Last modified on 8 May 2013, at 21:52

False Friends of the Slavist/Czech

Čeština (Czech)

(c. 10 million native speakers)


brzy

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  • The Czech meaning ‘soon (adv.)’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘quick, fast (adj.)’ (rychlý) is attested in Cr. brz, Bo. brz, Sb. брз, Bg. бърз.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
čas
  • is a complete false friend for about 271.5 million native speakers of Russian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 91 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Slovak, Slovenian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘time’ is shared by Blr. час, Ukr. час, Pol. czas, Slk. čas, Sln. čas.
  • The meaning ‘hour’ (hodina) is attested in R. час, Bo. čas, Sb. час, Mk. час, Bg. час.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
čejka
  • is a complete false friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘peewit, lapwing’ is shared by Pol. czajka.
  • The meaning ‘seagull’ (racek) is attested in R. чайка, Blr. чайка, Bg. чайка.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
čerstvý
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘fresh’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘hard, dry’ (tvrdý, suchý) is attested in R. чёрствый.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
červenec
  • is a complete false friend for about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
chudý
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘poor’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘lean’ (hubený) is attested in R. худой.
  • The meaning ‘bad, wretched’ (špatný) is attested in R. худой.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
dělo
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘canon’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘matter, affair’ (záležitost) is attested in R. дело.
  • The meaning ‘act, deed’ (čin) is attested in R. дело, Bg. дело.
  • The meaning ‘battle’ (bitva) is attested in R. дело.
  • The meaning ‘case, lawsuit’ (případ, proces) is attested in R. дело, Bg. дело.
  • The meaning ‘file, document’ (spis, složka) is attested in R. дело, Bg. дело.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
dítě
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘child’ is shared by Cr. dijete, Bo. dijete, Sb. дете, Bg.  дете.
  • The meaning ‘baby’ (dítě, miminko) is attested in Sln. dete.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk.]
divan
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 275.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Macedonian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘settee, sofa’ is shared by R. диван, Slk. diván, Sln. divan, Cr. divan, Bo. divan, Sb. диван, Bg.  диван.
  • The meaning ‘carpet’ (koberec) is attested in Blr. дыван, Pol. dywan.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
doba
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • does not have all its Czech meanings in the mother tongue of about 27.5 million speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 6 million native speakers of Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘time, era, period’ is shared by Slk. doba, Sln. doba, Cr. doba, Bo. doba, Sb. доба, Bg. доба.
  • The Czech meaning ‘time, duration’ is shared by Slk. doba.
  • The meaning ‘day (24 hours)’ (den (24 hodin)) is attested in Pol. doba.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
Dunaj
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 321.5 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘Danube’ is shared by R. Дунай, Pol. Dunaj, Slk. Dunaj, Cr. Dunaj, Bo. Dunaj, Sb. Дунај, Mk. Дунав, Bg. Дунав.
  • The meaning ‘Vienna’ (Vídeň) is attested in Sln. Dunaj.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
hlava

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
hodina
  • is a complete false friend for about 27.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Czech meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 89 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘hour’ is shared by Blr. гадзіна, Ukr. година, Pol. godzina, Slk. hodina.
  • The Czech meaning ‘time, hour (poet.)’ (hodina, čas) is shared by R. година, Blr. гадзіна, час, Ukr. година, час, Pol. godzina, czas, Slk. hodina, čas.
  • The meaning ‘year’ (rok) is attested in Cr. godina, Bo. godina, Sb. година, Mk. година, Bg. година.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
hora
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 6 million native speakers of Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 352.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Macedonian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘mountain’ is shared by R. гора, Blr. гара, Ukr. гора, Pol. góra, Slk. hora, Sln. gora, Cr. gora, Bo. gora, Sb. гора.
  • The meaning ‘forest’ (les) is attested in Slk. hora, Bg. гора.
  • The meaning ‘people’ (lidé) is attested in Bg. хора
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
hrad

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk.]
hrát

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
jahoda

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
jel
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘drove/driven, rode/ridden, went/gone’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘ate/eaten’ (jedl) is attested in R. ел, Bg. ял.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
jet
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘to drive, to ride, to go’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘to fuck’ (šoustati) is attested in R. ети, еть, ебать.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
kněz

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
kraj
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 66.5 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Czech meanings in the mother tongue of about 2 million speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 264 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Slovak.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
krásný
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 14 million native speakers of Slovak and Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘beautiful’ is shared by Slk. krásny, Bg. красив.
  • The meaning ‘red’ (červený) is attested in R. красный.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
křeslo
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • is a true friend for about 301 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘armchair’ is shared by R. кресло, Blr. крэсла, Ukr. крісло, Slk. kreslo, Bg. кресло.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (židle) is attested in Blr. крэсла, Pol. krzesło.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
květen
  • is a complete false friend for about 325 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘May’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘April’ (duben) is attested in Ukr. квітень, Pol. kwiecień.
  • The meaning ‘pollen’ (pyl, pel) is attested in R. цветень.
  • The meaning `coloured´ (barvitý) is attested in Bg. цветен
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
lékárna
  • is a complete false friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Slovak, Slovenian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘chemist’s, pharmacy’ is shared by Slk. lekáreň, Sln. lekarna.
  • The meaning ‘hospital’ (nemocnice) is attested in Ukr. лікарня.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
léto

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  • The Czech meaning ‘summer’ is shared by R. лето, Blr. лета, Ukr. літо, Pol. lato, Slk. leto, Cr. ljeto, Bo. ljeto, Sb. лето, Mk. лето, Bg. лято.
  • The Czech meaning ‘year (in the plural), e.g. 30 years’ (léto (30 lét)) is shared by R. лето (30 лет), Pol. lato (30 lat), Slk. leto (30 let), Sln. leto (30 let).
  • The meaning ‘year (in the sg.)’ (rok) is attested in Sln. leto.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
list
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 51.0 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Kashubian, Slovak;
  • does not have all its Czech meanings in the mother tongue of about 50,000 speakers of Kashubian;
  • is a true friend for about 279.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘sheet of paper’ is shared by R. лист, Blr. ліст, аркуш, Ukr. лист, Slk. list, Sln. list, Cr. list, Bo. list, Sb. лист, Mk. лист, Bg. лист.
  • The Czech meaning ‘leaf’ is shared by R. лист, Blr. ліст, Ukr. лист, Ka. lëst, Slk. list, Sln. list, Cr. list, Bo. list, Sb. лист, Mk. лист, Bg. лист.
  • The meaning ‘letter’ (dopis) is attested in Blr. ліст, пісьмо, Ukr. лист, Pol. list, Ka. lëst, Slk. list.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
listopad

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo.]
lůžko
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 46 million native speakers of Polish, Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘hospital bed; berth (on a train)’ is shared by Pol. łóżko, Bg. ложе.
  • The meaning ‘bed’ (postel) is attested in Pol. łóżko, Bg. ложе.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
masa
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 10 million native speakers of Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 358.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘mass’ is shared by R. масса, Blr. маса, Ukr. маса, Pol. masa, Slk. masa, Sln. masa, Cr. masa, Bo. masa, Sb. маса, Mk. маса, Bg. маса.
  • The meaning ‘table’ (stůl) is attested in Mk. маса, Bg. маса.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
matka
  • is a complete false friend for about 297 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • does not have all its Czech meanings in the mother tongue of about 52 million speakers of Belarusian, Polish, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
meč
  • is a complete false friend for about 55.5 million native speakers of Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 303 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘sword’ is shared by R. меч, Blr. меч, Ukr. меч, Mk. меч, Bg. меч.
  • The meaning ‘match, game’ (zápas, utkání) is attested in Pol. mecz, Cr. meč, Bo. meč, Sb. меч, Mk. меч.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln.]
mír

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
mrak
  • is a complete false friend for about 267.5 million native speakers of Russian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 6 million native speakers of Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘cloud’ is shared by Slk. mrak.
  • The meaning ‘darkness’ (tma) is attested in R. мрак, Cr. mrak, Bo. mrak, Sb. мрак, Bg. мрак.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Sln.]
muž
  • does not have all its Czech meanings in the mother tongue of about 313.5 million speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 55 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Slovak, Slovenian, Macedo-nian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘man’ is shared by Ukr. муж, Slk. muž, Sln. mož, moški, Mk. маж, Bg. мъж.
  • The Czech meaning ‘husband’ is shared by R. муж, Blr. муж, Ukr. муж, чоловік, Pol. mąż, Slk. muž, Sln. mož, Cr. muž, Bo. muž, Sb. муж, Mk. маж, Bg. мъж.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
náhlý

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
napravo
  • is a complete false friend for about 27.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 339.0 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Kashubian, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘to the right’ is shared by R. направо, Blr. направа, Ukr. направо, Pol. na prawo, Ka. w prawo, w prawą, Slk. napravo.
  • The meaning ‘straight on’ (přímo) is attested in Cr. pravo, Bo. pravo, Sb. право, Mk. (на)право, Bg. (на) право.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
neděle

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
obchod
  • is a complete false friend for about 288 million native speakers of Russian, Polish.
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘shop’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘round, circuit’ (obchůzka) is attested in R. обход, Pol. obchód.
  • The meaning ‘party’ (slavnost, výročí) is attested in Pol. obchód.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
olovo
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian.

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  • The meaning ‘tin, pewter’ (cín) is attested in R. олово.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
otrok
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Slovenian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘slave’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘child’ (dítě) is attested in Sln. otrok, Bg. отрок.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
ovoce
  • is a complete false friend for about 287 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 61.5 million native speakers of Polish, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Slovenian, Macedonian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘fruits’ is shared by Pol. owoce, Slk. ovocie, Cr. voće, Bo. voće, Sb. воће, Bg.  овощи.
  • The meaning ‘vegetables’ (zelenina) is attested in R. овощи, Ukr. овочі.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
palec
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘thumb’ is shared by Bg. палец.
  • The meaning ‘finger’ (prst) is attested in R. палец.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
památník

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The Czech meaning ‘1. memorial 2. diary, notebook’is like R. памятник, Ukr. пам’ятник, Pol. pamiętnik, Ka. pamiãtnik, Slk. pamätník, Bg. паметник.

pamjatnik
paměť
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘memory’ is shared by R. память, Bg. памет.
  • The Czech meaning ‘computer memory’ is shared by R. память, Bg. памет.
  • The meaning ‘reason, intellect’ (rozum) is attested in Cr. pamet, Bo. pamet, Sb. памет.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
pára
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 35.5 million native speakers of Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘steam’ is shared by Blr. пара, Ukr. пара, Pol. para, Slk. para, Sln. para, Cr. para, Bo. para, Sb. пара, Mk. пара, Bg. пара.
  • The meaning ‘pair’ (pár) is attested in R. пара, Blr. пара, Ukr. пара, Pol. para.
  • The meaning ‘a couple of, some’ (pár) is attested in R. пара, Blr. пара, Ukr. пара, Pol. parę.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
Petrohrad
  • does not have all its Czech meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘St. Petersburg (until 1914 and since 1991)’ is shared by Cr. Petrograd, Bo. Petrograd, Sb. Петроград.
  • The Czech meaning ‘Petrograd (1914-1924)’ is shared by R. Петроград, Cr. Petrograd, Bo. Petrograd, Sb. Петроград, Bg. Петроград.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
písmo

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
pivnice
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 25.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘pub’ is shared by Cr. pivnica, Bo. pivnica, Sb. пивница, Bg.  пивница.
  • The meaning ‘cellar’ (sklep) is attested in Pol. piwnica.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
plot
  • is a complete false friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 57.5 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘fence’ is shared by Pol. płot, Sln. plot, Cr. plot, Bo. plot, Sb. плот, Mk. плот.
  • The meaning ‘body, flesh’ (tělo) is attested in R. плоть, Mk. плот, Bg. плът.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
pokoj

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo., Bo.]
poledne
  • is a complete false friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 46.0 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish, Kashubian;
  • is a true friend for about 285.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
popelník
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian;
  • is a true friend for about 302 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Czech meaning ‘ash-tray’ is shared by R. пепельница, Pol. popielniczka, Slk. popolník, Bg.  пепелник.
  • The meaning ‘Ash Wednesday’ (Popeleční středa) is attested in Sln. Pepelnica, Cr. Pepelnica.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
postel
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
pověst
  • is a complete false friend for about 350.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Czech meanings in the mother tongue of about 2 million speakers of Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 6 million native speakers of Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Serbian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
prostě
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 285.5 million native speakers of Russian, Kashubian, Slovak, Slove-nian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

map

[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
půlnoc
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 285.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘midnight’ is shared by R. полночь, Blr. поўнач, Ukr. північ, Pol. północ, Slk. polnoc, Sln. polnoč, Cr. ponoć, Bo. ponoć, Sb. поноћ, Mk. полноќ, Bg. полунощ.
  • The meaning ‘north’ (sever) is attested in Blr. поўнач, Ukr. північ, Pol. północ.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
řeč

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘speech’ is shared by R. речь, Slk. reč, Mk. реч, Bg. реч.
  • The meaning ‘word’ (slovo) is attested in Cr. riječ, Bo. riječ, Sb. реч.
  • The meaning ‘matter’ (věc) is attested in Blr. рэч, Ukr. річ, Pol. rzecz, Sln. reč.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
říjen
  • is a complete false friend for about 6 million native speakers of Croatian;
  • is a true friend for about 50,000 native speakers of Kashubian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Slovak, Slovenian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘October’ is shared by Ka. rujan.
  • The meaning ‘September’ (září) is attested in Cr. rujan.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
rodina

map

[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
rok
  • is a complete false friend for about 271.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘year’ is shared by Pol. rok.
  • The meaning ‘destiny, fate’ (osud, úděl) is attested in R. рок.
  • The meaning ‘fixed time, set term, deadline’ (termín, doba, lhůta) is attested in Sln. rok, Cr. rok, Bo. rok, Sb. рок, Mk. рок.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
rychlý
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘quick’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘loose, spongy’ (kyprý, drolivý) is attested in R. рыхлый.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
sad
  • is a complete false friend for about 57.5 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 256 million native speakers of Russian, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘garden’ is shared by R. сад, Slk. sad.
  • The meaning ‘orchard’ (ovocný sad, štěpnice) is attested in Pol. sad.
  • The meaning ‘fruit’ (plod, ovoce) is attested in Sln. sad.
  • The meaning ‘now’ (teď) is attested in Cr. sad, Bo. sad, Sb. сад.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
sklep
  • is a complete false friend for about 290 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Slovenian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37.0 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Kashubian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘cellar’ is shared by Ukr. склеп, Ka. sklep.
  • The meaning ‘decision’ (rozhodnutí) is attested in Sln. sklep.
  • The meaning ‘shop’ (obchod, krám) is attested in Pol. sklep.
  • The meaning ‘tomb, vault’ (hrob) is attested in R. склеп, Ukr. склеп, Ka. sklep.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk.]
skoro
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘almost’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘soon, quickly’ (brzo, rychle) is attested in R. скоро.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
slovenský

map

[NB: Information complete.]
slovo
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 347 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Macedonian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘word’ is shared by R. слово, Blr. слова, Ukr. слово, Pol. słowo, Slk. slovo, Bg. слово.
  • The meaning ‘letter (of the alphabet)’ (písmeno) is attested in Cr. slovo, Bo. slovo, Sb. слово.
  • The meaning ‘leave-taking, farewell’ (rozloučení) is attested in Sln. slovo.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
slyšet
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian.

map

[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
srpen
  • is a complete false friend for about 6 million native speakers of Croatian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Belarusian, Slovak, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘August’ is shared by Ukr. серпень, Pol. sierpień, Sln. veliki srpen.
  • The meaning ‘July’ (červenec) is attested in Sln. mali srpen, Cr. srpanj.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
stávka
  • is a complete false friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian.

map

[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
sto
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 351 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Slovak, Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘a hundred’ is shared by R. сто, Blr. сто, Ukr. сто, Pol. sto, Slk. sto, Sln. sto, Cr. sto, Bo. sto, Sb. сто, Mk. сто, Bg. сто.
  • The meaning ‘table’ (stůl) is attested in Cr. sto, Bo. sto, Sb. сто.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
stolice

map

[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
strana
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Czech meanings in the mother tongue of about 104.5 million speakers of Ukrainian, Polish, Kashubian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 6 million native speakers of Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian.

map

[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
stroj
  • is a complete false friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘machine’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘structure’ (stavba) is attested in R. строй.
  • The meaning ‘line (mil.)’ (řada, šik) is attested in R. строй, Bg. ставка.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
štuka

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘stucco’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘piece’ (kus) is attested in R. штука, Pol. sztuka.
  • The meaning ‘art’ (umění) is attested in Pol. sztuka.
  • The meaning ‘pike’ (štika) is attested in Cr. štuka, Bo. štuka, Sb. штука, Bg. щука.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk.]
stůl
  • is a complete false friend for about 12 million native speakers of Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 356.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘table’ is shared by R. стол, Blr. стол, Ukr. стіл, Pol. stół, Slk. stôl, Cr. stol, Bo. sto, Sb. сто.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (židle, stolice) is attested in Sln. stol, Mk. стол, Bg. стол.
  • The meaning ‘canteen’ (jídelna, menza) is attested in Bg. стол.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
stůl
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘table’ is shared by Pol. stół.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (židle, stolice) is attested in R. стул.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
svět
  • is a complete false friend for about 7.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 298 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Serbian.

map

[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
tykev

map

[NB: No information yet for Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
úrok
  • is a complete false friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, урок.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘tribute, interest’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘lesson’ (lekce) is attested in R. урок, Bg. урок.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
věc
  • is a complete false friend for about 59.5 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • does not have all its Czech meanings in the mother tongue of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian
  • is a true friend for about 264 million native speakers of Russian, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘matter’ is shared by R. вещь, Slk. vec.
  • The Czech meaning ‘thing’ is shared by R. вещь, Slk. vec, Bg. вещ.
  • The meaning ‘clever’ (šikovný) is attested in Sln. vešč, Cr. vješt, Bo. vješt, Sb. вешт, Mk. вешт, Bg. вещ.
  • The meaning ‘message’ (zpráva) is attested in Pol. wieść.
  • The meaning ‘assembly’ (shromáždění, schůze) is attested in Pol. wiec.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
věk

map

[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
vlast
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian, Bg. Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘home country’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘power’ (moc) is attested in R. власть, Bg. власт.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
vrah

map

[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
vůně
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian, Bg. Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘scent, fragrance’ is shared by Pol. woń.
  • The meaning ‘stench, stink’ (zápach) is attested in R. вонь, Bg. воня.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
východ
  • does not have all its Czech meanings in the mother tongue of about 295 million speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 6 million native speakers of Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘east’ is shared by Slk. východ.
  • The Czech meaning ‘exit’ is shared by R. выход, Blr. выхад, Ukr. вихід, Slk. východ.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
záchod
  • is a complete false friend for about 292 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Slovenian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 23.5 million native speakers of Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘toilet’ is shared by Slk. záchod, Cr. zahod, Bo. zahod, Sb. заход.
  • The meaning ‘west’ (západ) is attested in Pol. zachód, Sln. zahod.
  • The meaning ‘sunset’ (západ) is attested in R. заход, Pol. zachód, Sln. zahod, Mk. заод.
  • The meaning ‘trouble, effort’ (snaha, námaha) is attested in Pol. zachód.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
zákaz
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘prohibition’ is shared by Pol. zakaz.
  • The meaning ‘order’ (objednavka, zakázka) is attested in R. заказ.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
zápach
  • is a complete false friend for about 288 million native speakers of Russian, Polish.
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘bad smell, stench’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘smell (neutral)’ (vůně) is attested in R. запах, Pol. zapach.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
zapomenout
  • is a complete false friend for about 270 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

map

[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
závod

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘contest’ is unique.
  • The Czech meaning ‘factory, works’ is shared by R. завод, Mk. завод, Bg. завод.
  • The meaning ‘occupation, profession, trade’ (povolání) is attested in Pol. zawód.
  • The meaning ‘institute’ (institut, ústav) is attested in Sln. zavod, Cr. zavod, Bo. zavod, Sb. завод, Mk. завод.
  • The meaning ‘disappointment’ (zklamání) is attested in Pol. zawód.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
žena
  • does not have all its Czech meanings in the mother tongue of about 333 million speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 35.5 million native speakers of Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘woman’ is shared by Ukr. жінка, Slk. žena, Sln. žena, ženska, Cr. žena, Bo. žena, Sb. жена, Mk. жена, Bg. жена.
  • The Czech meaning ‘wife’ is shared by R. жена, Blr. жонка, Pol. żona, Slk. žena, Sln. žena, Cr. žena, Bo. žena, Sb. жена, Mk. жена, Bg. жена.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
Žid/žid
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘Jew (ethnically)’ (Žid) is shared by Pol. Żyd.
  • The Czech meaning ‘Jew (religiously)’ (žid) is shared by Pol. żyd.
  • The meaning ‘Jew (pejoratively)’ (Žid (pej.)) is attested in R. жид.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
žínka
  • is a complete false friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian.
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘little woman’ is unique.
  • The Czech meaning ‘washrag’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘woman’ (žena) is attested in Ukr. жінка.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
žito
  • is a complete false friend for about 277.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 6 million native speakers of Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish.

map

[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
život
  • is a complete false friend for about 39 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Slovenian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 296 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 33.5 million native speakers of Kashubian, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

map

[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
žízeň
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘thirst’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘life’ (život) is attested in R. жизнь.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
zloděj
  • is a complete false friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian.
  • is a true friend for about 6 million native speakers of Slovak.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘thief’ is shared by Slk.  zlodej'.
  • The meaning ‘criminal, evildoer’ (zločinec) is attested in R. злодей, Bg. злодей.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
zmenšený
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘diminished, made smaller, reduced’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘tired’ (unavený) is attested in Pol. zmęczony.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
zrak
  • is a complete false friend for about 21.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 14 million native speakers of Belarusian, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Bulgarian.

map

  • The Czech meaning ‘eyesight’ is shared by Blr. зрок, Slk. zrak.
  • The meaning ‘air’ (vzduch) is attested in Sln. zrak, Cr. zrak, Bo. zrak.
  • The meaning ‘ray, beam’ (paprsek) is attested in Sb. зрак, Mk. зрак.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
Ø

There is no Czech word like Blr. ліпень, Ukr. липень, Pol. lipiec, Cr. lipanj.

map

Ø

There is no Czech word like Blr. дадатны, Ukr. додатний, Pol. dodatni, Cr. dodatni, Bo. dodatni, Sb. додатни.

map

Ø

There is no Czech word like Cr. šuma, Bo. šuma, Sb. шума, Mk. шума, Bg. шума.

map

Ø

There is no Czech word like R. студень, Blr. студзень, Cr. studeni.

map

Ø

There is no Czech word like R. ковчег, Sln. kovček, Cr. kovčeg, Bo. kovčeg, Sb. ковчег, Bg. ковчег.

map

Ø

There is no Czech word like R. вредный, Pol. wredny, Sln. vreden, Cr. vrijedan, Bo. vrijedan, Sb. вредан, Mk. вреден, Bg. вреден.

map

Ø

There is no Czech word like R. дворец, Blr. дварэц, Ukr. двірець, Pol. dworzec, Cr. dvorac, Bo. dvorac, Sb. дворац, Mk. дворец, Bg. дворец.

map

Ø

There is no Czech word like R. шина, Blr. шына, Ukr. шина, Pol. szyna, Ka. szina, Cr. šina, Bo. šina, Sb. шина, Mk. шина, Bg. шина.

map

Ø

There is no Czech word like Slk. bielizeň, R. белизна, Blr. бялізна, Ukr. білизна, Pol. bielizna, Cr. bjelina, Bo. bjelina, Sb. белина, Mk. белина, Bg. белина.

map

Ø

There is no Czech word like R. существовать, Cr. suučestvovati, Bg. съществувам.

map

Ø

There is no Czech word like R. российский, Blr. расейскі, Ukr. російський, Pol. rosyjski.

map

Ø

There is no Czech word like Ukr. травень, Sln. traven (mali, veliki), Cr. travanj.

map

More Czech-Slavonic false friends:

  • Edvard Lotko. Zrádná slova v polštině a češtině: Lexikologický pohled a slovník. Olomouc 1992.
  • Czesko-polski słownik zdradliwych wyrazów i pułapek frazeologicznych. Ed. Teresa Zofia Orłoś. Kraków 2003.
  • Marek Szałek, Jiří Nečas. Czesko-polska homonimia: Czesko-polski słownik wyrazów o identycznym lub podobnym brzmieniu oraz wyrazów o identycznym lub podobnym zapisie, lecz o odmiennym znaczeniu. Poznań 1993.
  • Josef Vlček. Úskalí ruské slovní zásoby: Slovník rusko-české homonymie a paronymie. Praha 1966.
  • Алексей Иванович Журавлев, Сергей Сергеевич Захаров. «Ложные друзья переводчика» с чешского языка. Москва 1977.
  • http://ssjc.ujc.cas.czSlovník spisovného jazyka českého online

For additional information on false friends, see the On-line hypertext bibliography by Daniel Bunčić and Ryszard Lipczuk.

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