False Friends of the Slavist/Polish

Język polski (Polish)

(c. 40 million native speakers)
Mylące słowa słowiańskie w języku polskim


Algier
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
angielski
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘English’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘of angels, angel-like’ (anielski) is attested in R. ангельский. and Cz.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
arbuz
  • is a complete false friend for about 45 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘watermelon’ is shared by R. арбуз.
  • The meaning ‘pumpkin’ (dynia) is attested in Blr. гарбуз, Ukr. гарбуз.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
baba
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 11.5 million native speakers of Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 17.5 million speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘pejorative of a woman’ is shared by R. баба.
  • The Polish meaning ‘old woman’ is shared by R. баба, Cr. baba, Bo. baba, Sb. баба.
  • The meaning ‘grandmother’ (babcia) is attested in Bo. baba, baka, Sb. баба, бака.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
babka
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘old woman’ is shared by R. бабка, Blr. бабка, Bg. бабка.
  • The Polish meaning ‘a cake’ is shared by Blr. бабка.
  • The meaning ‘rough boletus (a mushroom)’ (kozak, koźlarz) is attested in Blr. бабка.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
bańka

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  • The Polish meaning ‘container, can’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘bank, credit bank’ (bank) is attested in Sln. banka, Cr. banka, Bo. banka, Sb. банка.
  • The meaning (Br.) tin, (Am.) can’ (puszka) is attested in R. банка.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
bielizna
  • is a complete false friend for about 277.5 million native speakers of Russian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln.]
biesiada
  • is a complete false friend for about 260 million native speakers of Bulgarian, Russian, Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘party, ceremony’ is attested in Blr. бяседа.
  • The meaning ‘word’ (słowo) is attested in Sln. beseda.
  • The meaning ‘talk’ (rozmowa) is shared by R. беседа, Bg. беседа.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
brak
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 258 million speakers of Russian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘defect, flaw’ is shared by R. брак, Ukr. брак.
  • The Polish meaning ‘rejects, refuse, waste’ is shared by R. брак, Ukr. брак, Bg. брак.
  • The Polish meaning ‘lack, want, shortage’ is shared by Ukr. брак.
  • The meaning ‘marriage’ (małżeństwo) is attested in R. брак, Cr. brak, Bo. brak, Sb. брак, Mk. брак, Bg. брак.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
bułka
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 295 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘roll, white bread’ is shared by R. булка, Blr. булка, Ukr. булка.
  • The meaning ‘bride’ (narzeczona) is attested in Bg. булка.
  • The meaning ‘young woman’ (kobieta, niewiasta) is attested in Bg. булка.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
ciasny
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘narrow’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘private’ (prywatny, osobisty) is attested in R. частный.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
czajka
  • is a complete false friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian;
  • is a true friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘peewit, lapwing’ is shared by Cz. čejka.
  • The meaning ‘seagull’ (mewa) is attested in R. чайка, Blr. чайка.

Note: Polish "czajka" can be used as a true friend of Russian "чайка" when referring to the play "The Seagull" by Anton Chekhov; in this case, the Polish "czajka" means "seagull" and not "peewit."

[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
czas
  • is a complete false friend for about 271.5 million native speakers of Russian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 63 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘time’ is shared by Blr. час, Ukr. час, Cz. čas, Slk. čas, Sln. čas.
  • The meaning ‘hour’ (godzina) is attested in R. час, Bo. čas, Sb. час, Mk. час, Bg. час.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
czek
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘cheque’ is shared by R. чек, Cr. ček, Bo. ček, Sb. чек.
  • The meaning ‘sales slip’ (bon, talon) is attested in R. чек.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
czerwiec
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 45 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘June’ is shared by Blr. чэрвень, Ukr. червень.
  • The meaning ‘July’ (lipiec) is attested in Cz. červenec.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
doba

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  • The Polish meaning ‘day (24 hours)’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘time, era, period’ (czas, epoka) is attested in Cz. doba, Slk. doba, Sln. doba, Cr. doba, Bo. doba, Sb. доба, Bg. доба.
  • The meaning ‘time, duration’ (okres, trwanie) is attested in Cz. doba, Slk. doba.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
dodatni
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 45 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘positive’ is shared by Blr. дадатны, Ukr. додатний.
  • The meaning ‘additional’ (dodatkowy) is attested in Cr. dodatni, Bo. dodatni, Sb. додатни.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Sln., Mk.]
doktor
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 287 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 287 million speakers of Russian, Ukrainian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
duma
  • is a complete false friend for about 303 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
Dunaj
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 293.5 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘Danube’ is shared by R. Дунай, Cz. Dunaj, Slk. Dunaj, Cr. Dunaj, Bo. Dunaj, Sb. Дунај, Mk. Дунав, Bg. Дунав.
  • The meaning ‘Vienna’ (Wiedeń) is attested in Sln. Dunaj.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
dworzec

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Sln.]
dynia

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk.]
dywan
  • is a complete false friend for about 285.5 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
godzina
  • is a complete false friend for about 27.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 61 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘hour’ is shared by Blr. гадзіна, Ukr. година, Cz. hodina, Slk. hodina.
  • The Polish meaning ‘time, hour (poet.)’ (godzina, czas) is shared by R. година, Blr. гадзіна, час, Ukr. година, час, Cz. hodina, čas, Slk. hodina, čas.
  • The meaning ‘year’ (rok) is attested in Cr. godina, Bo. godina, Sb. година, Mk. година, Bg. година.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
góra
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 6 million native speakers of Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 324.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Macedonian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘mountain’ is shared by R. гора, Blr. гара, Ukr. гора, Cz. hora, Slk. hora, Sln. gora, Cr. gora, Bo. gora, Sb. гора.
  • The meaning ‘forest’ (las) is attested in Slk. hora, Bg. гора.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
grać

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
grad

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
grób
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘grave’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘coffin’ (trumna) is attested in R. гроб.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
gwar

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
jagoda

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
je
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘eats’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘is’ (jest) is attested in Cr. je, Bo. je, Sb. је.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
jutro

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  • The Polish meaning ‘tomorrow’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘morning’ (poranek) is attested in R. утро, Cr. jutro, Bo. jutro, Sb. јутро.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
kit
  • is a complete false friend for about 287 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘putty, cement’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘whale’ (waleń, wieloryb) is attested in R. кит.
  • The meaning ‘cat’ (kot) is attested in Ukr. кіт.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
koła
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘wheels’ is shared by R. колёса, Cr. kola, Bo. kola, Sb. кола.
  • The meaning ‘car, cart’ (wóz) is attested in Cr. kola, Bo. kola, Sb. кола.
  • The meaning ‘motorcar’ (samochód) is attested in Cr. kola, Bo. kola, Sb. кола.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
koło
  • is a complete false friend for about 2.0 million native speakers of Kashubian, Slovenian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘circle’ is unique.
  • The Polish meaning ‘nearby’ is (?).
  • The meaning ‘bicycle’ (rower) is attested in Ka. kòło, Sln. kolo,Cz. kolo
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., LSo., USo., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
kolonia/Kolonia

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
kraj

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
kryminalista
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘criminal’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘criminologist’ (specjalista w dziedzinie kryminologii, kryminolog) is attested in R. криминалист.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
krzesło
  • is a complete false friend for about 311 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
ksiądz

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
kwiecień
  • is a complete false friend for about 260 million native speakers of Russian, Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘April’ is shared by Ukr. квітень.
  • The meaning ‘pollen’ (pyłek kwiatowy) is attested in R. цветень.
  • The meaning ‘May’ (maj) is attested in Cz. květen.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
lato

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  • The Polish meaning ‘summer’ is shared by R. лето, Blr. лета, Ukr. літо, Cz. léto, Slk. leto, Cr. ljeto, Bo. ljeto, Sb. лето, Mk. лето, Bg. лято.
  • The Polish meaning ‘year (in the plural), e.g. 30 years’ (lato (30 lat)) is shared by R. лето (30 лет), Cz. léto (30 lét), Slk. leto (30 let), Sln. leto (30 let).
  • The meaning ‘year (in the sg.)’ (rok) is attested in Sln. leto.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
leń

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  • The Polish meaning ‘idler, do-nothing’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘laziness’ (lenistwo) is attested in R. лень.
  • The meaning ‘lazy’ (leniwy) is attested in Cr. lijen, Bo. lijen, Sb. лен.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
lepiej
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘better’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘more beautiful’ (ładniej) is attested in Cr. ljepše, Bo. ljepše, Sb. лепше.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
lico
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 261.5 million native speakers of Russian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 267.5 million speakers of Russian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
lipiec
  • is a complete false friend for about 6 million native speakers of Croatian;
  • is a true friend for about 45 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘July’ is shared by Blr. ліпень, Ukr. липень.
  • The meaning ‘June’ (czerwiec) is attested in Cr. lipanj.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
list

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
listopad

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo.]
łóżko
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 10 million speakers of Czech.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘hospital bed; berth (on a train)’ is shared by Cz. lůžko.
  • The Polish meaning ‘bed’ is unique.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
lubić
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 267.5 million native speakers of Russian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
ług
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘lye’ is shared by Cr. lug, Bo. lug, Sb. луг.
  • The meaning ‘meadow’ (łąka) is attested in R. луг.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
łuk

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  • The Polish meaning ‘bow (weapon)’ is shared by R. лук, Cr. luk, Bo. luk, Sb. лук.
  • The meaning ‘onion’ (cebula) is attested in R. лук, Cr. luk, Bo. luk, Sb. лук.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
luka

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  • The Polish meaning ‘hatch’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘port’ (port) is attested in Cr. luka, Bo. luka, Sb. лука.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
łyżwy
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘skates’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘skis’ (narty) is attested in R. лыжи.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
masa
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 10 million native speakers of Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 330.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘mass’ is shared by R. масса, Blr. маса, Ukr. маса, Cz. masa, Slk. masa, Sln. masa, Cr. masa, Bo. masa, Sb. маса, Mk. маса, Bg. маса.
  • The meaning ‘table’ (stół) is attested in Mk. маса, Bg. маса.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
maszyna

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
matka
  • is a complete false friend for about 47 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 268 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Czech;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 266 million speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
mąż
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 65 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 275.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
mecz
  • is a complete false friend for about 313 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘match, game’ is shared by Cr. meč, Bo. meč, Sb. меч, Mk. меч.
  • The meaning ‘sword’ (miecz) is attested in R. меч, Blr. меч, Ukr. меч, Cz. meč, Mk. меч, Bg. меч.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln.]
Meksyk
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘Mexico City’ is shared by Bg. Мексико.
  • The Polish meaning ‘Mexico (country)’ is shared by R. Мексика, Bg. Мексико.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
mieszczanin
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘inhabitant, townsman’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘petty bourgeois’ (drobnomieszczanin) is attested in R. мещанин.
  • The meaning ‘Philistine’ (mieszczuch, filister) is attested in R. мещанин.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
mir

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  • The Polish meaning ‘peace’ (mir (arch.), pokój, zgoda ) is shared by R. мир, Ka. mir, Cz. mír, Cr. mir, Bo. mir, Sb. мир.
  • The Polish meaning ‘quiet, stillness’ (mir (arch.), spokój ) is shared by R. мир, покой, Ka. mir, Cz. mír, Cr. mir, Bo. mir, Sb. мир.
  • The Polish meaning ‘authority, prestige’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘world’ (świat) is attested in R. мир, свет.
  • The meaning hist. municipality, parish, commune’ (gromada, gmina) is attested in R. мир, Cz. mír, občina.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
motor
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘motor’ is shared by R. мотор.
  • The Polish meaning ‘motorbike’ is unique.
  • The Polish meaning ‘contriver’ is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
na prawo
  • is a complete false friend for about 27.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 311.0 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Kashubian, Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘to the right’ is shared by R. направо, Blr. направа, Ukr. направо, Ka. w prawo, w prawą, Cz. napravo, Slk. napravo.
  • The meaning ‘straight on’ (prosto) is attested in Cr. pravo, Bo. pravo, Sb. право, Mk. (на)право, Bg. (на) право.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
nagły

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
niedziela
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 23.5 million native speakers of Czech, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 67 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
obchód
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘round, circuit’ is shared by R. обход.
  • The Polish meaning ‘party’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘shop’ (sklep) is attested in Cz. obchod.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
obraz

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk.]
obywatel
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘inhabitant’ (

) is unique.

  • The Polish meaning ‘citizen’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘petty bourgeois’ (drobnomieszczanin) is attested in R. обыватель.
  • The meaning ‘Philistine’ (kołtun, filister) is attested in R. обыватель.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
ochotnik
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 287 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb.]
owoce
  • is a complete false friend for about 287 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 33.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘fruits’ is shared by Cz. ovoce, Slk. ovocie, Cr. voće, Bo. voće, Sb. воће.
  • The meaning ‘vegetables’ (jarzyna) is attested in R. овощи, Ukr. овочі.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
pamiętnik
  • is a complete false friend for about 301 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 50,000 native speakers of Kashubian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

map

[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
papa

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
para

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  • The Polish meaning ‘pair’ is shared by R. пара, Blr. пара, Ukr. пара.
  • The Polish meaning ‘a couple of, some’ (parę) is shared by R. пара, Blr. пара, Ukr. пара.
  • The Polish meaning ‘steam’ is shared by Blr. пара, Ukr. пара, Cz. pára, Slk. para, Sln. para, Cr. para, Bo. para, Sb. пара, Mk. пара, Bg. пара.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
pies
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘male dog’ is shared by R. пёс.
  • The Polish meaning ‘dog’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘cur, tyke’ (kundel) is attested in R. пёс.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
pisać
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘to write’ is shared by Cr. pisati, Bo. pisati, Sb. писати.
  • The meaning ‘to påå’ (szczać) is attested in R. писать.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
pisak
  • is a complete false friend for about 7.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘pencil, crayon’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘mouthpiece’ (ustnik, munsztuk) is attested in Cr. pisak, Bo. pisak.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
pisarz

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sb., Mk.]
pismo
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 27.5 million speakers of Czech, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
piwnica
  • is a complete false friend for about 27.5 million native speakers of Czech, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
płot
  • is a complete false friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 29.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘fence’ is shared by Cz. plot, Sln. plot, Cr. plot, Bo. plot, Sb. плот, Mk. плот.
  • The meaning ‘body, flesh’ (ciało) is attested in R. плоть, Mk. плот, Bg. плът.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
pokój

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo., Bo.]
północ

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
południe

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
popielniczka
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian;
  • is a true friend for about 266 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘ash-tray’ is shared by R. пепельница, Cz. popelník, Slk. popolník.
  • The meaning ‘Ash Wednesday’ (popielec, środa popielcowa) is attested in Sln. Pepelnica, Cr. Pepelnica.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Mk., Bg.]
pościel
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
poseł
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘royal messenger’ (

) is unique.

  • The Polish meaning ‘member of parliament’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘ambassador’ (ambasador) is attested in R. посол.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
powieść

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
prosto

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
pupa
  • is a complete false friend for about 50,000 native speakers of Kashubian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘bottom, buttocks’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘doll’ (lalka) is attested in Ka. pùpa.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
puszka

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  • The Polish meaning (Br.) tin, (Am.) can’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘rifle’ (karabin, broń) is attested in Sln. puška, Cr. puška, Bo. puška, Sb. пушка.
  • The meaning ‘canon’ (armata, działo) is attested in R. пушка.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
rano

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  • The Polish meaning ‘in the morning’ is unique.
  • The Polish meaning ‘morning’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘early’ (wcześnie) is attested in R. рано, Cr. rano, Bo. rano, Sb. рано.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
relacja
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘report, account (military)’ is shared by R. реляция.
  • The Polish meaning ‘report, account’ is unique.
  • The Polish meaning ‘relation(ship)’ is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
rodzina

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
rok
  • is a complete false friend for about 271.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘year’ is shared by Cz. rok.
  • The meaning ‘destiny, fate’ (los) is attested in R. рок.
  • The meaning ‘fixed time, set term, deadline’ (termin, okres) is attested in Sln. rok, Cr. rok, Bo. rok, Sb. рок, Mk. рок.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
rosyjski
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 45 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech, Croatian, Bosnian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘Russian (of the people or the language)’ is shared by Blr. расейскі, рускі, Ukr. російський.
  • The Polish meaning ‘Russian (of the country or the state)’ is shared by R. российский, Blr. расейскі, рускі, Ukr. російський.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
rozkaz
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘command’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘story’ (opowieść) is attested in R. рассказ.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
ruski
  • is a complete false friend for about 267.5 million native speakers of Russian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • is a true friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
rzecz

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  • The Polish meaning ‘matter’ is shared by Blr. рэч, Ukr. річ, Sln. reč.
  • The meaning ‘word’ (słowo) is attested in Cr. riječ, Bo. riječ, Sb. реч.
  • The meaning ‘speech’ (mowa) is attested in R. речь, Cz. řeč, Slk. reč, Mk. реч, Bg. реч.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
sad

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  • The Polish meaning ‘orchard’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘garden’ (ogród) is attested in R. сад, Cz. sad, Slk. sad.
  • The meaning ‘fruit’ (owoc) is attested in Sln. sad.
  • The meaning ‘now’ (teraz) is attested in Cr. sad, Bo. sad, Sb. сад.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
sierpień
  • is a complete false friend for about 6 million native speakers of Croatian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 47 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Czech;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Belarusian, Slovak, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘August’ is shared by Ukr. серпень, Cz. srpen, Sln. veliki srpen.
  • The meaning ‘July’ (lipiec) is attested in Sln. mali srpen, Cr. srpanj.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
skład
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 287 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 287 million speakers of Russian, Ukrainian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
sklep
  • is a complete false friend for about 299.0 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian, Kashubian, Czech, Slovenian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘shop’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘decision’ (postanowienie, decyzja) is attested in Sln. sklep.
  • The meaning ‘cellar’ (piwnica, suterena) is attested in Ukr. склеп, Ka. sklep, Cz. sklep.
  • The meaning ‘tomb, vault’ (krypta, grobowiec) is attested in R. склеп, Ukr. склеп, Ka. sklep.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk.]
śliwki
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘plums’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘cream’ (śmietanka) is attested in R. сливки.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
słoweński
  • is a complete false friend for about 28 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 312.6 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Kashubian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘Slovenian’ is shared by R. словенский, Blr. славенскі, Ukr. словінський, Ka. słowensczi, LSo. słowjeński, USo. słowjenski, Sln. slovenski, Cr. slovenski, Bo. slovenski, Bg. словенски.
  • The meaning ‘Slovak’ (słowacki) is attested in Cz. slovenský, Slk. slovenský.
  • The meaning ‘Slavonic’ (słowiański) is attested in Sb. словенски, Mk. словенски.
[NB: Information complete.]
słowo
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 319 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Macedonian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘word’ is shared by R. слово, Blr. слова, Ukr. слово, Cz. slovo, Slk. slovo, Bg. слово.
  • The meaning ‘letter (of the alphabet)’ (litera) is attested in Cr. slovo, Bo. slovo, Sb. слово.
  • The meaning ‘leave-taking, farewell’ (pożegnanie) is attested in Sln. slovo.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
słyszeć
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
śmietana
  • is a complete false friend for about 287 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘cream’ is shared by Sln. smetana.
  • The meaning ‘sour cream’ (śmietanka, kożuszek na mleku) is attested in R. сметана, Ukr. сметана.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
sto
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 323 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘a hundred’ is shared by R. сто, Blr. сто, Ukr. сто, Cz. sto, Slk. sto, Sln. sto, Cr. sto, Bo. sto, Sb. сто, Mk. сто, Bg. сто.
  • The meaning ‘table’ (stół) is attested in Cr. sto, Bo. sto, Sb. сто.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
stół
  • is a complete false friend for about 12 million native speakers of Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 328.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘table’ is shared by R. стол, Blr. стол, Ukr. стіл, Cz. stůl, Slk. stôl, Cr. stol, Bo. sto, Sb. сто.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (krzesło) is attested in Sln. stol, Mk. стол, Bg. стол.
  • The meaning ‘canteen’ (stołówka) is attested in Bg. стол.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
stół
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘table’ is shared by Cz. stůl.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (krzesło) is attested in R. стул.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
stolica

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  • The Polish meaning ‘capital’ is shared by R. столица, Blr. сталіца, Ukr. столиця, Ka. stolëca, Bg. столица.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (krzesło) is attested in Cz. stolice, Slk. stolica, Cr. stolica, Bo. stolica, Sb. столица, Mk. столица.
  • The meaning ‘professorship’ (katedra) is attested in Sln. stolica.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
strona
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 45.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 37.0 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Kashubian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
świat
  • is a complete false friend for about 7.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 260 million native speakers of Russian, Serbian;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 270 million speakers of Russian, Czech, Serbian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
sztuka
  • is a complete false friend for about 35.5 million native speakers of Czech, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 250 million speakers of Russian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘piece’ is shared by R. штука.
  • The Polish meaning ‘art’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘pike’ (szczupak) is attested in Cr. štuka, Bo. štuka, Sb. штука, Bg. щука.
  • The meaning ‘stucco’ (tynkowanie) is attested in Cz. štuka.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk.]
szyna
  • is a complete false friend for about 266 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Kashubian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech, Slovak, Slovenian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘rail’ is shared by Ukr. шина, Ka. szina, Cr. šina, Bo. šina, Sb. шина, Mk. шина.
  • The meaning ‘tyre’ (opona) is attested in R. шина, Blr. шына, Ukr. шина, Bg. шина.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
tęcza

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  • The Polish meaning ‘rainbow’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘rainy cloud’ (chmura) is attested in R. туча.
  • The meaning ‘hail’ (grad) is attested in Sln. toča, Cr. tuča, Bo. tuča.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
trudny
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk.]
trup
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘dead body’ is shared by R. труп.
  • The meaning ‘trunk, body’ (tułów) is attested in Cr. trup, Bo. trup, Sb. труп.
  • The meaning ‘trunk (of a tree)’ (pień (drzewa)) is attested in Cr. trup, Bo. trup, Sb. труп.
  • The meaning ‘carcass (of an animal)’ (padlina, ścierwo) is attested in R. труп, Cr. trup, Bo. trup, Sb. труп.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
uroda
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘crop’ (

) is shared by Ukr.  .

  • The Polish meaning ‘beauty’ is shared by Ukr. врода.
  • The meaning ‘malformed person’ (dziwoląg) is attested in R. урод.
  • The meaning ‘monster’ (potwór) is attested in R. урод.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
wiec

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  • The Polish meaning ‘assembly’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘matter, thing’ (rzecz) is attested in R. вещь, Cz. věc, Slk. vec, Bg. вещ.
  • The meaning ‘already’ (już) is attested in Cr. već, Bo. već, Sb. већ.
  • The meaning ‘more’ (więcej) is attested in Sln. več.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
wiek

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
wieść

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
woń
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘scent, fragrance’ is shared by Cz. vůně.
  • The meaning ‘stench, stink’ (smród) is attested in R. вонь.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
wredny

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  • The Polish meaning ‘nasty, repulsive’ is unique.
  • The Polish meaning ‘insidious, deceitful’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘harmful’ (szkodliwy) is attested in R. вредный, Bg. вреден.
  • The meaning ‘precious’ (cenny, wartościowy) is attested in Sln. vreden, Cr. vrijedan, Bo. vrijedan, Sb. вредан.
  • The meaning ‘able, clever’ (dzielny, zdolny, zręczny) is attested in Mk. вреден, Bg. вреден.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
wróg
  • is a complete false friend for about 35.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 303 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘enemy’ is shared by R. враг, Blr. вораг, Ukr. ворог, Mk. враг, Bg. враг.
  • The meaning ‘devil, demon’ (czart) is attested in Sln. vrag, Cr. vrag, Bo. vrag, Sb. враг, Mk. враг.
  • The meaning ‘murderer’ (morderca) is attested in Cz. vrah, Slk. vrah.
  • The meaning ‘slyboots, smartie’ (sprzyciarz, chytrus) is attested in Mk. враг.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
za
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘in, after (a time span)’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘in, during (a time span)’ (przez) is attested in R. за.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
zachód
  • is a complete false friend for about 33.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have all its Polish meanings in the mother tongue of about 254 million speakers of Russian, Slovenian, Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘west’ is shared by Sln. zahod.
  • The Polish meaning ‘sunset’ is shared by R. заход, Sln. zahod, Mk. заод.
  • The Polish meaning ‘trouble, effort’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘toilet’ (toaleta) is attested in Cz. záchod, Slk. záchod, Cr. zahod, Bo. zahod, Sb. заход.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
zakaz
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘prohibition’ is shared by Cz. zákaz.
  • The meaning ‘order’ (zamówienie) is attested in R. заказ.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
zapach
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘smell (neutral)’ is shared by R. запах.
  • The meaning ‘bad smell, stench’ (smród) is attested in Cz. zápach.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
zapomnieć
  • is a complete false friend for about 270 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
zawód

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  • The Polish meaning ‘occupation, profession, trade’ is unique.
  • The Polish meaning ‘disappointment’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘contest’ (zawody) is attested in Cz. závod.
  • The meaning ‘factory, works’ (fabryka, zakład) is attested in R. завод, Cz. závod, Mk. завод, Bg. завод.
  • The meaning ‘institute’ (instytut) is attested in Sln. zavod, Cr. zavod, Bo. zavod, Sb. завод, Mk. завод.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
zgniły
  • is a complete false friend for about 50,000 native speakers of Kashubian.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘rotten’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘lazy’ (leniwy) is attested in Ka. zgniełi.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
zmęczony
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘tired’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘diminished, made smaller, reduced’ (zmniejszony) is attested in Cz. zmenšený.
[NB: No information yet for R., Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
żona

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
Żyd/żyd
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech.

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  • The Polish meaning ‘Jew (ethnically)’ (Żyd) is shared by Cz. Žid.
  • The Polish meaning ‘Jew (religiously)’ (żyd) is shared by Cz. žid.
  • The meaning ‘Jew (pejoratively)’ (Iwrej) is attested in R. жид.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
żyto
  • is a complete false friend for about 277.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 6 million native speakers of Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 47 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Czech.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
żywot

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
Ø

There is no Polish word like Blr. зрок, Cz. zrak, Slk. zrak, Sln. zrak, Cr. zrak, Bo. zrak, Sb. зрак, Mk. зрак.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like Cr. šuma, Bo. šuma, Sb. шума, Mk. шума, Bg. шума.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like Ka. rujan, Cz. říjen, Cr. rujan.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like R. студень, Blr. студзень, Cr. studeni.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like R. ковчег, Sln. kovček, Cr. kovčeg, Bo. kovčeg, Sb. ковчег, Bg. ковчег.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like R. майка, Blr. майка, Cr. majka, Bo. majka, Sb. мајка, Mk. мајка, Bg. майка.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like R. выход, Blr. выхад, Ukr. вихід, Cz. východ, Slk. východ.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like R. мрак, Cz. mrak, Slk. mrak, Cr. mrak, Bo. mrak, Sb. мрак.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like R. люлька, Blr. люлька, Cr. lula, Bo. lula, Sb. лула, Mk. луле, Bg. лула.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like R. краска, Blr. краска, Bg. краска.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like R. с утра, Cr. sutra, Bo. sutra, Sb. сутра.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like R. более, Sln. bolje, Cr. bolje, Bo. bolje, Sb. боље.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like R. искусство, Cr. iskustvo, Bo. iskustvo, Sb. искуство, Bg. изкуство.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like R. существовать, Cr. suučestvovati, Bg. съществувам.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like Ukr. травень, Sln. traven (mali, veliki), Cr. travanj.

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Ø

There is no Polish word like Ukr. лікарня, Cz. lékárna, Slk. lekáreň, Sln. lekarna.

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More Polish-Slavonic false friends:

  • Julian Birbrajer. Friends and false friends: A dictionary of "false friends" between Polish and Russian with an English translation of all entries. Stockholm 1987.
  • M. Karpaczewa, Christa Simeonova, Emil Tokarz. Pułapki leksykalne: Słownik aproksymatyzmów polsko-bułgarskich. Katowice 1994.
  • Ignacy Kozielewski. Słownik wyrazów o podobnym brzmeniu a odmiennym znaczeniu w języku rosyjskim i polskim. Warszawa 1959.
  • Krzysztof Kusal. Rosyjsko-polski słownik homonimów międzyjęzykowych. Русско-польский словарь межъязыковых омонимов. Wrocław 2002 (Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis, 2462).
  • R. Leszczyński. Hornjoserbsko-polski i polsko-hornjoserbski słownik pozdatnych ekwiwalentów. Górnołużycko-polski i polsko-górnołużycki słownik ekwiwalentów pozornych. Warszawa 1996.
  • Edvard Lotko. Zrádná slova v polštine a češtine: Lexik-ologický pohled a slovník. Olomouc 1992.
  • Czesko-polski słownik zdradliwych wyrazów i pułapek frazeologicznych. Ed. Teresa Zofia Orłoś. Kraków 2003.
  • M. Pančiková. Zrádne slova v polštině a slovenčině: Lexikólogia polského jazyka. Bratislava 1993.
  • Danko Šipka (ed.). Rečnik srpsko-poljskih međujezičkih homonima i paronima. Słownik serbsko-polskich homonimów i paronimów. Poznań 1999.
  • Marek Szałek, Jiří Nečas. Czesko-polska homonimia: Czesko-polski słownik wyrazów o identycznym lub podobnym brzmieniu oraz wyrazów o identycznym lub podobnym zapisie, lecz o odmiennym znaczeniu. Poznań 1993.
  • Emil Tokarz. Pułapki leksykalne: Słownik aproksymatów polsko-chorwackich. Katowice 1998.
  • Emil Tokarz. Pułapki leksykalne: Słownik aproksymatów polsko-słoweńskich. Katowice 1999.

For additional information on false friends, see the On-line hypertext bibliography by Daniel Bunčić and Ryszard Lipczuk.

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Last modified on 1 September 2011, at 00:35