Flora of New York/Amaryllidaceae & Asparagaceae


Asparagales (2)
Iridaceae & Asphodelaceae
Flora of New York — Asparagales (3)
Amaryllidaceae & Asparagaceae

Poales (1)
Typhaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Superorder Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
Lilianae
(E)
lilioid
monocots
Asparagales Orchidaceae Vanilloideae Pogonieae Pogonia snakemouth orchid 3
Isotria fiveleaf orchid 3
Cypripedioideae Cypripedium lady's slipper 7
Epidendroideae Neottieae Epipactis helleborine 2
Neottia twayblade 4
Triphoreae Triphora noddingcaps 1
Arethuseae Arethusa dragon's mouth 2
Malaxideae Liparis widelip-orchid 2
Malaxis adder's-mouth-orchid 3
Maxillarieae Corallorhiza coralroot 6
Aplectrum Adam and Eve 1
Calypsoeae Calypso fairy slipper 1
Tipularia cranefly orchid 1
Orchidoideae Orchideae Amerorchis roundleaf orchis 1
Coeloglossum frog-orchid 1
Galearis galearis 1
Platanthera fringed-orchid 18
Cranichideae Goodyera rattlesnake-plantain 3
Spiranthes ladies'-tresses 14
Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis eastern yellow stargrass 1
Iridaceae Iridoideae Irideae Iris iris 10
Sisyrinchieae Sisyrinchium blue-eyed grass 7
Crocoideae Ixiae Crocus crocus 4
Asphodelaceae Hemerocallidoieae Hemerocallideae Hemerocallis daylily 2
Amaryllidaceae Allioideae Allieae Allium garlic, onion, leek, chives 14
Amaryllidoideae Narcisseae Narcissus daffodil 4
Galantheae Galanthus snowdrop 2
Leucojum snowflake 1
Asparagaceae Scilloideae Ornithogaleae Ornithogalum star-of-Bethlehem 2
Hyacintheae Chionodoxa glory of the snow 1
Hyacinthoides English-bluebell 2
Muscari grape-hyacinth 1
Scilla squill 1
Agavoideae Agaveae Yucca Adam's needle 1
Hosta plantain lily 4
Camassia Atlantic camas 0
Asparagoideae Asparagus asparagus 1
Nolinoideae Convallarieae Convallaria lily-of-the-valley 2
Polygonateae Maianthemum mayflower 4
Polygonatum Solomon's-seal 3

Family AmaryllidaceaeEdit

The Amaryllidaceae (family)...

Subfamily AllioideaeEdit

Subfamily Allioideae

Tribe AllieaeEdit

Tribe Allieae
AlliumEdit
The genus Allium contains species known variously as garlic, onions, leeks, and chives
Allium subg. AnguinumEdit
 
Allium tricoccum
wild leeks, ramps
Subg. Anguinum contains the native wild leeks, also known as ramps.
Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Allioideae — Allium subg. Anguinum
Alliumsubg. Anguinum Wild leeks N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Aiton
var. tricoccum

1789. Allium tricoccum Aiton
1808. Allium triflorum Raf.
1822. Ophioscorodon tricoccum (Aiton) Wallr.
1840. Aglitheis tricoccum (Aiton) Raf.
1903. Validallium tricoccum (Aiton) Small
Common wild leek
Wild leek
Ramps
Ramp
Small white leek
Small wild leek
Wood leek

Ail des bois
Ail sauvage
Ail trilobé
Native, C:8,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can

FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Note: FLNPS
 Aiton
var. burdickii Hanes

1953. Allium tricoccum var. burdickii Hanes
1979. Allium burdickii (Hanes) A.G.Jones
Narrow-leaf wild leek,
Burdick's wild leek,
Ramp
Ail de Burdick
Native, C:8,
Endangered,
No recent reports,
DEC-A[1]
  NYFA-Z
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Allium subg. AmeralliumEdit
Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Allioideae — Allium subg. Amerallium
Alliumsubg. Amerallium Onion N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
var. canadense

Meadow garlic,
Canadian garlic,
Wild onion
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
Note: FLNPS
var. cernuum

Nodding onion Native,
Threatened,
DEC-B[1]
  NYFA-2
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
Note: FLNPS
 Cirillo

Ail de Naples,
Neapolitan garlic,
White garlic
Introduced,
Old-World native
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
Allium subg. CepaEdit
 
Allium schoenoprasum L.
wild chives
Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) is a circumboreal species. Although escapes of these widely-cultivated plants are common, natural populations are now considered to be endangered in New York.
Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Allioideae — Allium subg. Cepa
Alliumsubg. Cepasect. Schoenoprasum Chives N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Allium schoenoprasum L.
1753. Allium sibiricum L.
yyyy. A. schoenoprasum var. laurentianum
yyyy. A. schoenoprasum var. sibiricum
Wild chives Native, C:9,
Endangered,
Note[1][2]
  NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NPT 

FNA 



Images, wsp
Alliumsubg. Cepasect. Cepa Onions N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Garden onion,
Cultivated onion
Introduced,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-C0






Images, wsp
  1. USDA-NRCS PLANTS shows Allium schoenoprasum var. schoenoprasum as introduced in North America, but not present in NY. It shows var. sibiricum as native to North America, present in NY, and threatened in MI, MN, and NH. The New York Flora Atlas treats these varieties as cultivars and gives the species a state-exotic status. Flora of North America treats the species as a polymorphic North American native, with no reliable varietal separations.
  2. New York Rare Plant Status Lists, November 2017:Changes Since the June 2010 Rare Plant Status Lists: Taxa added to the Active List: Allium schoenoprasum G5 S1
Allium subg. AlliumEdit
Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Allioideae — Allium subg. Allium
Alliumsubg. Alliumsect. Allium Garlic & Leeks N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Wild garlic,
Wild onion,
Onion-grass
Introduced,
Widespread weed,
NE-3[1]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.
var. ophioscorodon

Hardneck garlic Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.

Round-head garlic Introduced   NYFA-X






Images, wsp
 L.

Leek Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
Alliumsubg. Allium (excluded taxa) Garlic & Leeks N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Wild garlic Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XW
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.
var. sativum

Garlic Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.
var. paniculatum

Mediterranean onion Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
 L.

Broadleaf wild leek,
Broad-leaved wild leek
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
  1. Category 3 Plants - widespread non-native species - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service

Subamily AmaryllidoideaeEdit

The Amaryllidoideae (amaryllis subfamily)...

Tribe NarcisseaeEdit

NarcissusEdit
 
Narcissus × incomparabilis

Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Amaryllidoideae — Narcisseae — Narcissus
Narcissus Daffodil N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Poet’s narcissus,
Pheasant’s-eye narcissus,
Daffodil
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
L. 1753

Daffodil,
Common daffodil,
Trumpet narcissus
Introduced,
from Eurasia,
Macaronesia
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp
Mill. (pro sp.)
[ poeticus × pseudonarcissus ]

Hybrid daffodil
Nonesuch daffodil
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
Narcissus (excluded taxa) Daffodil N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L

Jonquil,
Daffodil
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0






Images, wsp

Tribe GalantheaeEdit

Tribe Galantheae contains the three genera: Acis, Galanthus, and Leucojum.[1]
  1. Larsen, Maja Mellergaard; Adsersen, Anne; Davis, Aaron P.; Lledó, M. Dolores; Jäger, Anna K.; Rønsted, Nina (October 2010). "Using a phylogenetic approach to selection of target plants in drug discovery of acetylcholinesterase inhibiting alkaloids in Amaryllidaceae tribe Galantheae". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 38 (5): 1026–1034. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2010.10.005. 
LeucojumEdit
 
Leucojum aestivum
Snowflakes in the genus Leucojum worldwide now include only summer snowflakes (L. aestivum) and spring snowflakes (L. vernum), of which only summer snowflakes are known to naturalize in New York. Other snowflakes previously in Leucojum are now placed in Acis Salisb. (1807) but none of those are known to naturalize in North America.
Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Amaryllidoideae — Galantheae — Leucojum
Leucojum Snowflake N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1759. Leucojum aestivum L.
Summer snowflake
Loddon-lily
Giant snowflake

Nivéole d'été
Introduced from
 Europe,
 temperate Asia,
Naturalized
  Cayuga, Madison, Onondaga, Oswego, Otsego, Tompkins, Ulster, Wayne NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
iNat
ARS ITIS
FNA 


Kew 
Images, wsp
Leucojum (excluded taxa) Snowflake N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Leucojum vernum L.
1785. Galanthus vernus (L.) All.
1794. Nivaria verna (L.) Moench
1837. Erinosma verna (L.) Herb.
1889. Leucojum vernum var. biflorum
Spring snowflake

Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
  excluded NYFA-XCLD

ARS 



Kew 
Images, wsp
GalanthusEdit
 
Galanthus nivalis

Asparagales — Amaryllidaceae — Amaryllidoideae — Galantheae — Galanthus
Galanthus Snowdrop N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L. 1753

1839. G. imperati Bertol.
1888. G. nivalis ssp. imperati Baker
Snowdrop,
Common snowdrop
Perceneige
Introduced,
from Eurasia
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp
Hook.f. 1875

1882. G. graecus Orph. ex Boiss.
Giant snowdrop,
Greater snowdrop
Introduced,
from Eurasia
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp

Family AsparagaceaeEdit

Subfamily ScilloideaeEdit

Tribe OrnithogaleaeEdit

OrnithogalumEdit
 
Ornithogalum umbellatum L.
common star-of-Bethlehem


Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Scilloideae — Ornithogaleae — Ornithogalum
Ornithogalum Star of Bethlehem N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Ornithogalum umbellatum L.
Common star-of-Bethlehem,
Pyrenees Star of Bethlehem,
Nap-at-noon,
Sleepy dick
Dame de onze heures
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Invasive,
WW
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 L. (1753)

Drooping star-of-Bethlehem,
Nodding star-of-Bethlehem
Introduced,
Eurasia native
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp

Tribe HyacintheaeEdit

Subribe HyacinthinaeEdit
ScillaEdit
Asparagales — Hyacinthaceae — Hyacinthoideae — Hyacintheae — Hyacinthinae
Scilla Scilla N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Andrews

1804. Scilla siberica Andrews
1804. Scilla siberica Haw.
1998. Othocallis siberica (Haw.) Speta
Siberian squill,
Wood squill
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-X

ARS 




Images, wsp
ChionodoxaEdit
Asparagales — Hyacinthaceae — Hyacinthoideae — Hyacintheae — Hyacinthinae
Chionodoxa Glory-of-the-snow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

1844. Chionodoxa luciliae Boiss.
1899. Chionodoxa gigantea Whittall
1971. Scilla luciliae (Boiss.) Speta
Glory of the snow,
Lucile's glory of the snow
Introduced,
Naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0


FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
MuscariEdit
Asparagales — Hyacinthaceae — Hyacinthoideae — Hyacintheae — Hyacinthinae
Muscari Grape-hyacinth N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Common grape-hyacinth,
Compact grape-hyacinth,
Italilan grape-hyacinth,
Grape-hyacinth
Introduced from
 Europe,
Naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 




Images, wsp

Grape hyacinth,
Starch grape hyacinth
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Unknown naturalization
  NYFA-X
USDA-X






Images, wsp
HyacinthoidesEdit
Asparagales — Hyacinthaceae — Hyacinthoideae — Hyacintheae — Hyacinthinae
Hyacinthoides Hyacinthoides N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Chouard

1753. Hyacinthus non-scriptus L.
1803. Scilla non-scripta (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link
1934. Hyacinthoides non-scripta (L.) Chouard
English-bluebell Introduced,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-X






Images, wsp
(Mill.) Rothm.

1768. Scilla hispanica Mill.
1944. Hyacinthoides hispanica (Mill.) Rothm.
1983. Scilla non-scripta ssp. hispanica (Mill.)
1993. Hyacinthoides non-scripta ssp. hispanica (Mill.)
Spanish bluebell

Introduced,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-XX


FNA Trop.



Images, wsp

Subfamily AgavoideaeEdit

Tribe AgaeaeEdit

YuccaEdit
Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Agavoideae — Agaveae — Yucca
Yucca Yucca N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Yucca,
Adam's needle,
Spanish bayonette
Introduced,
North America native
  NYFA-X
USDA-N



NSE BNA


Images, wsp
HostaEdit
Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Agavoideae — Agaveae — Hosta
Hosta Plantain-lily N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Thunb.) Engl.

Narrowleaf plantain lily,
Narrow-leaved plantain-lily
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-X






Images, wsp

Blue plantain-lily Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-X






Images, wsp

Fragrant plantain lily Introduced,
No NY reports
  NYFA-X
USDA-X






Images, wsp
CamassiaEdit
 
Camassia scilloides
wild hyacinth, eastern camas
Camassia scilloides (wild hyacinth) was listed in the 1912 Flora of Onondaga County as Quamasia hyacinthina Raf., a "very rare" plant found on the bank of Onondaga Creek in 1900.[1] It is not listed in the New York Flora Atlas.
  1. L. Leonora Hutchinson Goodrich (1912) Flora of Onondaga County as Collected by the Members of the Syracuse Botanical Club. p. 64.
Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Agavoideae — Camassia
CamassiaRaf. (1818) 0 N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Raf.) Cory

1818. Cyanotris scilloides Raf.
1824. Quamasia scilloides (Raf.) Raf.
1896. Quamasia hyacinthina Britton
1908. Camassia esculenta (Ker Gawl.) B.L.Rob.)
1936. Camassia scilloides (Raf.) Cory
Eastern camas
Atlantic camas
Wild hyacinth

Camassie faux-scille
Jacinthe des bois
N. America native  
USDA-NN


FNA 
BNA


Images, wsp

Subamily AsparagoideaeEdit

The Asparagoideae (asparagus subfamily)...

AsparagusEdit

Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Asparagoideae — Asparagus
Asparagus Asparagus N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Asparagus officinalis L.
1753. Asparagus officinalis ssp. officinalis
1753. Asparagus officinalis var. altilus L.
1783. Asparagus tenuifolius Lam.
1864. Asparagus altilus (L.) Asch.
Garden asparagus,
Common asparagus,
Asparagus
Asperge,
Asperge officinale
Introduced

Perennial,
Forb-herb
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp

Subfamily NolinoideaeEdit

Subfamily Nolinoideae

Tribe ConvallarieaeEdit

ConvallariaEdit
 
Convallaria majalis
lily of the valley
The lily-of-the-valley plants that have been found to have naturalized or persisted from old plantings in New York have been the Eurasian lily-of-the-valley (C. majalis ssp. majalis). The American lily-of-the-valley (C. majalis ssp. majuscula[1]) is considered to be native to the Appalachian Mountain region with a natural range extending only as far north as West Virginia. These North American natives have not been reported outside of cultivation in New York.
Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Nolinoideae — Convallaria
Convallaria Lily of the valley N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. majalis

1753. Convallaria majalis L.
Eurasian lily-of-the-valley,
European lily-of-the-valley
Muguet
Introduced,
Naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-X


FNA 



Images, wsp
Convallaria (excluded taxa) Lily of the valley N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. majuscula (Greene)
Gandhi, Reveal, and Zarucchi

1840. Convallaria montana Raf.
1908. Convallaria majuscula Greene
1964. Convallaria majalis
var. montana (Raf.) H.E.Ahles
2012. Convallaria majalis ssp. majuscula
American lily-of-the-valley N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-0
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Note: Gandhi[1]


Tribe PolygonateaeEdit

MaianthemumEdit
 
Maianthemum canadense Desf.
Canada mayflower

Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Nolinoideae — Maianthemum
Maianthemum Mayflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Desf.

1807. Maianthemum canadense Desf.
1814. Smilacina canadensis Pursh
1888. Unifolium canadense Greene
Canada May-flower,
Canadian May-lily,
Wild lily-of-the-valley,
False lily-of-the-valley,
Two-leaved Solomon’s-seal
Maïanthème du Canada
Native, C:5,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Zoochore
  NYFA-5
USDA-N
NPT Can

FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
(L.) Link
ssp. racemosum

1753. Convallaria racemosa L.
1807. Smilacina racemosa Desf.
1821. Maianthemum racemosum Link
1840. Vagnera retusa Raf.
1889. Unifolium racemosum (Britton
1893. Vagnera racemosa Morong
1903. Vagnera australis Rydb.
False Solomon’s-seal,
False spikenard,
Solomon’s-plume,
Feathery false lily of the valley
Smilacine à grappes
Native, C:6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Zoochore
  NYFA-5
USDA-N
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 (L.) Link

1753. Convallaria stellata L.
1807. Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf.
1821. Maianthemum stellatum (L.) Link
Starry Solomon's-seal,
Little false Solomon’s-seal,
Starflower Solomon’s-seal,
Starflower Solomon's-plume
Smilacine étoilée,
Maïanthème étoilé
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-N
Can
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
(L.) Sloboda

1753. Convallaria trifolia
    Smilacina trifolia
    Tovaria trifolia
    Vagnera trifolia
1852. Maianthemum trifolium L
Three-leaved Solomon's-plume,
Threeleaf false lily of the valley,
Threeleaf false Solomon's seal,
Swamp false Solomon's seal
Smilacine trifoliée,
Smilacine à trois feuilles
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-N






Images, wsp
PolygonatumEdit
 
Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott
Solomon’s seal

Asparagales — Asparagaceae — Nolinoideae — Polygonatum
PolygonatumMill. Solomon's-seal N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Willd.) Pursh

1803. Convallaria pubescens Willd.
1814. P. pubescens (Willd.) Pursh
 auct. P. biflorum sensu Gray & Britton
Hairy Solomon’s seal,
Downy Solomon's-seal
Sceau-de-Salomon
  pubescent
Native, C:7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-N
NPT Can
ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
(Walter) Elliott
var. biflorum

1788. Convallaria biflora Walter
1817. Polygonatum biflorum Elliott
1917. P. biflorum var. hebetifolium
1927. P. hebetifolium (R.R. Gates) Bush
Giant Solomon’s seal,
Great Solomon’s seal,
Common Solomon's-seal,
Smooth Solomon’s seal,
King Solomon's-seal
Sceau-de-Salomon
  à deux fleurs
Native, C:7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-N
NPT Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
(Walter) Elliott
var. commutatum (Schult.f.) Morong

1830. Convallaria commutata Schult.f.
1835. P. commutatum A.Dietr.
1894. P. biflorum var. commutatum
Large Solomon's-seal,
Giant Solomon’s seal,
Great Solomon’s seal
Sceau-de-Salomon géant,
Sceau-de-Salomon canaliculé
Native, C:5,
Unrankd

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS 
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Polygonatum (excluded taxa) Solomon's-seal N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Jacq.) Desf.

1775. Convallaria latifolia Jacq.
1797. Convallaria hirta Bosc ex Poir.
1807. P, latifolium (Jacq.) Desf.
1814. P. hirtum (Bosc ex Poir.) Pursh
1840. Sigillaria hirta (Bosc ex Poir.) Raf.
Broad-leaved Solomon's-seal
Broadleaf Solomon's-seal
Introduced from
 Europe,
N.Y. excluded,
Cultivated
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0
NPT 
ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
(L.) Allioni

    Convallaria multiflorum
Eurasian Solomon's-seal
Introduced from
 Europe,
N.Y. excluded,
Cultivated
 
USDA-0X






Images, wsp