Flora of New York/Euphorbiaceae, Linaceae


Malpighiales (3)
Salicaceae
Flora of New York — Malpighiales (4) : Euphorbiaceae, Linaceae
Fabales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Clade Clade Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
rosids basal
rosids
Vitales Vitaceae Vitoideae Parthenocisseae Parthenocissus creeper, woodbine, ivy 3
Viteae Vitis grape 8
Ampelopsideae Ampelopsis peppervine 3
basal
fabids
Zygophyllales Zygophyllaceae Tribuloideae Tribulus puncturevine 1
Zygophylloideae Zygophyllum beancaper 1
fabids
COM
clade
Celastrales Parnassiaceae Parnassioideae Parnassia grass of parnassus 1
Celastraceae Celastroideae Celastrus bittersweet, staff vine 2
Euonymus burning bush, spindletree, wahoo 6
Oxalidales Oxalidaceae Oxalis woodsorrel 6
Malpighiales Hypericaceae Hypericeae Triadenum marsh St. John's wort 2
Hypericum St. John's wort 18
Podostemaceae Podostemoideae Podostemum river weed 1
Elatinaceae Elatine water wort 3
Violaceae Violoideae Violeae Hybanthus greenviolet 1
Viola violet 57
Salicaceae Salicoideae Populus cottonwood, aspen, poplar 11
Salix willow 36
Euphorbiaceae Acalyphoideae Acalypheae Acalypha copperleaf, three-seed mercury 4
Mercurialis herb mercury 1
Ricinus castor bean 1
Crotonoideae Crotoneae Croton rushfoil, hogwort 1
Euphorbioideae Euphorbieae Euphorbia spurge, sandmat 21
Linaceae Linoideae Lineae Linum flax 9

Family EuphorbiaceaeEdit

The Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) ...

Subfamily AcalyphoideaeEdit

Tribe AcalypheaeEdit

AcalyphaEdit
 
Acalypha rhomboidea
The genus Acalypha has about 450 species worldwide, of which only three are currently considered native to New York State.
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Acalyphoideae — Acalypheae — Acalypha
Acalypha Copperleaf N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Raf.

1836. Acalypha rhomboidea Raf.
1836. Acalypha urticifolia Raf.
1853. Acalypha virginica var. rhombifolia Riddell
1865. Acalypha virginica var. genuina (L.) Müll. Arg. (i)
1892. Acalypha virginica fo. intermedia Millsp.
1984. Acalypha virginica var. rhomboidea (Raf.) Cooperr.
Common copperleaf,
Common threeseed mercury,
Rhombic copperleaf,
Rhombic threeseed mercury,
Virginia threeseed mercury
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure

FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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 A.Gray

1848. Acalypha gracilens A.Gray
1853. Acalypha virginica var. gracilens
Slender threeseed mercury,
Slender copperleaf
Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

FAC-FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-4
USDA-N0
Go Botany
ITIS
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Acalypha virginica L.
1817. Acalypha digyneia Raf.
1853. Acalypha virginica var. virginica
1891. Ricinocarpus virginicus Kuntze
Virginia three-seeded mercury,
Three-seeded mercury,
Virginia copperleaf,
Virginia mercury
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1],
S1, G5-T5

FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-1
USDA-N
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ARS-GRIN
ITIS
Tropicos
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 L.

1753. Acalypha australis L.
Asian three-seeded-mercury,
Asian copperleaf,
Australian acalypha
Introduced from
 Asia,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA: 5 counties
iNat: 5 counties
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
iNaturalist
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
Images
Wikispecies
RicinusEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Acalyphoideae — Acalypheae — Ricinus
Ricinus Ricinus N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Ricinus communis L.
Castor-bean,
Castor bean,
Castorbean,
Castor-oil plant
Introduced,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
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ARS-GRIN
ITIS
Images
Wikispecies
MercurialisEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Acalyphoideae — Acalypheae — Mercurialis
Mercurialis Mercurialis N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Mercurialis annua L.
Herb-mercury
Herb mercury
Annual mercury
Boys-and-girls
French mercury
Introduced,
Impersistent
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
Images
Wikispecies

Subfamily CrotonoideaeEdit

Tribe CrotoneaeEdit

CrotonEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Crotonoideae — Crotoneae — Croton
Croton Rushfoil N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

Woolly croton
Hogwort
Introduced from
 southern US,
 midwestern US,
N. America native,
Not naturalized,
SNA
  NYFA: Richmond (1882) NYFA-X
USDA-NX
iNaturalist
ARS-GRIN
Images
Wikispecies

Subfamily EuphorbioideaeEdit

Tribe EuphorbieaeEdit

EuphorbiaEdit

Two subgenera of Euphorbia (commonly known as spurge) can be found in New York.

Euphorbia subg. ChamaesyceEdit
Subgenus Chamaesyce contains North American spurges or sandmats, many of which are treated in a separate Chamaesyce genus by some sources. Recent phylogenic studies, however, have shown the Chamaesyce genus to be embedded within Euphorbia.[1]

The name Chamaesyce is from the Greek chamai (meaning "on the ground") and skyon (meaning "fig," as in Ficus). A common pronunciation of Chamaesyce, according to Botanary is kam-ay-SY-kee.[2]


  1. The New York Flora Atlas states: "Steinmann and Porter (2002) provide strong evidence that the segregate genus Chamaesyce is nested within Euphorbia. Therefore we recognize Euphorbia in a broad sense including Chamaesyce."
  2. Dave's Garden. Botanary: Chamaesyce
Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce sect. AlectoroctonumEdit
 
Euphorbia corollata
American spurge

Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce
Euphorbiasubg. Chamaesycesect. Alectoroctonum Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Euphorbia corollata L.
1859. Tithymalopsis corollata (L.) Klotzsch & Garcke
1898. Euphorbia marilandica Greene
1903. Tithymalopsis olivacea (Small) Small
1836. Agaloma corollata (L.) Raf.
Flowering spurge
American spurge
Blooming spurge
Poison-milkweed

Euphorbe pétaloïde
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
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Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Euphorbia ipecacuanhae L.
1903. Tithymalopsis ipecacuanhae (L.) Small
1911. Euphorbia arundelana Bartlett
1912. Agaloma arundelana (Bartlett) Nieuwl.
1913. Tithymalopsis arundelana (Bartlett) Small
Ipecac spurge
American ipecac
Carolina ipecac
Wild ipecac

Native,
Endangered
  NYFA-1
USDA-N0
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Wikispecies
 Pursh

1814. Euphorbia marginata Pursh
1909. Tithymalus marginatus (Pursh) Cockerell
Snow-on-the-mountain,
Mountain snow spurge
Introduced from
 Great Plains,
 Rockies,
N. America native

FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-X
USDA-NX
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Tropicos
BONAP
Images
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Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce sect. AnisophyllumEdit
 
Euphorbia maculata
spotted spurge, spotted sandmat

Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce
Euphorbiasubg. Chamaesycesect. Anisophyllum Spurge, Sandmat N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Raf.

1818. Euphorbia vermiculata Raf.
1897. E. rafinesquei Greene
1912. Chamaesyce rafinesquei
(Greene) A.Heller
1913. C. rafinesquei
(Greene) Small (iso.)
1920. C. vermiculata (Raf.) House
Hairy spurge
Wormseed sandmat
Worm-seed sand-mat
Wormseed spurge
Worm-seeded spurge
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-N
USDA-NN
Go Botany
Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Euphorbia maculata L.
1794. Tithymalus maculatus
(L.) Moench
1812. Anisophyllum maculatum
(L.) Haw.
1817. Euphorbia supina Raf.
1903. Chamaesyce maculata
(L.) Small
1939. C. supina (Raf.) Moldenke
1940. C. supina (Raf.) H.Hara (iso.)
Spotted sandmat,
Spotted spurge,
Blotched Spurge,
Milk-purslane
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure

FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-N0
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 Lag.

1816. Euphorbia nutans Lag.
1827. Euphorbia preslii Guss.
1903. Chamaesyce nutans
(Lag.) Small
1931. Tithymalus nutans
(Lag.) Samp.
Upright spurge
Eyebane
Eyebane sandmat
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure

FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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Engelm.

    Chamaesyce glyptosperma
Ridge-seeded spurge,
Ribseed sandmat,
Corrugate-seeded broomspurge
Native,
Likely secure
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany
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Wikispecies
 L.

    Chamaesyce polygonifolia
Seaside sandmat,
Seaside spurge
Native,
Vulnerable
  NYFA-3-4
USDA-XX
Go Botany
Images
Wikispecies
 L.

    Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp.
Pillpod sandmat,
Pill-podded broomspurge
Introduced,
US South native
  NYFA-X
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Euphorbiasect. Anisophyllum (excluded taxa) Spurge, Sandmat N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Pers.
var. serpyllifolia

    Chamaesyce serpyllifolia
ssp. serpyllifolia
Thyme-leaf sandmat,
Thyme-leaved sandmat
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-NN
Go Botany
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Wikispecies
Engelm.

    Chamaesyce stictospora
Slimseed sandmat,
Slim-seeded broomspurge
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-N0
Go Botany
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Wikispecies
Engelm.

1856. Euphorbia humistrata
Engelm.
1860. Anisophyllum humistratum
(Engelm.) Klotzsch & Garcke
1903. Chamaesyce humistrata
(Engelm.) Small
Prostrate spurge,
Hairy spreading spurge,
Spreading sandmat
N. America native
 Midwest,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-NX
Go Botany-0
VASCAN
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP
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Wikispecies
Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce sect. PoinsettiaEdit
 
Euphorbia davidii
David’s spurge

Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce
Euphorbiasubg. Chamaesycesect. Poinsettia Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Subils

1890. Euphorbia dentata var. gracillima Millsp.
1923. Euphorbia dentata var. lancifolia Farw.
1984. Euphorbia davidii Subils
David’s spurge
Toothed spurge
Wild poinsettia

Euphorbe de David
Introduced,
US Southwest native
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
VASCAN
iNaturalist
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
BONAP
IPN
Images
Wikispecies
 Michx.

1803. Euphorbia dentata Michx.
1812. Anisophyllum dentatum
(Michx.) Haw.
1859. Poinsettia dentata
(Michx.) Klotzsch & Garcke
1803. Euphorbia dentata var. linearis Engelm. ex Boiss.
Toothed spurge
Dentate spurge

Euphorbe à feuilles dentées
N. America native
 southern US,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA: excluded
iNat: Kings (2018), Queens (2018)
NYFA-Excluded
USDA-M0
Go Botany
VASCAN
iNaturalist
ARS-GRIN
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Wikispecies
Euphorbia subg. EsulaEdit

Subgenus Esula contains non-native spurges, a few of which are considered highly invasive in New York.

Euphorbia subg. Esula sect. EsulaEdit
 
Euphorbia cyparissias
Section Esula contains two highly invasive and prohibited species, though which two is a little confusing. New York State law (as of 2021) lists Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge) and Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge) as prohibited invasive species.[1]. NYNHP lists those two species with Ecological Invasiveness Ranks of High and NY State Tier 4.[2] However Flora of North America claims that the invasive leafy spurge previously known in North America as Euphorbia esula is actually Euphorbia virgata and that Euphorbia esula is in fact a relatively rare non-invasive introduction to North America.[3] The New York Flora Atlas has subsequently moved all New York State Euphorbia esula records to Euphorbia virgata and listed Euphorbia esula as excluded.[4]
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Esula
Euphorbiasubg. Esulasect. Esula Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Euphorbia cyparissias L.
1768. Tithymalus cyparissias
(L.) Hill
1812. Esula cyparissias (L.) Haw.
1836. Keraselma cyparissias
(L.) Raf.
1932. Galarhoeus cyparissias
(L.) Small ex Rydb.
Cypress spurge
Graveyard weed
Graveyard spurge

Euphorbe cyprès
Rhubarbe des pauvres
Euphorbe petit-cyprès
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 75%[1],
Prohibited[2]
  NYFA-X
USDA-X
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NatureServe
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Waldst. & Kit.

1803. E. virgata Waldst. & Kit. (i)
1979. E. esula ssp. tommasiniana (Bertol.) Kuzmanov
1988. E. esula var. uralensis (Fisch. ex Link) Dorn
 auct. E. esulanon L. (i)
Slender spurge
Slender leafy spurge
Narrow leafy spurge
Russian leafy spurge
Leafy spurge
Wolf's milk

Euphorbe de Tommasini
Euphorbe de Waldstein
Euphorbe effilée
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 n. Africa,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 76%[3],
Prohibited[2]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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ARS-GRIN
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Wikispecies
Waldst. & Kit. (1801)

    Galarhoeus lucidus
    Tithymalus lucidus
Shining spurge Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
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Wikispecies
L.

1753. E. esula L.
1822. E. uralensis Fisch. ex Link
1933. Tithymalus uralensis
(Fisch. ex Link) Prokhanov
Leafy spurge Introduced,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-Excluded
Images
Wikispecies
Euphorbia subg. Esula sect. HelioscopiaEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Esula
Euphorbiasubg. Esulasect. Helioscopia Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Euphorbia helioscopia L.
    Galarhoeus helioscopius (L.) Haw.
    Tithymalus helioscopius (L.) Hill
Sun spurge
Wolf's-milk
Cat-milk
Madwoman's milk
Wart spurge
Wart weed
Waterweed
Summer spurge

Euphorbe réveille-matin
Euphorbe réveil-matin
Réveille-matin
Euphorbe hélioscopique
Introduced,
Naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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 L.

    Galarhoeus platyphyllos (L.) Rydb.
    Tithymalus platyphyllos (L.) Hill
Broadfeaf spurge,
Broad-leaved spurge
Introduced,
Unknown naturalization
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
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Wikispecies
 L.

1762. E. epithymoides L.
    E. polychroma A.Kern.
    
Cushion spurge
Euphorbe dorée,
Euphorbe polychrome
Introduced,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
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Euphorbiasubg. Esulasect. Helioscopia (excluded taxa) Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Raf.) Fernald

1840. Agaloma purpurea Raf.
1848. E. darlingtonii A.Gray
1903. Tithymalus darlingtonii
(A. Gray) Small
1932. E. purpurea (Raf.) Fernald
1933. Galarhoeus darlingtonii
(A. Gray) Small
Darlington's spurge
Darlington's glade spurge
Glade spurge

N. America native
 Mid-Atlantic,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-N0
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Euphorbia subg. Esula sect. TithymalusEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Esula
Euphorbiasubg. Esulasect. Tithymalus Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L. (1753)

1753. Euphorbia peplus L.
1768. Tithymalus peplus (L.) Hill
1812. Esula peplus (L.) Haw.
1836. Keraselma peplus (L.) Raf.
1932. Galarhoeus peplus (L.) Haw. ex Rydb.
Petty spurge,
Euphorbe des jardins
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Naturalized,
SNA, GNR

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Euphorbia subg. Esula sect. LathyrisEdit
 
Euphorbia lathyris - caper spurge, myrtle spurge, mole plant

Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Esula
Euphorbiasubg. Esulasect. Lathyris Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L. (1759)

1753. Euphorbia lathyrus L.
    Galarhoeus lathyris (L.) Haw.
    Tithymalus lathyris (L.) Hill
Caper spurge,
Mole plant,
Gopher plant,
Euphorbe épurge
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 57%[1]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
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Euphorbia subg. Esula sect. ExiguaeEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Esula
Euphorbiasubg. Esulasect. Exiguae Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Dwarf spurge,
Little spurge
Introduced,
Impersistent
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Images
Wikispecies

Tribe HippomaneaeEdit

TriadicaEdit

Family PhyllanthaceaeEdit

The Phyllanthaceae

PhyllanthusEdit

 
Phyllanthus urinaria
Phyllanthus urinaria is considered a noxious weed in the southeast and is being tracked in New York and New Jersey. The New York Flora Atlas lists specimens from the Bronx, and iNaturalist shows observations from Manhattan and Onondaga County (questionable).
Malpighiales — Phyllanthaceae — Phyllanthoideae — Phyllanthus

Phyllanthus Phyllanthus N.Y. Status Images Distribution  NPT
L.

    Phyllanthus urinaria L.
Chamber bitter
Chamber-bitter
Chamber bitters
Leafflower

Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [1],
Not naturalized
 
NYFA: Bronx (2009, 2012)
iNat: 2 counties
NYFA-Xm
GBIF
iNaturalist
CABI
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Wikispecies

Family LinaceaeEdit

The Linaceae

Subfamily LinoideaeEdit

Tribe LineaeEdit

LinumEdit
 
Linum virginianum
slender yellow flax

Malpighiales — Linaceae — Linoideae — Lineae — Linum
Linum Flax N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Slender yellow flax,
Woodland yellow flax,
Woodland flax,
Virginia flax,
Yellow flax
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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Images
Wikispecies
 Walter

Ridged yellow flax Native,
Rare
  NYFA-3
USDA-NN
Images
Wikispecies
 E.P.Bicknell

1912. L. intercursum E.P.Bicknell
1916. L. floridanum var. intercursum Weath.
1933. Cathartolinum intercursum
Small
Sandplain flax,
Sandplain yellow flax
Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: S2[1]
NYFA-2
USDA-N0
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Wikispecies
 (Planch.) Britton
var. texanum

1848. L. virginianum var. texanum Planch.
1935. L. medium var. texanum (Planch.)
Stiff yellow flax Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: S2[2]
  NYFA-2
USDA-NN
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Wikispecies
 Riddell
var. sulcatum

1836. L. sulcatum Riddell
1907. Cathartolinum sulcatum
(Riddell) Small
1982. Mesynium sulcatum
(Riddell) Á. Löve & D. Löve
Grooved yellow flax Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: S2[3]
  NYFA-2
USDA-NN
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 L.

1753. L. usitatissimum L.
1768. L. humile Mill.
1805. L. usitatissimum
var. humile (Mill.) Pers.
1940. L. usitatissimum
ssp. transitorium Vavilov & Elladi
Common flax,
Cultivated flax,
Linseed
Lin cultivé,
Lin utile,
Lin
Introduced,
Only cultivated
  NYFA-X
USDA-XW
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ARS-GRIN
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Fairy flax Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Linum grandiflorum L.
Flowering flax,
Red flax,
Scarlet flax,
Crimson flax
Lin à grandes fleurs
Introduced from
 Algeria
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN
Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Linum perenne L.
 auct. Linum lewisiinon Pursh
Blue flax,
Perennial flax,
Alpine flax
Lin vivace
Introduced from
 Eurasia
  NYFA-X
USDA-XN
ARS-GRIN
Images
Wikispecies
Linum (excluded taxa) Flax N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Planch.) Britton
var. medium

1848. Linum virginianum var. medium Planch.
1897. Linum medium (Planch.) Britton
Stiff yellow flax N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

Annual-perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
Images
Wikispecies