History of video games/Print version/Second Generation of Video Game Consoles

Second generation of video game consoles

Trends edit

Flooded Market edit

A huge number of consoles and video games flooded the market. Many of these consoles and games were low quality, and made it difficult for consoles offering innovative features or quality games to compete. This was one factor which lead to the video game crash of 1983.[1]

Digital programmable computers edit

This generation, many game consoles contained basic 8-bit computers. Rarely 4-bit and 16-bit computers would be used, like in the Game & Watch platform (4-bit)[2] or the Intellivision (16-bit),[3] though this had minimal impact on console graphics which were primarily constrained by other factors. Cartridge based systems became normal during this generation, and the introduction of digital programmable computers allowed game consoles to run software, which permitted more varied games than what the console designers originally intended.

Representative Graphics edit

This generation saw increased graphical capabilities of home game consoles, leading to less reliance on simple squares and rectangles in conjunction with overlays, and evolving to simple pixel artwork and rarely vector art. The pivotal choice between industry support for raster or vector graphics technology would hugely affect the industry going forward, with many genres of games favoring one or the other. The ultimate success of the use of raster graphics this generation would lead to their dominant use until the fifth generation of consoles. While these graphics would quickly be considered quite outdated by the mid to late 1980's, this step was a huge leap in quality and allowed more arcade style games to be played on home consoles.

This generation saw the first handheld consoles with basic screens. The displays were typically not visible in the dark and were monochrome only, but they still offered an improvement over the previous approach of using a few basic single color lights as output.

References edit

  1. "No. 3038: The Video Game Crash of 1983". www.uh.edu. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  2. "Game & Watch: Super Mario Bros. Review — Only 80s Kids Remember". DualShockers. 17 November 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  3. "Intellivision". kevtris.org. Retrieved 11 December 2020.

First generation of video game consoles · Third generation of video game consoles


History edit

The 1292 Advanced Video Programmable Video System was released in either 1976 or 1978.[1][2]

Technology edit

The 1292 Advanced Programmable Video System is powered by an 8-bit Signetics 2650AI processor[1][2] clocked at about 887kHz.

A Signetics 2636N Programmable Video Interface (PVI) chip clocked at 3.58 megahertz[3] is used for graphics, capable of rendering four sprites,[2][1] a background grid and four score digits. By programming in real-time during each scan of the TV picture, the sprites may be reprogrammed further down the screen. Similarly, score digits may be displayed at both the top and bottom of the screen. All video is generated from 113 registers in the PVI. As such, there is no video RAM in this system. The PVI also provides the programmer with 37 bytes of scratch memory that maybe used for variables.[4] A few games cartridges for these consoles such as chess included an extra 1kB of RAM.

Games edit

Two games were specific to the Voltmace Database.[5]

System Gallery edit

External Resources edit

  • IGDB - 1292 Advanced Programmable Video System page with history and specs.
  • Video Game Console Library - Page with history, specs, and photos of variants.

References edit

History edit

Launch edit

The APF-MP1000 was released in 1978 to replace the older APF TV Fun line of consoles.[1][2] Uniquely for the time, the APF-MP1000 could be expanded into the Imagination Machine home computer via use of an add on module called the MPA-10.[3][4] The full Imagination Machine cost $599 and was released by 1979.[3][5] This price was considered low compared to competitors.[6] The Imagination Machine was developed by Ed Smith, one of the first African American engineers in the video game industry.[3]

Legacy edit

Between 20,000[7], and 50,000[3] APF-MP1000 consoles were sold.

APF saw its revenue drop 97% between 1981 and the video game crash of 1983.[3] Figures like this show the huge impact of the video game crash on company bottom lines. An Imagination Machine II was said to be planned but was never released.[5]

Technology edit

The APF-MP1000 uses an 8-bit Motorola 6800 CPU clocked at 3.579 megahertz.[5][1] This processor is not to be confused with the Motorola 68000, a more advanced processor commonly used on consoles several years following the launch of the MP1000.

The system has just 1 kilobyte of RAM.[1][8][9] The Imagination Machine computer upgrade gave the system 9 kilobytes of total RAM.[3]

Notable games edit

12 games were released for the APF-MP1000.[10]

The system has the game Rocket Patrol built-in to the system.[11]

Gallery edit

Console edit

Detachable controllers edit

Internals edit

Technology edit

References edit

  1. a b c "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  2. "ARCHIVE.ORG Console Library: APF-MP1000 : Free Software : Free Download, Borrow and Streaming : Internet Archive". archive.org. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  3. a b c d e f "The Imagination Machine - Georgia State University News -". Georgia State News Hub. 15 March 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  4. "Home Page". Video Game Console Library. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  5. a b c "DP FAQ". www.digitpress.com. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  6. Corporation, Bonnier. Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  7. Ltd, Earl G. Graves (December 1982). "Black Enterprise" (in en). Earl G. Graves, Ltd.. https://books.google.com/books?id=N6pacvfrf0wC&pg=PA44&dq=APF-MP1000&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjEg5yw-LHtAhUKjVkKHdC0ApMQ6AEwCHoECAcQAg#v=onepage&q=APF-MP1000&f=false. 
  8. "APF-MP1000 Pre-83". pre83.com. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  9. "Motorola 6800 microprocessor family". www.cpu-world.com. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  10. "History of Consoles: APF MP1000 (1978) Gamester 81". Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  11. "APF M1000 Video Game System Review". THE NORTHEAST OHIO VIDEO HUNTER. 1 August 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2020.

History edit

 
The Emerson Booth can be seen in this photo of the 1982 Chicago CES. An advertisement for the Arcadia 2001 can be seen prominently on the left part of their booth pillar.

Phillips created an example platform for one of their chipsets, leading to a number of small mostly compatible consoles based on their specifications, one of the most popular being the Emerson Arcadia 2001.[1] Other notable compatible systems included the German Tele-Fever and the officially licensed Canadian console Leisure Vision.

Emerson Radio cooperation released the Emerson Arcadia 2001 in 1982.[2]

Thousands of game cartridges for the Arcadia 2001 were barred from sale due to legal issues.[2]

Technology edit

Compute edit

The console is powered by a Signetics 2650A CPU clocked at 3.58 MHz.[1]

The system has 1 kilobyte of RAM.[1] Some materials suggested the Emerson Arcadia 2001 had 28 or 24 kilobytes of RAM, which was not true.[3][4][5]

Gallery edit

Console edit

Controller edit

Teardown edit

References edit

  1. a b c "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  2. a b "TOSEC: Emerson Arcadia 2001 (2012-04-23)". 23 April 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  3. "Arcadia 2001 -- FAQ guide". www.digitpress.com. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  4. "History of Consoles: Arcadia 2001 (1982) Gamester 81". Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  5. "Home Page". Video Game Console Library. Retrieved 29 October 2020.

History edit

Development edit

Development of hardware which would become the Atari 2600 had begun by December 1975.[1] The prototype of the Atari 2600 was based on a Jolt card, which used a 6502 processor.[2] Software for the console was developed on a DEC PDP-11 minicomputer[2], which despite the classification name was a computer about the size of a refrigerator.[3] (And thus much smaller then room sized mainframes)

 
Atari at CES 1982.

Launch edit

 
Logo for the Atari 2600.

The Atari 2600 was launched in 1977.[4] At launch the Atari 2600 cost $199.[5] Atari was able to leverage their strong arcade game brands to create home ports the same games - achieving massive market success.[6]

Early Atari 2600 units featured six switches and heavy RF shielding, which were later reduced to four switches and lighter shielding.[4]

In 1981 VCS cartridges cost as little as $20 and as much as $35.[6]

The launch of the Atari 5200 in 1982 may have harmed Atari 2600 sales, though a lack of coordination within Atari led to the Atari 2600 overshadowing it anyway.[7]

The 2700, a version of the 2600 with support for wireless controllers, was planned for a 1981 release but was scrapped with only a few prototype units being produced.[8]

The Video Game Crash edit

The combined success of Atari products in the home and in the arcade made the company a captain of industry, and the name Atari itself had become a cultural icon synonymous with video games and high technology. By 1982 Atari products had become so popular that it triggered an early panic among parents regarding possible negative effects of video games.[9][10] By 1983 some politicians involved in promoting new high tech industries in the United States were labeled as "Atari Democrats", a moniker which shows just how much pull Atari had on the public mindshare.[11] However this influence was not to last long, and Atari as well as the rest of the North American video game industry would soon find itself under an existential threat.

A major Christmas 1982 title, ET, was rushed into development and given only five and a half weeks of development time.[12] A contributing factor to the glut of systems and games on the market came from Atari requiring retailers to overstock their systems.[4] The game performed poorly on the market and caused massive financial harm to Atari.[12]

Landfill edit

 
Atari cartridge unearthed at the Alamogordo, New Mexico landfill dig in 2013.

In September 1983 Atari disposed of surplus cartridges in a Alamogordo, New Mexico landfill.[12] This fact became an urban legend as time went on, until it was confirmed in a landfill dig.[12] Cartridges were found following 30 feet of digging.[13] The recovery project caused many to look at archeology in a new light, due to the recovery of something relatively recent.[13]

Later life and discontinuation edit

Following Nintendo's revival of the American video game market, Atari relaunched the system as the Atari 2600 Jr. in 1986.[4] The system was discontinued in 1992,[4][14] making the 2600 among the longest lasting consoles on the market.

Legacy edit

The Atari 2600 remained an iconic gaming system long after it was discontinued.

In 2021 various Atari 2600 games were used to demonstrate machine learning techniques at the organization Uber AI.[15][16]

In 2021 It was announced that Atari would begin producing new Atari 2600 cartridges as part of the Atari XP line.[17]

Myths edit

Due to its cultural prominence, a number of historically inaccurate myths have emerged regarding the system. One such false myth is that the blind musician Stevie Wonder was a spokesman for the system, though he was not.[18][19]

Technology edit

Compute edit

 
The NTSC 2600 palette.

The Atari 2600 used a MPU (CPU), the 8 bit MOS 6507 (Low cost version of the MOS 6502) clocked at 1.19MHz.[20] This processor was bottlenecked somewhat by poor IO performance.[14] A special chip is used to assist with graphics and sounds called the Television Interface Adapter (TIA)[14] which contains about 10,000 transistors and handles two (first version) or three (Later revision) sprites.[21] The Atari 2600 had 128 bytes of RAM, and up to a 4KB ROM.[22]

Some games, such as Pitfall II, used expansion chips to enhance the graphical and audio capabilities of the Atari 2600.[4]

Because of it's limitations, developers resorted to a number of tricks to make the most of the system performance.[23] As an example, some skilled commercial developers and skilled Demoscene creators would later be able to push to Atari 2600 to perform pseudo 3D Games or simple 3D via raycasting.[24][25]

Controller edit

A third party motion sensing controller that used mercury switches, the Le Stick, was released for the system.[26] This is a notable example of an early motion controller for a home console.

Notable games edit

Over 500 games were released for the Atari 2600.[27]

1977 edit

 
Illustration of the Atari 2600 game Combat. Actual graphics were bitmap, and thus the rotated tanks would look blockier on real hardware.
  • Combat - Launch title and common pack-in cartridge, based on the arcade hit games Tank (1974) and Jet Fighter (1975).
 
Video Olympics screenshot.

1978 edit

1979 edit

1980 edit

Adventure edit

Adventure was an early game in the Action adventure genre.[4] This game contained the first example of an Easter Egg in a game, the name of it's programmer Warren Robinett, as a way to protest Atari's decision not to credit programmers.[4]

1981 edit

1982 edit

River Raid edit

River Raid was an early console game to use procedural generation to save limited console resources.[28]

Notably, this game became the first to be banned in West Germany in 1984 as it portrayed paramilitary content.[28][29]

Read more about River Raid on Wikipedia.

1983 edit

Pepsi Invaders edit

Pepsi Invaders is among the rarest games for the system with only 125 copies produced by Coca-Cola working with Atari.[30][31]

Read more about Pepsi Invaders on Wikipedia.

Gallery edit

Console variants edit

Wood veneer edit

Wood veneer light sixer edit

All Black edit

Sears Tele-Games Video Arcade edit

Controllers edit

Accessories edit

Development edit

External Resources edit

References edit

  1. "Gamasutra - The History of Atari: 1971-1977". www.gamasutra.com. https://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/130414/the_history_of_atari_19711977.php?print=1. 
  2. a b "Atari 2600 prototype - CHM Revolution". www.computerhistory.org. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  3. "An Entire PDP-11 On Your Bench". Hackaday. 24 August 2019. https://hackaday.com/2019/08/24/an-entire-pdp-11-on-your-bench/. 
  4. a b c d e f g h "Gamasutra - A History of Gaming Platforms: Atari 2600 Video Computer System/VCS". www.gamasutra.com. https://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/131956/a_history_of_gaming_platforms_.php?print=1. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  5. "Atari 2600 Teardown". iFixit. 1 September 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  6. a b Kunkel, Bill; Katz, Arnie (21 November 1981). "THE VIDEOGAMES: HOW THEY RATE (Published 1981)". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1981/11/21/style/the-videogames-how-they-rate.html. 
  7. Trautman, Ted. "Excavating the Video-Game Industry’s Past" (in en-us). The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/business/currency/excavating-the-video-game-industrys-past. 
  8. "Super Rare Atari 2700 Found At California Thrift Store" (in en-us). Kotaku. https://kotaku.com/super-rare-atari-2700-found-at-california-thrift-store-1797394693. 
  9. "Children of the ‘80s Never Fear: Video Games Did Not Ruin Your Life" (in en). Smithsonian Magazine. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/children-80s-never-fear-video-games-did-not-ruin-your-life-180963452/. 
  10. "Opinion VIDEO GAMES FOR THE 'BASEST INSTINCTS OF MAN' (Published 1982)". The New York Times. 28 January 1982. https://www.nytimes.com/1982/01/28/opinion/l-video-games-for-the-basest-instincts-of-man-151899.html. 
  11. "InfoWorld" (in en). InfoWorld Media Group, Inc.. 28 November 1983. https://books.google.com/books?id=sy8EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA151#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  12. a b c d Robarge, Drew (15 December 2014). "From landfill to Smithsonian collections: "E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial" Atari 2600 game" (in en). National Museum of American History. https://americanhistory.si.edu/blog/landfill-smithsonian-collections-et-extra-terrestrial-atari-2600-game. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  13. a b "Archaeologists Dig for Video Games - Blog - The Henry Ford - Blog - The Henry Ford". www.thehenryford.org. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  14. a b c "The Consumer Electronics Hall of Fame: Atari 2600". IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  15. Amer, Pakinam. "Machine Learning Pwns Old-School Atari Games" (in en). Scientific American. https://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/gamer-machine-learning-vanquishes-old-school-atari-games/. 
  16. "Uber AI plays any Atari 2600 game with 'superhuman' skill". Engadget. https://www.engadget.com/uber-ai-masters-atari-games-012832222.html. 
  17. Handley, Zoey (16 November 2021). "Atari XP will let you put some new cartridges in your old Atari 2600". Destructoid. https://www.destructoid.com/atari-xp-limited-edition-physical-cartridges-let-you-put-new-games-in-your-old-atari-2600/. 
  18. "Did Stevie Wonder Endorse Atari Video Games?". Snopes.com. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  19. "Sorry, That Crazy Stevie Wonder + Atari Poster Is Fake" (in en-AU). Kotaku Australia. 1 May 2014. https://www.kotaku.com.au/2014/05/sorry-that-crazy-stevie-wonder-atari-poster-is-fake/. 
  20. "Atari Compendium". www.ataricompendium.com. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  21. "Atari Compendium". www.ataricompendium.com. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  22. "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  23. "Inventing the Atari 2600" (in en). IEEE Spectrum. 15 December 2021. https://spectrum.ieee.org/atari-2600. 
  24. Beyman, Alex (4 January 2019). "Pushing the Crusty Old Atari 2600 to its Absolute Limit" (in en). Medium. https://alexbeyman.medium.com/pushing-the-crusty-old-atari-2600-to-its-absolute-limit-e90e9aa053cb. 
  25. "Raycasting on VCS". AtariAge Forums. https://atariage.com/forums/topic/284798-raycasting-on-vcs/. 
  26. "Datasoft Le Stick Joystick - Peripheral - Computing History". www.computinghistory.org.uk. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  27. "Atari game cartridges collage - CHM Revolution". www.computerhistory.org. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  28. a b "The Women Who Raided Rivers and Crushed Centipedes". High Score Esports. 8 March 2019. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  29. "River Raid causes "erratic thinking"". AtariAge Forums. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  30. "Pepsi Invaders Retro Gamer". www.retrogamer.net. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  31. "Atari 2600 VCS Pepsi Invaders : scans, dump, download, screenshots, ads, videos, catalog, instructions, roms". www.atarimania.com. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  32. a b "Atari VCS (Darth Vader) - Game Console - Computing History". www.computinghistory.org.uk. Retrieved 31 October 2020.

History edit

 
Atari 5200 Joystick schematic.

Launch edit

 
Atari 5200 Logotype.

The Atari 5200 was released in the United States of America in the summer of 1982 at a cost of $270.[1]

The console struggled in the market, as regular consumers did not like that the 5200 could not play their old 2600 games they owned.[2] While backwards compatibility as a concept was novel to game systems at the time, a lack of support for old games harmed sales. Complicating matters, poor coordination by Atari lead to 2600 games flooding the market after the Atari 5200 release,[3] which probably harmed the success of the system by not only reducing the incentive to upgrade, but also by releasing major games that would be incompatible with the 5200.

Legacy edit

Production of the Atari 5200 ceased by May 21st, 1984 as Atari announced the successor system - the Atari 7800.[4][5] Over one million Atari 5200 consoles were sold.[6]

Technology edit

The Atari 5200 was based on the Atari 400 computer[7] and used an 8-bit 6502C CPU clocked at 1.79 megahertz.[1] The Atari 5200 has 16 kilobytes of RAM.[1] The Atari 5200 had 2 kilobytes of storage for its BIOS.[4]

By being based off of Atari home computers, game ports from these computers to the 5200 were supposed to be easier.[8] The trade off was a radically different architecture from the prior Atari 2600, potentially resulting in less portability between the two.

Notable games edit

Wikipedia has a list of Atari 5200 games.

Special Editions edit

A special version of the 5200 was made for use in hotels.[8]

Gallery edit

4 Port Console edit

Controllers edit

Other items edit

Internals edit

References edit

  1. a b c "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  2. Patterson, Patrick Scott (1 November 2017). "Back to the Future: A Look at the History of Backwards Compatibility". Scholarly Gamers. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  3. Trautman, Ted. "Excavating the Video-Game Industry’s Past" (in en-us). The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/business/currency/excavating-the-video-game-industrys-past. 
  4. a b "History of Consoles: Atari 5200 (1982) Gamester 81". Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  5. Sanger, David E. (22 May 1984). "ATARI VIDEO GAME UNIT INTRODUCED (Published 1984)". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  6. "Atari 5200 SuperSystem (1982 - 1984)". Museum of Obsolete Media. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  7. "Atari 5200 console - CHM Revolution". www.computerhistory.org. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  8. a b "ATARI 5200 SUPERSYSTEM FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS". Retrieved 14 January 2021.

History edit

Development edit

 
Allan Alcorn at GDC 2008.

The Atari Cosmos was devised by Roger Hector, Allan Alcorn, and Harry Jenkins.[1] The Atari Cosmos casing was designed by Roy Nishi.[1]

The development of the Cosmos lead to internal hologram manufacturing breakthroughs at Atari, allowing them to go from individually making each hologram to mass-producing them at a cost of several cents per hologram.[2]

The Atari Cosmos was essentially a fully developed product with at least 3 working units and more dummy units produced, but was not released to the public.[3] A unit at the 1981 New York Toy Fair garnered significant interest and 8,000 preorders.[1] Marketing positioned the Cosmos as a high end product worthy of a high price tag, which coupled with low production costs would have made the Cosmos very profitable for Atari.[2] However wishy washy feelings from Management lead to the Atari Cosmos being scrapped.[2]

Legacy edit

Despite never seeing a release the Atari Cosmos had a huge impact on gaming, as it's failure to launch resulted in some of Atari's most talented staff, including Pong creator Allan Alcorn and key R&D staff such as Roger Hector leaving the company.[2] Roger Hector would later bring his talents to the Sega Technical Institute (STI),[4] and Namco.[5]

The Atari Cosmos had an impact on the broader world as well. The Cosmos would have also been one of the first commercial uses of holograms in a consumer product.[2] Some of the Atari staff working on mass-producing holography would leave Atari to apply their expertise security holograms instead, such as those used on credit cards.[2][6] Similar holograms would find use in applications fighting fraud and counterfeit items.[7]

Technology edit

The COPS411 CPU powers the Atari Cosmos.[1]

The Atari Cosmos used changeable two image holographic backgrounds,[3][8] an interesting choice which decisively differentiates the Atari Cosmos from its contemporary competition. The idea is similar in concept to the overlay strategy used by other consoles to give color to monochrome games, but used to create a simple holographic background instead of a colored foreground. Gameplay graphics are generated in the foreground by a comparatively mediocre matrix of 42 red LEDs (7 LED wide, 6 LED tall resolution) giving the console a low resolution,[3] even when compared to contemporary handhelds. Two incandescent lightbulbs are positioned to allow manipulation of the hologram.[1] From this the Cosmos can effectively control two backgrounds from the hologram, either the left side or the right side.[2]

The console has 9 built in game types which were selected by the cartridge pressing a button when inserted keeping cartridge costs low.[9][1] Thanks to the holographic background, "New" games could be cheaply and easily made by using a new hologram with an existing game type.[1] Thus while gameplay would be static, visuals would be updated. This also removed the need for game development to include programming after launch.

The Atari Cosmos takes 10.5 volts of AC Power at 750 milliamps.[1] The console is often described as a tabletop console, as it does not use a battery, and thus while easily portable, can't be used while away from a power outlet.[9][3]

The system has a model number of EG500.[3]

External Resources edit

References edit

  1. a b c d e f g h "The Atari Cosmos Tabletop Game System". www.atarimuseum.com. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  2. a b c d e f g Stilphen, Scott (2013). "Roger Hector interview". www.ataricompendium.com. http://www.ataricompendium.com/archives/interviews/roger_hector/interview_roger_hector.html. 
  3. a b c d e "Atari Cosmos". www.handheldmuseum.com. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  4. "Sega-16 – Interview: Roger Hector (Director of STI)". Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  5. "Gamasutra - A Veteran With Character: Roger Hector Speaks". www.gamasutra.com. https://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/3672/a_veteran_with_character_roger_.php?print=1. 
  6. "Spawn of Atari". https://www.wired.com/1996/10/atari-2/. 
  7. Shah, Ruchir Y.; Prajapati, Prajesh N.; Agrawal, Y. K. (2010). "Anticounterfeit packaging technologies". Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research. 1 (4): 368–373. doi:10.4103/0110-5558.76434. ISSN 2231-4040. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  8. "Buy An Original Atari "Cosmos" Hologram" (in en-us). Wired. https://www.wired.com/2007/06/buy-an-original-2/. 
  9. a b "Cosmos by Atari – The Video Game Kraken". Retrieved 24 January 2021.

History edit

 
The City of Chicago in 1974, where Midway was based.

The Bally Arcade was originally developed by Midway.[1][2] Midway had been producing machines for amusement arcades since 1958,[3][4] giving the console significant pedigree.

Announced in 1977, the Bally Astrocade was launched in April 1978 at a cost of $299.[5][6][7] Cartridges cost as little as $24.95 and as much as $39.95.[8] The launch of the console was somewhat botched by an initial attempt to sell the console through mail order and specialty computer shops rather then at traditional retail outlets.[5] The Bally Astrocade was known for its high end graphical capabilities while on the market as late as 1982.[2]

 
Columbus, Ohio in 1980.

A Bally Astrocade was used in the development of the early digital art piece Digital TV Dinner by Jamie Faye Fenton, which was broadcast on television in 1978.[9] While not a game itself, this early piece of digital art utilized game glitches to create a meaningful artistic experience worthy of public distribution. This was also among the first notable exhibitions of glitch art.[9]

The Astrocade was later acquired by Astrovision, a company based in the city of Columbus in Ohio,[1][2] roughly around 1980.[8] The system was on the market until 1984 or 1985,[5][6][7] a fairly long time on the market for a console of this generation.

Technology edit

The Bally Astrocade has an 8-bit Z80 CPU clocked at 3.579 megahertz.[5][7] The Astrocade has 4 kilobytes of RAM.[7] The system has an 8 kilobyte ROM which is loaded with four software applications.[10]

Early models of the system were especially prone to overheating, though all units suffered from cooling issues.[11]

Gallery edit

Console edit

Internals edit

References edit

History edit

Not to be confused with the later, but unrelated, Watara Supervision handheld game console.

The Bandai Super Vision 8000 was released in 1979 for 60,000 yen as the first cartridge based system released in the Japanese market.[1][2]

Bandai acquired rights to sell the Intellivision in the Japanese market and discontinued the Bandai Super Vision 8000 less than a year after launch to focus on the Intellivision.[1][3]

Technology edit

The Bandai Super Vision 8000 uses a NEC D780C (Z80 compatible) 8-bit CPU clocked at 3.58MHz.[3][4] The system uses a General Instrument AY-3-8910 coprocessor.[1]

Game library edit

  • Beam Galaxian[5]
  • Gun Professional[5]
  • Missile Vader[5]
  • Space Fire[5]
  • PacPacBird[5]
  • Submarine[5]
  • Othello[5]

References edit

  1. a b c "System Overview: System Overview - Bandai Super Vision 8000 - Beyond the Mind's Eye - Thoughts & Insights from Marriott_Guy". www.rfgeneration.com. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  2. Dunn, Jeff. "Chasing Phantoms - The history of failed consoles". gamesradar. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  3. a b "Video Game Console Library". Video Game Console Library. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  4. "5 Video Game Consoles That Never Came To The U.S." Playbuzz. 7 February 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  5. a b c d e f g "Bandai Super Vision 8000". Wikipedia. 25 July 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2021.

History edit

The Cassette Vision saw a Japanese only launch on June 30th, 1981.[1][2] The Cassette Vision was sold for 13,500 yen, and games were sold for 4,000 yen.[3][2] The Cassette Vision sold over 400,000 consoles and was the most popular console in Japan for a time.[3][4] The system was held back in part by internal factors, as Epoch only had a single NEC TK-80 computer to be used for game development, limiting the Cassette Vision's library.[3][5]

The Cassette Vision was discontinued in 1984.[1] and would be followed by the improved Super Cassette Vision.

Technology edit

An NEC D777C CPU was included on Cassette Vision game cartridges.[6][7] This hardware was considered dated at the time.[3]

Cartridges for the system had a storage capacity of 2 kilobytes.[6]

Game library edit

Cassette Vision game cartridges cost around 4,000 yen each.[2]

  • Astro Command[8]
  • Galaxian - Despite the name this game is actually based on Moon Cresta, and not the more popular game also known as Galaxian.[8] This was a launch title.[3]
  • Kikori no Yosaku[8]
  • Baseball[8] - A launch title.[3]
  • New Baseball[8]
  • Battle Vader[8]
  • Big Sports 12[8]
  • PakPak Monster[8]
  • Monster Mansion[8]
  • Monster Block[8]
  • Elevator Panic[8]

Gallery edit

External Resources edit

References edit

  1. a b "Epoch Cassette Vision (1981 - 1984)". Museum of Obsolete Media. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  2. a b c "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  3. a b c d e f "THE FORGOTTEN EPIC". The Game Scholar. 10 June 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  4. "CLASSIC VIDEOGAME STATION ODYSSEY/EVENT/EARLY CREATERS". www.ne.jp. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  5. "Cassette Vision by Epoch – The Video Game Kraken". Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  6. a b "Video Game Console Library". Video Game Console Library. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  7. Riddle, Sean. "decaps". Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  8. a b c d e f g h i j k "Cassette Vision". Wikipedia. 24 January 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2021.

History edit

Development edit

 
Dickson Plaza at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Mattel brought on Professor Dr. Gordon Berry of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) as an educational consultant for the system.[1]

Launch edit

The Children's Discovery System was launched in 1981[2] at a cost of $125.[3]

Legacy edit

The Children's Discovery system was discontinued in 1984.[4]

Technology edit

The Display of the Children's Discovery System has a matrix LCD with a 16 by 48 pixel resolution.[5]

The system has an integrated membrane keyboard.[5]

Notable games edit

External Resources edit

References edit

  1. "Personal Computing 1982 02". 1 February 1982. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  2. "The Children's Discovery System computerized learning system 102630217 Computer History Museum". www.computerhistory.org. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  3. Freedman, Alix M. (15 November 1981). "ELECTRONIC GAMES: DO THEY HELP? (Published 1981)". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  4. "Children's Discovery System • Mattel • 1981 : RAM OK ROM OK". Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  5. a b "Mattel Children's Discovery System". AtariAge Forums.
  6. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p w:Children's Discovery System

History of video games/Platforms/ColecoVision/ColecoVision

History edit

The Colorvision was launched in 1984 and sold under multiple brands.[1][2]

The Colorivsion was discontinued in 1985.[3]

Technology edit

 
Two C type batteries were needed to power the Romtec Colorvision.

The Romtec Colorvision uses 2 C type batteries and game cartridges containing an LCD screen.[1][4] The game cartridges contain no software, but simply indicate which games built into the console should run.[1]

The integrated circuit on the motherboard is epoxied.[1]

Game library edit

  • Beasts Planet[3]
  • Horror House[3]
  • Jungle Boy[3]
  • Monster Chase[3]
  • Submarine[3]

External Resources edit

References edit

  1. a b c d "Romtec Colorvision system". www.handheldmuseum.com. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  2. "Colorvision by Bristol from Retrogames". www.retrogames.co.uk. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  3. a b c d e f "Colorvision by Romtec – The Video Game Kraken". Retrieved 19 November 2020.
  4. "Romtec: Colorvision Master Unit (vintage hand-held game)". HandheldEmpire. Retrieved 7 November 2020.

History edit

Background edit

The game of Mah-Jong has existed since at least the 1800's.[1] Mah-Jong became a popular game in Japan from the 1920's on, following its introduction from China.[2] Thus Nintendo would try to bring a portable electronic version of the popular board game to market.

Launch edit

Nintendo launched the Computer Mah-Jong Yakuman in 1983 for 16,800 yen.[3]

The Computer Mah-Jong Yakuman was succeeded by the Nintendo Game Boy, which would feature the return of the Computer Mah-Jong Yakuman brand as the 1989 GameBoy Yakuman cartridge. Unusually for a Nintendo console, the system has been poorly documented, and relatively little is known of its history.

Technology edit

The Computer Mah-Jong Yakuman uses a black and white dot matrix LCD.[3]

The Computer Mah-Jong Yakuman supported a link cable for multiplayer, becoming one of the first consoles to support a console to console communication standard by default.[3][4]

The Computer Mah-Jong Yakuman is powered by four AA batteries.[5] The system could also take 6V DC input.[6]

The console bore the model number MJ 8000.[5]

Gallery edit

External Resources edit

References edit

History edit

The Digi Casse was released by Bandai in 1984.[1][2] The Digi Casse saw a European release sometime about 1986.[3] The console was sold with two game cartridges.[3]

Technology edit

 
The Digi Casse is powered by two LR44 button cells, such as these.

The Digi Casse is powered by two LR44 watch batteries.[1]

Notable games edit

Japan edit

  • Express Home Delivery[4]
  • City Turbo Race[4]
  • Hageransu[4]
  • Mt. Fuji Explosion[4]

Europe edit

External Resources edit

References edit

  1. a b "Video Game Console Library Handhelds". Video Game Console Library. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  2. "Bandai: Digi Casse B (vintage hand-held game)". HandheldEmpire. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  3. a b "Re:Enthused Hardware: Bandai Digi Casse". Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  4. a b c d e f g h "Digi Casse". Wikipedia. 14 December 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2021.

History edit

The Entex Select-A-Game was released in 1981 for $54.99.[1][2] Unlike most portable consoles of the time, it was designed to be used with two players, but could also be used by a single person.[3]

The use of games that were clear clones of other games on the console caused significant legal issues for Entex.[2]

Technology edit

Like many systems of the time, the CPU is located in game cartridges.[1]

The Entex Select-A-Game uses a Vacuum Florescent Display (VFD) with a resolution of 7 by 16 oval elements that could display red and white.[1]

The system used 4 C batteries.[1]

Notable games edit

 
The Entex Select a Game with Space Invader 2 loaded.

External Resources edit

References edit

  1. a b c d e f g h i j "Entex Select-a-Game". www.handheldmuseum.com. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  2. a b c d e f g h "Select-A-Game by Entex – The Video Game Kraken". Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  3. "10 Classic Portable Games of the 1980s". PCMAG. Retrieved 26 October 2020.

History edit

1984 saw the Japanese release of the Epoch Game Pocket Computer, known as the Pokekon for short.[1][2][3] Having failed commercially in Japan, it did not see an international release.[4]

Technology edit

Compute edit

The Epoch Game Pocket Computer had an 8-bit NEC uPD78C06 CPU clocked at 6 megahertz.[2]

The system 2176 bytes (About two kilobytes) of RAM and four kilobytes of built in ROM, with cartridges having either 8 kilobytes or 16 kilobytes of ROM.[2]

General edit

The LCD has a resolution of 75 by 64 pixels and can show two shades.[2][3][5]

4 AA batteries give an impressive 70 hours battery life.[2][3] Not only was this impressive at the time, the power efficiency of the console remains one of the best in the history of portable game consoles.

Software edit

The Epoch Game Pocket Computer has built in system software, such as its paint program.[6]

Game library edit

Built in edit

  • An 11 tile puzzle game
  • A raster graphics editor

Cartridges edit

  • Astro Bomber
  • Block Maze
  • Pocket Computer Mahjong
  • Pocket Computer Reversi
  • Sokoban

Gallery edit

External Resources edit

References edit

  1. "Epoch Game Pocket Computer • Epoch • 1984 : RAM OK ROM OK". Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  2. a b c d e "Chris Covell's Epoch Game Pocket Computer page". chrismcovell.com. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  3. a b c "Epoch Game Pocket Computer". www.handheldmuseum.com. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  4. "ARCHIVE.ORG Console Library: Epoch Game Pocket Computer : Free Software : Free Download, Borrow and Streaming : Internet Archive". archive.org. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  5. "Epoch Game Pocket Computer [BINARIUM]". binarium.de. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  6. "Epoch Game Pocket Computer - Ultimate Console Database". ultimateconsoledatabase.com. Retrieved 20 November 2020.

History edit

 
Pro Football for the Fairchild Channel F.

Jerry Lawson edit

Fairchild Semiconductor Engineer Jerry Lawson made an early arcade cabinet called Demolition Derby, which prompted Fairchild Semiconductor to quietly expand into the game industry.[1][2]

While working on the Fairchild Channel F, Lawson made the first real game cartridges, which contained software and could expand the RAM of the System.[3][2] Because of this Jerry Lawson is recognized as one of the most important figures in early gaming technology history for his invention of the cartridge, as well as one of the first African American engineers in the video game industry.[4][5]

Laswson's philosophy on games favored games that were skillful and grew the player.[6][7] He is remembered as an important early video game and computer industry figure in general, and became a symbol of African Americans in the gaming industry.[8][9]

Launch edit

 
Fairchild Channel F logotype.

The Fairchild Channel F was released in November of 1976 at a cost of $169.95.[1][2]

The system was acquired by Zircon and relaunched around 1981 as a budget system.[10]

In 1981 Channel F cartridges cost as little as $18.95 and as much as $29.95.[10]

Legacy edit

 
A Fairchild Channel F in a museum.

The Fairchild Channel F was discontinued in 1984,[11] coinciding with the video game market crash in the United States, but having been on the market for an exceptional amount of time. Around 250,000 Channel F consoles were sold.[6]

Following the Fairchild Channel F, Jerry Lawson would pursue other ventures, including an early attempt at console based network play.[12]

Technology edit

The Fairchild Channel F used Fairchild Semiconductor's own 8-bit F8 processor clocked at 1.7897725 megahertz.[13][2][14] It could process about 0.14 million instructions per second (MIPS).[15] Importantly, the F8 processor eliminated the need for many support chips required by competing processors,[16] and allowed for horizontal integration, making it a very economical choice for use in the Channel F.

The Fairchild Channel F had 64 bytes of RAM and 2 kilobytes of video RAM.[7]

The original Fairchild Channel F used an internal speaker, while the model II used television speakers.[17]

Games edit

A novelty at the time, some Fairchild Channel F games supported computer players, as well as pause functionality, which was known as "Hold" on games for the system.[18][17]

1978 edit

Video Whizball edit

One of the first games to include an "Easter egg".[19][20]

Gallery edit

Cartridge edit

SABA Videoplay edit

Technology edit

References edit

  1. a b Orland, Kyle. "Obituary: Fairchild Channel F Creator Jerry Lawson" (in en). www.gamasutra.com. https://www.gamasutra.com/view/news/124369/Obituary_Fairchild_Channel_F_Creator_Jerry_Lawson.php. Retrieved 24 October 2020. 
  2. a b c d "Jerry Lawson And The Fairchild Channel F; Father Of The Video Game Cartridge". Hackaday. 14 July 2020. https://hackaday.com/2020/07/14/jerry-lawson-and-the-fairchild-channel-f-father-of-the-video-game-cartridge/. Retrieved 24 October 2020. 
  3. "Jerry Lawson, Inventor of Modern Game Console, Dies at 70" (in en-us). Wired. https://www.wired.com/2011/04/jerry-lawson-dies/. Retrieved 24 October 2020. 
  4. Laurel, Capitol Technology University 11301 Springfield Road. "Gerald". www.captechu.edu. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  5. "Jerry Lawson: The Black Man Who Revolutionized Gaming As We Know It - IGN". Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  6. a b Snider, Mike. "Before Nintendo and Atari: How a black engineer changed the video game industry forever". USA TODAY. https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2020/02/27/how-black-engineer-forever-changed-video-game-consoles/4752682002/. Retrieved 25 October 2020. 
  7. a b "VC&G » VC&G Interview: Jerry Lawson, Black Video Game Pioneer". https://www.vintagecomputing.com/index.php/archives/545/vcg-interview-jerry-lawson-black-video-game-pioneer. Retrieved 25 October 2020. 
  8. Chalk, Andy (2021-05-11). "Black videogame pioneer Jerry Lawson has a USC Games endowment named after him". PC Gamer. https://www.pcgamer.com/black-videogame-pioneer-jerry-lawson-has-a-usc-games-endowment-named-after-him/. 
  9. Miller, Alex. "An Unsung Hero of Gaming History Deserves a Higher Profile". Wired. https://www.wired.com/story/jerry-lawson-unsung-hero-gaming-history-podcast/. 
  10. a b Kunkel, Bill; Katz, Arnie (21 November 1981). "THE VIDEOGAMES: HOW THEY RATE (Published 1981)". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1981/11/21/style/the-videogames-how-they-rate.html. 
  11. "Fairchild Channel F / Channel F System II (1976 – 1984)". Museum of Obsolete Media. 24 January 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  12. Ltd, Earl G. Graves. Black Enterprise. Earl G. Graves, Ltd. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  13. "Fairchild Channel F". Universal Videogame List. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  14. "Fairchild Channel F Pre-83". pre83.com. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  15. Murnane, Kevin. "From Pong To Playstation: The 40-Year Evolution Of Gaming Processing Power". Forbes. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  16. "Great Microprocessors of the Past and Present (V 13.4.0)". www.cpushack.com. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  17. a b "Fairchild Channel F (1976-1982)" (in en). History of Console Gaming. 23 September 2016. https://hiscoga.wordpress.com/fairchild-channel-f/. 
  18. "Early Home Video Game History: Making Television Play - The Strong National Museum of Play". Google Arts & Culture. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  19. "Easter Eggs in Video Games". Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  20. Fries, Ed. "The Hunt For The First Arcade Game Easter Egg" (in en-us). Kotaku. https://kotaku.com/the-hunt-for-the-first-arcade-game-easter-egg-1793593889. 

History edit

 

Gakken Founding edit

Gakken was founded in April of 1946 to provided educational services during the post World War II reconstruction of Japan.[1] Gakken began making educational electronic kits in the 1970's.[2]

Launch edit

 

The Gakken Compact Vision TV Boy was released in Japan in October[3] of 1983[4] for 8,800 yen.[5]

Legacy edit

The Gakken Compact Vision TV Boy is mostly remembered for its unique design. This strange control scheme is both credited as a factor in the failure of the console, while simultaneously hailed as a bold design that has its own fans.[6]

After the Compact Vision TV Boy, Gakken would not completely exit the gaming industry. It continued to manufacture 4-bit educational computers capable of extremely simple games in the 1980's.[7] A new model in this 4-bit computer line, The Gakken GMC-4, was released as recently as 2009, which included several simple games game,[7] and could be reprogrammed to play new games. Importers charged $39.95 for the GMC-4 system in 2009.[8]

Technology edit

  The 8-bit Motorola MC6801 Microcontroller is kept on the game cartridges.[5][3] A Motorola MC 6847 video display generator and 2 kilobytes of RAM resides in the console.[3][5][9] This approach gave the Gakken Compact TV Boy some of the advantages of systems that kept the computer in the cartridge, as well as the cost saving advantages of reusing hardware between games.

Game library edit

Excite Invader edit

Excite Invader[10] was a 1983 game inspired by Space Invaders,[11] and considered to be among the best for the system.[12] The name of this game is sometimes listed as "Excite Invaders".[5]

External Resources edit

References edit

  1. a b c "Overview Gakken Holdings". ghd.gakken.co.jp. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  2. Vis, Peter J. "Gakken EX-System". www.petervis.com. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  3. a b c "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  4. "Site News: The True Holy Grails of Video Game Hardware - "The Minors" - Beyond the Mind's Eye - Thoughts & Insights from Marriott_Guy". www.rfgeneration.com. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  5. a b c d e f g h i "Compact Vision TV Boy by Gakken – The Video Game Kraken". Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  6. "The 10 Worst Video Game Systems of All Time". PCWorld. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  7. a b "New Gakken 4-bit Micro Computer Kit". Retro Thing. https://www.retrothing.com/2009/07/new-gakken-4bit-micro-computer-kit.html. 
  8. "Gakken Gmc-4: 4-Bit Microcomputer Kit Won'T Play Crysis". Technabob. 22 October 2009. https://technabob.com/blog/2009/10/22/gakken-gmc-4-bit-microcomputer-kit/. 
  9. "Motorola 6847". Wikipedia. 16 September 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  10. a b c d e f "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  11. "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  12. Williams, Samuel (June 24, 2021). "The 10 Worst Video Game Consoles (& The Best Game For Each One)". https://www.cbr.com/best-games-for-worst-consoles/. 

History edit

 
The PCB for Mario Bros Game & Watch system shows the relatively spartan internals.

Development edit

Gunpei Yokoi came up with the idea for the Game & Watch while watching a businessman fiddle with a calculator while traveling on the Shinkansen (Bullet Train).[1] A chance incident requiring Gunpei Yokoi to drive Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi to a meeting allowed him to pitch the idea, with approval being suddenly granted after a week of consideration.[2]

Sharp produced the electrical components used in the Game & Watch.[3] Engineers were split between hardware and software roles for development of the Game & Watch units.[3] Development pace for the Game & Watch series was frantic, and developers were usually focused on quickly developing new units.[4] While at least some of the developers of the Game & Watch were not informed of hard sales numbers, they were pressed into the sales at busy times to sell their own console in stores, which helped them better understand what their customers wanted.[4]

Legacy edit

 
Game & Watch Logotype.

The D-Pad pioneered on the Game & Watch units was reused in subsequent Nintendo consoles, such as the Famicom/Nintendo Entertainment System.[3] The Game & Watch series sold 43.4 million units worldwide, with 30.53 million consoles sold outside of Japan, 12.87 million consoles sold inside Japan, and with 9 models of the console being attributable to selling over a million sales each.[4][5]

The Game & Watch line would see several continuations into the 2020's, either as in game homages, special edition themed consoles, software complications or even hardware releases such as the Nintendo Mini Classics series, and the Game & Watch: Super Mario Bros. console.

Technology edit

Game & Watch consoles reused calculator chips, and simply used displays with graphics rather than numbers to achieve the desired effect.[1]

The 4-bit Sharp SM5X series of microcontrollers served as the processor for Game & Watch units.[6]

The clock functionality was implemented with the use of a crystal oscillator.[1]

Due to their uncomplicated electronics and rugged design Game & Watch units tend to be reliable.[7]

Game library edit

Development edit

Clone consoles edit

References edit

  1. a b c "Iwata Asks". iwataasks.nintendo.com. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  2. "How Gunpei Yokoi Reinvented Nintendo". www.vice.com. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  3. a b c O'Kane, Sean (18 October 2015). "7 things I learned from the designer of the NES". The Verge. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  4. a b c "Iwata Asks". iwataasks.nintendo.com. https://iwataasks.nintendo.com/interviews/#/clubn/game-and-watch-ball-reward/0/3. 
  5. "The Million Selling Nintendo Game & Watch (G&W) Games - Warped Factor - Words in the Key of Geek.". www.warpedfactor.com. http://www.warpedfactor.com/2020/11/the-million-selling-nintendo-game-watch.html. 
  6. "mamedev/mame". GitHub. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  7. Life, Nintendo (8 September 2020). "Feature: How Nintendo's Game & Watch Took "Withered Technology" And Turned It Into A Million-Seller". Nintendo Life. Retrieved 1 November 2020.

History edit

Development edit

 
Reunion of the Blue Sky Rangers in 2011, people who worked on Intellivision games.

The Intellivision is based on the General Instrument GIMINI 8900 platform.[1]

Test marketing for the Intellivision occurred in the area around Fresno, California in 1979.[2]

Launch edit

 
Intellivision logotype.

The Intellivision was released in 1980.[3] In 1981 the system cost $299.95.[4] Cartridges for the system cost between $24.95 and 34.95 in 1981.[4]

An internal group of highly paid, hardworking, and secretive team of developers known as the Blue Sky Rangers worked on producing games for the Intellivision through at least 1982.[5] A 1982 Ford concept car featured a built in Intellivision.[6]

The Intellivision and the Atari 2600 competed fiercely in the market, leading to the first major console war.[7]

Legacy edit

The Intellivision lasted on the market until 1990.[3] The Intellivision sold over 3 million consoles.[8]

Mattel's next console was the HyperScan in 2006, though there is little relation beyond the parent company between these consoles.

Technology edit

Compute edit

The Intellivision had a 16 bit General Instrument CP1610 CPU with 10 bit instructions clocked at 894.886 kilohertz (About 0.89 megahertz) and 1352 bytes of total RAM.[3][9][10]

The Intellivision output at a resolution of 160 by 196 pixels with 16 colors.[3]

Software edit

PlayCable edit

The Intellivision had an online service called PlayCable that operated from 1980 to 1983 that allowed downloading games over a cable TV connection.[9]

Third Party Lockout edit

The Intellivision II was released in 1982, featuring a ROM that tried to keep third parties who were not licensed from making games for the system.[11][12] This was among the first lockout methods used on a major console, and would refuse to boot unless a Mattel copyright screen was shown, though because this was implemented while the console had already been on the market, it caused incompatibility with some prior official games.[12] The system was not effective in stopping unauthorized third parties from publishing Intellivision games.[11][12]

Notable Games edit

125 games were released on the Intellivision.[3]

Gallery edit

Mattel Intellivision edit

Sears Tele Games Super Video Arcade edit

Redesigns edit

Accessories edit

References edit

  1. "GIMINI Systems – The Video Game Kraken". Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  2. "Blue Sky Rangers Intellivision History". history.blueskyrangers.com. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  3. a b c d e "Gamasutra - A History of Gaming Platforms: Mattel Intellivision". www.gamasutra.com. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  4. a b Kunkel, Bill; Katz, Arnie (21 November 1981). "THE VIDEOGAMES: HOW THEY RATE (Published 1981)". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1981/11/21/style/the-videogames-how-they-rate.html. 
  5. "Intellivision Classic Video Game System / TV Guide Profile". web.archive.org. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  6. Torchinsky, Jason (11 February 2021). "Ford's 1982 Concept Car Had Pre-GPS SatNav And The First Integrated Video Game Console" (in en-AU). Gizmodo Australia. https://www.gizmodo.com.au/2021/02/fords-1982-concept-car-had-pre-gps-satnav-and-the-first-integrated-video-game-console/. 
  7. "PS4, XBox continue bit battles" (in en). The Blade. https://www.toledoblade.com/business/technology/2013/11/10/Fight-for-gaming-consoles-supremacy-started-with-Atari-vs-Intellivision/stories/20131110042. Retrieved 28 October 2020. 
  8. "Intellivision - Game Console - Computing History". www.computinghistory.org.uk. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  9. a b "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  10. "Intellivision". kevtris.org. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  11. a b "CVGA Disassembled Second Generation (1976-1984) · Online Exhibits". apps.lib.umich.edu. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  12. a b c "A Short History of Device Lockout Methods in Consumer Electronics, Part 1 Fantranslation.org". fantranslation.org. Retrieved 18 November 2020.

History edit

 
A screenshot of Ballspiele, a pong clone for the Interton Video Computer.

The Interton Video Computer 4000 was released in Germany in 1978 and was discontinued in 1983.[1] It is a prominent member of a family of consoles called the Advanced Programmable Video System.[2]

Technology edit

The Interton Video Computer 4000 uses a Signetics 2650A CPU with a Signetics 2636 Programmable Video Interface (PVI).[1][3][2]

Uniquely, the Interton Video Computer 4000 had 37 bytes of RAM included within the PVI.[2] Some games cartridges such as Chess include an external 1kB RAM chip. Up to 6 kilobytes of ROM was inluded on the cartridges.[4]

Notable games edit

Gallery edit

Console edit

Controller edit

Internals edit

External Resources edit

  • Old Computers Museum - Interton Video Computer Page featuring history and specs.
  • pre83 - Advanced Programmable Video System page with history and specs.

References edit

  1. a b "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  2. a b c "Advanced Programmable Video System Pre-83". pre83.com. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  3. "Interton VC 4000". AtariAge Forums. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  4. "Interton VC 4000 (1978 – 1983)". Museum of Obsolete Media. 26 February 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
  5. a b c "Interton Video Computer 4000". Wikipedia. 17 January 2021. Retrieved 15 April 2021.

History edit

The Leisure Vision is a licensed Canadian version of the Arcadia 2001 that was launched in 1982 and discontinued in 1984.[1][2][3] While the system is considered a landmark release in Canadian consoles,[3] little more is known about it.

Technology edit

The Leisure Vision uses a Signetics 2650A clocked at 3.58 megahertz, with a Signetics 2637 co processor.[1]

The Leisure Vision has 1 kilobyte of RAM.[1]

Game library edit

The Leisure Vision is said to have a somewhat larger library than the standard Arcadia 2001 compatible systems.[3]

References edit

  1. a b c "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  2. "Leisure Vision - Ultimate Console Database at ultimateconsoledatabase.com". ultimateconsoledatabase.com. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  3. a b c "Leisure Vision – Montreal Video Game Museum". Retrieved 31 October 2020.

History edit

Launch edit

The Magnavox Odyssey² was preceded by the original Magnavox Odyssey game console and the Odyssey series of dedicated consoles. Unlike those consoles, the Magnavox Odyssey² featured a full computer, and could run games on cartridges.

The Magnavox Odyssey² was launched in 1978 at a cost of $100.[1] Early titles often had poor support for the keyboard and other system features, though support improved over time.[2] A voice module was also released, which was another feature which was panned for its poor integration with games.[3]

Legacy edit

Magnavox Odyssey² production ended in March of 1984,[4] correlating with the Video Game Crash. The system had been on the market for a fairly long time, indicating company investment in the system.

The system was followed by the Philips Videopac+ G7400 in European markets, though this successor system too was scrapped during the Video Game Crash.

Technology edit

 
An Intel 8048 similar to the one used in the Magnavox Odyssey²

The CPU of the Magnavox Odyssey² was an 8-bit Intel 8048 clocked at 1.79 megahertz.[1][5] The system had 64 bytes of RAM and 128 bytes of video RAM.[1][5]

The Odyssey² has a built in membrane keyboard with 49 keys.[6]

Notable games edit

  • Quest for the Rings - An early video game to use a companion board game.[2][7]
  • Stone Sling[7]
  • Turtles[7]

Gallery edit

Console edit

Internals edit

References edit

  1. a b c "History of Consoles: Magnavox Odyssey 2 (1978) Gamester 81". Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  2. a b Kunkel, Bill; Katz, Arnie (21 November 1981). "THE VIDEOGAMES: HOW THEY RATE (Published 1981)". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1981/11/21/style/the-videogames-how-they-rate.html. 
  3. "Home Video Games: Video Games Update". www.atarimagazines.com. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  4. "The Odyssey2 Timeline! - The Odyssey² Homepage!". www.the-nextlevel.com. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  5. a b "Home Page". Video Game Console Library. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  6. "When Video Game Consoles Wanted (and Failed) to Be Computers". www.vice.com. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  7. a b c "List of Magnavox Odyssey² games". Wikipedia. 25 January 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2021.

History edit

Development edit

Milton Bradley was founded in 1860 to make board games[1], making it one of the oldest companies to have a major impact in the video game industry.

Jay Smith designed the Microvision and would later design the Vectrex.[2][3]

Launch edit

 
Microvision logotype.

The 1979 release of the Microvision was the first major portable console to use swappable cartridges, allowing a single system to play multiple games.[3]

The Microvision is seen in the 1981 movie Friday the 13th Part 2, a significant early appearance of a handheld game console in popular culture.[4][5]

Legacy edit

The Microvision was discontinued in 1981[4][6], though one game saw a Europe only release in 1982.[2] The failings of the Microvision design were lessons for Nintendo employees during the design of Game and Watch and Game Boy consoles.[7][8]

Technology edit

 
Depending on the model, the Microvision took one or two 9-volt batteries, such as the one shown here.

Unlike most modern consoles but similar to many other consoles at the time, the Microvision contained processing elements on each game cartridge, not the console itself, though the clock speed used was always at 100 kilohertz (0.1 megahertz).[2] Cartridges either used an Intel 8021 CPU or a Texas Instruments TMS1100 CPU.[9]

The Microvision had a grey and black LCD with a resolution of 16 pixels by 16 pixels, and a size of 2 inches.[2][3] The screen ages poorly, and is prone to damage from screen rot.[10]

Cartridges were known to be quite fragile and especially vulnrable to electrostatic discharge.[11][12]

Early Microvision consoles required two 9 volt batteries, though later models only required a single 9 volt battery.[2]

Notable games edit

 
A screenshot of Blockbuster for the Microvision running in an emulator.

1979 edit

  • Block Buster
  • Bowling
  • Baseball
  • Connect Four
  • Mindbuster
  • Pinball
  • Star Trek: Phaser Strike
  • Vegas Slots

1980 edit

  • Baseball
  • Sea Duel

1981 edit

  • Alien Raders
  • Cosmic Hunter

1982 edit

  • Super Block Buster

Gallery edit

Microvision Console edit

Microvision Games edit

Internals edit

External Resources edit

References edit

  1. Lepore, Jill. "The Meaning of Life". The New Yorker. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  2. a b c d e "Microvision Console Review". videogamecritic.com. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  3. a b c "Microvision from Milton Bradley - IGN". Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  4. a b "History of Consoles-Microvision (1979) Gamester 81". Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  5. "Milton Bradley Microvision in Friday the 13th Part II". www.handheldmuseum.com. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  6. "Milton Bradley Microvison (1979 - 1981)". Museum of Obsolete Media. 27 September 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  7. Barder, Ollie. "New Interview With Satoru Okada Delves Into The Hidden History Behind Nintendo's Gaming Handhelds". Forbes. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  8. "Japanese Nintendo". Japanese Nintendo. 29 December 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  9. "MB Microvision - Intel 8021 inside?". AtariAge Forums. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  10. Fletch, Toxic (10 December 2014). "Toxic Fletch: That Handheld Game in Friday the 13th Part 2". Toxic Fletch. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  11. "The Marvelous MicroVision Handheld Videogame". Retro Thing. https://www.retrothing.com/2006/01/the_marvelous_m.html. 
  12. "Milton Bradley Microvision (1979 - 1981)". Museum of Obsolete Media. 27 September 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
 
Neckermann was a mail order company based in Frankfurt, Germany.[1]

History edit

 
A Neckermann sign in 1965.

The Palladium Tele-Cassetten Game was released by Neckermann in West Germany in either 1977[2][3] or 1978.[4][5][6] The system was sold as the MBO - Teleball Cassette and as the Hanimex - Optim 600.[2]

Little more is known about the history of this console.

Technology edit

General Instrument chips were used in game cartridges.[3]

The system could output color graphics, and used a built in speaker for audio.[7][3]

The system saw two different case designs used over the course of its production.[3]

Included controllers were analog.[8] Up to two controllers could be used, and an optional digital controller could be used for one tank game.[3] The system could have potentially accepted a light gun.[2]

Game library edit

External Resources edit

  • The Liberator - Offers a history of the console, as well as console photos including of the console interior.

References edit

  1. "Neckermann (company)". Wikipedia. 18 November 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  2. a b c "pongmuseum.com - and the ball was square... MBO - Teleball Cassette I". pongmuseum.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  3. a b c d e "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  4. "Palladium Tele-Cassetten Game (825/530) [BINARIUM]". binarium.de. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  5. "Tele-Cassetten-Game (Video Game 1978)". IMDb. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  6. "Emerson Arcadia 2001" (in en). DeHipGahn Gaming. 14 August 2013. https://dehipgahngaming.wordpress.com/2nd-generation-video-game-systems/emerson-arcadia-2001/. 
  7. "Palladium Tele-Cassetten-Game". bilgisayarlarim.com. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  8. "Palladium Tele-Cassetten-Game Game Console". www.the-liberator.net. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  9. a b c d e f g "Palladium Tele-Cassetten Game". Wikipedia. 9 February 2021. Retrieved 15 April 2021.

History edit

Launch edit

 
Logotype for Home Computer Software Inc. and the Super Mirco logotype.

The Palmtex Portable was released in 1983.[1]

The Palmtex Portable was among the first clamshell console designs.[2]

Legacy edit

According to the Video Game Kraken only 5,000 Palmtex Portables were sold out of the 30,000 units total were produced.[3] Remaining units were possibly destroyed.[3][4]

Technology edit

The Palmtex Portable uses cartridges with the system LCD built into the cartridges.[5][1] Overlays gave color to otherwise monochrome graphics.[6]

The system is very fragile.[7]

Game library edit

  • Aladdin's Adventures[8]
  • React Attack[8]
  • Outflank - Reversi[8]

External Resources edit

References edit

  1. a b Swift, James. "The World Of Retro Handheld Consoles – Through The Generations". Pure Gaming. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  2. Loguidice, Bill (3 December 2014). "The design of the Nintendo 3DS was rendered back in 1983!". Armchair Arcade. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  3. a b "SuperMicro Serial List – The Video Game Kraken". Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  4. "Palmtex PVS / Super Micro by Home Computer Software – The Video Game Kraken". Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  5. "A Guide To US Game Consoles by John Hancock and Jon Rose". www.retrogamingexpo.com. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  6. "Handhelds that use cartridges FAQ". Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  7. "PALMTEX SUPERMICRO - Worst or Rarest Handheld?". Retrieved 7 November 2020. {{cite web}}: Text "Octav1us" ignored (help)
  8. a b c "Palmtex Portable Videogame System". Wikipedia. 23 November 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2021.

History edit

Tomiyama Toy Seisakusho was founded in 1924, and was known for it's model air planes.[1] From the 1940s onwards the company began to expand into more general toys and games.[1] In 1963 the company changed it's name to Tomy.[2]

The Pyūta Jr was launched in Japan in April 1983 at a cost of 24,800 yen as a console version of the Tomy Pyūta (Tommy Tutor).[3]

Though it was not successful on the market, the system now has a positive reputation due to its aesthetically pleasing design.[4] The console is also notable as Tomys main attempt to enter the home console gaming market.

Technology edit

 
The die of a TMS9995JDE processor. This model is similar to, though slightly different than, the TMS 9995NL found in the Pyuta Jr.

The Pyuta Jr uses a 16 bit Texas Instruments TMS 9995NL CPU clocked at 2.7 megahertz with 16 kilobytes of RAM and 16 kilobytes of video RAM.[5][6]

Though the system uses a DE-9 socket for controllers, the system is electrically incompatible with controllers from other systems.[7]

Games edit

44 games were released for the Pyūta Jr.[3]

External Resources edit

References edit

  1. a b "HISTORY - TOMY Official Global Web Site". www.takaratomy.co.jp. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  2. "Japanese Toy Company TOMY to Unveil Lines for Two Pixar Films (Exclusive)" (in en). The Hollywood Reporter. 13 February 2015. https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/japanese-toy-company-tomy-unveil-773040. 
  3. a b "Home Page". Video Game Console Library. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  4. "2 Rare Video Game Consoles You've Probably Never Heard Of". Fanbyte. 12 January 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  5. "Home Page". Video Game Console Library. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  6. "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  7. "The Little Orphan Tomy Tutor: Tomy Tutor Hardware". www.floodgap.com. Retrieved 25 May 2021.

History edit

Background edit

The Radio Corporation of America (RCA) was founded in 1919 and quickly became a consumer electronics titan, having introduced some of the first consumer color television sets to the market in 1954.[1][2] In fact, RCA had been in such a powerful position that it helped set the standards for color television in the United States of America, and by extension other NTSC countries.[3] Indirectly this would have massive implications for the technologies adopted by the video game industry on its own, and is likely the largest single impact on the video game industry attributable to RCA's industry leadership.

By the late 1970's RCA was not as successful as it once had been due to a lack of solid leadership,[4] and began to seek success in different segments of consumer electronics including their CED media format,[5] and the RCA Studio II home video game console.

Development edit

Development of the system began in 1969 as the FRED (Flexible Recreational and Educational Device) personal computer, spearheaded by Joseph Weisbecker.[6][4] This is quite remarkable, as the only other game console in development at the time was the Magnavox Odyssey Brownbox prototypes, which were not based around a proper computer. Poor management at RCA lead the company to not capitalize on this computer for some time,[4] and by the time they did the first generation of video game consoles had already hit the market, and were being replaced by more advanced second generation systems.[4] The Studio II was a version of the FRED.[4]

A related early home computer design, the COSMAC ELF, had also resulted from the work of Joseph Weisbecker.[4]

Joyce Weisbecker, one of Joseph Weisbecker daughters, is believed to have become both one of the first female game developers and is also perhaps the first independent console game developer with her work developing the TV Schoolhouse I quiz game for the system as an outside contractor in 1976.[6]

 
RCA Studio A, a recording studio. The RCA Studios were the namesake of the RCA Studio series of game consoles.

Despite the name, there was not a product released named the RCA Studio I.[7][8] The name is instead based on RCA's recording studio naming scheme.[9]

Launch and Legacy edit

The RCA Studio II was released in January 1977[10] for about $150 US Dollars.[11] The system was quickly discontinued in February 1978 having been a commercial failure.[10]

A color capable and sound enhanced RCA Studio III was designed by 1977.[12] However the failure of the Studio II lead to RCA leaving the console to its Hong Kong based partner Conic Group, which released the console in a number of countries outside the United States of America under other brands in 1978.[12] Some software for the RCA Studio II and the RCA Studio III is compatible across both systems.[11]

A higher spec RCA Studio IV was planned.[11] A January 1st, 1978 tape made by Joseph Weisbecker containing data for the final interpreter software has lead hobbyists to make a working version of this console in software.[13][14]

Between 53,000 and 64,000 consoles were sold, with fewer cartridges sold then consoles.[15] RCA as an independent company would not last much longer, following a merger with General Electric in 1986.[16] Despite this, the RCA brand would be used on at least one more console. In Summer of 2002 (RCA DRC300N) and June 2003 (RCA DRC480N) two RCA brand Nuon enhanced DVD player was released, though the both systems are incapable of playing commercial titles and could only be used for homebrew gaming.[17][18]

 
The Library at the College of New Jersey.

At least one tape related to the development of the RCA Studio series is held by the Sarnoff Collection held at the College of New Jersey in Trenton, New Jersey.[14]

Technology edit

The RCA Studio II uses RCA's own RCA CDP1802 processor, clocked at 1.78 megahertz.[7] The CDP1802 was also developed by Joseph Weisbecker,[4] giving the RCA Studio II the rare advantage of sharing a designer of both the console and the processor inside of it. Furthermore a degree of horizontal integration was present as a result of RCA using their own processor design in their console. This revolutionary processor was the first to use power efficient complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology,[4] and was also a pioneer a RISC like methodology in early microprocessors.[19]

An RCA CDP1861 support processor handles graphical output.[20] The system was limited to black and white graphics, which proved to be a major downside for the console.[21] The system has 512 bytes of RAM, and 2 kilobytes of ROM.[7]

The RCA Studio II and RCA Studio III typically execute software through an interpreter,[11] a very forward thinking design for 1977. This is similar to the CHIP-8 on the COSMAC ELF, though RCA Studio series and COSMAC ELF software are not compatible.[11] Had RCA continued to make consoles and video games, they likely could have maintained backwards compatibility at minimal cost thanks to this technical decision, as future devices would only need the interpreter to be rewritten for their specific hardware.

The console uses a hand drawn PCB designed around through hole components for a motherboard,[7] a fairly typical design for the time. This style of design enhances reliability and made the board easier to repair,[22] especially compared to the then new technology of surface mounted components.[23]

The system used a combined power supply and RF switch, a rare design choice which is similar to the later Atari 5200.[9][24] This critical part has a high failure rate and is the Achilles heel of maintaining a working RCA Studio II.[25]

Styrofoam casing embossed with the RCA brand was used to protect the Studio II in the box.[9]

Notable Games edit

Built in software edit

Cartridges edit

  • TV Arcade Series: Speedway/Tag[26]
  • TV School House I[26]
  • TV School House II: Math fun[26]
  • Star Wars[26]

Gallery edit

Games edit

RCA Studio II edit

RCA Studio II internals edit

Related RCA Photos edit

External Resources edit

References edit

  1. "A Visual Memoir of RCA". Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  2. "RCA & Color TV: A dominant company and standard, both now gone – Part 2". Electrical Engineering News and Products. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  3. "Color TV Transformed the Way Americans Saw the World, and the World Saw America" (in en). Smithsonian Magazine. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/color-tv-transformed-way-americans-saw-world-world-saw-america-180971343/. 
  4. a b c d e f g h "Chip Hall of Fame: RCA CDP 1802". IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  5. Grundhauser, Eric (10 November 2015). "Movies on Vinyl: A Thing That Actually Happened in the Early 1980s" (in en). Slate Magazine. https://slate.com/human-interest/2015/11/capacitance-electronic-discs-were-a-doomed-effort-by-rca-to-make-videos-go-vinyl.html. 
  6. a b Edwards, Benj (27 October 2017). "Rediscovering History's Lost First Female Video Game Designer". Fast Company. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  7. a b c d "RCA Studio II Teardown". iFixit. 29 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  8. "The 10 Worst Video Game Systems of All Time". PCWorld. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  9. a b c "RCA Studio II: History's worst home console - Unboxing, Gameplay, Review". Retrieved 15 January 2021. {{cite web}}: Text "Retro Game Living Room" ignored (help)
  10. a b "RCA Studio II (1977 - 1978)". Museum of Obsolete Media. 24 January 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  11. a b c d e "Sudo Null". SudoNull. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  12. a b "RCA Studio III by RCA – The Video Game Kraken". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  13. "Emma 02". www.emma02.hobby-site.com. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  14. a b Modla, Andy (12 January 2021). "ajavamind/rca-studio2". Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  15. "RCA Studio II GOLD MINE! An interview with the Studio 2 Production Manager!". AtariAge Forums. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  16. Center, Smithsonian Lemelson (23 July 2014). "RCA Corporation Records, 1887-1983 (bulk, 1914-1968)" (in en). Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation. https://invention.si.edu/rca-corporation-records-1887-1983-bulk-1914-1968. 
  17. "NUON-Dome - www.nuon-dome.com". www.nuon-dome.com. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
  18. "NUON-Dome - www.nuon-dome.com". www.nuon-dome.com. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
  19. "Great Microprocessors of the Past and Present (V 13.4.0)". www.cpushack.com. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  20. "RCA Studio 2 Technical stuff". web.archive.org. 15 April 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2020.