei dialetti della città e diocesi di Como, 1845. Milanese Orthography, Comasque variant[2] CO , Lagh   FO RAR
dizionari.lombard (written only in lombard) Scriver Lombard   All dialects -   FO


  FO = fundamental
  MED = of medium importance
RAR = rare
  1. a b The importance of the orthography is related to its utilization
  2. a b c d Spellings resembling the classic Milanese orthography used just to build dictionaries at the time and with little or no literature
  3. IDEVV = Institute of Valtellinese and Valchiavennese dialectology and ethnography
  4. Souces used for the dictionary
    - Vocabolario dei Dialetti Bergamaschi antichi e moderni, Antonio Tiraboschi
    - Vocabolario Bergamasco Fauna e Flora, Enrico Caffi
    - Una curiosa geografia bergamasca- Paesi e contrade e soprannomi delle loro genti, Martino Campagnoni e Vittorio Mora
    - Note di grammatica del dialetto bergamasco, Vittorio Mora
    - Neologisms are marked with an asterisk

Wiktionary in Lombard language


The image below shows the main page of the Lombard language Wiktionary. To search for a word, simply write the word in the search box and then click on "search for the right word" or "ENTER" on the computer keyboard.

How to search for a word in the Lombard language Wiktionary

Inside the Wiktionary pages, as shown in the example below, there are:

  • Definitions in Lombard;
  • The spellings of the same word in different orthographies and dialects;
  • The pronunciation of the same word in different dialects;
  • The etymology;
  • Translation into several languages;
  • ...
Example of Wiktionary page in Lombard language

As with all Wiki projects, anyone can contribute by accepting to release a contribution under the conditions of the GNU Free Documentation License.

Automatic translators


Nowadays[1] there are no automatic translators specifically dedicated to Lombard language, since the end of 2022 the progress of the articial intelligence, in particular make available by OpenAI are starting to allow the automatic translation of the Lombard language, the operation will be explained in the paragraph below.

The openAI chat


To use the open AI chat you must go to the site "https://chat.openai.com/auth/login" and register. Once you have registered, you can log in with your username and your password. After logging in you will have an automatic chat that gives answers thanks to artificial intelligence taking as source material what foeund on the web.

To obtain translations from Lombard to Ensglish you must write in the chat: "translate from Lombard into English:" followed by the text to be translated. We proceed in a similar way to obtain translations from Italian to English.

Nowadays translations[1] do not always provide accurate and correct results. Translations from English to Lombard are not always successful, and anyway, given the widespread presence of errors, can be used mainly by a person who knows Lombard as a starting point to speed up a translation; this is comprehensible since artificial intelligence draws from online materials that are written in different orthographies and dialects. We could expect an improvement in the coming years if the lombard writers converge in the use of a single orthography. Translations from Lombardy to English are better, although also in this case they are not 100% accurated.

  1. a b January 2023