Flora of New York/Typhaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae


Asparagales (3)
Amaryllidaceae & Asparagaceae
Flora of New York — Poales (1)
Typhaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae

Poales (2)
Juncaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The order Poales Small (1903)[1][2][3][4]
Poales
"bromeliads" 
Typhaceae

Sparganium spp. (7 bur-reeds)

Typha spp. (3 cattails)

Bromeliaceae (not in NY)

Rapateaceae (not in NY)

"xyrids" 

EriocaulaceaeEriocaulon spp. (2 pipeworts)

XyridaceaeXyris spp. (5 yellow-eyed grasses}

"cyperids" 

Mayacaceae (not in NY)

Thurniaceae (not in NY)

Juncaceae

Luzula spp. (8 wood rushes)

Juncus spp. (36 rushes)

Oreojuncus spp. (1 highland rush)

Cyperaceae

Mapanioideae (not in NY)

Cyperoideae (17 genera, 370 taxa in NY)

"restids" 

Restionaceae (not in NY)

"graminids" 

Flagellariaceae (not in NY)

Joinvilleaceae (not in NY)

Ecdeiocoleaceae (not in NY)

Poaceae (116 genera, 398 taxa in NY)



  1. Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 (Page last updated: 05/25/2021). http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/
  2. R.J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P.M. Peterson, F.O. Zuloaga, E.J. Judziewicz, T.S. Filgueiras, O. Morrone & K. Romaschenko (2015). "A World-wide Phylogenetic Classification of Poaceae (Gramineae)." Jnl of Sytematics Evolution, 53: 117-137. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.12150
  3. Soreng, R.J., Peterson, P.M., Romaschenko, K., Davidse, G., Teisher, J.K., Clark, L.G., Barberá, P., Gillespie, L.J. and Zuloaga, F.O. (2017), "A worldwide phylogenetic classification of the Poaceae (Gramineae) II: An update and a comparison of two 2015 classifications." Jnl of Sytematics Evolution, 55: 259-290. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.12262
  4. Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; Muasya, A. Muthama; Linder, H. Peter (2014). "A revised evolutionary history of Poales: origins and diversification". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 175 (1): 4–16. doi:10.1111/boj.12160. ISSN 0024-4074.


Family Typhaceae edit

The Typhaceae (cattail family) contains the genus Typha, which was the sole genus of the family until the APG III system added the genus Sparganium (bur-reeds) in 2009 by merging the closely-related Sparganiaceae family into Typhaceae.

Typha edit

 
Typha latifolia
Cattails, Typha spp., are wetland plants that are native to much of the world. Broad-leaved cattails (T. latifolia) are considered to be North American natives, while the native status of narrow-leaved cattails (T. angustifolia) in North America is in question.[1] In either case it is thought that narrowleaf cattails were introduced to most of inland New York from coastal regions, with the possible exception of central New York's inland salt marshes,[2] where some think that T. angustifolia may be native.[3]

The first record of T. angustifolia in North America is from northeast coastal regions in 1820, and it appears to have remained along the coast for the remainder of the 19th century. But by the end of the 20th century, it had migrated to the west coast, and as far south as Arkansas. Along its path, it seems to have preferred "early successional habitats with basic, calcareous, or somewhat salty soils."[4] It is thought that ditches along salted roadways may have helped facilitate the migration from coastal marshes.[5]


Poales — Typhaceae — Typha
Genus Typha Cat-tail N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Typha latifolia  L.
1808. Typha elatior  Raf. (i)
1832. Typha crassa  Raf.
1900. Typha latifolia  ssp. eulatifolia  Graebn.
1940. Typha latifolia
Wide-leaved cattail,
Broad-leaved cattail,
Common cattail
Quenouille à feuilles larges,
Massette à larges feuilles,
Typha à feuilles larges
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Typha angustifolia  L.
1949. Typha foveolata  Pobed.
1972. Typha pontica  V.M.Klokov & Krasnova
Narrowleaf cattail,
Narrow-leaved cattail
Quenouille à feuilles étroites,
Massette à feuilles étroites,
Typha à feuilles étroites
Native, CoC: 1,
Introduced,
WW

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 5

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 Godr. (pro sp.)

Typha angustifolia ×
Typha latifolia

1844. Typha glauca  Godr.
1886. Typha latifolia  var. elongata  Dudley
1924. Typha angustifolia  var. elongata  Wiegand
Blue cattail,
Hybrid of
 narrow-leaved cattail &
 broad-leaved cattail
Quenouille glauque
Native,
Invasive

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: X5

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Sparganium edit

 
Sparganium americanum
Bur-reeds (Sparganium) were previously included alone in the family Sparganiaceae. They are perennial aquatic plants that grow in shallow ponds, streams, and marshes.
Poales — Typhaceae — Sparganium
Genus Sparganium Bur-reed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Nutt.

1818. Sparganium americanum  Nutt.
American bur-reed,
American burreed
Rubanier d’Amérique
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 5

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 Rehmann

1778. Sparganium simplex  Huds. illeg.
1871. Sparganium emersum  Rehmann
1909. Sparganium acaule  (Beeby) Rydb.
1909. Sparganium chlorocarpum  Rydb.
1922. Sparganium chlorocarpum  var. acaule  Fernald
Unbranched bur-reed,
European bur-reed,
Simple-stemmed bur-reed,
Green-fruited burreed,
Emersed burreed
Rubanier à fruits verts,
Rubanier émergent,
Rubanier simple
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 5

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 Engelm. ex A. Gray

1856. Sparganium eurycarpum  Engelm. ex A. Gray
1934. Sparganium stoloniferum  (Graebn.) Buch.-Ham. ex Juz.
Large bur-reed,
Broadfruit bur-reed,
Great burreed,
Giant burreed
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 5

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 (Engelm.) Morong

1867. Sparganium simplex  var. androcladum  Engelm.
1888. Sparganium androcladum  Morong
1907. Sparganium lucidum  Fernald & Eames
1907. Sparganium americanum  var. androcladum  Fernald & Eames
Branching bur-reed,
Branched burreed
Rubanier rameux
Native, CoC: 4,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 3-4

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 Michx.

1803. Sparganium angustifolium  Michx.
1905. Sparganium multipedunculatum  Rydb.
1970. Sparganium emersum  var. multipedunculatum  Reveal
1978. Sparganium emersum  var. angustifolium  Taylor & MacBryde
Narrowleaf bur-reed,
Narrow-leaved bur-reed,
Floating bur-reed
Rubanier à feuilles étroites
Native, CoC: 6,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 3-4

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 (Engelm. ex Morong) B.L.Rob.

1888. Sparganium androcladum  var. fluctuans  Engelm. ex Morong
1905. Sparganium fluctuans  (Engelm. ex Morong) B.L.Rob.
Floating bur-reed
Rubanier flottant
Native, CoC: 7,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 3-4

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 L.

1753. Sparganium natans  L.
1840. Sparganium minimum  Wallr.
Small bur-reed,
Artic bur-reed
Rubanier nageant
Native, CoC: 10,
Threatened

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 2

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Genus Sparganium (excluded species) Bur-reed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Sparganium erectum  L.
1778. Sparganium ramosum  Huds. nom. illeg.
Simplestem bur-reed,
Exotic bur-reed,
Branched bur-reed
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

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Family Eriocaulaceae edit

The Eriocaulaceae (pipewort family).[1]

Subfamily Eriocauloideae edit

Eriocaulon edit

 
Eriocaulon aquaticum
The genus Eriocaulon (pipworts) contains about 400 species worldwide, but only two that are native to New York State.
  1. Eriocaulaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
Poales — Eriocaulaceae — Eriocauloideae — Eriocaulon
Genus Eriocaulon Pipewort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Hill) Druce

1769. Cespa aquatica  Hill
1776. Eriocaulon septangulare  With.
1778. Nasmythia articulata  Hudson
1803. Eriocaulon pellucidum  Michx.
1833. Eriocaulon pumilum  Raf.
1835. Nasmythia septangularis  Mart.
1891. Eriocaulon articulatum  Morong
1909. Eriocaulon aquaticum  Druce
Northern pipewort ...
Northern hatpins ...
Sevenangle pipewort ...
Seven-angled pipewort ...

Ériocaulon aquatique
Native, CoC: 10,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 5

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 B.L.Rob.

1903. Eriocaulon parkeri  B.L.Rob.
Parker's pipewort,
Estuary pipewort
Ériocaulon de Parker
Native, CoC: 10,
Likely extirpated,
Impersistent

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: Xm

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Family Xyridaceae edit

The Xyridaceae (yellow-eyed grass family).[1]

Subfamily Xyridoideae edit

Xyris edit

 
Xyris montana

  1. Xyridaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
Poales — Xyridaceae — Xyridoideae — Xyris
Genus Xyris Yellow-eyed grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Ries

1868. Xyris flexuosa  var. pusilla  A.Gray
1892. Xyris montana  Ries
1937. Xyris papillosa  Fassett
Northern yelloweyed grass,
Northern yellow-eyed grass
Xyris de montagne,
Xyris des montagnes
Native, CoC: 10,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 5

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 Chapm.
 var. difformis

1860. Xyris difformis  Chapm.
1860. Xyris elata  Chapm.
1966. Xyris difformis  var. difformis
 auct. Xyris caroliniana  non Walter
Bog yellow-eyed grass,
Carolina yellow-eyed grass,
Southern yellow-eyed grass,
Tall yellow-eyed grass,
Two-formed yelloweyed-grass
Xyris difforme
Native, CoC: 10,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 4

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 Sm.

1819. Xyris torta  Sm.
1913. Kotsjelottia flexuosa  Nieuwl.
1843. Xyris bulbosa  Kunth
Twisted yellow-eyed-grass,
Slender yelloweyed-grass
Native, CoC: 10,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 3-4

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 Nash

1847. Xyris caroliniana  var. olneyi  Alph.Wood
1895. Xyris smalliana  Nash
1905. Xyris congdonii  Small
1937. Xyris smalliana  var. olneyi  Gleason ex Malme
Small's yellow-eyed grass Native, CoC: 10,
Threatened

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 2

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 E.P.Bicknell ex L.M.Campb.

2011. Xyris bracteicaulis  E.P.Bicknell ex L.M.Campb.
Bracted yelloweyed grass Native, CoC: 10,
No recent reports,
Endemic

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: Z

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Note: [1]
Genus Xyris (excluded species) Yellow-eyed grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Walter

1788. Xyris caroliniana  Walter
1816. Xyris flexuosa  Muhl. ex Elliott
1843. Xyris torta  Kunth (i)
1871. Xyris conocephala  C.Wright
1901. Xyris torta  var. pallescens  C.Mohr
1903. Xyris pallescens  (C.Mohr) Small
1903. Xyris arenicola  Small (i)
Carolina yellow-eyed grass N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

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