Last modified on 30 March 2011, at 15:24

False Friends of the Slavist/Ukrainian

Українська мова (Ukrainian)

(c. 37 million native speakers)
Слов’янські фальшиві друзі в українській мові


адрес
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
білизна

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln.]
брак
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Ukrainian meanings in the mother tongue of about 258 million speakers of Russian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘defect, flaw’ is shared by R. брак, Pol. brak.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘rejects, refuse, waste’ is shared by R. брак, Pol. brak, Bg. брак.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘lack, want, shortage’ is shared by Pol. brak.
  • The meaning ‘marriage’ (шлюб) is attested in R. брак, Cr. brak, Bo. brak, Sb. брак, Mk. брак, Bg. брак.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
булка
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 296 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘roll, white bread’ is shared by R. булка, Blr. булка, Pol. bułka.
  • The meaning ‘bride’ (наречена) is attested in Bg. булка.
  • The meaning ‘young woman’ (молодиця) is attested in Bg. булка.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
вихід
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 16 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘exit’ is shared by R. выход, Blr. выхад, Cz. východ, Slk. východ.
  • The meaning ‘east’ (схід) is attested in Cz. východ, Slk. východ.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
ворог
  • is a complete false friend for about 35.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 304 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘enemy’ is shared by R. враг, Blr. вораг, Pol. wróg, Mk. враг, Bg. враг.
  • The meaning ‘devil, demon’ (чорт) is attested in Sln. vrag, Cr. vrag, Bo. vrag, Sb. враг, Mk. враг.
  • The meaning ‘murderer’ (вбивця) is attested in Cz. vrah, Slk. vrah.
  • The meaning ‘slyboots, smartie’ (хитрун) is attested in Mk. враг.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
врода
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘crop’ (

) is shared by Pol.  .

  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘beauty’ is shared by Pol. uroda.
  • The meaning ‘malformed person’ (виродок) is attested in R. урод.
  • The meaning ‘monster’ (потвора) is attested in R. урод.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
гарбуз
  • is a complete false friend for about 288 million native speakers of Russian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘pumpkin’ is shared by Blr. гарбуз.
  • The meaning ‘watermelon’ (кавун) is attested in R. арбуз, Pol. arbuz.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
говір

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
година
  • is a complete false friend for about 27.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Ukrainian meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 62 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘hour’ is shared by Blr. гадзіна, Pol. godzina, Cz. hodina, Slk. hodina.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘time, hour (poet.)’ (година, час) is shared by R. година, Blr. гадзіна, час, Pol. godzina, czas, Cz. hodina, čas, Slk. hodina, čas.
  • The meaning ‘year’ (рік) is attested in Cr. godina, Bo. godina, Sb. година, Mk. година, Bg. година.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
гора
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 6 million native speakers of Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 325.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Macedonian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘mountain’ is shared by R. гора, Blr. гара, Pol. góra, Cz. hora, Slk. hora, Sln. gora, Cr. gora, Bo. gora, Sb. гора.
  • The meaning ‘forest’ (ліс) is attested in Slk. hora, Bg. гора.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
город
  • is a complete false friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘vegetable garden’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘town’ (місто) is attested in R. город, Blr. горад.
[NB: No information yet for Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
грати

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
двірець

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Sln.]
диня
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Polish, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 271.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘sweet melon’ is shared by R. дыня, Sln. dinja, Cr. dinja, Bo. dinja, Sb. диња, Mk. диња.
  • The meaning ‘watermelon’ (кавун) is attested in Bg. диня.
  • The meaning ‘pumpkin’ (гарбуз) is attested in Pol. dynia.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk.]
додатний
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘positive’ is shared by Blr. дадатны, Pol. dodatni.
  • The meaning ‘additional’ (додатковий) is attested in Cr. dodatni, Bo. dodatni, Sb. додатни.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Sln., Mk.]
доктор
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • does not have all its Ukrainian meanings in the mother tongue of about 38 million speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘doctor, physician’ is shared by R. доктор, врач, Pol. doktor.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘habilitated doctor’ is shared by R. доктор наук.
  • The meaning ‘PhD, DSc’ (кандидат наук) is attested in Pol. doktor.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
дума
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Polish, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘thought’ is shared by R. дума (arch.), мысль, Blr. думка, дума.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘East Slavonic folk song’ is shared by R. дума, Blr. дума.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘parliament’ is shared by R. дума, Blr. дума.
  • The meaning ‘word’ (слово) is attested in Bg. дума.
  • The meaning ‘pride’ (гордість) is attested in Pol. duma.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
живіт

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
жито
  • is a complete false friend for about 277.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 6 million native speakers of Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘rye’ is shared by Pol. żyto, Cz. žito, Slk. žito, raž.
  • The meaning ‘grain, cereals, (Br.) corn’ (збіжжя) is attested in R. жито, Sln. žito, Cr. žito, Bo. žito, Sb. жито.
  • The meaning ‘wheat’ (пшениця) is attested in Slk. pšenica, žito, Bg. жито.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
жінка

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
жінка
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘woman’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘little woman’ (жіночка) is attested in Cz. žínka.
  • The meaning ‘washrag’ (ганчірка) is attested in Cz. žínka.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
забити
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘to hit into’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘to forget’ (забути) is attested in R. забыть.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
захват
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘delight’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘conquest, capture’ (загарбання) is attested in R. захват.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
квітень
  • is a complete false friend for about 260 million native speakers of Russian, Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘April’ is shared by Pol. kwiecień.
  • The meaning ‘pollen’ (пилок) is attested in R. цветень.
  • The meaning ‘May’ (травень) is attested in Cz. květen.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
кіт
  • is a complete false friend for about 288 million native speakers of Russian, Polish.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘cat’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘whale’ (кит) is attested in R. кит.
  • The meaning ‘putty, cement’ (замазка) is attested in Pol. kit.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
князь
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 275.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘prince, duke’ is shared by R. князь, Blr. князь, Cr. knez, Bo. knez, Sb. кнез.
  • The meaning ‘priest’ (священник, піп) is attested in Pol. ksiądz, Cz. kněz.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
край

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
крісло
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • is a true friend for about 274 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘armchair’ is shared by R. кресло, Blr. крэсла, Cz. křeslo, Slk. kreslo, Bg. кресло.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (стілець) is attested in Blr. крэсла, Pol. krzesło.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
липень
  • is a complete false friend for about 6 million native speakers of Croatian;
  • is a true friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘July’ is shared by Blr. ліпень, Pol. lipiec.
  • The meaning ‘June’ (червень) is attested in Cr. lipanj.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
лист

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
листопад

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo.]
лікарня
  • is a complete false friend for about 18 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘hospital’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘chemist’s, pharmacy’ (аптека) is attested in Cz. lékárna, Slk. lekáreň, Sln. lekarna.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
літо
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 304 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 35.5 million native speakers of Belarusian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
любити
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 288 million native speakers of Polish, Russian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
маса
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 10 million native speakers of Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 331.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘mass’ is shared by R. масса, Blr. маса, Pol. masa, Cz. masa, Slk. masa, Sln. masa, Cr. masa, Bo. masa, Sb. маса, Mk. маса, Bg. маса.
  • The meaning ‘table’ (стіл) is attested in Mk. маса, Bg. маса.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
матка
  • is a complete false friend for about 54 million native speakers of Polish, Czech, Slovak;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian;
  • is a true friend for about 10 million native speakers of Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘womb, uterus’ is shared by R. матка, Blr. матка, Mk. матка, Bg. матка.
  • The meaning ‘mother’ (мати) is attested in Blr. матка, Pol. matka, Cz. matka, Slk. matka.
  • The meaning ‘dam, female animal’ (самиця) is attested in R. матка, Blr. матка, Pol. matka.
  • The meaning ‘nut (to screw on a bolt)’ (гайка) is attested in Cz. matka.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
мед
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘honey’ is shared by R. мёд, Bg. мед.
  • The meaning ‘copper’ (мідь) is attested in Bg. мед.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
меч
  • is a complete false friend for about 55.5 million native speakers of Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 276 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Czech, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘sword’ is shared by R. меч, Blr. меч, Cz. meč, Mk. меч, Bg. меч.
  • The meaning ‘match, game’ (матч) is attested in Pol. mecz, Cr. meč, Bo. meč, Sb. меч, Mk. меч.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln.]
муж
  • does not have all its Ukrainian meanings in the mother tongue of about 313.5 million speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 28 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘man’ is shared by Cz. muž, Slk. muž, Sln. mož, moški, Mk. маж, Bg. мъж.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘husband’ (муж, чоловік) is shared by R. муж, Blr. муж, Pol. mąż, Cz. muž, Slk. muž, Sln. mož, Cr. muž, Bo. muž, Sb. муж, Mk. маж, Bg. мъж.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
наглий

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
направо
  • is a complete false friend for about 27.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 312.0 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Kashu-bian, Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘to the right’ is shared by R. направо, Blr. направа, Pol. na prawo, Ka. w prawo, w prawą, Cz. napravo, Slk. napravo.
  • The meaning ‘straight on’ (прямо) is attested in Cr. pravo, Bo. pravo, Sb. право, Mk. (на)право, Bg. (на) право.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
неділя
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 23.5 million native speakers of Czech, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 68 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
овочі
  • is a complete false friend for about 71.5 million native speakers of Polish, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘vegetables’ is shared by R. овощи.
  • The meaning ‘fruits’ (фрукти) is attested in Pol. owoce, Cz. ovoce, Slk. ovocie, Cr. voće, Bo. voće, Sb. воће.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
охочий
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • does not have all its Ukrainian meanings in the mother tongue of about 288 million speakers of Russian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb.]
пам’ятник
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 50,000 native speakers of Kashubian;
  • is a true friend for about 264 million native speakers of Russian, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
папа
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 55.5 million native speakers of Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘bye-bye!’ (папа!) is shared by Pol. papa!, Cr. papa!, Bo. papa!, Sb. папа!.
  • The meaning ‘dad’ (тато, тата) is attested in R. папа, Pol. papa.
  • The meaning ‘the Pope’ (?) is attested in R. папа римский, Cr. papa, Bo. papa, Sb. папа.
  • The meaning ‘cardboard, pasteboard’ (папка, тека) is attested in Pol. papa.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
пара

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘pair’ is shared by R. пара, Blr. пара, Pol. para.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘a couple of, some’ is shared by R. пара, Blr. пара, Pol. parę.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘steam’ is shared by Blr. пара, Pol. para, Cz. pára, Slk. para, Sln. para, Cr. para, Bo. para, Sb. пара, Mk. пара, Bg. пара.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
південь

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
північ

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
повість

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘novel’ is shared by Pol. powieść.
  • The meaning ‘novelette’ (коротка повість) is attested in R. повесть, Blr. аповесць, Mk. повест, Bg. повест.
  • The meaning ‘history’ (історія) is attested in Cr. povijest, Bo. povijest.
  • The meaning ‘fame, reputation’ (пошана, репутація) is attested in Cz. pověst, Slk. povesť.
  • The meaning ‘legend’ (оповідання) is attested in Cz. pověst, Slk. povesť, Sln. povest.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
прізвище
  • is a complete false friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Macedonian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb.]
просто

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
професор
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
річ

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘matter’ is shared by Blr. рэч, Pol. rzecz, Sln. reč.
  • The meaning ‘word’ (слово) is attested in Cr. riječ, Bo. riječ, Sb. реч.
  • The meaning ‘speech’ (мова) is attested in R. речь, Cz. řeč, Slk. reč, Mk. реч, Bg. реч.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
родина

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
російський
  • does not have all its Ukrainian meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech, Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘Russian (of the people or the language)’ is shared by Blr. расейскі, рускі, Pol. rosyjski.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘Russian (of the country or the state)’ is shared by R. российский, Blr. расейскі, рускі, Pol. rosyjski.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
руський
  • is a complete false friend for about 267.5 million native speakers of Russian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
серпень
  • is a complete false friend for about 6 million native speakers of Croatian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Belarusian, Slovak, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘August’ is shared by Pol. sierpień, Cz. srpen, Sln. veliki srpen.
  • The meaning ‘July’ (липень) is attested in Sln. mali srpen, Cr. srpanj.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
склад
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • does not have all its Ukrainian meanings in the mother tongue of about 288 million speakers of Russian, Polish.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘storehouse’ is shared by R. склад, Pol. skład.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘composition’ is shared by Pol. skład.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘turn, habit, mentality’ is shared by R. склад.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘body, constitution’ is shared by R. склад.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘syllable’ is shared by R. склад (устар.), слог.
  • The meaning ‘shop, store’ (крамниця, магазин) is attested in Pol. skład.
  • The meaning ‘harmony’ (згода, гармонія) is attested in Cr. sklad, Bo. sklad, Sb. склад.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
склеп
  • is a complete false friend for about 40 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian;
  • does not have all its Ukrainian meanings in the mother tongue of about 260 million speakers of Russian, Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 50,000 native speakers of Kashubian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘cellar’ is shared by Ka. sklep, Cz. sklep.
  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘tomb, vault’ is shared by R. склеп, Ka. sklep.
  • The meaning ‘decision’ (вирішення) is attested in Sln. sklep.
  • The meaning ‘shop’ (крамниця, магазин) is attested in Pol. sklep.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk.]
словінський
  • is a complete false friend for about 28 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 313.6 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Kashu-bian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘Slovenian’ is shared by R. словенский, Blr. славенскі, Pol. słoweński, Ka. słowensczi, LSo. słowjeński, USo. słowjenski, Sln. slovenski, Cr. slovenski, Bo. slovenski, Bg. словенски.
  • The meaning ‘Slovak’ (словацький) is attested in Cz. slovenský, Slk. slovenský.
  • The meaning ‘Slavonic’ (слов’янський) is attested in Sb. словенски, Mk. словенски.
[NB: Information complete.]
слово
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 320 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Macedonian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘word’ is shared by R. слово, Blr. слова, Pol. słowo, Cz. slovo, Slk. slovo, Bg. слово.
  • The meaning ‘letter (of the alphabet)’ (буква, літера) is attested in Cr. slovo, Bo. slovo, Sb. слово.
  • The meaning ‘leave-taking, farewell’ (прощання) is attested in Sln. slovo.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
сметана
  • is a complete false friend for about 40 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘sour cream’ is shared by R. сметана.
  • The meaning ‘cream’ (вершки) is attested in Pol. śmietana, Sln. smetana.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
стіл
  • is a complete false friend for about 12 million native speakers of Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 329.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘table’ is shared by R. стол, Blr. стол, Pol. stół, Cz. stůl, Slk. stôl, Cr. stol, Bo. sto, Sb. сто.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (стілець) is attested in Sln. stol, Mk. стол, Bg. стол.
  • The meaning ‘canteen’ (їдальня) is attested in Bg. стол.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
сто
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 324 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘a hundred’ is shared by R. сто, Blr. сто, Pol. sto, Cz. sto, Slk. sto, Sln. sto, Cr. sto, Bo. sto, Sb. сто, Mk. сто, Bg. сто.
  • The meaning ‘table’ (стіл) is attested in Cr. sto, Bo. sto, Sb. сто.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
столиця

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘capital’ is shared by R. столица, Blr. сталіца, Pol. stolica, Ka. stolëca, Bg. столица.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (стілець) is attested in Cz. stolice, Slk. stolica, Cr. stolica, Bo. stolica, Sb. столица, Mk. столица.
  • The meaning ‘professorship’ (кафедра) is attested in Sln. stolica.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
сторона
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 45.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 38.0 million native speakers of Polish, Kashubian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
травень
  • is a complete false friend for about 6 million native speakers of Croatian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘May’ is shared by Sln. veliki traven.
  • The meaning ‘April’ (квітень) is attested in Sln. mali traven, Cr. travanj.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
час
  • is a complete false friend for about 271.5 million native speakers of Russian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 64 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘time’ is shared by Blr. час, Pol. czas, Cz. čas, Slk. čas, Sln. čas.
  • The meaning ‘hour’ (година) is attested in R. час, Bo. čas, Sb. час, Mk. час, Bg. час.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
червень
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘June’ is shared by Blr. чэрвень, Pol. czerwiec.
  • The meaning ‘July’ (липень) is attested in Cz. červenec.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
чоловік
  • is a complete false friend for about 252 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian.

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  • The Ukrainian meaning ‘husband’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘man, human being’ (людина) is attested in R. человек, Sln. človek.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
шина

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like Blr. зрок, Cz. zrak, Slk. zrak, Sln. zrak, Cr. zrak, Bo. zrak, Sb. зрак, Mk. зрак.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like Cr. šuma, Bo. šuma, Sb. шума, Mk. шума, Bg. шума.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like Ka. rujan, Cz. říjen, Cr. rujan.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like Pol. doba, Cz. doba, Slk. doba, Sln. doba, Cr. doba, Bo. doba, Sb. доба, Bg. доба.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like R. тыква, Cz. tykev, Sln. tikva, Cr. tikva, Bo. tikva, Sb. тиква, Mk. тиква, Bg. тиква.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like R. студень, Blr. студзень, Cr. studeni.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like R. вещь, Pol. wiec, Cz. věc, Slk. vec, Sln. več, Cr. već, Bo. već, Sb. већ, Bg. вещ.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like R. стул, Pol. stół, Cz. stůl.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like R. вредный, Pol. wredny, Sln. vreden, Cr. vrijedan, Bo. vrijedan, Sb. вредан, Mk. вреден, Bg. вреден.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like R. запомнить, Blr. запомніць, Pol. zapomnieć, Cz. zapomenout, Sln. zapomniti, Mk. запомни, Bg. запомня.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like R. майка, Blr. майка, Cr. majka, Bo. majka, Sb. мајка, Mk. мајка, Bg. майка.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like R. вещь, Pol. wieść, Cz. věc, Slk. vec, Sln. vešč, Cr. vješt, Bo. vješt, Sb. вешт, Mk. вешт, Bg. вещ.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like R. диван, Blr. дыван, Pol. dywan, Cz. divan, Slk. diván, Sln. divan, Cr. divan, Bo. divan, Sb. диван.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like R. покой, Blr. пакой, Pol. pokój, Ka. pòkùj, Cz. pokoj, Slk. pokoj, Sln. pokoj, Sb. покој, Mk. покој, Bg. покой.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like R. мрак, Cz. mrak, Slk. mrak, Cr. mrak, Bo. mrak, Sb. мрак.

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Ø

There is no Ukrainian word like R. существовать, Cr. suučestvovati, Bg. съществувам.

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More Ukrainian-Slavonic false friends:

  • Михайло Петрович Кочерган. Словарь русско-украинских межъязыковых омонимов ("ложные друзья переводчика") - Словник російсько-українських міжмовних омонімів ("фальшиві друзі перекладача"). Київ 1997.

For additional information on false friends, see the On-line hypertext bibliography by Daniel Bunčić and Ryszard Lipczuk.

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