Flora of New York/Euphorbiaceae, Linaceae


Malpighiales (3)
Salicaceae
Flora of New York — Malpighiales (4) : Euphorbiaceae, Linaceae
Fabales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
Malpighiales Hypericaceae Hypericeae Triadenum marsh St. John's wort 2
Hypericum St. John's wort 18
Podostemaceae Podostemoideae Podostemum river weed 1
Elatinaceae Elatine water wort 3
Violaceae Violoideae Violeae Hybanthus greenviolet 1
Viola violet 57
Salicaceae Salicoideae Populus cottonwood, aspen, poplar 11
Salix willow 36
Euphorbiaceae Acalyphoideae Acalypheae Acalypha copperleaf, three-seed mercury 4
Mercurialis herb mercury 1
Ricinus castor bean 1
Crotonoideae Crotoneae Croton rushfoil, hogwort 1
Euphorbioideae Euphorbieae Euphorbia spurge, sandmat 21
Linaceae Linoideae Lineae Linum flax 9

Family EuphorbiaceaeEdit

The Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) ...

Subfamily AcalyphoideaeEdit

Tribe AcalypheaeEdit

AcalyphaEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Acalyphoideae — Acalypheae — Acalypha
Acalypha Copperleaf N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Raf.

1836. Acalypha rhomboidea Raf.
1984. A. virginica var. rhomboidea
Common copperleaf,
Common threeseed mercury,
Rhombic copperleaf,
Rhombic threeseed mercury,
Virginia threeseed mercury
Native, C:0,
Secure

FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
 A.Gray

1848. Acalypha gracilens A.Gray
1853. A. virginica var. gracilens
Slender threeseed mercury,
Slender copperleaf
Native, C:6,
Likely secure

FAC-FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-4
USDA-N0
NPT 
ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Acalypha virginica L.
1817. Acalypha digyneia Raf.
1853. A. virginica var. virginica
1891. Ricinocarpus virginicus Kuntze
Virginia three-seeded mercury,
Three-seeded mercury,
Virginia copperleaf,
Virginia mercury
Native, C:10,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1]

FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-1
USDA-N
NPT 
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Acalypha australis L.
Asian three-seeded-mercury,
Asian copperleaf,
Australian acalypha
Introduced from
 Asia,
iMapInvasives

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
RicinusEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Acalyphoideae — Acalypheae — Ricinus
Ricinus Ricinus N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Ricinus communis L.
Castor-bean,
Castor bean,
Castorbean,
Castor-oil plant
Introduced,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
MercurialisEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Acalyphoideae — Acalypheae — Mercurialis
Mercurialis Mercurialis N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Mercurialis annua L.
Herb-mercury
Herb mercury
Annual mercury
Boys-and-girls
French mercury
Introduced,
Impersistent
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 




Images, wsp

Subfamily CrotonoideaeEdit

Tribe CrotoneaeEdit

CrotonEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Crotonoideae — Crotoneae — Croton
Croton Rushfoil N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.
var. capitatus

Woolly croton
Hogwort
Introduced,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-NX






Images, wsp

Subfamily EuphorbioideaeEdit

Tribe EuphorbieaeEdit

EuphorbiaEdit

Two subgenera of Euphorbia (commonly known as spurge) can be found in New York.

Euphorbia subg. ChamaesyceEdit
Subgenus Chamaesyce contains North American spurges or sandmats, many of which are treated in a separate Chamaesyce genus by some sources. Recent phylogenic studies, however, have shown the Chamaesyce genus to be embedded within Euphorbia.[1]

The name Chamaesyce is from the Greek chamai (meaning "on the ground") and skyon (meaning "fig," as in Ficus). A common pronunciation of Chamaesyce, according to Botanary is kam-ay-SY-kee.[2]


  1. The New York Flora Atlas states: "Steinmann and Porter (2002) provide strong evidence that the segregate genus Chamaesyce is nested within Euphorbia. Therefore we recognize Euphorbia in a broad sense including Chamaesyce."
  2. Dave's Garden. Botanary: Chamaesyce
Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce sect. AlectoroctonumEdit
 
Euphorbia corollata
American spurge

Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce
Euphorbiasubg. Chamaesycesect. Alectoroctonum Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

    Euphorbia marilandica
    Tithymalopsis corollata
    Tithymalopsis marilandica
    Tithymalopsis olivacea
Flowering spurge
American spurge
Blooming spurge
Poison-milkweed

Euphorbe pétaloïde
Native, C:3,
Secure

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.

    Euphorbia arundelana
    Tithymalopsis arundelana
    Tithymalopsis ipecacuanhae
Ipecac spurge
American ipecac
Carolina ipecac
Wild ipecac

Native,
Endangered
  NYFA-1
USDA-N0
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp
 Pursh

Snow-on-the-mountain,
Mountain snow spurge
Introduced from
 Great Plains,
 Rockies,
N. America native

FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-X
USDA-NX
NPT 


BNA


Images, wsp
Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce sect. AnisophyllumEdit
 
Euphorbia maculata
spotted spurge, spotted sandmat

Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce
Euphorbiasubg. Chamaesycesect. Anisophyllum Spurge, Sandmat N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Raf.

1818. Euphorbia vermiculata Raf.
1897. E. rafinesquei Greene
1912. Chamaesyce rafinesquei
(Greene) A.Heller
1913. C. rafinesquei
(Greene) Small (iso.)
1920. C. vermiculata (Raf.) House
Hairy spurge
Wormseed sandmat
Worm-seed sand-mat
Wormseed spurge
Worm-seeded spurge
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-N
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Euphorbia maculata L.
1794. Tithymalus maculatus
(L.) Moench
1812. Anisophyllum maculatum
(L.) Haw.
1817. Euphorbia supina Raf.
1903. Chamaesyce maculata
(L.) Small
1939. C. supina (Raf.) Moldenke
1940. C. supina (Raf.) H.Hara (iso.)
Spotted sandmat,
Spotted spurge,
Blotched Spurge,
Milk-purslane
Native, C:0,
Secure

FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NPT 
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
 Lag.

1816. Euphorbia nutans Lag.
1827. Euphorbia preslii Guss.
1903. Chamaesyce nutans
(Lag.) Small
1931. Tithymalus nutans
(Lag.) Samp.
Upright spurge
Eyebane
Eyebane sandmat
Native, C:0,
Secure

FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
Engelm.

    Chamaesyce glyptosperma
Ridge-seeded spurge,
Ribseed sandmat,
Corrugate-seeded broomspurge
Native,
Likely secure
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.

    Chamaesyce polygonifolia
Seaside sandmat,
Seaside spurge
Native,
Vulnerable
  NYFA-3-4
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.

    Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp.
Pillpod sandmat,
Pill-podded broomspurge
Introduced,
US South native
  NYFA-X
NPT 





Images, wsp
Euphorbiasect. Anisophyllum (excluded taxa) Spurge, Sandmat N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Pers.
var. serpyllifolia

    Chamaesyce serpyllifolia
ssp. serpyllifolia
Thyme-leaf sandmat,
Thyme-leaved sandmat
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
Engelm.

    Chamaesyce stictospora
Slimseed sandmat,
Slim-seeded broomspurge
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0
NPT 





Images, wsp
Engelm.

1856. Euphorbia humistrata
Engelm.
1860. Anisophyllum humistratum
(Engelm.) Klotzsch & Garcke
1903. Chamaesyce humistrata
(Engelm.) Small
Prostrate spurge,
Hairy spreading spurge,
Spreading sandmat
N. America native
 Midwest,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NX
NEW-0Can

FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce sect. PoinsettiaEdit
 
Euphorbia davidii
David’s spurge

Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce
Euphorbiasubg. Chamaesycesect. Poinsettia Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Subils

1890. Euphorbia dentata var. gracillima
1923. Euphorbia dentata var. lancifolia
1984. Euphorbia davidii Subils
David’s spurge
Toothed spurge
Wild poinsettia

Euphorbe de David
Introduced,
US Southwest native
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA
IPN 

Images, wsp
Euphorbiasubg. Chamaesycesect. Poinsettia (excluded taxa) Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

1803. Euphorbia dentata Michx.
1812. Anisophyllum dentatum
(Michx.) Haw.
1859. Poinsettia dentata
(Michx.) Klotzsch & Garcke
1803. Euphorbia dentata var. linearis
Toothed spurge
Dentate spurge

Euphorbe à feuilles dentées
N. America native
 southern US,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-M0
NPT Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
Euphorbia subg. EsulaEdit

Subgenus Esula contains non-native spurges,[1] a few of which are considered highly invasive in New York.

Euphorbia subg. Esula sect. EsulaEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Esula
Euphorbiasubg. Esulasect. Esula Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Euphorbia cyparissias L.
1768. Tithymalus cyparissias
(L.) Hill
1812. Esula cyparissias (L.) Haw.
1836. Keraselma cyparissias
(L.) Raf.
1932. Galarhoeus cyparissias
(L.) Small ex Rydb.
Cypress spurge
Graveyard weed
Graveyard spurge

Euphorbe cyprès
Rhubarbe des pauvres
Euphorbe petit-cyprès
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 75%[2],
Prohibited[3],
NE-3[4]
  NYFA-X
USDA-X
NPT 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Waldst. & Kit.

1803. E. virgata Waldst. & Kit. (i)
1979. E. esula ssp. tommasiniana
1988. E. esula var. uralensis
 auct. E. esulanon L. (i)
Leafy spurge,
Wolf's milk,
Russian leafy spurge,
Narrow leafy spurge
Euphorbe de Tommasini,
Euphorbe de Waldstein,
Euphorbe effilée
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 n. Africa,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 76%[5],
Prohibited[3],
NE-1[6]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
Waldst. & Kit. (1801)

    Galarhoeus lucidus
    Tithymalus lucidus
Shining spurge Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
Euphorbiasubg. Esulasect. Esula (excluded taxa) Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Euphorbia uralensis
= Euphorbia esula

Leafy spurge Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD

ITIS




Images, wsp
L.

1753. E. esula L.
1822. E. uralensis Fisch. ex Link
1933. Tithymalus uralensis
(Fisch. ex Link) Prokhanov
Leafy spurge Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD






Images, wsp
Euphorbia subg. Esula sect. HelioscopiaEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Esula
Euphorbiasubg. Esulasect. Helioscopia Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Euphorbia helioscopia L.
    Galarhoeus helioscopius (L.) Haw.
    Tithymalus helioscopius (L.) Hill
Sun spurge
Wolf's-milk
Cat-milk
Madwoman's milk
Wart spurge
Wart weed
Waterweed
Summer spurge

Euphorbe réveille-matin
Euphorbe réveil-matin
Réveille-matin
Euphorbe hélioscopique
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.

    Galarhoeus platyphyllos (L.) Rydb.
    Tithymalus platyphyllos (L.) Hill
Broadfeaf spurge,
Broad-leaved spurge
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.

1762. E. epithymoides L.
    E. polychroma A.Kern.
    
Cushion spurge
Euphorbe dorée,
Euphorbe polychrome
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp
Euphorbiasubg. Esulasect. Helioscopia (excluded taxa) Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Raf.) Fernald

1840. Agaloma purpurea Raf.
1848. E. darlingtonii A.Gray
1903. Tithymalus darlingtonii
(A. Gray) Small
1932. E. purpurea (Raf.) Fernald
1933. Galarhoeus darlingtonii
(A. Gray) Small
Darlington's spurge
Darlington's glade spurge
Glade spurge

N. America native
 Mid-Atlantic,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0
NPT 
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Euphorbia subg. Esula sect. TithymalusEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Esula
Euphorbiasubg. Esulasect. Tithymalus Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L. (1753)

    Galarhoeus peplus (L.) Rydb.
    Tithymalus peplus (L.) Hill
Petty spurge,
Euphorbe des jardins
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
Euphorbia subg. Esula sect. LathyrisEdit
 
Euphorbia lathyris - caper spurge, myrtle spurge, mole plant

Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Esula
Euphorbiasubg. Esulasect. Lathyris Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L. (1759)

1753. Euphorbia lathyrus L.
    Galarhoeus lathyris (L.) Haw.
    Tithymalus lathyris (L.) Hill
Caper spurge,
Mole plant,
Gopher plant,
Euphorbe épurge
Introduced,
Invasive,
NYIS: 57%[1]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
Euphorbia subg. Esula sect. ExiguaeEdit
Malpighiales — Euphorbiaceae — Euphorbioideae — Euphorbieae — Euphorbiineae — Euphorbia subg. Esula
Euphorbiasubg. Esulasect. Exiguae Spurge N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Dwarf spurge,
Little spurge
Introduced,
Impersistent
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Family LinaceaeEdit

The Linaceae

Subfamily LinoideaeEdit

Tribe LineaeEdit

LinumEdit
 
Linum virginianum
slender yellow flax

Malpighiales — Linaceae — Linoideae — Lineae — Linum
Linum Flax N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Slender yellow flax,
Woodland yellow flax,
Woodland flax,
Virginia flax,
Yellow flax
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
 Walter

Ridged yellow flax Native,
Rare
  NYFA-3
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 E.P.Bicknell

1912. L. intercursum E.P.Bicknell
1916. L. floridanum var. intercursum
1933. Cathartolinum intercursum
Small
Sandplain flax,
Sandplain yellow flax
Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: S2[1]
NYFA-2
USDA-N0
NPT 





Images, wsp
 (Planch.) Britton
var. texanum

1848. L. virginianum var. texanum
1935. L. medium var. texanum
Stiff yellow flax Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: S2[2]
  NYFA-2
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
 Riddell
var. sulcatum

1836. L. sulcatum Riddell
1907. Cathartolinum sulcatum
(Riddell) Small
1982. Mesynium sulcatum
(Riddell) Á. Löve & D. Löve
Grooved yellow flax Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: S2[3]
  NYFA-2
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.

1753. L. usitatissimum L.
1768. L. humile Mill.
1805. L. usitatissimum
var. humile (Mill.) Pers.
1940. L. usitatissimum
ssp. transitorium Vavilov & Elladi
Common flax,
Cultivated flax,
Linseed
Lin cultivé,
Lin utile,
Lin
Introduced,
Only cultivated
  NYFA-X
USDA-XW
NPT Can
ARS 




Images, wsp

Fairy flax Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Linum grandiflorum L.
Flowering flax,
Red flax,
Scarlet flax,
Crimson flax
Lin à grandes fleurs
Introduced from
 Algeria
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS 




Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Linum perenne L.
 auct. Linum lewisiinon Pursh
Blue flax,
Perennial flax,
Alpine flax
Lin vivace
Introduced from
 Eurasia
  NYFA-X
USDA-XN

ARS 




Images, wsp
Linum (excluded taxa) Flax N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Planch.) Britton
var. medium

1848. Linum virginianum var. medium
1897. Linum medium (Planch.) Britton
Stiff yellow flax N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

Annual-perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN

ARS 




Images, wsp

Malpighiales (3)
Salicaceae
Flora of New York — Malpighiales (4) : Euphorbiaceae, Linaceae
Fabales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index