Last modified on 1 September 2013, at 06:07

False Friends of the Slavist/Bulgarian

Български език (Bulgarian)

(c. 8 million native speakers)
Славянски неверни приятели на преводача в българския


Алжир
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 38 million speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘Algiers’ is shared by R. Алжир, Pol. Algier.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘Algeria’ is shared by R. Алжир.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
белина
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 269.5 million native speakers of Russian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘whiteness’ is shared by R. белизна, Ukr. білизна, Cr. bjelina, Bo. bjelina, Sb. белина, Mk. белина.
  • The meaning ‘linen, laundry’ (бельо) is attested in Blr. бялізна, Ukr. білизна, Pol. bielizna.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln.]
беседа
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Belarusian, Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 288 million native speakers of Russian, Polish.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘talk’ is shared by R. беседа, Pol. biesiada.
  • The meaning ‘word’ (слово) is attested in Sln. beseda.
  • The meaning ‘party, ceremony’ (гощавка) is attested in Blr. бяседа.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
бор
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘pine-tree’ is shared by Sln. bor.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘boron’ is shared by R. бор, Sln. bor.
  • The meaning ‘a wood of pine-trees’ (борова гора) is attested in R. бор.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
брак

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘marriage’ is shared by R. брак, Cr. brak, Bo. brak, Sb. брак, Mk. брак.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘rejects, refuse, waste’ is shared by R. брак, Ukr. брак, Pol. brak.
  • The meaning ‘defect, flaw’ (недостатък, грешка) is attested in R. брак, Ukr. брак, Pol. brak.
  • The meaning ‘lack, want, shortage’ (липса) is attested in Ukr. брак, Pol. brak.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
булка
  • is a complete false friend for about 333 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘bride’ is unique.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘young woman’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘roll, white bread’ (симит) is attested in R. булка, Blr. булка, Ukr. булка, Pol. bułka.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
век
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech;
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 17.5 million speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 254 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian, Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘age, epoch’ is shared by R. век, Pol. wiek, Cz. věk, Sln. vek, Mk. век.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘century’ is shared by R. век, столетие, Pol. wiek, Cz. věk, Sln. vek, Cr. vijek, Bo. vijek, Sb. век, Mk. век.
  • The meaning ‘age (of a person)’ (възраст) is attested in Pol. wiek, Cz. věk.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
вещ
  • is a complete false friend for about 59.5 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 266 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘matter’ is shared by R. вещь, Cz. věc, Slk. vec.
  • The meaning ‘clever’ (сръчен, умел) is attested in Sln. vešč, Cr. vješt, Bo. vješt, Sb. вешт, Mk. вешт.
  • The meaning ‘message’ (вест) is attested in Pol. wieść.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
вещ
  • is a complete false friend for about 57.5 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 266 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘matter, thing’ is shared by R. вещь, Cz. věc, Slk. vec.
  • The meaning ‘assembly’ (събрание) is attested in Pol. wiec.
  • The meaning ‘already’ (вече) is attested in Cr. već, Bo. već, Sb. већ.
  • The meaning ‘more’ (повече) is attested in Sln. več.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
враг
  • is a complete false friend for about 35.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 333 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘enemy’ is shared by R. враг, Blr. вораг, Ukr. ворог, Pol. wróg, Mk. враг.
  • The meaning ‘devil, demon’ (чорт) is attested in Sln. vrag, Cr. vrag, Bo. vrag, Sb. враг, Mk. враг.
  • The meaning ‘murderer’ (убиец, убийца) is attested in Cz. vrah, Slk. vrah.
  • The meaning ‘slyboots, smartie’ (хитрец, шмекер) is attested in Mk. враг.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
вреден
  • is a complete false friend for about 57.5 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 252 million speakers of Russian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘harmful’ is shared by R. вредный.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘able, clever’ is shared by Mk. вреден.
  • The meaning ‘precious’ (ценен) is attested in Sln. vreden, Cr. vrijedan, Bo. vrijedan, Sb. вредан.
  • The meaning ‘nasty, repulsive’ (гаден) is attested in Pol. wredny.
  • The meaning ‘insidious, deceitful’ (фалшив, лукав) is attested in Pol. wredny.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
говор

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
година
  • is a complete false friend for about 349 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedo-nian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
гора

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
дворец
  • is a complete false friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 277.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech, Slovak.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘palace’ is shared by R. дворец, Blr. дварэц, Cr. dvorac, Bo. dvorac, Sb. дворац, Mk. дворец.
  • The meaning ‘railway station’ (гара, станция) is attested in Ukr. двірець, Pol. dworzec.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Sln.]

Croatian;

  • is a true friend for about 1.5 million native speakers of Bosnian.

|baba|

  • The Serbian meaning ‘grandmother’ (баба, бака) is shared by Bo. baba, baka.
  • The Serbian meaning ‘old woman’ is shared by R. баба, Pol. baba, Cr. baba, Bo. baba.
  • The meaning ‘pejorative of a woman’ (женска) is attested in R. баба, Pol. baba.

|[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.] }}

банка
  • is a complete false friend for about 288 million native speakers of Russian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 9.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘bank, credit bank’ is shared by Sln. banka, Cr. banka, Bo. banka.
  • The meaning (Br.) tin, (Am.) can’ (кутија) is attested in R. банка.
  • The meaning ‘container, can’ (канта) is attested in Pol. bańka.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
белина
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 267.5 million native speakers of Russian, Croatian, Bosnian, Macedo-nian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘whiteness’ is shared by R. белизна, Ukr. білизна, Cr. bjelina, Bo. bjelina, Mk. белина, Bg. белина.
  • The meaning ‘linen, laundry’ (рубље, веш) is attested in Blr. бялізна, Ukr. білизна, Pol. bielizna.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln.]
боље
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 9.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘better’ is shared by Sln. bolje, Cr. bolje, Bo. bolje.
  • The meaning ‘more’ (више) is attested in R. более.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
брак
  • is a complete false friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 9.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Macedonian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘marriage’ is shared by R. брак, Cr. brak, Bo. brak, Mk. брак, Bg. брак.
  • The meaning ‘defect, flaw’ (мана) is attested in R. брак, Ukr. брак, Pol. brak.
  • The meaning ‘rejects, refuse, waste’ (олош, дефицитна роба) is attested in R. брак, Ukr. брак, Pol. brak, Bg. брак.
  • The meaning ‘lack, want, shortage’ (недостатак) is attested in Ukr. брак, Pol. brak.
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брз
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 7.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘quick, fast (adj.)’ is shared by Cr. brz, Bo. brz.
  • The meaning ‘soon (adv.)’ (скоро) is attested in Cz. brzy.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
век

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
већ
  • is a complete false friend for about 314 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 7.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Macedonian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘already’ is shared by Cr. već, Bo. već.
  • The meaning ‘matter, thing’ (ствар) is attested in R. вещь, Cz. věc, Slk. vec, Bg. вещ.
  • The meaning ‘assembly’ (скуп, збор) is attested in Pol. wiec.
  • The meaning ‘more’ (више) is attested in Sln. več.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
вешт
  • is a complete false friend for about 312 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 11.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Macedo-nian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘clever’ is shared by Sln. vešč, Cr. vješt, Bo. vješt, Mk. вешт.
  • The meaning ‘matter’ (ствар) is attested in R. вещь, Cz. věc, Slk. vec, Bg. вещ.
  • The meaning ‘message’ (вест) is attested in Pol. wieść.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
видети
  • does not have all its Serbian meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 7.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘to see impf. is shared by R. видеть, Cr. vidjeti, Bo. vidjeti.
  • The Serbian meaning ‘to see, to behold pf. is shared by Cr. vidjeti, Bo. vidjeti.
  • The Serbian meaning ‘to watch pf. is shared by Cr. vidjeti, Bo. vidjeti.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
воће
  • is a complete false friend for about 287 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 61.5 million native speakers of Polish, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘fruits’ is shared by Pol. owoce, Cz. ovoce, Slk. ovocie, Cr. voće, Bo. voće, Bg. овощен.
  • The meaning ‘vegetables’ (поврће) is attested in R. овощи, Ukr. овочі.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
враг
  • is a complete false friend for about 357 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 9.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘devil, demon’ is shared by Sln. vrag, Cr. vrag, Bo. vrag, Mk. враг.
  • The meaning ‘enemy’ (непријатељ) is attested in R. враг, Blr. вораг, Ukr. ворог, Pol. wróg, Mk. враг, Bg. враг.
  • The meaning ‘murderer’ (убица) is attested in Cz. vrah, Slk. vrah.
  • The meaning ‘slyboots, smartie’ (лукавац, превијанац) is attested in Mk. враг.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
вредан
  • is a complete false friend for about 298 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 9.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘precious’ is shared by Sln. vreden, Cr. vrijedan, Bo. vrijedan.
  • The meaning ‘harmful’ (штетан) is attested in R. вредный, Bg. вреден.
  • The meaning ‘able, clever’ (вешт, ваљан, марљив) is attested in Mk. вреден, Bg. вреден.
  • The meaning ‘nasty, repulsive’ (гадан, одвратан) is attested in Pol. wredny.
  • The meaning ‘insidious, deceitful’ (химбен, лажан) is attested in Pol. wredny.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
време
  • does not have all its Serbian meanings in the mother tongue of about 252 million speakers of Russian, Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 7.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘time’ is shared by R. время, Cr. vrijeme, Bo. vrijeme.
  • The Serbian meaning ‘weather’ is shared by Sln. vreme, Cr. vrijeme, Bo. vrijeme.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
говор
  • is a complete false friend for about 333 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 7.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
година
  • is a complete false friend for about 349 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
гора
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 6 million native speakers of Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 352.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Macedonian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘mountain’ is shared by R. гора, Blr. гара, Ukr. гора, Pol. góra, Cz. hora, Slk. hora, Sln. gora, Cr. gora, Bo. gora.
  • The meaning ‘forest’ (шума) is attested in Slk. hora, Bg. гора.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
град
  • is a complete false friend for about 12 million native speakers of Czech, Slovenian;
  • does not have all its Serbian meanings in the mother tongue of about 38 million speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 257.5 million native speakers of Russian, Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘town’ is shared by R. град (arch.), город, Cr. grad, Bo. grad.
  • The Serbian meaning ‘hail’ is shared by R. град, Pol. grad, Cr. grad, Bo. grad.
  • The meaning ‘fortress’ (тврђава, утврђење) is attested in Cz. hrad, Sln. grad.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
грудаст
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 7.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘granular’ is shared by Cr. grudast, Bo. grudast.
  • The meaning ‘big-breasted’ (са великама грудима) is attested in R. грудастая.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
дворац
  • is a complete false friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 275.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Croatian, Bosnian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech, Slovak.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘palace’ is shared by R. дворец, Blr. дварэц, Cr. dvorac, Bo. dvorac, Mk. дворец, Bg. дворец.
  • The meaning ‘railway station’ (станица) is attested in Ukr. двірець, Pol. dworzec.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Sln.]
дева
  • does not have all its Serbian meanings in the mother tongue of about 257.5 million speakers of Russian, Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘maiden’ is shared by R. дева.
  • The Serbian meaning ‘camel’ is shared by Cr. deva, Bo. deva.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
дете
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Czech, Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘child’ is shared by Cz. dítě, Cr. dijete, Bo. dijete.
  • The meaning ‘baby’ (беба, младунче, одојче) is attested in Sln. dete.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
диван
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 283.5 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian; Bulgarian.
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘settee, sofa’ is shared by R. диван, Cz. divan, Slk. diván, Sln. divan, Cr. divan, Bo. divan, Sr. диван.
  • The meaning ‘carpet’ (ћилим) is attested in Blr. дыван, Pol. dywan.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
диня

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘watermelon’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘pumpkin’ (тиква) is attested in Pol. dynia.
  • The meaning ‘sweet melon’ (пъпеш) is attested in R. дыня, Ukr. диня, Sln. dinja, Cr. dinja, Bo. dinja, Sb. диња, Mk. диња.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk.]
доба
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 16 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘time, era, period’ is shared by Cz. doba, Slk. doba, Sln. doba, Cr. doba, Bo. doba, Sb. доба.
  • The meaning ‘day (24 hours)’ (ден (24 часови)) is attested in Pol. doba.
  • The meaning ‘time, duration’ (трайност) is attested in Cz. doba, Slk. doba.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
дума
  • is a complete false friend for about 333 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
Дунав
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 323.5 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘Danube’ is shared by R. Дунай, Pol. Dunaj, Cz. Dunaj, Slk. Dunaj, Cr. Dunaj, Bo. Dunaj, Sb. Дунај, Mk. Дунав.
  • The meaning ‘Vienna’ (Виена) is attested in Sln. Dunaj.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
елха
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘fir-tree’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘alder’ (елша) is attested in R. ольха.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
жена
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 333 million speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 37.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘woman’ is shared by Ukr. жінка, Cz. žena, Slk. žena, Sln. žena, ženska, Cr. žena, Bo. žena, Sb. жена, Mk. жена.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘wife’ is shared by R. жена, Blr. жонка, Pol. żona, Cz. žena, Slk. žena, Sln. žena, Cr. žena, Bo. žena, Sb. жена, Mk. жена.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
живот
  • is a complete false friend for about 39 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Slovenian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 296 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 35.5 million native speakers of Kashubian, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
жито

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
завод
  • is a complete false friend for about 57.5 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 12 million native speakers of Czech, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘factory, works’ is shared by R. завод, Cz. závod, Mk. завод.
  • The meaning ‘contest’ (състезание) is attested in Cz. závod.
  • The meaning ‘occupation, profession, trade’ (професия) is attested in Pol. zawód.
  • The meaning ‘institute’ (институт) is attested in Sln. zavod, Cr. zavod, Bo. zavod, Sb. завод, Mk. завод.
  • The meaning ‘disappointment’ (разочарование) is attested in Pol. zawód.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
запомня
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 262 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Slovenian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘to memorize’ is shared by R. запомнить, Blr. запомніць, Sln. zapomniti, Mk. запомни.
  • The meaning ‘to forget’ (забравям) is attested in Pol. zapomnieć, Cz. zapomenout.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
зърно
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 252 million speakers of Russian, Slovenian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘corn, kernel’ is shared by R. зерно, Sln. zrno.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘berry’ is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
играя

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
изкуство
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
изход
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘result’ is shared by R. исход.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘resort, way out’ is shared by R. исход.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘exit’ is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
ковчег
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 7.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian;
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 267.5 million speakers of Russian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish, Czech, Slovak.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
край
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 276 million speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Czech, Slovak, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘edge’ is shared by R. край, Blr. край, Ukr. край, Cz. kraj, Slk. kraj, Sln. kraj, Cr. kraj, Bo. kraj, Sb. крај.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘end’ is shared by Ukr. край, Sln. kraj, Cr. kraj, Bo. kraj, Sb. крај, Mk. крај.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘region’ is shared by R. край, Blr. край, Ukr. край, Cz. kraj, Slk. kraj, Sln. kraj, Cr. kraj, Bo. kraj, Sb. крај, Mk. крај.
  • The meaning ‘country’ (страна) is attested in Ukr. край, Pol. kraj.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
краска
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedo-nian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
кресло
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • is a true friend for about 303 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘armchair’ is shared by R. кресло, Blr. крэсла, Ukr. крісло, Cz. křeslo, Slk. kreslo.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (стол) is attested in Blr. крэсла, Pol. krzesło.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
крик
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘jack’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘cry, shout’ (вик) is attested in R. крик.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
лист
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 51.0 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Kashubian, Slovak;
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 50,000 speakers of Kashubian;
  • is a true friend for about 281.5 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘sheet of paper’ is shared by R. лист, Blr. ліст, аркуш, Ukr. лист, Cz. list, Slk. list, Sln. list, Cr. list, Bo. list, Sb. лист, Mk. лист.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘leaf’ is shared by R. лист, Blr. ліст, Ukr. лист, Ka. lëst, Cz. list, Slk. list, Sln. list, Cr. list, Bo. list, Sb. лист, Mk. лист.
  • The meaning ‘letter’ (писмо) is attested in Blr. ліст, пісьмо, Ukr. лист, Pol. list, Ka. lëst, Slk. list.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
листопад
  • is a complete false friend for about 55,000 native speakers of Upper Sorbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 101 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian;
  • is a true friend for about 269.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovak, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo.]
лула
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 27.5 million native speakers of Belarusian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
лято
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 304 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 64.5 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘summer’ is shared by R. лето, Blr. лета, Ukr. літо, Pol. lato, Cz. léto, Slk. leto, Cr. ljeto, Bo. ljeto, Sb. лето, Mk. лето.
  • The meaning ‘year (in the sg.)’ (година) is attested in Sln. leto.
  • The meaning ‘year (in the plural), e.g. 30 years’ (година (30 години)) is attested in R. лето (30 лет), Pol. lato (30 lat), Cz. léto (30 lét), Sln. leto (30 let).
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
майка
  • is a complete false friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian;
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 19.5 million speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Polish, Slovenian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘dam, female animal’ is shared by Mk. мајка.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘nut (to screw on a bolt)’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘gym shirt’ (риза, кошуля) is attested in R. майка, Blr. майка.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk.]
маса

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
матка
  • is a complete false friend for about 54 million native speakers of Polish, Czech, Slovak;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian;
  • is a true friend for about 39 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘womb, uterus’ is shared by R. матка, Blr. матка, Ukr. матка, Mk. матка.
  • The meaning ‘mother’ (майка) is attested in Blr. матка, Pol. matka, Cz. matka, Slk. matka.
  • The meaning ‘dam, female animal’ (майка) is attested in R. матка, Blr. матка, Pol. matka.
  • The meaning ‘nut (to screw on a bolt)’ (майка) is attested in Cz. matka.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
мед
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 287 million speakers of Russian, Ukrainian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘copper’ is shared by R. медь, Ukr. мед.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘honey’ is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
Мексико
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘Mexico City’ is shared by Pol. Meksyk.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘Mexico (country)’ is shared by R. Мексика, Pol. Meksyk.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
меч
  • is a complete false friend for about 55.5 million native speakers of Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 305 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘sword’ is shared by R. меч, Blr. меч, Ukr. меч, Cz. meč, Mk. меч.
  • The meaning ‘match, game’ (мач) is attested in Pol. mecz, Cr. meč, Bo. meč, Sb. меч, Mk. меч.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln.]
мъж
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 313.5 million speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 57 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘man’ is shared by Ukr. муж, Cz. muž, Slk. muž, Sln. mož, moški, Mk. маж.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘husband’ is shared by R. муж, Blr. муж, Ukr. муж, чоловік, Pol. mąż, Cz. muž, Slk. muž, Sln. mož, Cr. muž, Bo. muž, Sb. муж, Mk. маж.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
нагъл

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
неделя
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 23.5 million native speakers of Czech, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 97 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
образ

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk.]
орган
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘organ (e.g. in the body)’ is shared by R. орган.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘organ (musical instrument)’ is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
палец
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘thumb’ is shared by Cz. palec.
  • The meaning ‘finger’ (пръст) is attested in R. палец.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
памет
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 260 million native speakers of Russian, Czech.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘memory’ is shared by R. память, Cz. paměť.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘computer memory’ is shared by R. память, Cz. paměť.
  • The meaning ‘reason, intellect’ (разум) is attested in Cr. pamet, Bo. pamet, Sb. памет.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
паметник
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 50,000 native speakers of Kashubian;
  • is a true friend for about 293 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
пара
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 37.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘steam’ is shared by Blr. пара, Ukr. пара, Pol. para, Cz. pára, Slk. para, Sln. para, Cr. para, Bo. para, Sb. пара, Mk. пара.
  • The meaning ‘pair’ (чифт, двойка) is attested in R. пара, Blr. пара, Ukr. пара, Pol. para.
  • The meaning ‘a couple of, some’ (няколко) is attested in R. пара, Blr. пара, Ukr. пара, Pol. parę.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
писар
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 259.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘scribe’ is shared by R. писарь, Pol. pisarz, Sln. pisar, Cr. pisar, Bo. pisar.
  • The meaning ‘writer’ (писател) is attested in Pol. pisarz.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sb., Mk.]
пладне
  • is a complete false friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 46.0 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish, Kashubian;
  • is a true friend for about 287.5 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
плът
  • is a complete false friend for about 67.5 million native speakers of Polish, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘body, flesh’ is shared by R. плоть, Mk. плот.
  • The meaning ‘fence’ (ограда) is attested in Pol. płot, Cz. plot, Sln. plot, Cr. plot, Bo. plot, Sb. плот, Mk. плот.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
повест
  • is a complete false friend for about 100.5 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian;
  • is a true friend for about 260 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Serbian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘novelette’ is shared by R. повесть, Blr. аповесць, Mk. повест.
  • The meaning ‘novel’ (роман) is attested in Ukr. повість, Pol. powieść.
  • The meaning ‘history’ (история) is attested in Cr. povijest, Bo. povijest.
  • The meaning ‘fame, reputation’ (почитание, име) is attested in Cz. pověst, Slk. povesť.
  • The meaning ‘legend’ (приказка, предание) is attested in Cz. pověst, Slk. povesť, Sln. povest.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
покой
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 266.0 million native speakers of Russian, Kashubian, Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 14 million native speakers of Slovenian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Croatian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo., Bo.]
полунощ
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 287.5 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘midnight’ is shared by R. полночь, Blr. поўнач, Ukr. північ, Pol. północ, Cz. půlnoc, Slk. polnoc, Sln. polnoč, Cr. ponoć, Bo. ponoć, Sb. поноћ, Mk. полноќ.
  • The meaning ‘north’ (север) is attested in Blr. поўнач, Ukr. північ, Pol. północ.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
(на) право
  • is a complete false friend for about 349.0 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Kashubian, Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedo-nian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
проба
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘probe’ is shared by R. проба, Mk. проба.
  • The meaning ‘to test’ (пробвам) is attested in Mk. проба.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb.]
прозвище
  • is a complete false friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘nickname’ is shared by R. прозвище.
  • The meaning ‘surname’ (презиме) is attested in Ukr. прізвище.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb.]
просто
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 287.5 million native speakers of Russian, Kashubian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
разбой
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘weaver’s loom’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘robbery’ (обир) is attested in R. разбой.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
реч

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘speech’ is shared by R. речь, Cz. řeč, Slk. reč, Mk. реч.
  • The meaning ‘word’ (дума, слово) is attested in Cr. riječ, Bo. riječ, Sb. реч.
  • The meaning ‘matter’ (вещ) is attested in Blr. рэч, Ukr. річ, Pol. rzecz, Sln. reč.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
родина

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
словенски
  • is a complete false friend for about 28 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 342.6 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Kashubian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘Slovenian’ is shared by R. словенский, Blr. славенскі, Ukr. словінський, Pol. słoweński, Ka. słowensczi, LSo. słowjeński, USo. słowjenski, Sln. slovenski, Cr. slovenski, Bo. slovenski.
  • The meaning ‘Slovak’ (словашки) is attested in Cz. slovenský, Slk. slovenský.
  • The meaning ‘Slavonic’ (славянски) is attested in Sb. словенски, Mk. словенски.
[NB: Information complete.]
слово
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 349 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘word’ is shared by R. слово, Blr. слова, Ukr. слово, Pol. słowo, Cz. slovo, Slk. slovo.
  • The meaning ‘letter (of the alphabet)’ (буква) is attested in Cr. slovo, Bo. slovo, Sb. слово.
  • The meaning ‘leave-taking, farewell’ (прощаване) is attested in Sln. slovo.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
среда
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘middle, centre’ is unique.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘environment’ is shared by R. среда.
  • The meaning ‘Wednesday’ (сряда) is attested in R. среда.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
сто
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 353 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Macedonian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘a hundred’ is shared by R. сто, Blr. сто, Ukr. сто, Pol. sto, Cz. sto, Slk. sto, Sln. sto, Cr. sto, Bo. sto, Sb. сто, Mk. сто.
  • The meaning ‘table’ (маса) is attested in Cr. sto, Bo. sto, Sb. сто.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
стол

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
столица

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘capital’ is shared by R. столица, Blr. сталіца, Ukr. столиця, Pol. stolica, Ka. stolëca.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (стол) is attested in Cz. stolice, Slk. stolica, Cr. stolica, Bo. stolica, Sb. столица, Mk. столица.
  • The meaning ‘professorship’ (катедра) is attested in Sln. stolica.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
страна

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
съществувам
  • is a complete false friend for about 6 million native speakers of Croatian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘exist’ is shared by R. существовать.
  • The meaning ‘participate’ (съучаствувам) is attested in Cr. suučestvovati.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
тиква
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 271.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘pumpkin’ is shared by R. тыква, Sln. tikva, Cr. tikva, Bo. tikva, Sb. тиква, Mk. тиква.
  • The meaning ‘sweet melon’ (пъпеш) is attested in Cz. tykev.
[NB: No information yet for Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
труден

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk.]
федерация
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘federation’ is shared by R. федерация.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘spring-suspension’ is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
час
  • is a complete false friend for about 101 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 263.5 million native speakers of Russian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedo-nian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘hour’ is shared by R. час, Bo. čas, Sb. час, Mk. час.
  • The meaning ‘time’ (време) is attested in Blr. час, Ukr. час, Pol. czas, Cz. čas, Slk. čas, Sln. čas.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
чувам
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘to hear’ is unique.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘to keep’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘to feel’ (усещам, чувствувам) is attested in R. чуять.
  • The meaning ‘to smell (animal) (подуша) is attested in R. чуять (запах).
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
шина
  • is a complete false friend for about 57.5 million native speakers of Polish, Kashubian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech, Slovak, Slovenian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
шума
  • does not have all its Bulgarian meanings in the mother tongue of about 19.5 million speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘forest’ is shared by Cr. šuma, Bo. šuma, Sb. шума, Mk. шума.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘foliage, leaves’ is unique.
  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘bush’ is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
щука
  • is a complete false friend for about 298 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘pike’ is shared by Cr. štuka, Bo. štuka, Sb. штука.
  • The meaning ‘piece’ (къс, экземпляр) is attested in R. штука, Pol. sztuka.
  • The meaning ‘art’ (изкуство) is attested in Pol. sztuka.
  • The meaning ‘stucco’ (мазач, мазилка) is attested in Cz. štuka.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk.]
ягода
  • is a complete false friend for about 288 million native speakers of Russian, Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 18 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedo-nian.

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  • The Bulgarian meaning ‘strawberry’ is shared by Cz. jahoda, Slk. jahoda, Sln. jagoda, Cr. jagoda, Bo. jagoda, Sb. јагода, Mk. јагода.
  • The meaning ‘berry’ (сочен зърнест плод от храстови растения) is attested in R. ягода, Pol. jagoda, Cz. jahoda, Slk. jahoda, Sln. jagoda.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
Ø

There is no Bulgarian word like Blr. ліпень, Ukr. липень, Pol. lipiec, Cr. lipanj.

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Ø

The Bulgarian meaning red ("червен") like Blr. чэрвень, Ukr. червень, Pol. czerwiec, Cz. červenec.

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Ø

There is no Bulgarian word like Blr. зрок, Cz. zrak, Slk. zrak, Sln. zrak, Cr. zrak, Bo. zrak, Sb. зрак, Mk. зрак.

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Ø

There is no Bulgarian word like Blr. дадатны, Ukr. додатний, Pol. dodatni, Cr. dodatni, Bo. dodatni, Sb. додатни.

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Ø

The Bulgarian word ("руен") like Ka. rujan, Cz. říjen, Cr. rujan.

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Ø

The Bulgarian meaning cold ("студен") like R. студень, Blr. студзень, Cr. studeni.

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Ø

The Bulgarian meaning watermelon ("карпуза"), but popular is ("диня") like R. арбуз, Blr. гарбуз, Ukr. гарбуз, Pol. arbuz.

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Ø

There is no Bulgarian word like R. склеп, Ukr. склеп, Pol. sklep, Ka. sklep, Cz. sklep, Sln. sklep.

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Ø

The Bulgarian meaning plant ("садя") like R. сад, Pol. sad, Cz. sad, Slk. sad, Sln. sad, Cr. sad, Bo. sad, Sb. сад.

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Ø

The Bulgarian meaning chair,stool,canteen ("стол") like R. стул, Pol. stół, Cz. stůl.

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Ø

The Bulgarian meaning sofa ("диван") like R. диван, Blr. дыван, Pol. dywan, Cz. divan, Slk. diván, Sln. divan, Cr. divan, Bo. divan, Sb. диван.

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Ø

There is no Bulgarian word like R. выход, Blr. выхад, Ukr. вихід, Cz. východ, Slk. východ.

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Ø

There is no Bulgarian word like R. овощи, Ukr. овочі, Pol. owoce, Cz. ovoce, Slk. ovocie, Cr. voće, Bo. voće, Sb. воће.

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Ø

The Bulgarian meaning darkness ("мрак") like R. мрак, Cz. mrak, Slk. mrak, Cr. mrak, Bo. mrak, Sb. мрак.

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Ø

There is no Bulgarian word like R. охотник, Ukr. охочий, Pol. ochotnik.

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Ø

The Bulgarian meaning fixed time, set term, deadline ("срок") like R. рок, Pol. rok, Cz. rok, Sln. rok, Cr. rok, Bo. rok, Sb. рок, Mk. рок.

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Ø

There is no Bulgarian word like R. сливки, Pol. śliwki.

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Ø

There is no Bulgarian word like R. заход, Pol. zachód, Cz. záchod, Slk. záchod, Sln. zahod, Cr. zahod, Bo. zahod, Sb. заход, Mk. заод.

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Ø

The Bulgarian meaning coloured ("цветен") like R. цветень, Ukr. квітень, Pol. kwiecień, Cz. květen.

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Ø

There is no Bulgarian word like R. берёзовик, Blr. бярозавік.

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Ø

There is no Bulgarian word like Ukr. травень, Sln. traven (mali, veliki), Cr. travanj.

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Ø

There is no Bulgarian word like Ukr. серпень, Pol. sierpień, Cz. srpen, Sln. srpen (mali, veliki), Cr. srpanj.

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Ø

The Bulgarian meaning doctor ("лекар") like Ukr. лікарня, Cz. lékárna, Slk. lekáreň, Sln. lekarna.

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More Bulgarian-Slavonic false friends:

  • C. Ivanova, M. Aleksić. Srpsko-bugarski tematski rečnik: Leksikon međujezičkih homonima i polisemija. Veliko Trnovo 1999.
  • M. Karpaczewa, Christa Simeonova, Emil Tokarz. Pułapki leksykalne: Słownik aproksymatyzmów polsko-bułgarskich. Katowice 1994.

For additional information on false friends, see the On-line hypertext bibliography by Daniel Bunčić and Ryszard Lipczuk.

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