Flora of New York/Vitales, Zygophyllales, Celastrales, Oxalidales


Proteales, Buxales, Hamamelidales, Saxifragales
Flora of New York — Vitales, Zygophyllales, Celastrales, Oxalidales
Malpighiales (1)
Hypericaceae, Podostemaceae, Elatinaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Clade Clade Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
rosids basal
rosids
Vitales Vitaceae Vitoideae Parthenocisseae Parthenocissus creeper, woodbine, ivy 3
Viteae Vitis grape 8
Ampelopsideae Ampelopsis peppervine 3
basal
fabids
Zygophyllales Zygophyllaceae Tribuloideae Tribulus puncturevine 1
Zygophylloideae Zygophyllum beancaper 1
fabids
COM
clade
Celastrales Parnassiaceae Parnassioideae Parnassia grass of parnassus 1
Celastraceae Celastroideae Celastrus bittersweet, staff vine 2
Euonymus burning bush, spindletree, wahoo 6
Oxalidales Oxalidaceae Oxalis woodsorrel 6
Malpighiales Hypericaceae Hypericeae Triadenum marsh St. John's wort 2
Hypericum St. John's wort 18
Podostemaceae Podostemoideae Podostemum river weed 1
Elatinaceae Elatine water wort 3
Violaceae Violoideae Violeae Hybanthus greenviolet 1
Viola violet 57
Salicaceae Salicoideae Populus cottonwood, aspen, poplar 11
Salix willow 36
Euphorbiaceae Acalyphoideae Acalypheae Acalypha copperleaf, three-seed mercury 4
Mercurialis herb mercury 1
Ricinus castor bean 1
Crotonoideae Crotoneae Croton rushfoil, hogwort 1
Euphorbioideae Euphorbieae Euphorbia spurge, sandmat 21
Linaceae Linoideae Lineae Linum flax 9

Order VitalesEdit

The order Vitales contains the single family Vitaceae.[1]
  1. Vitales in P.F. Stevens (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. 15 July 2015.

Family VitaceaeEdit

The Vitaceae (grape family), in New York State, consists of Vitis (grapes), Parthenocissus (creepers), and Ampelopsis (porcelainberry)[1]

The tribal classification used here is based on Jun Wen et al. (2018).[2]


Tribe AmpelopsideaeEdit

Ampelopsis s.l. was shown to be paraphyletic in recent phylogenetic studies and was split into the two genera: Ampelopsis s.s. and Nekemias.[1]
AmpelopsisEdit
 
Ampelopsis glandulosa
The two North American peppervine species Nekemias arborea and Ampelopsis cordata are not known to naturalize in New York State, but two native Chinese Ampelopsis species, including the highly invasive porcelain berry (A. glandulosa), have been found to naturalize in the southeastern part of the state and more recently in the Finger Lakes region.[1]
Vitales — Vitaceae — Ampelopsideae — Ampelopsis
Ampelopsis Peppervine N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Wall.) Momiy.
var. brevipedunculata Momiy.

1784. Vitis heterophylla Thunb.
1824. Vitis glandulosa Wall.
1859. Cissus brevipedunculata Maxim.
1845. A. heterophylla (Thunb.) Siebold & Zucc.
1861. C. humulifolia var. brevipedunculata (Maxim.) Regel
1883. A. brevipedunculata (Maxim.) Trautv.
1887. A. heterophylla var. amurensis Planch.
1892. Vitis brevipedunculata (Maxim.) Dippel
1971. A. glandulosa (Wall.) Momiy.
1977. A. glandulosa var. brevipedunculata Momiy.
1996. A. heterophylla var. brevipedunculata C.L.Li
Porcelain berry
Amur pepper-vine
Porcelain vine

Vigne vierge à fruits bleus
Introduced from
 China,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: 71%[1],
Prohibited[2],
NE-1[3]
  NYFA-X
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GBIF
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Bunge

1833. Ampelopsis aconitifolia Bunge
1873. Vitis aconitifolia (Bunge) Hance
1884. Vitis serianiifolia var. aconitifolia
 auct. Ampelopsis cordatanon Michx. (1803)
Monk's-hood-vine Introduced from
 China,
Naturalized

Perennial,
Vine
 
NYFA: New York (2013)
iNat: no observations
NYFA-Xn
USDA-X0
GBIF
iNaturalist
ITIS
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
Michx.

    Ampelopsis cordata Michx.
Heart leaf peppervine
Raccoon grape

Introduced from
 southeast US,
N. America native
 
NYFA: Queens (2017)
iNat: 0 counties
NYFA-Xn
GBIF
iNaturalist
Images
Wikispecies

Tribe CayratieaeEdit

Tribe Cayratieae contains the genera: Cayratia, Causonis, Pseudocayratia, Acareosperma, Cyphostemma, and Tetrastigma,[1] none of which are known to have naturalized in New York State, but Causonis japonica (Thunb.) Raf. (bushkiller) has been reported in adjacent states and would be considered highly invasive in New York.
CausonisEdit
 
Causonis japonica
The nearest research-grade observations of Causonis japonica to New York State as of 2021 appear to be from near Baltimore, Maryland.[1]
Vitales — Vitaceae — Cayratieae — Causonis
Causonis ' N.Y. Status Images Distribution  NPT
(Thunb.) Raf.

1784. Vitis japonica Thunb.
1797. Cissus japonica (Thunb.) Willd.
1830. Causonis japonica (Thunb.) Raf.
1838. Causonia japonica (Thunb.) Raf.
1910. Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep.
1911. Cayratia tenuifolia (Wight & Arn.) Gagnep.
1918. Columella japonica (Thunb.) Merr.
Bushkiller

Introduced,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS Tier: 1b,
 Invasive.org: [1],
NSE: GNR
 
NYFA: No counties
iNat: No counties

USDA-X0
GBIF
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies

Tribe ViteaeEdit

VitisEdit
 
Vitis riparia (river grape)
Although they are often treated as weeds, most wild grape vines found in New York are native plants that provide good nourishment for wildlife. Their problem stems from their tendency to dominate trees and shrubs on forest edges. Due to the fragmented state of much of New York's woodland, the edges comprise a large portion of the forest that most people experience. Many of what we consider natural areas or family woodlots are primarily forest edge, giving grape vines an undesired advantage over native trees and shrubs. Grapevines don't tolerate shade well, so they are easy to control in an established woods. It may be beneficial to allow grapes to dominate exotic invasive trees and shrubs.
Vitales — Vitaceae — Vitoideae — Vitis
Vitis Grape N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

1803. Vitis riparia Michx.
1856. V. cordifolia var. riparia
1893. V. riparia var. praecox
1897. V. vulpina var. praecox
1923. V. vulpina var. syrticola
1939. V. riparia var. syrticola
1949. V. vulpina ssp. riparia
River grape,
Riverbank grape,
Frost grape
Vigne des rivages,
Vigne souvage,
Raisin souvage
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Vine
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 Michx.

1803. Vitis aestivalis Michx.
1820. V. bicolor Raf.
1890. V. aestivalis var. bicolor
1897. V. argentifolia Munson
1921. V. lecontiana House
1924. V. aestivalis var. bicolor
1934. V. smalliana L.H.Bailey
1940. V. gigas J.H.Fennel
1936. V. aestivalis var. argentifolia
1987. V. aestivalis var. smalliana
Summer grape,
Small grape,
Pigeon grape,
Silverleaf grape,
Blue grape
Vigne d'été
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Vine
  NYFA-5
USDA-N0
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 L.

1753. Vitis labrusca L.
1818. V. labrusca var. labruscoides
1830. V. labrusca var. alba
1830. V. labrusca var. rosea
1940. V. labrusca var. subedentata
Northern fox grape,
Fox grape,
Skunk grape,
Concord grape
Vigne lambruche,
Vigne américaine,
Vigne framboisier
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Vine
  NYFA-5
USDA-NX
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ARS-GRIN
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 Fernald

Vitis labrusca ×
Vitis riparia

1917. Vitis × novae-angliae Fernald
    
    
New England grape,
Pilgrim grape
Native,
Very vulnerable,
SNA, GNA

FAC-FACW

Perennial,
Vine
 
NYFA: 7 counties
iNat: Nassau (2017)
NYFA-2
USDA-N0
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L.

1753. Vitis vulpina L.
1803. Vitis cordifolia sensu Macoun non Michx.
1818. Vitis cordifolia var. vulpina
1891. Vitis vinifera var. vulpina
1934. Vitis illex L.H.Bailey
Winter grape,
Frost grape
Vigne des renards
Vigne des battures
Native, CoC: 5,
Endangered

FAC

Perennial,
Vine
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USDA-NN
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 Rehder

Vitis aestivalis ×
Vitis riparia

1922. Vitis × slavinii Rehder
    
    
Slavin's grape,
Hybrid of
 Summer grape &
 River grape
Native,
Unranked,
SNA, GNA

FACU

Perennial,
Vine
  Monroe (1920) NYFA-?
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Vitis vinifera L.
    
    
European grape,
Wine grape,
Vinifera grape
Vigne cultivée,
Vigne
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Not naturalized,
SNR, G4

Perennial,
Vine, shrub
  Onondaga (1949) NYFA-X
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
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 Prince ex Jacques

Vitis labrusca ×
Vitis vinifera

1822. Vitis × alexanderi Prince nom. nud.
1829. Vitis × alexanderi Prince ex Jacques
1830. Vitis × prolifera Raf.
1834. Vitis isabellae var. alexanderi
1923. Vitis × labruscana L.H.Bailey
Concord grape,
Hybrid of
 Fox grape &
 Vinifera grape
Introduced,
Not naturalized,
SNA, GNA,
Vine
  Cayuga, Columbia, Essex, Orleans, Saratoga, St.Lawrence (1952) NYFA-Xnn
USDA-00
Images
Wikispecies
Vitis (excluded taxa) Grape N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Engelm.) Millardet

1880. Vitis cinerea (Engelm.) Millardet
Graybark grape N. America native
 southern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
Vahl

    
    
    
Catbird grape N. America native
 southern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-N0
Go Botany
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Wikispecies

    
Hybrid of
 Summer grape &
 Winter grape
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies

Tribe ParthenocisseaeEdit

ParthenocissusEdit
 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Virginia creeper tendril
Parthenocissus is made up of two disjunct groups: a North American clade and an Asian clade. [1]

The two North American creepers found in New York (Virgina creeper and thicket creeper) are very similar in appearence. Both have similar five-lobed leaves, but they differ in the way their tendrils attach to surfaces for climbing. Virgina creeper (P. quinquefolia) attaches using adhesive pads, allowing it to climb smooth surfaces such as smooth rocks and buildings, similar to the way Boston ivy climbs. The tendrils of thicket creeper (P. inserta) attach by twining around objects.


Parthenocissus Leaflets Habit Tendrils Fruit Inflorescence
P. quinquefolia
Virginia creeper
dull above,
pubescent below
high-climbing or on ground several branches terminating with dilated adhesive discs rare,
smaller
central axis with 25-200 flowers in panicled groups
P. inserta
thicket creeper
shiny above,
glabrous below
sprawling over ground or structures few branches,
no adhesive discs
common,
slightly larger
dichotomously branched,
10-60 flowers
Vitales — Vitaceae — Vitoideae — Parthenocisseae — Parthenocissus
Parthenocissus
North American clade
Creeper N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Planch.

1753. Hedera quinquefolia L.
1803. Ampelopsis quinquefolia (L.) Michx.
1887. P. quinquefolia (L.) Planch.
1939. P. quinquefolia fo. hirsuta
Virginia creeper,
Five-leaved ivy,
Five-finger
Vigne vierge à 5 folioles,
Parthénocisse à 5 folioles,
Vigne vierge vraie,
Vigne vierge grimpante
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Vine
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 (A.Kern.) Fritsch

1887. Vitis inserta A.Kern.
1893. Ampelopsis quinquefolia var. vitacea
1894. P. vitacea (Knerr) Hitchc.
1922. P. inserta (A. Kern.) Fritsch
Thicket Creeper,
Woodbine,
False Virginia Creeper
Vigne vierge commune,
Vigne vierge
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure

Perennial,
Vine
  NYFA-5
USDA-N0
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Parthenocissus
Asian clade
Creeper N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch.

1845. Ampelopsis tricuspidata S.& Z.
1868. A. veitchii hort. nom. inval.
1887. P. tricuspidata (S.& Z.) Planch.
Boston ivy,
Japanese creeper,
Japanese ivy,
Grape ivy
Vigne vierge tricuspidée,
Vigne vierge de Veitch,
Vigne-vierge du Japon
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Potentially invasive

Perennial,
Vine
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USDA-XX
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Order ZygophyllalesEdit

The Zygophyllales contain the two families Krameriaceae and Zygophyllaceae according to A.P.G. III (2009).[1]
  1. Zygophyllales in P.F. Stevens (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. 15 July 2015.

Family ZygophyllaceaeEdit

The Zygophyllaceae (bean-caper or caltrop family) contains two exotic species that are not known to truly naturalize in New York but are of concern because they are listed as invasive in parts of North America.[1]
  1. Zygophyllaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily TribuloideaeEdit

TribulusEdit
 
Puncture vine
Puncturevine is considered to be invasive in much of the U.S. and is now listed as naturalized in New York State. It is a weed of at least 21 crops in 37 countries and is toxic to livestock, which can also suffer injury to their mouths, eyes, digestive tracts and skin from its burrs.[1]
Zygophyllales — Zygophyllaceae — Tribuloideae — Tribulus
Tribulus Puncturevine N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Tribulus terrestris L.
1753. T. lanuginosus L.
1830. T. bimucronatus Viv.
1920. T. saharae A.Chev.
1946. T. terrestris var. sericeus Andersson ex Svenson (i)
Puncture vine
Puncture-vine
Puncture weed
Puncturevine weed
Caltrop
Small caltrop
Land caltrop
Goathead
Mexican sandbur
Texas sandbur

Croix-de-Malte
Tribule terrestre
Introduced from
 Eurasia, Africa, Australia,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [2],
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized,
SNA,
NSE: Exotic GNR

Annual,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 5 counties
iNat: 3 counties
NYFA-Xn
USDA-Xw
GBIF
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Subfamily ZygophylloideaeEdit

ZygophyllumEdit
The Syrian bean-caper (Zygophyllum fabago) is considered to be potentially invasive in parts of the U.S., but is not thought to have naturalized in New York.
Zygophyllales — Zygophyllaceae — Zygophylloideae — Zygophyllum
Zygophyllum Beancaper N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Zygophyllum fabago L.
1867. Z. fabago var. brachycarpum Boiss.
Caper-bean,
Syrian beancaper,
Syrian bean-caper
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-Xm
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Order CelastralesEdit

The order Celastrales ...

Family CelastraceaeEdit

The Celastraceae (staff-vine or bittersweet family) in New York contains the genera Euonymus (spindletree), Celastrus (bittersweet), as well as Parnassia (grass-of-Parnassus), which has also been included in the Saxifragaceae and Parnassiaceae.

Subfamily ParnassioideaeEdit

ParnassiaEdit
 
Parnassia glauca
common grass of Parnassus

Celastrales — Celastraceae — Parnassioideae — Parnassia
Parnassia Grass-of-Parnassus N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Raf.

1813. P. americana Muhl.
1840. P. glauca Raf.
 auct. P. caroliniana
non Michx. (1803)
Common grass of Parnassus,
Fen grass of Parnassus,
American grass-of-parnassus,
Glaucous grass-of-Parnassus,
"Carolina" grass-of-Parnassus
Parnassie à feuilles glauques,
Parnassie glauque
Native, CoC: 8,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
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L.

1753. Parnassia palustris L.
Marsh grass-of-Parnassus,
Marsh grass of Parnassus,
Northern grass of Parnassus,
Meadow grass-of-Parnassus
Parnassie des marais,
Parnassie palustre
Native, CoC: 10,
Likely extirpated

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-U
USDA-NN
VASCAN
Tropicos
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Wikispecies
Parnassia (excluded taxa) Grass-of-Parnassus N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Michx.

1803. P. caroliniana Michx.
Carolina grass of Parnassus N. America native
 southeast U.S.,
N.Y. excluded

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies

Subfamily CelastroideaeEdit

EuonymusEdit
Of the six native and naturalized Euonymus species in New York, three are native, and three have been introduced and are considered to be invasive.[1]
Euonymus subg. Euonymus sect. EuonymusEdit
The most common native Euonymus in New York is Euonymus atropurpureus (or eastern wahoo). It is sometimes confused with the somewhat-invasive Euonymus europaeus (or European spindle tree). The two can be distinguished by several characteristics, including:
Euonymus atropurpureus
(American wahoo)
Euonymus europaeus
(European spindletree)
Leaves: pubescent beneath or entirely glabrous glabrous above & beneath
Petals: wide, dark brown-purple narrow, light green-yellow-white
Inflorescence: umbels of 7-15 flowers umbels of 3-8 flowers
Capsule: pink to purple red to pink
Aril: scarlet orange
Seed brown white
Celastrales — Celastraceae — Celastroideae — Euonymus subg. Euonymus sect. Euonymus
EuonymusL.subg. Euonymussect. Euonymus Spindletree N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Jacq.
var. atropurpureus

1772. Euonymus atropurpurea orth. var.
1772. Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq.
1941. Euonymus atropurpureus
var. cheatumii Lundell
American wahoo,
Eastern wahoo,
Eastern spindle-tree,
Burning bush,
Bitter-ash
Fusain pourpre,
Fusain de l'Est
Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun - part shade
  NYFA-4
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 L.

    Euonymus vulgaris Mill.
    
    
European spindletree,
European euonymus
Fusain d'Europe,
Bonnet de prêtre
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 60%[1],
CP-5[2]

Perennial,
Tree, shrub
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Euonymus subg. Euonymus sect. EchinococcusEdit
Celastrales — Celastraceae — Celastroideae — Euonymus subg. Euonymus sect. Echinococcus
EuonymusL.subg. Euonymussect. Echinococcus Spindletree N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Nutt.

1818. Euonymus obovatus Nutt.
1892. Eu. americanus var. obovatus
    
Running strawberry-bush Native, CoC: 7,
Vulnerable

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Shrub, subshrub,
Vine
  NYFA-3
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
LBJ
Images
Wikispecies
L.

1753. Euonymus americanus L.
1753. Euonymus americana L., orth. var.
    
American strawberry bush,
Bursting hearts,
Bursting heart
Native, CoC: 7,
Endangered

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Subshrub
  NYFA-1
USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
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Euonymus subg. Euonymus sect. IlicifoliaEdit
Celastrales — Celastraceae — Celastroideae — Euonymus subg. Euonymus sect. Ilicifolia
EuonymusL.subg. Euonymussect. Ilicifolia Spindletree N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz.
var. radicans (Siebold ex Miq.) Rehder

1851. Euonymus hederaceus
Champ. ex Benth. p.p.
1863. Elaeodendron fortunei Turcz. p.p.
1865. Eu. japonicus var. radicans
1867. Eu. radicans Sieb. ex Miq.
1938. Eu. fortunei var. radicans Rehder
Climbing euonymus,
Winter creeper,
Evergreen bittersweet,
Climbing spindle-tree,
Fortune's euonymus
Fusain de Fortune,
Fusain rampant
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: 78%[1],
Regulated[2],
CP-4[3]

Perennial,
Shrub, vine
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Euonymus subg. Euonymus sect. MelanocaryaEdit
 
Euonymus alatus
burningbush, winged euonymus
The non-native burning bush or winged euonymus (Euonymus alatus) is widely planted for its bright fall foliage and can easily naturalize in wooded areas, where it often becomes invasive.
Celastrales — Celastraceae — Celastroideae — Euonymus subg. Euonymus sect. Melanocarya
EuonymusL.subg. Euonymussect. Melanocarya Spindletree N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Thunb.) Siebold

1784. Celastrus alatus Thunb.
1784. Celastrus striatus Thunb.
1826. Euonymus subtriflorus Blume
1826. Euonymus thunbergianus Blume
1830. Euonymus alatus Siebold
Burning bush,
Winged euonymus,
Winged burning bush,
Winged spindle tree
Fusain ailé
Introduced from
 eastern Asia,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 81%[1],
Regulated[2],
CP-3[3]
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CelastrusEdit
 
Celastrus scandens
American bittersweet
The genus Celastrus contains both a fairly rare American bittersweet and a very highly invasive Oriental bittersweet.

The two species, which are known to hybridize, can be distinguished by their inflorescences, which form at the ends of the branches of American bittersweet and at the joints (axils) of Oriental bittersweet. Also, the leaf margins of American bittersweet are finely toothed, while those of Oriental bittersweet are wavy.


Celastris bittersweet flowers leaves (alternate) margins seeds/capsule
C. scandens American bittersweet terminal arrays (panicles) of ≥ 6 suborbicular to broadly oblong-ovate (L ≥ 2W) fine teeth 0 or 1
C. orbiculatus Oriental bittersweet axillary arrays (cymes) of 2 or 3 elliptic to ovate, acuminate (L < 2W) wavy ≥ 5
Celastrales — Celastraceae — Celastroideae — Celastrus
Celastrus Bittersweet N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Celastrus scandens L.
1794. Euonymoides scandens
(L.) Moench
1902. Euonymus scandens
(L.) E.H.L.Krause
American bittersweet,
Climbing bittersweet
Bourreau des arbres,
Célastre grimpant
Native, CoC: 7,
Rare

FACU

Perennial,
Vine
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 Thunb.

1784. C. orbiculatus Thunb.
1784. C. articulatus Thunb.
Oriental bittersweet,
Asian bittersweet,
Asiatic bittersweet,
Oriental staff vine
Célastre asiatique
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 87%[1],
Prohibited,
CP-2[2] NE-1[3]

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Celastrus (excluded taxa) Bittersweet N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Loes.

1902. Celastrus gemmatus Loes.
1912. Embelia esquirolii H.Lév.
1935. C. lokchongensis Masam.
Shrub-bittersweet,
Chinese staff vine,
Chinese bittersweet
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
N.Y. excluded
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  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentCelastrus orbiculatus: Very high (87%).
  2. Appendix 2. Plant species that are considered highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2018)
  3. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service

Order OxalidalesEdit

The order Oxalidales contains seven families, of which, only Oxalidaceae members have been discovered growing outside of cultivation in New York.

Family OxalidaceaeEdit

The Oxalidaceae (wood-sorrel family) has traditionally been included in the Geraniales, but is now included here with phylogenically similar Rosids. The only Oxalidaceae genus known to grow in the wild in New York is Oxalis.

OxalisEdit

Oxalis (or wood-sorrel) species are not closely related to the several edible plants referred to as sorrel in the Rumex genus, and their visual appearance is quite different, but the taste of their leaves is said to be similar. Of the four Oxalis subgenera, only subg. Oxalis species have been found in New York.
Oxalis subg. Oxalis sect. OxalisEdit
 
Oxalis montana - northern wood-sorrel
Sect. Oxalis contains several species of white wood-sorrel, of which only northern wood sorrel (Oxalis montana) is listed in New York.
Oxalidales — Oxalidaceae — Oxalis subg. Oxalis sect. Oxalis
Oxalissect. Oxalis Wood-sorrel N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Raf.

1818. Oxalis montana Raf.
1930. O. acetosella var. rhodantha
1958. O. acetosella ssp. montana
 auct. O. acetosella non L.
Northern wood-sorrel
White wood-sorrel
Mountain wood-sorrel
Sleeping-beauty
American wood-sorrel
Common wood-sorrel

Oxalide de montagne
Oxalide des bois
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Part shade
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Oxalis subg. Oxalis sect. CorniculataeEdit
 
Oxalis stricta
common yellow wood-sorrel
Sect. Corniculatae contains the North American yellow-flowered caulescent Oxalis species, five of which are found in New York. This section has also been treated as the separate genus Xanthoxalis.[1]

Recent research has suggested that Oxalis corniculata (arguably the weediest of this section) is likely to be a native of southeast Asia.[2]

Oxalis exilis, a native of New Zealand and Tasmania, was reported in Jones Beach State Park in 2011.[3] That identification seems to be in question however.[4]


Oxalidales — Oxalidaceae — Oxalis subg. Oxalis sect. Corniculatae
Oxalissect. Corniculatae Yellow wood-sorrel N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Oxalis stricta L.
1854. Oxalis europaea Jord.
1896. Oxalis cymosa Small
1903. Xanthoxalis stricta (L.) Small
1903. Xanthoxalis cymosa (Small) Small
1943. Xanthoxalis europaea Moldenke
Common yellow wood-sorrel,
Common yellow oxalis,
Upright yellow wood-sorrel,
European wood-sorrel,
Tall wood-sorrel
Oxalide d'Europe,
Oxalide dressée,
Oxalide stricte, Surette,
Pain d'oiseau, Oxalis droit
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun
 
NYFA: 56 counties
iNat: 55 counties
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 Jacq.

1794. Oxalis dillenii Jacq.
1897. Oxalis corniculata var. dillenii (Jacq.) Trel.
1925. Oxalis stricta var. piletocarpa
1972. Xanthoxalis dillenii (Jacq.) Holub
Slender yellow wood-sorrel,
Dillen's wood-sorrel,
Sussex yellow sorrel
Oxalide de Dillenius
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 15 counties
iNat: 17 counties
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 Salisb.

1796. Oxalis florida Salisb.
1803. Oxalis prostrata Haw.
1821. Oxalis recurva Elliott
1824. Oxalis dillenii var. florida (Salisb.) DC.
1825. Oxalis rupestris Raf.
1897. Oxalis filipes Small
1901. Oxalis brittoniae Small
1903. Xanthoxalis brittoniae Small
1903. Xanthoxalis filipes Small
1903. Xanthoxalis recurva (Elliott) Small
1943. Xanthoxalis florida Moldenke
1963. Oxalis dillenii ssp. filipes Eiten
Slender eastern wood-sorrel,
Southern yellow wood-sorrel,
Flowering yellow wood-sorrel
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5 counties
iNat: No observations
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 L.

1753. Oxalis corniculata L.
1771. Oxys corniculata (L.) Scop.
1781. Oxalis repens Thunb.
1891. Acetosella corniculata Kuntze
1903. Xanthoxalis corniculata Small
1944. Xanthoxalis repens (Thunb.) Moldenke
Creeping wood-sorrel,
Creeping yellow wood-sorrel
Oxalide cornue,
Oxalis cornu
Introduced from
 Mexico to Venezuela & Peru,
 Caribbean,
Naturalized
 
NYFA: 21 counties
iNat: 28 counties
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A.Cunn.

1839. Oxalis exilis A.Cunn.
1976. Xanthoxalis exilis (A.Cunn.) Holub
Shady woodsorrel
Least yellow-sorrel
Least yellow woodsorrel
Creeping oxalis
Yellow oxalis

Introduced from
 Austalia,
 Norfolk Island,
 New Zealand,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 USGS: L48 invasive,
ID has been questioned
 
NYFA: 0 counties
iNat: 0 counties

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Oxalis subg. Oxalis sect. IonoxalisEdit
 
Oxalis violacea
violet wood-sorrel

Oxalidales — Oxalidaceae — Oxalis subg. Oxalis sect. Ionoxalis
Oxalissect. Ionoxalis Bulb-bearing wood-sorrel N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Oxalis violacea L.
1782. Sassia tinctoria Molina
1891. Acetosella violacea (L.) Kuntze
1903. Ionoxalis violacea (L.) Small
1937. O. violacea var. trichophora
1943. I. violacea var. trichophora
1998. Sassia violacea (L.) Holub
Violet wood-sorrel Native,
Threatened
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