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Books in this subject area deal with firmware: the fixed, usually rather small, programs that internally control various electronic devices. Typical examples range from end-user products such as remote controls or calculators, through computer parts and devices like harddisks, keyboards, TFT screens, or memory cards, all the way to scientific instrumentation and industrial robotics. Firmware is typically involved with very basic low-level operations in a device, without which the device would be completely non-functional.