False Friends of the Slavist/Kashubian

Kaszëbsczi jãzëk (Kashubian)

(c. 50 000 native speakers)


kòło
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian and for 10 million native speakers of Czech.

map

  • The Kashubian meaning ‘bicycle’ is shared by Cz. and Sln. kolo.
  • The meaning ‘circle’ (krąg) is attested in Pol. koło.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., LSo., USo., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
lëst

map

[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
mir
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 298 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

map

[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
pòkùj
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 298 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Czech;
  • does not have all its Kashubian meanings in the mother tongue of about 320 million speakers of Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovenian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 6 million native speakers of Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Croatian.

map

[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo., Bo.]
pamiãtnik
  • does not have all its Kashubian meanings in the mother tongue of about 339 million speakers of Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

map

[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
pôłnié

map

[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
prosto
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 295.5 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

map

[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
pùpa
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

map

  • The Kashubian meaning ‘doll’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘bottom, buttocks’ (rzëc, slôdk) is attested in Pol. pupa.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
rujan
  • is a complete false friend for about 6 million native speakers of Croatian;
  • is a true friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Slovak, Slovenian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

map

  • The Kashubian meaning ‘October’ is shared by Cz. říjen.
  • The meaning ‘September’ (séwnik, zeptember) is attested in Cr. rujan.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
sklep
  • is a complete false friend for about 40 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian;
  • does not have all its Kashubian meanings in the mother tongue of about 260 million speakers of Russian, Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

map

  • The Kashubian meaning ‘cellar’ is shared by Ukr. склеп, Cz. sklep.
  • The Kashubian meaning ‘tomb, vault’ is shared by R. склеп, Ukr. склеп.
  • The meaning ‘decision’ (rozsądzënk, udba) is attested in Sln. sklep.
  • The meaning ‘shop’ (króm) is attested in Pol. sklep.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk.]
słowensczi
  • is a complete false friend for about 28 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 350.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Bulgarian.

map

  • The Kashubian meaning ‘Slovenian’ is shared by R. словенский, Blr. славенскі, Ukr. словінський, Pol. słoweński, LSo. słowjeński, USo. słowjenski, Sln. slovenski, Cr. slovenski, Bo. slovenski, Bg. словенски.
  • The meaning ‘Slovak’ (słowacczi) is attested in Cz. slovenský, Slk. slovenský.
  • The meaning ‘Slavonic’ (słowiańsczi) is attested in Sb. словенски, Mk. словенски.
[NB: Information complete.]
stolëca

map

  • The Kashubian meaning ‘capital’ is shared by R. столица, Blr. сталіца, Ukr. столиця, Pol. stolica, Bg. столица.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (stółk) is attested in Cz. stolice, Slk. stolica, Cr. stolica, Bo. stolica, Sb. столица, Mk. столица.
  • The meaning ‘professorship’ (katédra) is attested in Sln. stolica.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
strona
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 45.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian.

map

[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
szina
  • is a complete false friend for about 266 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 57.5 million native speakers of Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech, Slovak, Slovenian.

map

  • The Kashubian meaning ‘rail’ is shared by Ukr. шина, Pol. szyna, Cr. šina, Bo. šina, Sb. шина, Mk. шина.
  • The meaning ‘tyre’ (gumowi réf, mańtel, przëkriwk) is attested in R. шина, Blr. шына, Ukr. шина, Bg. шина.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
w prawo
  • is a complete false friend for about 27.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 349 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

map

  • The Kashubian meaning ‘to the right’ (w prawo, w prawą) is shared by R. направо, Blr. направа, Ukr. направо, Pol. na prawo, Cz. napravo, Slk. napravo.
  • The meaning ‘straight on’ (prost, na prost, za prost) is attested in Cr. pravo, Bo. pravo, Sb. право, Mk. (на)право, Bg. (на) право.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
zgniełi
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

map

  • The Kashubian meaning ‘lazy’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘rotten’ (strëpiałi) is attested in Mk. гнил, Pol. zgniły.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Bg.]
żëwot
  • is a complete false friend for about 39 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Slovenian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 296 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 43.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

map

[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]

For additional information on false friends, see the On-line hypertext bibliography by Daniel Bunčić and Ryszard Lipczuk.

You can help!

Have you spotted any mistakes on this page? Would you like to add information about false friends from your own experience, or help enhance this project in other respects?

Just click the "edit this page" button at the top of this page — it’s easier than you think! If you need advice, see the editing help for this book.

Last modified on 1 December 2009, at 00:42