Latin/Lesson 7-Future and Past Perfect

Intro: 12
Chapter 1 123456
Chapter 2 12345678
Chapter 3 12345678
Chapter 4 12345678910
Chapter 5 123456789

Future perfect


The future perfect tense is used for an action that will have been completed in the future by the time something else has happened.

English example: "I will have seen the movie by the time it comes out."

To form the future perfect, take the perfect stem and add the future perfect endings:


Note the similarities to the future tense of sum, except for the third person plural ending -erint[1] in place of -erunt, which serves as the perfect ending instead.

Hence: amāverō, I will have loved; vīderitis, you (pl.) will have seen

  1. -int as an ending is rare; -erint and sint are two of the most common



The pluperfect tense is used to describe something in the past that happened before another event in the past.

English example: "I had graduated by the time I applied for a job."

To form the pluperfect, take the perfect stem and add the pluperfect endings:


Hence: amāveram, I had loved; vīderātis, you (pl.) had seen



De Acutiliano autem negotio quod mihi mandaras (mandaveras), ut primum a tuo digressu Romam veni, confeceram. (Cicero, Ad Atticum 1.5)

"But as to the business of Acutilius that you had entrusted with me, I had already taken care of it when I came to Rome first thing after your departure." Note the relationship of the pluperfect verbs mandaras (-aras is a common contraction for -averas) and confeceram to the perfect verb veni.

Ego certe meum officium praestitero. (Caesar, De Bello Gallico IV)

"I certainly will have prevailed in my duty."