Mirad Grammar/print version

Mirad, formerly known as Unilingua, is an artificially-constructed auxiliary language (conlang) developed and published in 1966 by the now-deceased Paris-based author Noubar Agopoff as a serious medium for easy and logical international communication. Mirad, which means world speech, and is pronounced mee-RAHD, is categorized by constructed language experts as taxonomic or ontological, because its vocabulary is mapped letter-by-letter to a semantic ontology or thesaurus. Also, the word-stock of Mirad is considered a priori, meaning that there is no deliberate association with words or roots in existing natural languages. The vocabulary is from scratch, yet based on internal lexical and semantic rules that help the learner to construct and deconstruct derivations sytematically, logically, mnemonically, and consistently. The author claims in his book Unilingua -- Langue universelle auxiliaire[1] that this language is well-suited for universal, logical communication because it is based on principles already exploited globally by sciences like mathematics and chemistry, where symbolic formulas are constructed in accordance with strict rules and a limited sequence of symbols understood by all practitioners.

Yubjo, ha mir gonbio yansauna gabyuxea dalzeyn. (In the near future, the world will share a common auxiliary language.)

Principles edit

Mirad is constructed on the following principles:

  • Every vowel has numeric, vectorial, scalar, semantic, or grammatical value.
  • Every consonant is meaningful either lexically or grammatically.
  • Word derivation is systematic, consistent, analogical, and mnemonic.
  • Words are as ontologically unambiguous as possible.
  • Words are as short and as easy to pronounce as possible.
  • Inflection and derivation of words is regular and predictable.
  • Word opposites differ only in the stem vowel (iva....happy; uva....sad).
  • Words that have similar meanings will share all but one or two letters (iva....happy; ivra ....joyful).
  • All words in the language are constructed from fewer than 500 building blocks.
  • Vocabulary in specialized and scientific fields is built on internationally agreed conventions.
  • The grammatical rules are regular and as simple as possible.
  • The vocabulary is totally a priori and neutral and not based on any existing language.
  • Formatives (derivational and inflexional prefixes, infixes, and suffixes) are nonexponential, that is, each one has only one purpose or meaning. In other words, the language is non-fusional.

Changes from earlier version edit

This book contains a revision of the language with additions and modifications to the original. The principal changes are:
  • The writing system now consists only of letters of the Latin alphabet, with no diacritics.
  • The letter w was added to mark the passive voice of verbs, among other things.
  • The letter s was changed to sound like the s in English sun.
  • The letter x was changed to sound like the sh in English show.
  • The letter c was changed to sound like the ch in English chair.
  • The letter h was added, mainly to create a systematic set of determiners like this, that, and every.
  • The letter q was added for certain scientific words and outside-imported words such as daiqiri or Qatar.
  • Grammatical cases were eliminated and replaced by prepositions.
  • Some prepositions and conjunctions were changed or added.
  • The definite article ha (the) was introduced.
  • Much new vocabulary was added and some words were altered.
  • The system of determiners was overhauled.
  • The manner of encoding names of chemicals, metrical units, and other entities was changed.
  • The language was gender-neutralized but provided the means to mark gender where necessary.
  • Zoological and botanical terms in Unilingua were differentiated by semi-random numerical scaling (apet....horse, epet....ox, etc.). This has been changed in Mirad to a systematic prefixation of syllables to the base name where the syllables come from the Linnaean Taxonomy.

Conventions in this book edit

In this book:
  • Words in Mirad are boldfaced.
  • Words in English that are translations of Mirad are italicized.
  • Technical grammatical terms in English are both boldfaced and italicized.
For example:
  • The Mirad word van means that and is a positive subordinating conjunction.

External links edit

References edit

  1. Agopoff, Noubar. Unilingua: Langue universelle auxiliaire, D-2647-66


Vocabulary Built on Native Roots edit

In English, we have many words like ichthyology, which baffle younger speakers of the language, because they are borrowed from a foreign language, in this case, classical Greek. This word, which could just as easily and more rationally be the Anglicized fishlore, means the science of fish. If a word in English relates to fish, why is fish not a part of the word? Even for modern day Greeks to understand the word ιχθυολογία (ichthyologia), they have to know the ancient root ιχθύς (ichthys) for fish, which has long been supplanted by the current word everyone uses, ψάρι (psari). What I'm saying is that the vocabulary of English, as is the case in many other natural languages, is a hodgepodge of borrowings, irregular spellings, and words cobbled from obscure roots that have little recognizability for the average speaker.
While English is a melting pot of words, there are some languages that do less borrowing and less non-discriminate formation of words that do not associate with one another through some root or pattern. Icelandic, for example, does not borrow very much from other languages and its words are formed using roots familiar to speakers of that language. The Icelandic word for library is bokasafn, which literally, is book collection ( = saving). Any child in that language knows what the word means immediately, because it is composed of root words that are obvious. The English word library makes sense only if you know the Latin roots libr- (book) and -ary (place of).
Arabic, by contrast, is a language that has a system of word-building based on a rational association of consonants and vowel patterns, such that most all the words relating to books and writing contain the three consonants k-t-b. Over the centuries, the system has been polluted with irregularities, but at least the consciousness of associations of words based on a root pattern is there and is still used today to coin new words.
In Turkish, the bulk of words having to do with knowledge contain the native root bil. Because of this, most of these words will be grouped on the same pages in a dictionary. For example: bildik known, bildirim announcement, bilecen know-it-all, bilgi knowledge, bilgili knowledgeable, bilgin scolar, etc. A word such as unknowability inevitably contains the root bil and can be learned fairly easily by a young student of the language.
Mirad has a vocabulary-building system with approximately 500 morphemes (word atoms or vocabular building blocks) that are used to form derived words in the same sense family in accordance with a set of word-building rules. Words that are related semantically will share the same bulk of letters. For example, iva (happy), ivla (glad), and ivra (delighted) share the root morpheme iv- and differ only in one letter. The opposite of happy is derived by switching the vowel in the root morpheme from i to the negative counterpart u, such that uva means sad. Similarly, uvla (woeful) and uvra (tragic) are opposite counterparts to the extended iv- words.
In Mirad, every letter of a word has some semantic or grammatical function. All words are part of a system. If you know the word for to lengthen, then you automatically know the word for to shorten. The rules for deriving new words from existing words are consistent across the language. In Mirad, there is no such thing as irregular conjugation of verbs as in English write, wrote, written. Nouns are pluralized in one way only across the board, unlike the multiple, unpredictable ways German and Arabic words are pluralized. Prepositions have one meaning, as contrasted with the multiple, inscrutable meanings of Russian or Latin prepositions.
Words in Mirad are pronounced as they are written, with no exceptions. One letter is used for one sound. Only Roman letters are used in the alphabet, and there are no pesky diacritics (accents). Word stress is regular.
What if we took this root association to the maximum degree and ensured that all words in a language were constructed on logical, associational, and regular principles with roots that are obvious to the learner? That would be the way Mirad does it.

Deriving Opposites by Vowel-switching edit

A very simple principle in Mirad is that a good portion of the vocabulary can be guessed by the learner without looking up words in the dictionary. All descriptive adjectives can be changed to their opposite with a simple change of vowel. For example, if you know fia (good), then you automatically know fua (bad). This is possible by knowing the rule of contrastive vowels: i is a positive vowel and contrasts with u, a negative vowel. Similarly, a contrasts with o, so that the opposite of aza (strong) is--you guessed it--oza (weak). In fact, if you know that e is an intermediate vowel, then you understand that eza means moderate. These simple principles of word-building mean that students of the language can cut down on their learning time by at least 50%.

Using Consonants and Vowels to Vary Domains edit

Another principle is that the beginning and/or closing consonants of a word in Mirad give you clues as to the meaning. All sentient creatures have the final stem consonant t, such that dat (friend), tot (god), at (I), tuzut (artist), and pit (fish) all refer to sentient creatures. The root stems of all words having to do with communication, begin with the letter d, eg. der (to say), dud (answer), dyes (book), dal (speech), etc. The internal vowels of root stems very often indicate concepts such as sky, land, sea or up vs. down, or zeroth, first, second, or toward the speaker vs. away from the speaker, and on and on.

Scalarization edit

In English, as in many other languages, there was probably some attempt to associate words in this way. Take for example, the series sing, sang, sung, song, singer, songstress or drip, drop, droop, dribble. More often than not, there is very little association among English words that are obviously distinguished by the one feature, size, eg. mountain, hill, knob, bump, pimple. In Mirad, these are all distinguished regularly by a scalarizing enumerative vowel. The Mirad days of the week are not a series of Roman- or Teutonic-related concepts, Moon-day, Tiw's-day, Woden's-day, Thor's-day, Freya's-day, Saturn-day, and Sun-day, all of which are a matter of memorization by the child or student of the language. Mirad days of the week consist rather of a series of words numerically arranged "day-one, day-two, day-three, etc." This is actually the approach taken by quite a few natural languages like Portuguese.
The months, too, ought to be learned in 10 seconds, by knowing that an internal vowel of the root expresses the numerical order of the months. Again, there are some natural languages that do this. By knowing that jiab means month one, January, then by knowing how to count in the language, the word for September can be readily deduced as jiyub (month nine, yu being the number for 9).

Taxonomy edit

The formulaic language of chemistry is a pretty good likeness of Mirad. There is a world-recognized symbolic, taxonomic relationship between H2O and C2O. Similarly, in Mirad, the stem vowels of the names of animals indicate their primary habitat: air, land, sea, or combinations of these. Other combinations of letters indicate whether the animal is domestic, predatory, wild, etc. From then on, its enumeration is based on factors such as commonness, taxonomic relationships, etc. Likewise, with human and animal body terms, the stem vowel indicates location on the body, such as head, trunk, or limbs. Then another vowel delineates in a directional way where on the head: upper, middle, lower, and so forth. Just by looking at the word for a body part for the first time, by knowing the system, you can tell at least approximately that it is, say, a higher joint of the arm. Color words are based on their position on nature's color spectrum. Governmental and courtly powerholders and other hierarchical elements are ranked by an ordinal vowel, eg. adeb (emperor), edeb (monarch), ideb (prince), udeb (duke), etc. The names of the planets are enumerated by their relative distance from the sun, so: amer (planet 1 = Mercury), emer (planet 2 = Mars), imer (planet 3 = Earth), etc. Zoological and botanical names are based on the international Linnean Taxonomy.

Mnemonics edit

Words in the language can be mnemonically associated to body terms by changing the initial domain consonant accordingly, so, while teb means head, xeb in the x or work/action domain is boss, deb in the social/political domain is leader, etc.

The following chart shows in this mnemonic echoing in action, where the letters before -ub suggest the domain:
Mnemonic Echoing
DOMAIN WORD
human (body) tub....arm
work/action xub....subsidiary, branch
plants fub....limb, branch, bough(of a tree)
fish pitub....fin
birds patub....wing
animal potub....paw
land-sea animal peitub....flipper
shoe tyoyafub....(scuba-diving) flipper
vegetation vub....shoot, sprig, twig
society/politics dub....minister, department head
building tomub....wing (of a building)
land mub....promontory
river mifub....oar
things sub....ramification, offshoot
table semub....flap (of a table)
rotating things zyufub....rudder
flat zyifub....paddle
round zyub....lobe

Conclusion edit

Mirad uses many different techniques to short-cut the difficulty of learning new words or recognizing terms. The vowels, consonants, mnemonics, scalarization, taxonomy and many other methods are used to make the vocabulary as rational and intuitive as possible. Unlike in most natural languages, words like snow and sleet are going to have sounds in common in Mirad. I have never found a language other than Mirad where the words for ice, water, and steam are derived from one another even though we all know that are actually all H2O in different temperature states.


The Alphabet edit

Mirad uses the Roman alphabet as in Modern English. There is an upper case (majuscules or capital letters) and a lower case (miniscules or small letters). The upper case letters are used for capitalization exactly as in English. Mirad, at least for non-foreign words, uses no diacritic marks such as the brève, the grave accent, or the dieresis. The order of the alphabet is the same as in English. The letters, though, are pronounced as shown in the chart. Note that there is a pattern: The vowel of each Mirad letter name changes to the single vowel letter before it. For example, the vowel in the name for letter f changes to e following the letter e in the alphabetic sequence. The Mirad letter name for j is ji because it is just beyond the vowel letter i in the alphabetic sequence. Uppercase letters have a Mirad letter name beginning in ag, a prefix meaning big.
Alphabet A-N
Lowercase a b c d e f g h i j k l m n
Mirad Letter Name a ba ca da e fe ge he i ji ki li mi ni
Uppercase A B C D E F G H I J K L M N
Mirad Letter Name aga agba agca agda age agfe agge aghe agi agji agki agli agmi agni


Alphabet O-Z
Lowercase o p q r s t u v w x y z
Mirad Letter Name o po ko ro so to u vu wu xu yu zu
Uppercase O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Mirad Letter Name ago agpo agko agro agso agto agu agvu agwu agxu agyu agzu
The letters c and q are used only to represent words and names imported into Mirad from other languages, or for words in which letters of the alphabet are used to spell out chemical terms, metric units, country names, languages, and other terms based on existing world standards like ISO.

Letter Names edit

Spelling a word aloud means uttering the word's Mirad letter names in succession left to right. If the letter is a upper case, then the letter name is preceded by ag-....big, eg.:
  • anxwa is spelled aloud as a-ni-xu-wu-a
  • Mirad is spelled aloud as agmi-i-ro-a-da
Note that age for E and agge for G need to be carefully distinguished. The former, age is pronounced a-ge, while the latter, agge, is pronounced ag-ge.

Capitalization edit

Capitalization in Mirad is handled almost exactly as in English:
  • The first word of a new sentence is capitalized.
  • At ife et.....I love you.
  • Iyt da: "At ife et."....She said, "I love you."
  • All proper nouns are capitalized, including names of people, organizations, books, languages, countries, etc.
  • Mirad....Mirad
  • Ferom....France
  • ha Feromati....the French
  • Alica be Flisem....Alice in Wonderland
  • ha Yoongun....The Pentagon
  • Acronyms are capitalized.
  • ZUYX....NATO.
  • DXV....FBI.
  • If a verb or adjective is based on a proper noun, the proper noun part of the word gets capitalized.
  • Deumxer....to Germanify
  • loNazixer....to de-Nazify
  • Irolim-ulza....Kelly (= Ireland) green.
  • The planets and inhabitants of planets are capitalized.
  • Ha tyod bi Imer.....The people of Earth.
  • Ha Umerati upeye.....The Martians are coming.
  • The word god is capitalized if referring to a religion's one, true god, otherwise not.
  • Ha toti se futipa.....The gods are angry.
  • Fyadilu bu Tot.....Pray to God.
  • Van yat fyadilu bu Allah.....Let's pray to Allah.
Unlike in English, though:
  • The days of the week, the months of the year, and the seasons are not capitalized.
  • juab....Monday
  • jieb....February
  • jeub....Winter

Punctuation edit

Punctuation is handled as in English, with the following exception:
  • A colon (:) is used in direct quotations, as opposed to the comma (,) used in English, eg.:
He said, "Let there be light."....It da: "Van esu man."
Here is a chart showing punctuation marks and symbols along with their names in Mirad:
Punctuation Marks and Symbols
ENGLISH SYMBOL MIRAD
MARKS (siyn)
period . nodsiyn
comma , grunsiyn
colon : ennodsiyn
semi-colon ; nodgrunsiyn
question mark ? didsiyn
exclamation point ! yoksiyn
single quote ' aona gedsiyn
double quote " eona gedsiyn
hyphen - naydsiyn
dash, em dash -- eona nadsiyn
underscore, low line _ oybnadsiyn
vertical line | aonadsiyn
wave dash ~ pyaon nadsiyn
forward slash, solidus / zaya kinad
backward slash, reverse solidus \ zoya kinad
double slash // eona kinad
apostrophe ' oysunsiyn
left parenthesis
right parenthesis
(
)
zua uzkun yebyujarsiyn
zia uzkun yebyujarsiyn
left angle bracket
right angle bracket
<
]
zua gun yebyujarsiyn
zia gun yebyujarsiyn
left square bracket
right square bracket
[
]
zua izkun yebyujarsiyn
zia izkun yebyujarsiyn
left curly bracket
right curly bracket
{
}
zua uzyua yebyujarsiyn
zia uzyua yebyujarsiyn
ellipsis ... innodsiyn
caret ^ garsiyn
SYMBOLS (siun)
ampersand & aysiun
at sign @ asiun
percent sign % asoynsiun
hash tag, pound sign, number sign # sagsiun
asterisk * marsiun
dollar sign ? Usodansiun/
Note: Most of these marks and symbols are on a standard English-language keyboard. Mathematical symbols are not listed here, nor are most accent marks like "grave accent". See the Mathematical Expressions section of Numbers.

Text Direction edit

Text in Mirad is written from left to right with spaces between words.


Consonants edit

Consonant graphemes and phonemes edit

The following chart shows the correspondence of the consonants and their phomemic values in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA):


Correspondence of Consonant Graphemes and Phonemes
Grapheme b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v x z
Phoneme /b/ /t͡ʃ/ /d/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /ʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /k/ /ɽ/ /s/ /t/ /v/ /ʃ/ /z/

Pronunciation of Consonants edit

The following chart shows the Mirad consonants with their phonemic values in the IPA:
Consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal /m/ /n/
Plosive voiced /b/ /d/ /g/
unvoiced /p/ /t/ /k/
Affricate voiced
unvoiced /t͡ʃ/
Fricative voiced /v/ /z/ /ʒ/
unvoiced /f/ /s/ /ʃ/ /h/
Approximate /l/
Flap /ɽ/
The phonemes /r/ and /l/ are consonant liquids and behave in a special way in forming words in Mirad.
In Mirad, every consonant has a one-to-one correspondence with a single phoneme (ideal sound). Mirad does not use digraphs like sh or ph to represent consonant sounds. There are no double consonants, although sometimes a consonant will come together with the same consonant in the same word, but not the same syllable. There are no silent consonants. Also, there are no letters in "native" Mirad with diacritical marks like é or ñ.
Here are the letters that are pronounced somewhat differently from English:
  • The letter x is pronounced like an sh in English, or a ch in French.
  • In native Mirad words, h is pronounced like the h in English hand. It is sometimes used to simulate foreign sounds like the ch in Yiddish lachayim (to life!), or German Bach. If h comes at the end of a word, it is silent, but, being a consonant, it can serve to move the stress to the word-final syllable, as in Allah, pronounced a-LA.
  • The letter j is pronounced like the zh in Russian Zhivago or the ge in English mirage.
  • The letter s is always unvoiced as English ss and never sounds like a z.
  • The letter g is always a hard sound as in English gap, not as in English wage.
  • The letter c represents the unvoiced affricative sound t͡ʃ like the ch in English church. Some chemical names and metric units use the letter c, such as calilk (chlorine).
  • The unvoiced plosives p, t, and k are pronounced without the puff of breath that sometimes follows them in their English counterparts. The corresponding consonants in French are exact equivalents.
  • The consonant r should be a flap or trill like the r in Brit. Eng. very or the single, intervocalic r in Spanish pero.
  • The consonant q is usually pronounced as a k, but in foreign borrowings or proper names, it may be pronounced according to context.
  • The consonants in the Mirad alphabet correspond one-to-one with phonemes. There are no cases of consonant sounds being represented in native words by digraphs as in English ph, sh, ch, or th. For example, the sh sound in English is represented by x in Mirad. The English ch sound is represented in Mirad with the letter c. There are no equivalents in Mirad for the English sounds th in this or the th in think, but the combination th in foreign borrowings is pronounced as it is in the source language.
Here is a chart showing the phonetic values of Mirad consonants:
Consonants
MIRAD CONSONANT/
SEMI-CONSONANT
GRAPHEME
IPA ARTICULATION NEAREST EQUIVALENTS
b [b] unaspirated voiced bilabial plosive French bon, English boy
c [tʃ] unvoiced palato-alveolar affricate English child, Spanish chico (only used in foreign words, proper names, or chemical formulae).
d [d] unaspirated voiced alveolar plosive French de, English dog
f [f] unvoiced labio-dental fricative English fog
g [g] unaspirated voiced velar plosive French gare, English good (always hard, even before e and i).
h [h]
[x]
glottal fricative English house
(used in some foreign words and names as a kh-like sound like German Bach. Not pronounced at the end of foreign borrowings like Allah or Arkansah.
j [ʒ] voiced palatal fricative French je or English mirage.
k [k] unaspirated unvoiced velar fricative French carte, English skip (without aspiration).
l [l] voiced post-alveolar lateral approximant English love or French bel (never a dark l as in English bell.
m [m] voiced bilabial nasal English mother.
n [n]
[ŋ]
voiced alveolar nasal English nobody
Before g or k, like English fang.
p [p] unvoiced bilabial plosive French pain, English span (without aspiration).
q - - (Only used in foreign words, or some chemical names, where it has various k-like or guttural pronunciations).
r [r] alveolar flap Spanish mira or Italian Roma or British Eng. 'very.
s [s] unvoiced alveolar fricative Always hard as in English safe (never a z sound as in rose).
t [t] unaspirated unvoiced alveolar plosive French tous, English stop (without aspiration).
v [v] voiced labial-dental fricative English very. Spanish and German speakers need to beware: this is not a bilabial consonant, nor is it an f sound.
x [ʃ] unvoiced post-alveolar fricative English shape or French cher
z /z/ voiced alveolar fricative English zone. German speakers, beware. Mirad z is pronounced like a German s, as in sehr, not like z as in zehn, which sounds more like ts.

Vowels edit

Mirad vowels are divided into simple and glided vowels. The simple vowels are single letters, while the complex vowels have one or more semi-vowel glides (y or w) prefixed or suffixed.

Simple Vowels edit

The Mirad graphemes (alphabetic letters) used to represent the simple vowel phonemes (minimal meaningful sounds) are as follows:

Vowel Graphemes and Phonemes
Grapheme a e i o u
Phoneme /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/

Pronunciation of Simple Vowels edit

The simple vowels are pronounced as they are in many European Latin-based languages. The table below gives their phonetic values and some close examples in Spanish and French, and not-so-close examples in English.
Simple Vowels
VOWEL IPA1 SPANISH FRENCH ENGLISH
APPROXIMATION
a [a] mano à
father
e [e] hecho et
day 2
i [i] si si
see2
o [o] no de l'eau
so3
u [u] tu ou
too3

Glided Vowels edit

Glided vowels are those preceded or followed by the semi-vowel glides y or w. This chart shows the possible glided vowels, their IPA equivalents, and their approximate pronunciations using English and other languages.


Glided Vowels
GLIDED VOWELS IPA1 PRONUNCIATION
PRE-Y-GLIDED VOWELS
ya [ja] Eng. yacht, Fr. hiacinthe (there is)
ye [je] Eng. yet, Fr. grillé (grilled)
yi [ji] Eng. yeast*, Fr. bouilli
yo [jo] Eng. yoke*, Fr. maillot
yu [ju] Eng. you*, Fr. piou-piou
PRE-W-GLIDED VOWELS
wa [wa] Eng. water, Fr. gouache (poster paint)
we [we] Eng. wet, Fr. ouais (yes)
wi [wi] Eng. wee2, Fr. oui (yes)
wo [wo] Eng. woke2
wu [wu] Eng. woo2
POST-Y-GLIDED
ay [aɪ] Eng. sight, Sp. hay (there is)
ey [eɪ] Eng. day, Sp. rey (king)
iy [iɪ] Eng. see, Fr. bille (marble)
oy [oɪ] Eng. boy, Sp. hoy (today)
uy [uɪ] Eng. gooey, Sp. muy (very)
POST-W-GLIDED
aw [ɔ] Eng. awe
ew [eʊ] Br. Eng. beau, colloq. Eng. Tell me!
iw [iʊ] Eng. eew! (sound of disgust), Du. niew
(new)
ow [oʊ] Eng. know, foe
uw [uʊ] Eng. goo
CIRCUM-Y-GLIDED
yay [jaɪ] Eng. yikes
yey [jeɪ] Eng. yea!
yiy [jiɪ] Eng. yeesh! (sound of disgust)
yoy [joɪ] Eng. yoink ( = New Jyoizy )
yuy [juɪ] Eng. Hughie
PRE-W-POST-Y-GLIDED
way [waɪ] Eng. wise, Fr. ouailles (flock)
wey [weɪ] Eng. way
wiy [wiɪ] Eng. wee! (sound of fun)
woy [woɪ] Eng. woy (rhymes with boy)
wuy [wuɪ] Eng. wooish (rhymes with gooey)
In Mirad, the above glided vowels are considered single vowels for the purposes of grammar, syllabification, and stress.
Note 1: International Phonetic Alphabet. See chart and click on sounds at [[1]].
Note 2: Without the typical y-glide at the end of the English vowel. The vowel should be pure, as in the Romance languages of Europe.
Note 3: Without the typical w-glide at the end of the English vowel. The vowel should be pure, as in the Romance languages of Europe.


Every syllable in Mirad contains one and only one vowel. A y when final or followed by a consonant is used to post-y-glide or diphthongize the previous vowel and is therefore considered part of the syllable in which that vowel is the nucleus (see case 2, below). Similarly, the liquids r and l, when final or followed by a consonant are considered to be a part of the syllable where the preceding vowel is the nucleus (see case 4, below). Two vowels in a row form two syllabic nuclei (see cases 3, 6, and 7, below). How syllables are divided is important for determining where the stress accent goes in a word (see Mirad_Grammar/Stress, below).


Syllabification
CASE EXAMPLE SYLLABIFIED
1 ama.....hot a-ma
2 ayma.....warm ay-ma
3 aymsea.....warming up aym-se-a
4 pixwa....caught pix-wa
5 upayo....will have come u-pa-yo
6 vyaa....true vya-a
7 vyaay....truly vya-ay
8 vay....indeed vay
9 tambwa....settled tam-bwa
10 faof....plank fa-of


Although stress in Mirad is not marked and is not phonemic, i.e. not semantically distinctive, in all words of more than one syllable, the stress occurs on the last, non-final vowel, including glided vowels. The following chart gives some examples:
Stress
Mirad Word With Stress and Syllabification Marked
tejna....vital tej-na
igay....quickly i-gay1
alayn....eleventh a-layn
Mirad....Mirad Mi-rad
booka....tired bo-o-ka2
bookan....fatigue bo-o-kan
akea....winning a-ke-a
oyse....lacks oy-se
byoskyin....pendulum byos-kyin
pyaon....wave pya-on
1 Here ay is a single post-y-glided, and final, so it is not stressed.
2 Two vowels in a row are pronounced in two syllables.
Here is a small passage where the stress of vowels in shown by underlining:
Hya tobi taje yiva ay gea be utfiz ay doyivi. Yit bulwe bay vyatex ay tyaf ay yeyfe hyuitaxler tidyenay.


Phonotactics refers to the patterns in which the phonemes of a language may combine to form sequences. The possible syllabic patterns of Mirad are given below in a chart.
For the purposes of this chart:
  • Y stands for the semi-vowel glides y or w.
  • L stands for the liquids r and l.
  • C stands for consonants other than glides or liquids.
  • A stands for single vowels.
  • N stands for the nasal consonants m or n.
  • + means 1 to 3 of the foregoing letter
  • Parentheses indicate that a letter is optional.
  • Bracketing indicates a choice of letters or patterns.
Syllables in native Mirad are shaped according to the following pattern constraints:
Phonotactics
ALLOWABLE SYLLABIC PATTERNS EXAMPLES
(C)[LG]A+(Y)(L)(C) o, ay, xwa, gyo, gra, toyb, glays, alp
mayr, hyos, va, xwa, gyo, gla, gre, vya, lo, wa, yu, gaw
...A(Y)N(C)[sx] mamp, yomx, yank, yons, eynx
  • Two non-glide/liquid/non-nasal consonants cannot appear together in the same syllable, except in foreign-imported words.
  • Two glides or liquids cannot come together in one syllable except in foreign-imported words.



Mirad words can be categorized as the following parts of speech, followed by their inflectional and derivational subcategories:

SUBSTANTIVES

  • Nouns ( = sunduni)
  • Common Nouns
  • Countable Nouns    (tam....house, ewa tami....two houses)
  • Animate Nouns    (tob....person)
  • Inanimate Nouns    (pur....car)
  • Gender-Neutral Nouns    (nyem....box)
  • Male-Specific Nouns    ( twob....man)
  • Female-Specific Nouns    ( toyb....cow)
  • Singular Nouns    (sem....table)
  • Plural Nouns    ( semi....tables)
  • Uncountable Nouns
  • Mass Nouns    (miek....sand, gla miek....a lot of sand)
  • Deverbal Nouns ( ~ Gerunds/Infinitives/Abstractions)   (melyexen....farming, melyexer....to farm, ifon....love, xeyn....deed)
  • Deadjectival ( ~ Abstract) Nouns   (vian....beauty)
  • Proper Nouns
  • Full names    (Usom....United States)
  • Acronyms   (EA....EU)
  • Pronouns ( = avduni)
  • Personal Pronouns    (iyt....she)
  • Reflexive Pronouns    (aut....myself)
  • Possessive Pronouns    ( atas....mine)
  • Deictic ( ~ Demonstrative) Pronouns    (hus....that)
  • Quantitative Determiner Pronouns    (glati....many of them)
  • Reciprocal Pronouns    (hyuit....one another)

VERBS ( = erduni)

  • Tenses
  • Present    (pe....goes)
  • Past    (pa....went)
  • Future    (po....will go)
  • Atemporal    (pu!....Go!)
  • Aspects
  • Progressive    (peye....is going, peya....was going)
  • Perfect    (paye....has gone, paya....had gone)
  • Imminent    (poye....is about to go, poya....was to go)
  • Potential    (puye....is apt to go, puya....was apt to go)
  • Moods
  • Hypothetical    (pu....would go, [van has] pu....[that it] go)
  • Indicative    (po...will go, pe....goes)
  • Voices
  • Active    (It yijba ha mes.....He opened the door.)
  • Passive    (Ha mes yijbwa.....The door was opened.)
  • Medio-passive    (Ha mes yija.....The door opened.)
  • Transitivity
  • Transitive    (besa....stayed)
  • Intransitive    ( bexa....held)
  • Dynamicity
  • Static    (tujeye....is sleeping)
  • Dynamic    (tujpa....fell asleep)
  • Focus
  • Subject-oriented    (yafe....is able)
  • Patient-oriented    (yafwe....is possible)

MODIFIERS

  • Adjectives ( = aduni)
  • Deictic Adjectives ( ~ Determiners)    (duhoa?....which?, hyea....any)
  • Descriptive Adjectives    (via....beautiful)
  • Denominal Adjectives    (vensona....conditional)
  • Pronominal ( ~ Possessive) Adjectives)    (yata....our)
  • Deverbal Adjectives ( ~ Participles)    (tejea....living, obwa....removed)
  • Numeric Adjectives    (awa....one, ewa....two)
  • Adverbs (ayduni)
  • Inherent adverbs    (voy....not)
  • Derived adverbs    (ikay....fully)

CONNECTORS

  • Prepositions ( = ebduni)
  • Simple Prepositions    (be....at)
  • Complex Prepositions (be zam bi....in front of)
  • Conjunctions ( = yanxduni)
  • Coordinating    (ay....and, ey....or)
  • Subordinating    (van....that, ven....if)
  • Correlative    (hyaewa...ay....both...and)
  • Adverbial    (johus....then, avhus....therefore)

PARTICLES ( = dunesi)

  • Interjections    ( = tipduni) (hey!....Yoohoo!, hway!....bravo!)
  • Cardinal Numbers    (a....one, e....two)
  • Letter Names    (a, ba, ca)
  • Onomatopeia    (pao!, xux!)
  • Abbreviations    (a.g.....etc., a.k.....e.g.)


Noun Types edit

Nouns in Mirad can be distinguished in the following 7 ways:
  1. common vs. proper
  2. concrete vs. abstract
  3. countable vs. mass
  4. gender-neutral vs. masculine/feminine
  5. singular vs. plural
  6. animate vs. inanimate
  7. full form vs. acronym
Common vs. Proper Nouns
COMMON PROPER
tam....house Emer....Venus
yagsim....bench Ferom....France
dyes....book Notre Dame...Notre Dame
tej....life Tot....God
Concrete vs. Abstract Nouns
CONCRETE ABSTRACT
tab....body ifon....love
mil....water oyman....coolness
deuz....song deuzen....singing
Abstract nouns include gerunds, i.e. nouns which are nominalized derivations of verbs like deuzen....singing < deuzer....to sing or osexen....destruction < osexer....to destroy. Infinitives like deuzer....to sing are also considered abstract nouns.
Countable vs. Mass Nouns
COUNTABLE MASS
pat....bird pattel....bird food
patayebi....feathers patayebyan....plumage
megi....rocks mil....water
In native Mirad, all common nouns in their singular dictionary lookup form end in a consonant. Proper nouns sometimes end in a vowel, such as Roma....Rome. Plural common countable nouns end in the vowel i (pat....birdpati....birds).
Gender-neutral vs. Gendered
GENDER-NEUTRAL FEMININE MASCULINE
tob....human being toyb....woman twob....man
edeb....monarch edeyb....queen edweb....king
ted....parent teyd....mother twed....father
Singular vs. Plural Nouns
SINGULAR PLURAL
dom....city domi....cities
gon....part goni....parts
jub....day jubi....days
Inanimate vs. Animate Nouns
INANIMATE ANIMATE
mam....sky pot....animal
tom....building aot....person
job....time tobet....child
Full form vs. Acronym
FULL FORM ACRONYM
Anxwa Doobi....United Nations AD....UN
Mir Nunuien Xob....World Trade Organization MNX....WTO
The above noun type distinctions are relevant in various parts of Mirad's grammar.

Pluralization of Common Nouns edit

A singular countable common noun always ends in a consonant and is made plural by suffixing the pluralizing marker -i. So, the plural of pur....car is puri....cars. In noun phrases, for example, where a noun is modified by an article and adjective, only the noun is pluralized, that is, there is no agreement across word boundaries as in many European languages (la belle fleur les belles fleurs). The plural suffix -i is the only way nouns in Mirad are inflected. All other changes to nouns are derivational in nature, eg. genderization, augmentation, diminution, capitalization, etc.
Pluralization of Nouns
SINGULAR PLURAL
tam....house tami....houses
toyb....woman toybi....women
tej....life teji....lives
ha via dom....the beautiful city ha via domi....the beautiful cities

Modifying Nouns with the Definite Article edit

In Mirad, there is only a single noun-modifying article, the invariable definite article ha (the). There is no indefinite article like English a / an. A noun is considered indefinite or general unless modified by the definite article ha (which in reality is a definite deictic determiner, discussed with other deictic determiners in the later section on Mirad Grammar/Determiners#Deictic Determiners). The definite article ha is positioned, as in English, before the noun and before any other adjectives or modifiers of that noun. It is invariable, in that it does not vary for gender, number, or case as in German or Spanish. The definite article acts like its counterpart in English, as shown in the following chart:
Use of the Definite Article
MIRAD ENGLISH SPECIFICITY
tam a house indefinite, no article
ha tam the house definite
ha tami the houses definite, plural
tej life general, no article
fitejawa tej a life well-lived indefinite, no article
ha tej (...ho at bayse) the life (... that I have) specific
Ferad French language name, already specific, no article
Ivan Ivan person's name, no article
Ifliu yivan! Cherish freedom abstraction, no article
Ha yivani ho yat ifie. The freedoms that we enjoy. abstraction specified
Yata yivani... Our freedoms... abstraction specified with possessive pronoun, no article
Speakers of French and other European languages should take note that general concepts like love, life, freedom do not employ the definite article unless they refer to a specific instance, such as in the phrases the love that dare not speak its name or the life well-lived or the freedoms we possess. The names of languages and countries are also considered already specific, and so as in English, they do not take a definite article as they might in some European languages. Names of persons do not take the definite article as they do in modern Greek, unless in a phrase like "the Ivan I once knew."

Proper Nouns edit

Proper nouns, such as names of people, places, languages, etc., are capitalized as in English. The formation of country names and languages is discussed in Countries of the World and Languages of the World. It can be said here, though, that country names end in -m; the inhabitants of those places end in -t or pl. -ti; and the languages they speak end in -d. Language names are capitalized, eg. At tixe Ferad. (I study French.). In fact, this is the case for all parts of speech derived from a proper name, eg. Usoma tel Feramxweye. American food is being Frenchified.. French speakers beware; this is not like in French. And German speakers beware, too! Not all nouns are capitalized; only ones that are proper, such as names of people, companies, languages, countries, etc.
Names of people, cities, etc. are spelled in Mirad to best reflect the foreign pronunciation, but also to remain recognizable. For example:
  • Xikago....Chicago
  • Paris....Paris
  • Munxen....Munich/München
  • Beijing....Beijing
  • Nu York....New York
  • Nu Orlinz....New Orleans
  • Xampanya....Champagne
  • Méhiko Dom....Mexico City
  • Waxington....Washington
  • Seol....Seoul
  • Xeykspir....Shakespeare
An inhabitant of a city is formed by adding -t or -at to the name, depending on whether it ends in a vowel or consonant, respectively, eg. Parisat....a Parisian or Waxingtonati....Washingtonians. Chicago's main newspaper is expressed in Mirad as ha aaga jubdindref bi Xikago. The English preposition in used before cities and states is translated by be in Mirad, eg. At tambese be Paris.....I live in New York.

Noun Modifiers: Placement and Agreement edit

Nouns can be modified by various qualitative, quantitative, and deictic adjectives, which all precede the noun. These modifiers come in the same order as in English. There is no gender or number agreement between the modifiers and the noun, except that numeric adjectives, such as ewa....two naturally are followed by a noun in the plural number.
Noun Modifiers
Mirad English
ha ewa aga tami the two big houses
gla ifxea taxi many pleasant memories
hya fia tob every good man
ha yaga via mepi the long, beautiful roads
gra vua sexen too much ugly construction
ata aja teji my past lives

Noun Linkage edit

Nouns can be
  1. linked with a preposition or conjunction, where the prepositional/conjunctional phrase follows the head noun, or
  2. juxtaposed, where the modifier noun is separated by a space and comes before the head noun, or
  3. compounded, where the modifier noun is prefixed to a headword, or
  4. hyphenated, where two equal elements are joined by a hyphen.
Examples:
Noun Linkage
LINKAGE EXAMPLE CONSTRUCTION
Ivan ay Maria....Ivan and Maria nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ay (and)
ha tam ey ha par....the house or the car nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ey (or)
hyati oy ha toybi....all but the women nouns linked associatively by the conjunction or (but)
nyandras boy eta dyun....a list without your name nouns linked associatively by the preposition boy (without)
tej bi nasuk....a life of poverty nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi (of)
ha tam bi Maria ....Mary's house (the house of Mary nouns linked possessively by the preposition bi (of)
job bi aga ivan....a time of great joy nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi (of)
dyes ayv ha Ea Mira Dropek....a book about the Second World War nouns linked associatively by the preposition ayv (about)
dropek jwabeni....war preparations modifier noun dropek (war) juxtaposed with the head noun jwabeni (preparations)
dom yuzpur....a city bus modifier noun dom (city) juxtaposed with the head noun yuzpur (bus)
tojojfon....a death wish modifier noun toj (death) compounded with the head noun ojfon (wish)
jogatanyaf....youth league modifier noun jogat (youth) compounded with the head noun anyaf (league)
maj-moj....a day-and-night two or more equal, opposed nouns hyphenated
The X bi Y prepositional construction must always be used for possession by a named person, eg. ha tam bi Sam (Sam's house = the house of Sam). The methods of noun linkage otherwise follow the English pattern in most all cases. Pronominal possession such as his car is discussed in the section on personal pronouns. The preposition bi....of is used in partitive expressions like tilzyeb bi vafil....a glass of wine (but: vafil tilzeb....wine glass, where wine modifies the glass associatively). More about this and other prepositions or conjunctions can be found in the section on Mirad Grammar/Prepositions or Mirad Grammar/Conjunctions.
Details on how noun vocabulary is derived appears in the section on Mirad Grammar/Vocabulary Formation.

Noun Derivational Suffixes edit

Nouns can be divided into:
  • simple nouns such as pur....vehicle
  • compound nouns such as bixpur....train < bix....pull + pur....vehicle
  • derived nouns such as fabyan....forest < fab....tree + -yan
    a suffix meaning collection

Noun Suffixes edit

Derived nouns can be formed by attaching nominal suffixes (and sometimes prefixes)to other words or roots. A list of nominal suffixes to form derived nouns is shown in the following table. More can be read about noun derivation in the section on vocabulary-building.
Noun Derivational Suffixes
SUFFIX MEANING BASE ONTO WHICH
SUFFIX IS ADDED
EXAMPLES
-ag big noun tam house → tamag....mansion
tyal....mealtyalag....banquet
tilar....spoontilarag....ladle
-an abstact quality
-ness
-hood, -ity
adjective stem via....beautifulvian....beauty
yeva....fairyevan....fairness, equity
toba....humantoban....humanity, humanness, manhood
-ayg big and cute noun tam....housetamayg....cozy mansion
epet....dogepetayg....wolfie
-d language
speech
sound
adjective and other stems Enigem....EnglishEniged....English (language)
Mira....of the worldMirad....Mirad (world speech)
apet....horseaped....neigh, whinny
-ef need of noun tel....foodtelef....hunger
iga....fastigef....emergency
til....drinktilef....thirst
-en present gerund
-ing
-tion
-ment
verb stem ifi-....enjoyifien....enjoyment
deuz-....singdeuzen....singing
ax-....actaxlen....acting
-eyn present gerund
-tion
-ment
verb stem x-....doxeyn....deed
s-....to beseyn....essence
jaup-....preceedjaupeyn....precedent
-es smaller counterpart thing noun tom....buildingtomes apartment
saun....kindsaunes....sample
dreuz....poemdeuzes....stanza
mek....dust, powdermekes....speck, grain
-et smaller counterpart person noun twob....mantwobet....boy
toyb....womantoybet....girl
-if love of
-philia
noun tel....foodtelif....gourmandise
doab....homelanddoabif....patriotism
dyes....bookdyesif....bibliophilia, love of books
-ig sudden noun and verb stem man....lightmanig....flash
pyex....strokepyexig....swat
yopap-....dive, fly downyopapig....swoop
-im room, chamber various stems fyadil-....to prayfaydilim....chapel
magel-....to cookmagelim....kitchen
tof-....to dresstofim....dressing room
-in doctrine, dogma, -ism various stems tot....godtotin....religion, theism
otofa....nudeotofin....nudism
yufr-....terroryufrin....terrorism
-n abstract noun various stems ze....in the middle ofzen....center
za....in front ofzan....face
byi....since, starting withbyin....source
go....lessgon....part
-am house
building
various stems nun- merchandise→ nunam....store
til drink → tilam....bar, tavern
fyadil-....to prayfyadilam....church
-(e)m place various stems duho-? what-?→ duhom?....where?
yex....workyexem....worksite
ab....on, aboveabem....top, surface
kua....lateralkum....side
-um compartment
booth
various stems teuzibar....telephoneteuzibarum....telephone booth
-yem enclosure, box various stems apet....horseapetyem....corral
b-....putbyem....position
-ud offspring, baby of noun apet....horseapetud....foal
-wud son of noun apet....horseapetwud....colt
-uyd daughter of noun apet....horseapetuyd....filly
-og little noun tab body→ tabog....corpuscle
apet....horseapetog....pony
tyal....mealtyalog....snack
golbun....cutgolbunog....cutlet
-oyg little and cute noun tam....housetamoyg....cottage
apayt....chickenapaytoyg....chickadee
mimpar....boatmirparoyg....dingy
-ar, -ir, -ur tool, machine, engine usu. verb stem p-....to gopur....car
dr-....to writedrar....pencil
gobl-....to cutgoblar....knife
yaobl-....to lift up and downyaoblur....elevator, lift
yaoblir....lift, crane
dop....militarydopar....gun
dopur....machine gun
dopir....artillery, cannon
-s thing, object, the X one adjective aa first → aas....first one, first thing
otwa....unknownotwas....mystery, an unknown
tejea....livingtejeas....living thing
-(s)on abstract thing
issue
various stems if-....to loveifon....love
ov againstovon....obstacle
aza strong → azon....force
yika....difficultyikson....problem
-(s)un object
thing
result of an action
various stems vyua....dirtyvyun....spot
tamb-....settletambiun....settlement
gofr- shredgofrun....scrap, shred
hyo....not a singlehyosun....not a single thing
-t person adjective ea second → eat....second one, second person
fya-....holyfyat....holy one, saint
ujna....lastujat....last one, last person
Usoma....AmericanUsomat....an American
-tun science of, -ology noun tot....godtottun....theology
tob....mantobtun....anthropology
vob....plantvobtun....botany
-tuyn pseudo-science noun mar....starmartuyn....astrology
-tuin theory noun vyelan....relativityvyelantuin....theory of relativity
-tyen skill, craft noun sur....enginesurtyen....engineering
-(t)in doctrine, -ism noun zaypas-....progresszaypasin....progressivism
-tut, tuyt (f.) scientist
-ologist
-ist
noun tot....godtottut....theologist
tob....mantobtuyt....woman anthropologist
vob....plantvobtut....botanist
-uf hate of, -phobia noun mil water → miluf....hydrophobia
totin....religiontotinuf....hatred of religion
toyb....womantoybuf....misogyny
-ut, uyt (f.) agent, one who Xes, -er, -ant, -ist verb stem bek-....treatbekuyt....female nurse
pop-....travelpoput....traveler
ak-....winakut....winner
--yaf ability to, power
-ability
verb stem teat-....to seeteatyaf....ability to see
tex-....to thinktexyaf....cognition
test-....to understandtestyaf....comprehension
nos-....to spendnosyaf....spending power
t-....to knowtyaf....cognizance
-yafwan possibility, -ability verb stem teat-....to seeteatyafwan....visibility
-yof inability to, disability verb stem teat-....to seeteatyof....blindness
teet-....to hearteetyof....deafness
pas-....to movepasyof....paralysis
tuj-....to sleeptujyof....insomnia
-yofwan impossibility verb stem teat-....to seeteatyofwan....invisibility
-yag big and ugly, long noun tetwid....uncletetwidyag....dirty old uncle
toyb....womantoybyag....hag
-yan collection, grouping
-ary
noun tob....mantobyan....mankind
mar....starmaryan....constellation
fab....treefabyan....forest
dyes....bookdyesyan....library
-yen manner, kind noun dal....talkdalyen....parlance
sex-....buildsexyen....structure
-yef duty to verb stem dud-....to answerdudyef....responsibility
byok-....to achebyokyef....punishment
-yik difficulty to verb stem teeter....to hearteetyik....difficulty hearing
tiex-....to breathetiexyik....difficulty breathing, asthma
-yog little and ugly noun tam....housetamyog....shack
epat....duckepatyog....ugly duckling
kod....secretkodyog....little dirty secret
-yuf fear of, -phobia noun lopyet....snakelopyetyuf....fear of snakes
mil....watermilyuf....hyrophobia
-yuk ease of verb stem pes- to waitpesyuk....patience
kovyox- to foolkovyoxyuk....gullibility, foolhardiness

Examples of the Suffix -yen edit

| ajtyod....past people || ajtyodyen....tradition |- | d-....to say || dyen....expression |- | akpas....winning move || akpasyen....tactic |- | dre(r)....to write || dreyen....writing system |- | amal....atmosphere || amalyen....weather |- | an-....single || anyen....quirk, idio- |- | axl-....to act || axlyen....behavior |- | aot....person || aotyen....character, personality |- | ty-....to know how || tyen....skill, craft |- | x-....to do || xyen....profession |- | ze-....middle || zeyen....means |- | bas-....gesture || basyen....body language |- | tex....thought || texyen....opinion |- | es-....to exist || esyen....state |- | kya-....change || kyayen....version |- | p-....to go || pyen....pace, gait |}

Noun Prefixes edit

Prefixes can also be attached to nouns to create derivatives. Here are some common productive ones:
Noun Prefixes
Prefix Meaning Base Noun Derivations
aa first, arch- deb....leader
dezun....performance
tat....angel
aadeb....premier
azdezun....premiere
aatat....archangel
ab superior, sur- donab....rank
dout....gentleman
dyun....name
abdonab....superior rank
abdout....aristocrat
abdyun....title, surname
ayb over-, super- dras....script
ilp....flow
mas....name
aybdrun....superscript
aybilp....overflow
aybmas....ceiling
ayn holo- dras....script
meg....stone
sag....number
ayndras....hologram
aynmeg....hololith
aynsag....integer
az strong hihid....laugh
ojvad....promise
tos....feeling
azhihid....guffaw
azojvad....covenant
aztos....passion
do public del....statement
did....question
vyab....rule
dodel....announcement
dodid....inquiry
dovyab....law
eb inter-, dia- dal....statement
ifek....gram
kyax....change
ebdal....dialog
ebifek....interlude
ebkyaz....interchange

Gender edit

 
Nouns in Mirad are gender-neutral, unless those relating to people, animals, and sometimes clothing are altered to be specifically male/male-oriented or female/female-oriented. To create the male or male-oriented form of an otherwise gender-neutral noun, prefix the vowel of the semantically-significant syllable with the letter w. To create the female or female-oriented form, suffix the vowel of the semantically-significant syllable with y. If the noun is an agent noun with the suffix -ut, that is, a noun that means "one who does something as an occupation or behavior", the ending -ut is changed to -uyt for the female form, but the male form stays the same. The reason for this is that the addition of a w to the agentive ending could be confused with the verbal passive marker w (see the chapter on Mirad Grammar/Verbs. The chart below shows how this works:
Making Nouns Gender-specific
NEUTRAL MALE/MALE-ORIENTED FEMALE/FEMALE-ORIENTED
tob....human being, person twob....man toyb....woman
tobet....child twobet....boy toybet....girl
tad....spouse twad....husband tayd....wife
ejtad....step spouse ejtwad....step-husband ejtayd....step-wife
ajtad....ex-spouse ajtwad....ex-husband ajtayd....ex-wife
ted....parent twed....father teyd....mother
datif....sweetheart dwatif....boyfriend daytif....girlfriend
yapet....pig yapwet....boar yapeyt....sow
edeb....monarch edweb....king edeyb....queen
apat....fowl apwat....rooster apayt....hen
tiuv....underwear tiwuv....briefs tiuyv....panties
vapet....antelope vapwet....deer vapeyt....doe
deuzut....singer deuzut....singer deuzuyt....songstress
tud....child twud....son tuyd....daughter
For gender specification in pronouns, see Mirad Grammar/Pronouns, below).


Adjective Types edit

Adjectives, which are words that modify nouns, can be of the following types and subcategories:
  • descriptive
  1. qualitative, like iva (happy), fia (good), oga (small)
  2. denominal ( ~ noun-derived), like doma (urban) < dom (city) or teaba (ocular) < teab (eye)
  3. deverbal ( ~ verb-derived), (participles) like tejea (living) < tejer (to live) or twa (known) < ter (to know)
  4. preposition-derived, like aba (upper) < ab....on top of or zoa (posterior) < zo (behind)
  • determinative
  1. deictic ( ~ demonstrative, indefinite), like hia (this), huyena (such), haewa (both)
  2. numeric, like awa (one), ea (second), iona (triple)
  3. quantitative, like ga (more), glo (few), gra (too much)
  4. pronominal ( ~ possessive), like ata (my), duhota? (whose), hyeta (anyone's)
Descriptive adjectives are the main focus of this section. Determinative adjectives (determiners) behave differently and are discussed under Determiners. Deverbal adjectives, usually referred to as participles, are treated in the section on Verbs, since they are formed from verbs. Pronominal determiners (i.e. possessive adjectives) are treated under both the section on Determiners and the section on Pronouns.

Descriptive Adjectives edit

All descriptive adjectives end in the adjectival marker vowel a.
Adjective-marking suffix
STEM MEANING ADJECTIVE
fi- qualitative root base word fia....good
pur noun meaning vehicle pura....vehicular
dalw- passive stem of the verb speak dalwa....spoken
ab preposition meaning on aba....superior
Such adjectives precede the noun or noun phrase they modify:
  • aga tam....a big house
  • ha fia toyb....the good woman
  • ata boka twed....my sick father
  • fia ilzyebi bi vafil.....good bottles of wine
  • yata dooba doof....our national flag
Adjectives do not agree in number or gender with the noun they modify.
doba xeut....state agent can also be expressed as the noun compound dobxeut. Dob means a state.
pata bok....avian illness can be compounded as patbok, literally bird illness.
Note: Compounded nouns often have an idiomatic meaning not exactly equal to their separate parts. More about this in the later section on vocabulary-building.

Comparing Adjectives by Degree edit

 
As in English, descriptive adjectives can be compared by degree. To do this, a quantitative determiner of degree (ga, ge, etc.) is placed before the adjective, producing positive / negative comparative, equalitative, superlative, and other degree expressions as in the following table. The quantitative determiners themselves that are used in these comparative expressions are discussed in detail in a later section on Quantitative Determiners.
Modification of Adjectives by Degree
QUANTITATIVE DETERMINER MODIFICATION BY DEGREE
ga....more ga fia (vyel)....better (than)
ge....as, equally ge fia (vyel)....as good (as)
go....less go fia (vyel)....less good (than)
gao....more or less gao fia....good more or less
gla....very gla fia....very good
glay....so glay fia....so good
gle....rather/quite gle fia....rather/quite good
glo....not very glo fia....not very/slightly/barely good
gra....too gra fia....too good
gre....enough gre fia....good enough
gro....not enough gro fia....not good enough
gwa....most gwa fia (bi, be)....best (of, in)
gwe....just, merely gwe fia....merely good
gwo....least gwo fia (bi, be)....least good (of, in)
The relative conjunction vyel is used to translate English as in an equalitative comparison or than in a non-equalitative comparison. Examples:
  • Ata tam se ga aga vyel etas.....My house is bigger than yours.
  • Hia tam voy se ge aga vyel atas.....This house is not as big as mine.
  • His se ha gwa aga tam bi yata yubem.....This is the biggest house in our neighborhood.
Unlike in English, where comparative forms can be irregular (smaller, more intense, better), there are no exceptions in the comparison of Mirad adjectives and adverbs.

Deriving Substantives from Adjectives edit

Adjectives can be suffixed to derive various noun substantives:
  • Abstract quality noun: -n
  • Thing having a quality: -s
  • Person having a quality: -t
Deriving Substantives from Adjectives
ADJECTIVE QUALITY PERSON THING
fia....good fian....goodness fiat....a good person fias....a good thing
yeva....just yevan....justice yevat....a fair person yevas....a fair thing
joga....young jogan....youth jogat....a youth jogas....something new
The substantives ending in -s and -t can be referred to as deadjectival pronouns, because they act like pronouns but are derived from adjectives.

Reversing the Semantics of Adjectives edit

 
Descriptive adjectives can be negated by prefixing o. If the adjective being semantically reversed already begins with the prefix o, then the first semantic reversing prefix becomes ol. This has the effect of English un- or non- in words like unlike, unhappy, and nonessential or the Greek privative prefix a(n)- in words like asymmetric or anomalous.
Prefixing the syllable lyo or ov has an even stronger semantic effect. It denotes the polar opposite of the adjective and can mean "anti-".
In cases where the o- creates an ambiguous word, lo- or -ol is substituted, depending on whether the base adjective begins with a consonant or a vowel, respectively. Note this in the last two words of the following chart:
Reversing the Semantics of Adjectives
NORMAL NEGATED
twa....known otwa....unknown
ega....normal oega....abnormal
eflawa....essential oeflawa....nonessential
geyla....similar ogeyla....dissimilar
iva....happy oiva....unhappy
data....friendly odata....unfriendly
lyodata....inimical
ovdata....hostile
dota....social odota....unsocial
lyodota....barbarian
ovdota....antisocial
ifwa....loved oifwa....unloved
fwa....wanted lofwa....unwanted
ofwa....prohibited olofwa....unprohibited

Polarization of Base Word Adjectives edit

Base word adjectives are polarized adjectives that fall into the following pattern categories:
  • [iu]Ca (such as ifa, uja, ika, uka, etc.)
  • C[iu]a (such as fia, fua, via, vua, etc.)
  • [aeu]Ca (such as aja, eja, uja, yava, yeva, yova, etc.)
  • C[aeu]a (such as vaa, vea, vua, etc.)
In the case of the i/u vowel adjectives, those adjectives with i are positive and are contrasted with those with u, which are negative, eg.:
I/U Polarized Adjectives
Positive Negative
fia....good fua....bad
iva....happy uva....sad
via....beautiful vua....ugly
In the case of the a/e/u vowel adjectives, those adjectives with a are positive; those with e are intermediate, and those with o are negative, eg.:
A/E/U-Polarized Adjectives
Positive Intermediate Negative
yava....innocent yeva....fair yova....guilty
aja....past eja....present oja....future
aga....big ega....normal oga....small

Deintensifying the Sense of Adjectives edit

The semantic strength of qualitative adjectives can often be deintensified by following the ordinal vowel or stem vowel with the glide y. Examples follow:
Mitigated Adjectives
NORMAL DEINTENSIFIED
oma....cold oyma....cool
ama....hot ayma....warm
yufa....afraid yuyfa....shy
yiva....free yiyva....loose
via....beautiful viya....pretty
ifwa....loved iyfwa....liked
yefwa....obligatory yeyfwa....due
ufwa....hated uyfwa....disliked

Adjectival Derivational Endings edit

All descriptive adjectives end in at least the suffix a. Many adjectives are derived from other parts of speech, using one of more of the following derivational endings.
Adjectival Derivative Endings
ENDING TRANSITION TYPE MEANING BASE WORD DERIVED ADJECTIVE
-a N->ADJ relating to, of tot....god
tob....man
dom....city
tota....divine
toba....human
doma....urban
-aya N->ADJ full of, -ful, -ous mil....water
yazmel....mountain
tes....meaning
milaya....watery, aquaous
yazmelaya....mountainous
tesaya....meaningful
--ika N->ADJ full of, -ful, -ous mil....water
yazmel....mountain
tes....meaning
milika....watery, aquaous
yazmelika....mountainous
tesika....meaningful
-oya N->ADJ empty of, -less, -free teb....head
level....sugar
tes....meaning
teboya....headless
leveloya....sugar-free
tesoya....meaningless
-uka N->ADJ empty of, -less, -free teb....head
level....sugar
tes....meaning
tebuka....headless
leveluka....sugar-free
tesuka....meaningless
-yena N->ADJ like, -ish, -y tot....god
tob....man
dom....city
totyena....godly, godlike
tobyena....manly, virile
domyena....urbane
-ea V->ADJ -ing, -ent, -ant ags-....grow
tej-....live
kyas-....change
agsea....growing, crescent
tejea....living, alive
kyasea....changing, variant
-yea V->ADJ -ive, tending to dal-....talk
tox-....forget
vad-....affirm
dalyea....talkative
toxyea....forgetful
vadyea....affirmative
-wa V->ADJ -ed dal-....talk
tox-....forget
vad-....affirm
dalwa....spoken
toxwa....forgotten
vadwa....affirmed
-oa V->ADJ -about to, apt to toj-....die
kyes-....happen
tajb-....give birth
tojoa....moribund
kyesoa....imminent
tajboa....about to deliver
-ua V->ADJ -able, potentially V tojb-....kill
bukx-....harm
akuj-....succeed
tojbua....lethal
bukxua....dangerous
akujua....potentially successful
-yafa V->ADJ -able test-....understand testyafa....able to understand
-yafwa V-ADJ -able, possible to X test-....understand testyafwa....understandable
-yofa V->ADJ unable to teat-....see teatyofa....blind
-yofwa V->ADJ impossible to, un-X-able teat-....see teatyofwa....invisible
-yuka V->ADJ comfortable Xing pes-....wait pesyuka....patient
-yukwa V->ADJ easy to X test-....understand testyukwa....clear
-yika V->ADJ hard of Xing teet-....hear teetyika....hard of hearing
-yikwa V->ADJ hard to X teet-....hear teetyikwa....hard to hear
-ifa V->ADJ fond of Xing, -phile/-ic t-....know
dyes....book
tifa....curious
dyesifa....bibliophilic
-ifwa V->ADJ loved by tyod-....people tyodifwa....popular
-ufa V->ADJ X-hating, -phobic, averse tob-....man
yex....work
toybufa....anthrophobic
yexufa....lazy, work-averse
-ufwa V->ADJ hated by hyat....everyone hyatufwa....universally hated
-yifa V->ADJ brave toj....death tojyifa....brave in the face of death
-yufa V-ADJ afraid of X tot....god totyufa....god-fearing
-yufwa V->ADJ feared by X gla....much glayufwa....much-feared
-yefa V->ADJ due to X dud-....answer dudyefa....answerable, responsible
-yeyfa V->ADJ liable to X fyuzi-....get punished fyuziyeyfa....liable to be punished
-yefwa V->ADJ X-worthy fid-....praise fidyefa....praiseworthy
-yakwa V->ADJ expected to X mamil-....rain mamilyakwa....likely to rain
-valka N->ADJ -safe, -proof mil....water milvalka....waterproof
-ava N->ADJ pro-X tej....life tejava....pro-life
-eva N->ADJ -neutral toob....gender toobeva....gender-neutral
-ova N->ADJ anti-X dropek....war dropekova....anti-war
-yiva N->ADJ -free yef....debt yefyiva....debt-free
-yuva N->ADJ -bound yef....duty
vya-....truth
dofin....moral
yefyuva....duty-bound
vyayuva....loyal
dofinyuva....scrupulous
-aza N->ADJ strong-Xed fon....will
tip....temperament
fonaza....strong-willed
tipaza....stern
-oza N->ADJ weak-Xed tip....temperament tipoza....weak-hearted
-iza N->ADJ straight-Xed tep....mind
dal....speech
tepiza....logical
daliza....frank
-uza N->ADJ crooked-Xed tep....mind
dal....speech
tepuza....illogical
daluza....devious
-okya N->ADJ absent-Xed tad....spouse
ted....parent
tadokya....widowed
tedokya....orphaned
-iga N->ADJ fast-Xed tuyub....finger tuyubiga....nimble
-uga N->ADJ slow-Xed tep....mind tepuga....slow-witted, dull
-aga N->ADJ big-Xed tiib....heart tiibaga....big-hearted, generous
-oga N->ADJ small-Xed tep....mind tepoga....small-minded
-yiga N->ADJ hard-Xed tip....temperament tipyiga....stern, strict
-yuga N->ADJ soft-Xed tip....temperament tipyuga....lax, lenient

Adverb Types edit

Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. There are two types of adverbs in Mirad, namely:
  • derived adverbs
  • inherent adverbs.

Derived Adverbs edit

Adverbs can be derived from descriptive adjectives by suffixing the adverbial marker y, eg.:
Derived Adverbs
ADJECTIVE ADVERB
fia....good fiay....well
yeva....fair yevay....fairly
uja....final ujay....finally
ejna....new ejnay....newly
teyda....maternal teyday....maternally
At the end of sentences or clauses, common one-syllable-stem adverbs can be shortened by removing the ay ending:
  • Iyt deuze fi.....She sings well.
  • At upo ig.....I'll come quickly.
Otherwise, the full adverb form is used, eg.:
  • Yet yefe ugay fiaser.....You people must slowly improve.
  • At tojo ivay, tea van at beaye fia tej.....I will die happily knowing that I've had a good life.

Inherent Adverbs edit

There are some words in the language that are inherently invariable adverbs and do not take the ay ending, because they are not formed from adjectives, or because they already end in ay. Here are the most common examples:
Inherent Adverbs
yab....up
yaob....up and down
(a)yeb1....in
oyeb....out
aoyeb....in and out
yob....down yub....near
yuib....near and far
yib....far
oyib....not far
ab....on
ayb....above
aob....of and on
eb....between
eyb....among
ob....off
oyb....under
ub....toward ib....away
bay....with/along bey....by/via boy....without byu....as far (as) byi....since
vay....indeed vey....perhaps voy....not
za....in front (of)
zay....ahead
zya....throughout
zao....back and forth
ze....to/at the middle (of)
zey....across
zye....through
zo....in back (of)
zoy....back
zu....on the left (of)
zui....right and left
zi....on the right (of)
uz....on a curve
uiz....zigzig
iz....straight, directly
yez....along yuz....around yiz....beyond
oyiz....not beyond
ga....more
gao....more or less
ge...equally go....less
gay....also gey....even goy....no more/except
gaj....still goj....no longer
yan....together yon....apart
ja....before
jao....before and after
jay....already
je....meanwhile
jey....meanwhile
jo....after
joy...next
ju....until ji....since
Note 1: Ayeb is almost always shortened to yeb.
The words in the above chart that are underlined can also serve as prepositions (See Prepositions).
The words underlined below are considered adverbial because they can modify verbs. For example:
  • At teaxa yab.....I looked up.   (= At yabteaxa.)
  • Duven et hyej upo zoy?.....Will you ever come back.   (= ...zoyupo?)
  • Et po yib be tej......You will go far in life.   (= Et yipo...)
  • At voy se eta ted.....I am not your father.
  • Pu zu, jogat!....Go left, young man!   (= Zupu...)
  • Yat vay sa hum.....We were indeed there.
  • It pa oyeb.....He went outside.   (= It oyepa.)
  • Iyt gay deuze.....She also sings.
  • Yit yexe gey be moji.....They work even nights.
  • Ha tobud gaj tujeye.....The baby is still sleeping.
  • Yat yefe yexer yan.....We must work together.   (= ...yanyexer.)
  • His vey upo yon.....This may come apart.   (= ...yonupo.)
  • Hit se jay toja.....This one is already dead.
  • Hut se voy toja.....That one is not dead.
  • At popeyo zya.....I will be traveling all around.   (= zyapopeyo.)
  • Et byase yon.....You stand apart.
  • Van yet besu yan.....Stay together, guys.
Many of the above adverbs can be prefixed to verbs, nouns, and even adjectives to indicate motion in various directions. (Keep in mind that the b or p can be assimilated to the first letter of per (go) or ber (put). For example:
  • yeb (in) + per (go) = yeper (to enter)  [NOT: yebper]
  • oyeb (out) + bier (take) = oyebier (to take out)  [NOT: oyebbier]
  • yab (up) + per (go) = yaper (to rise)  [NOT: yabper]
  • yob (up) + kima (sloped) = yobkima (downward-sloping)
  • yub (near) + per (go) = yuper (to approach)  [NOT: yubper]
  • yib (far) + daler (talk) = yibdaler (to telephone)
  • yiz (beyond) + per (go) = yizper (to surpass)
  • yez (along) + per (go) = yezper (to go along)
  • yuz (around) + pipen (sailing) = yuzpipen (circumnavigation)
  • zay (ahead) + paser (move) = zaypaser (to advance)
  • zao (back and forth) + baser (move) = zaobaser (to rock)
  • ze (to the middle) + jaga (aged) = zejaga (middle-aged)
  • zye (through) + teatyafwa (visible) = zyeteatyafa (transparent)
  • zey (across) + mep (road) = zeymep (bridge)
  • zoy (back) + nogea (gradual) = zoynogea (retrogressive)
  • iz (straight) + nad (line) = iznad (vector)
  • zi (to the right) + kum (side) = izkum (right side)
  • zu (far) + tuyab (hand) = zutuyaba (left-handed)
  • uz (on a curve) + nad (line) = uznad (curve)
  • yan (together) + up (come) = yanup (a meeting)
  • yon (apart) + ber (put) = yonber (to separate)

Word Order of Adverbs edit

The word order of adverbs is fairly free, as in English. But, to avoid ambiguity, the adverb should be placed immediately before or after the sentence element it modifies, eg.:
  • It deuze vi.....He sings beautifully.
  • Et yefe xer gwa ig.....You must do it as quickly as possible.
  • Et hyoj ako fika ivan.....You will never gain perfect happiness.
  • At voy te. (OR) At te voy. ....I do not know.

Comparison of Adverbs by Degree edit

Adverbs can be compared just as adjectives with the use of Quantitative Determiners. The words than, compared to, and as are translated by the relative conjunction vyel (than, compared to, with respect to)
Comparison of Adverbs by Degree
POSITIVE +/=/- COMPARATIVE +/- SUPERLATIVE

yikay....easily
ga yikay vyel....more easily than
ge yikay vyel....as easily as
go yikay vyel....less easily than
(ha) gwa yikay....(the) most easily

(ha) gwo yikay....(the) least easily
Examples:
  • At pipe ga fi vyel et.....I swim better than you.
  • Yat tra hua twob go fi vyel yet.....We knew that man less well than you guys.
  • Eta tayd deuza ha gwa vi be ha ebyek.....Your wife sang the most beautifully in the competition.
  • Et xa has ha gwa fu vyel hyet.....You did it the worst compared to anyone.
  • Dalu ge azay vyel et yafe.....Speak as loudly as you can.


Determiners are words that specify or point out the context of nouns and other parts of speech. The English determiner this, for example, specifies a noun for its proximity to the current context. In English, demonstrative pronouns/adjectives/adverbs, possessive pronouns/adjectives, quantifiers like more and very, and numeric expressions like both fall under this category.

Types of Determiners edit

Determiners in Mirad fall into the following categories:
Types of Determiners
TYPE ALSO KNOWN AS ENGLISH EXAMPLES
Deictic Demonstrative Pronouns/Adjectives/Adverbs the, this, some, every, which?, when
Pronominal Possessive Pronouns/Adjectives my, anybody's, one's own
Quantitative Quantifiers more, less, very
Numerical Numerals/Fractions/Ordinals/Dates, etc. one, half, first
Furthermore, as for part of speech, determiners can be adjectives, pronouns, or adverbs. As adjectives, determiners can itemize or classify. As pronouns, they can refer to one or more persons (male or female) or things. As adverbs, they can specify circumstance, i.e. time, place, degree, kind, age, frequency, and so forth.

Deictic Determiners edit

Deictic determiners are words which point out or specify other words as to their context, including what grammarians often call demonstratives. All deictic determiners in Mirad begin with the letter h. The letters following the h indicate the grammatical and semantic category.
Deictic determiners include the following traditional grammatical categories:
  • Demonstrative adjectives like this, that, those, that one
  • The definite article the    (which is really a demonstrative adjective like those above.)
  • Demonstrative pronouns like this, that, those, that one
  • Interrogative and relative pronouns like who, which, that
  • Indefinite adjectives like any, some, all, something, such, etc.
  • Indefinite pronouns like any, some, all, something, such, etc.
  • Pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs of quantity like so much, that many, how many?, very, etc.
  • Adverbs of circumstance:
  • time like when, now, ever
  • place like there, here, somewhere
  • manner like how, thus, somehow
  • kind like so, age this year old
  • direction like that way, any which way
  • reason why?, for that reason, for no reason
  • degree this (well), so (good), how (bad)
  • frequency like how often, so often, never
  • age like this old, how old?, of any age

Deictic Prefixes edit

 
There is a whole set of correlative deictic prefixes, which are joined to circumstantial stub category suffixes to derive pronoun, adjective, and adverb determiners. In some grammars, these words are called wh-question words and their pointed answers. For example, QUESTION: Who is your wife? ANSWER: This is my wife. (or) QUESTION: Where is your house? ANSWER: My house is here. These word forms are called correlative because they relate to one another in way that can be mapped to a table.
Here are the Mirad deictic classification prefixes:
Deictic Prefixes
CLASSIFICATION DEICTIC PREFIX
Interrogative duho-...?....what?, which?
Relative ho-....which, that
Exclamatory hoo-....how...!
Definite ha-....the
Indefinite he-....some, a certain
Proximal hi-....this, these
Immediate hii-....the following
Distal hu-....that, those
Intensive huu-....such, so, what a...!
Distributive hya-....every, all, each
Indeterminate hye-....any, whatever
Negative hyo-....no, not any
Identical hyi-....the same, the very
Non-identical hyu-....the other, another, else
Note: The Identical (hyi-) and Non-identical prefixes (hyu-) can optionally be substituted with ge- (same) and oge- (different), respectively.

Circumstantial Category Suffixes edit

The table below shows word stub suffixes that indicate the circumstantial category of deictic expressions. They are called stubs, because they are reduced word forms. The combination of deictic prefixes and circumstantial stub suffixes produce a matrix of deictic correlatives, seen later in this chapter. Use of the stub instead of the long form is a matter of optional economy. A few categories do not have stubs.
Category Stubs
CATEGORY STUB LONG FORM QUESTION WORD EXAMPLE
Person -t tob...person duhot?....who?
Thing -s sun...thing duhos?....what?
Place -m nem...place duhom?....where?
Time -j job...time duhoj?....when?
Manner -yen byen...manner duhoyen?....how?
Kind -yena syena...of a style duhoyena?....what kind of?
Degree -gla nog...degree duhogla fi?....how well?
Quantity -gla sag...number duhogla pati?....how many birds?
Mass -gla glan...amount duhogla mil?....how much water?
Frequency -xag xag...frequency duhoxag?....how often?
Reason -sav sav duhosav?....why?
Age -jag jag...age duhojag?....how old?
There can be other circumstantial categories other than those listed above, such as "direction", "order", etc. eg. Duhomep wit pa?....Which way did he go?.

Charts of Correlative Deictic Determiners edit

Here is are three tables showing the matrix of correlative deictic determiners. Note that the determiners belong to three parts of speech, 1) adjectives, 2) pronouns, and 3) adverbs:
PART OF SPEECH ENDING
Adjective -a
Pronoun -t(i), -s(i)
Adverb (no ending)

Deictic Determiner Adjectives edit

All deictic determiner adjectives in in -a and are used to modify nouns.
Correlative Deictic Determiner Adjectives
SELECTIVE
-a
POSSESSIVE
-ta
KIND/MANNER
-yena
QUANTITY
-gla
AGE
-jaga
FREQUENCY
-xaga
Interrogative duhoa?
which?
duhota?
whose?
duhoyena?
what kind of?
duhogla?
how much/many?
duhojaga?
how old?
duhoxaga?
how frequent?
Relative hoa
which
hota
whose
hoyena
what kind of
hogla
how much/many
hojaga
how old
hoxaga
how frequent
Exclamatory hooa
what a...!
hoogla
look how much/many...!
hoojaga
how old a...!
Definite ha1
the
hatas
the person’s
hayena
of the kind
hagla
of the amount
hajaga
of the age
haxaga
of the frequency
Indefinite hea
some/a certain
heta
someone's
heyena
some kind of
hegla
some
hejaga
somewhat old
hexaga
sometimes
Proximal hia
this
hita
this person’s
hiyena
this kind of
higla
this much
hijaga
this old
hixaga
this often
Immdediate hiia
the following
hiita
the follow person’s
hiiyena
the following kind of
hiigla
to the following degree
hiijaga
of the following age
hiixaga
of the following frequency
Distal hua
that
huta
that person’s
huyena
that kind of
hugla
that much/many
hujaga
of that age
huxaga
that often
Intensive huua
such a
huuta
such a person’s
huuyena
such kind of
huugla
so much/many
huujaga
of such an age
huuxaga
so often
Negative hyoa
no
hyota
nobody’s
hyoyena
no kind of
hyogla
no amount/number of
hyojaga
of no age
hyoxaga
of zero frequency
Distributive hya1
every
hyata
everybody’s
hyayena
every kind of
hyagla
all
hyajaga
of every age
hyaxaga
always
Indeterminate hyea
whichever/any2
hyeta
whosever
hyeyena
whatever/any kind of
hyegla
however much/many
hyejaga
however old
hyexaga
however frequent
Identical hyia
the same
hyita
the same person’s
hyiyena
the same kind of
hyigla
just as
hyijaga
just as old
hyixaga
just as often
Non-identical hyua
the other
hyuta
someone else's
hyuyena
another kind of
hyugla
not as much/many
hyujaga
of another age
hyuxaga
not as often
Note 1: The determiners ha (the) and hya (every) are shortened forms of haa and hyaa. Also, ha is commonly called a "definite article".
  • While hya means every or all, the word hyawa is used for each.
  • The possessive adjective forms in the above table ending in -ta such as hyeta....whosever cannot be pluralized by the ending -tia. To say other people's, use the expression bi hyuti (Lit. of others).
  • The ho- words are relative, meaning that they can serve to form relative clauses like the following:
  • Ha toyb, hota twad se Bill,....The woman, whose husband is Bill,
  • At voy te hos et tepfe.....I don't know what you mean.
  • At teste hogla et fie iyt.....I understand how much you love her.
  • The hoo- words are exclamatory and are used in expressions like the following:
  • Hoogla iva se at van et upa!....How glad I am that you came!
  • Hooa jub his saye!....What a day this has been! (Hoogla is pronounced ho-O-a as three syllables.)
Note 2: The indeterminant determiners can also be translated with no matter what, no matter where, etc.

Deictic Determiner Pronouns edit

All deictic determiner pronouns end either in -t for persons or -s for things. They can be singular or plural (-i).
Correlative Deictic Determiner Pronouns
THING -s
THINGS -si
PERSON -t
PERSONS -ti
KIND OF THING -yenas
KINDS OF THINGS -yenasi
AMOUNT -glas
NUMBER OF THINGS -glasi
NUMBER OF PEOPLE -glati
Interrogative duhos?
  what?
duhosi?
  what (things)?
duhot?
  who?
duhoti?
  who (pl.)
duhoyenas?
  what kind of thing?
duhoyenasi?
  what kinds of things?
duhoglas
  how much?
duhoglasi?
  how many things?
duhoglati?
  how many people?
Relative hos
  what
hosi
  what
hot
  who
hoti
  who
hoyenas
  what kind of thing
hoyenasi
hoglas
  how much
hoglasi
  how many
hoglati
  how many
Exclamatory hoos
  what a thing!
hoosi
  what things!
hoot
  what a person!
hooti
  what people!
hooglas
  what an amount!
hooglasi
  what a number!
hoglati
  what a number of people!
Definite has
  it
hasi
  they/them
hat
  he/she/him/her
hati
  they/them
hayenas
  the king of thing
hayenasi
  the kind of things
haglas
  the amount
haglasi
  the number of things
haglati
  the number of people
Indefinite hes
  something
hesi
  some things
het
  someone
heti
  some
heyenas
  some kind of thing
heyenasi
  some kinds of thing
heglas
  some
heglasi
  some things
heglati
  some people
Proximal his
  this
hisi
  these
hit
  this person
hiti
  these people
hiyenas
  this kind of thing
hiyenasi
  these kinds of things
higlas
  this much
higlasi
  this many
higlati
  this many people
Immediate hiis
  the following thing
hiisi
  the following things
hiit
  the following person
hiiti
  the following people
hiiyenas
  the following kind of thing
hiiyenasi
  the following kinds of things
hiiglas
  the following amount
hiiglasi
  this following number of things
hiiglati
  the following number of people
Distal hus
  that
husi
  those
hut
  that person
huti
  those people
huyenas
  that kind of thing
huyenasi
  those kinds of things
huglas
  that much
huglasi
  that many
huglati
  that many people
Intensive huus
  such a thing
huusi
  such things
huut
  such a person
huuti
  such people
huuyenas
  such a kind of thing
huuyenasi
  such kinds of things
huuglas
  so much
huuglasi
  so many
huuglati
  so many people
Negative hyos
  nothing
hyosi
  none of them
hyot
  nobody
hyoti
  none of them
hyoyenas
  no kind of thing
hyoyenasi
  no kinds of things
hyoglas
  none
hyoglasi
  none
hyoglati
  none
Distributive hyas
  everything
hyasi
  all of them
hyat
  everybody
hyati
  all of them
hyayenas
  every kind of
hyayenasi
  all kinds of things
hyaglas
  all of it
hyaglasi
  all of them
hyaglati
  all of them
Indeterminate hyes
  anything
hyesi
  any
hyet
  anybody
hyeti
  any of them
hyeyenas
  any kind of
hyeyenasi
  whatever things
hyeglas
  any of it
hyeglasi
  any of them
hyeglati
  whoever
Identical hyis
  the same thing
hyisi
  the same things
hyit
  the same person
hyiti
  the same people
hyiyenas
  the same kind of
hyiyenasi
  the same kinds of things
hyiglas
  as much
hyiglasi
  as many
hyiglati
  as many people
Non-identical hyus
  something else
hyusi
  other things
hyut
  someone else
hyuti
  other people
hyuyenas
  another kind
hyuyenasi
  other kinds
hyuglas
  another amount
hyuglasi
  another number of things
hyuglati
  another number of people
Concerning the above chart, note the following:
  • The interrogative determiners all begin with duho-, which means say which, and are technically imperatives. Duhom?, for example, means Tell (me) the place.... The o-stem forms without the du- are used as relative clause heads, eg. At po hom et po.
      I will go where you go.
  • Interrogatives usually come at the beginning of a sentence as in English, eg. Duhos se eta dyun?
      What is your name?
  • Determiners come first before any other epithets of a noun, eg. Hia aga jaga tam...
      This big old house....
  • Person and Thing determiners can be made selective by inserting a before the final t or s, eg. Hot? means Who?, while Hoat? means Which one (of several persons)?
  • Duhoyat?
      Which of us?, Hyeyat
      Any of us, etc.
  • Duhoyet?
      Which of you?, Hyeyet
      Any of you, etc.
  • Duhoyit?
      Which of them?, Hyeyit
      Any of them, etc.

Deictic Determiner Adverbs edit

All deictic determiner adverbs refer to a circumstance.
Correlative Deictic Determiner Adverbs
CIRCUMSTANCE--> PLACE
-m
TIME
-j
MANNERM
-yen
DEGREE
-gla
FREQUENCY
-xag
REASON
-sav
Interrogative duhom?
where?
duhoj?
when?
duhoyen?
how?
dugla?
how (very)?
duxag?
how often?
duhosav?
why?
Relative hom
where
hoj
when
hoyen
how
hogla
how (very)
hoxag
how often
hosav
because
Exclamatory hooyen
and how!
hoogla
how very...!
Definite ham
the place
haj
the time
hayen
the manner
hagla
just as
haxag
as frequently
hasav
the reason
Indefinite hem
somewhere
hej
sometime
heyen
somehow
hegla
somewhat
hexag
somewhat often
hesav
for some reason
Proximal him
here
hij
now
hiyen
this way
higla
this
hixag
this often
hisav
for this reason
Immediate hiim
the following place
hiij
the following time
hiiyen
the following way
hiigla
to the following degree
hiixag
at the following frequency
hiisav
for the following reason
Distal hum
there
huj
then
huyen
that way
hugla
to that degree
huxag
that often
husav
therefore
Intensive huum
such a place
huuj
at such a time
huuyen
in such a way
huugla
so (very)
huuxag
so often
huusav
for such a reason
Negative hyom
nowhere
hyoj
never
hyoyen
in no way
hyogla
not at all
hyoxag
not once
hyosav
for no reason
Distributive hyam
everywhere
hyaj
always
hyayen
in every way
hyagla
fully
hyaxag
always
hyasav
for every reason
Indeterminate hyem
anywhere
hyej
whenever
hyeyen
however
hyegla
however
hyexag
however often
hyesav
for whatever reason
Indentical hyim
at the same place
hyij
at the same time
hyiyen
in the same way
hyigla
as
hyixag
as often
hyisav
for the same reason
Non-identical hyum
somewhere else
hyuj
some other time
hyuyen
otherwise
hyugla
not as
hyuxag
not as often
hyusav
for some other reason
Concerning the above chart, note the following:
  • The determiners ha (the) and hya (every) are shortened forms of haa and hyaa.
  • The interrogative determiners all begin with duho-, which means say which, and are technically imperatives. Duhom?, for example, means Tell (me) the place.... The o-stem forms without the du- are used as relative clause heads, eg. At po hom et po.....I will go where you go.
  • There are is a category not shown in the table:
  • hoo-, used to form exlamatory determiners like Hoogla flia!....How marvelous! or Hooa via jub!....What a beautiful day!.
  • Person determiners can be specified for gender. A determiner is made female by inserting a y after the ordinal, or male by inserting a w before the ordinal, eg. Huyti....those females or Hwit....this guy.
  • Interrogatives usually come at the beginning of a sentence as in English, eg. Duhos se eta dyun?....What is your name?
  • Determiners come first before any other epithets of a noun, eg. Hia aga jaga tam.......This big old house....
  • Person and Thing determiners can be made selective by inserting a before the final t or s, eg. Hot? means Who?, while Hoat? means Which one (of several persons)?
  • Duhoyat?....Which of us?, Hyeyat....Any of us, etc.
  • Duhoyet?....Which of you?, Hyeyet....Any of you, etc.
  • Duhoyit?....Which of them?, Hyeyit....Any of them, etc.
  • Also not included in the above chart is a related interrogative, which is a complementizer.
  • Duven...?.... (Question introducer) Is it true that...?
  • The adverbs of degree in the above chart (duhogla?, etc.) are interchangeable with adverbs ending in -nog....degree (duhonog?....to what degree?, how...?.
  • Other deictic determiner adverbs of circumstance exist and are not on the above chart:
  • duhomep?....which way?
  • dubyun?....to what end?

Examples of Deictic Determiner Usage edit

  • Duhos se eta dyun?....What is your name?
  • Duhot se iyta twad?....Who is her husband?
  • Duhwoat se iyta twad?....Which one of the guys is her husband? (selective)
  • Duhoti fe eker?....Who (pl.) want to play?
  • Hyas se fia.....Everything is fine.
  • Hyat tre et.....Everyone knows you.
  • Hyot tre at.....Nobody knows me.
  • Hyati ekeye fi.....All of them are playing well.
  • Hyoti ekeye fi.....None of them are playing well.
  • Hyet yafe eker.....Anyone can play.
  • Hyes yafwe.....Anything is possible.
  • At fe hyuyenat be ata ekutyan.....I want someone else on my team.
  • Huuyenati fyuxe yata oj.....Such people harm our future.
  • Et yefe tepier hiisi.....You must bear in mind the following things.
  • Duhoyen et xa hus......How did you do that?
  • Duhosav iyt pia huugla jwa?....Why did she leave so early?
  • Hwita tam se ga aga.....This guy's house is bigger.
  • At voy ayse huytia dyuni.....I don't have those women's names.
  • Duhoa tam se etas?....Which house is yours?
  • Huua tej et ayse!....What a life you have!
  • Duhayena dyezuni ifxe et?....What kind of movies do you like?
  • Duhota tef okwa?....Whose hat was lost?
  • Hota tef okwa bese otwas.....Whose hat was host remains a mystery.
  • Ha tob ta yata dyuni.....The man knew our names.
  • Hayena dini at ife, et ufe.....The kind of stories I love, you hate.
  • Hea mepi egdyunxwo.....Certain streets will be renamed.
  • Heyena fukyes uxaye purnyan.....Some kind of accident has caused a traffic jam.
  • Heta abtaf kaxwa be ha zatem......Someone's coat was found in the foyer.
  • Hia dyes se ata gafias.....This book is my favorite.
  • Hiia duni se yofwa.....The following words are prohibited.
  • Hiiyena xeyen voy afwu.....The following sort of behavior would not be allowed.
  • Hiyena xeyen voy vayafwo.....This type of behavior will not be tolerated.
  • Hita tim so yovoza.....This person's room will be blue.
  • Hua mas efwe egvozilbwer.....That wall needs to be repainted.
  • Huua dini yufxe toboti.....Such stories scare children.
  • Huyena duni yeyfwe yixwer za at.....Such words should not be used in front of me.
  • Hwuta tam magseye.....That guy's house is on fire.
  • Hyoa din se ga tesika.....No story more important.
  • Hyoyena tes tesiyafwe.....No such meaning can be inferred.
  • Hyota jatexdras sa ga fia.....Nobody's plan is better.
  • Hyos oboxe huyt.....Nothing bothers that gal.
  • Hya mepi izpe Roma.....All roads lead to Rome.
  • Hya ha mepi se ebwa.....All the roads are bloacked.
  • Hya tob yefe xer ita gon.....Every man must do his part.
  • Hyayena telami ese be hia mep.....All manner of restaurants exist on this street.
  • Hyata tej se uka bi yaobi.....Everyone's life is full of ups and downs.
  • Hyaewa domi agsaye.....Both cities have grown.
  • Hyea voz so fia.....Any color will be fine.
  • Hyeyena til se aysyafwa.....Any kind of drink is available.
  • Hyeta ved se ge ifa vyel atas.....Anyone's guess is as good as mine.
  • Hyea tim et fe et yafe ayser.....Whatever room you want, you can have.
  • Hyia/(Ha gea) fukyesi kyese glaxag.....The same accidents occur frequently.
  • Hyiyena/(Ha geyena) dyezuni teaxuwa zajub.....The same kind of films were shown yesterday.
  • Hyita/(Ha geta) dyun yixwa gajod.....The same person's name was used again.
  • Hyua dyezun sa ifuyea.....The other movie was more entertaining.
  • Hyuyena/(Ogeyena) som teasu ga fia.....Another kind of furniture would look better.
  • Hyuta/(ogeta) texyen se ge fyia.....Someone else's opinion is equally valid.
  • Hiytia dyuni voy dodraye.....These women's names have not be make public.
  • Hwiitia dyuni voy dodrowe.....The following males' names will not be publicized.
  • Hijaga tobweti voy afwo him.....Boys of this age will not be allowed here.
  • Duhom et tambese?....Where do you live?
  • At tambese hum.....I live there.
  • Et tambese hom ha mep uje.....You live where the road ends.
  • Duhom weti peye?....Where are you guys going?
  • Et yafe per hyem et fu.....You can go anywhere you want.
  • Duhom et byise?....Where are you from? (Lit: Where do you originate.
  • Duhoj et taja?....When were you born?
  • At voy tajaya huj.....I had not been born then.
  • Et yeyfe duder hiiyen.....You should respond in the following way.
  • Ot voy yefe daler huuyen.....One must not talk in such a manner.
  • Et pia hesav.....He left for some reason.
  • Duhoyen et iyfe hia vafil?....How do like this wine?
  • Voy se fia axer hiyen.....It is not good to act this way.
  • Duhosav et tadsa huugla jwa?....Why did you marry so late?
  • Ha tob pia hyosav.....The man left for no reason.
  • Hwat pia hosav it efa per hyum.....The guy left because he needed to go
  • Hyeta texyen so fia.....Anyone's decision will be fine.
  • Duhota dyes se his?....Whose book is this?
  • Duhotasi se hia dyesi?....Whose are these books?
  • Hyata tili yebee yom.....Everyone's drinks contain ice.
  • Hyatasi?....Everyone's?
  • Et se gaj geyenat( ~ hyiyenat).'....You are still the same kind of person.
The semantic reverser o- can be prefixed to some of the above deictic determiners:
Ohyat tiste Platon.....Not everyone understands Plato.
Ohut!'....Not that person!
At iyfe gwagla yavili, oy ohuas!....I like most beers, but not that one!
If the definite article or any other deictic determiner is omitted before a noun, then it has the effect of the English indefinite article a / an with a singular noun or some with a plural noun. For example:
  • Yat tilia ha tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank the glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank a glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ha tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank the glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank (some) glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia awa tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank one glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha awa tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank the one glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ewa tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ewa tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank the two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia hya ewa tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank both glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia owa tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank no/zero glasses (=not a single glass) of wine.
  • Yat tilia ea tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank another/a second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ea tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank the second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ea tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank second glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ea tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank the second glasses of wine.
If an indefinite article sense is needed for clarity, the words awa (one) or hea (some, a certain) can be used, eg.:
  • At igteata awa tob yiztyoper.....I glimpsed a man walk by.
  • Hwit zoyupo hea juab.....He will come back on a / a certain / some Monday.

Selective vs. Non-Selective Forms edit

The deictic interrogative determiner pronoun duhot? means who(m) and contrasts with its selective counterpart duhoat?, which means which one?. All the selective determiners refer to one or more things or persons from a selectable pool of things or persons.
The following sentences illustrate the use of the above determiner pronouns:
  • Duhot aka zajuba ek?....Who won yesterday's game?
  • Duhoat bi ha akuti sa ha gwa fiat?....Which one of the winners was the best?
  • Duhota tam se hus?....Whose house is that?
  • Duhotas se hus?....Whose is that?
  • Duhotia deuzi et gaife?....Whose songs do you prefer?
  • Duhotias et gaife?....Whose do you prefer?
  • Duhos se eta dyun?....What is your name?
  • Duhosi se eta gaifuni?....What are your preferences?
  • Duhoa deuzi se eta gwafiasi?....Which songs are your best?
  • Duhoasi se eta gwafiasi?....Which ones are your best?
  • Bi hia deuzuti, hoat et gafie?....Of these vocalists, which one do you prefer?
  • Hiiti yaneko hijub.....The following people will compete today.
  • Duhoati se gwa fia?'....Which ones are best?
  • Duhoti et teexe gwa jodi?....Who (all) do you listen to the most often?
  • Hoat at teexe gwaxag draye ejna deuz.....The one I listen to the most has written a new song.
  • Ejna deuz? At voy teste hoas et tede.....New song? I don't understand which one you mean.
  • Hias.....This one.
  • Vo. Huasi se ga fia.....No. Those are better.
  • His se jub av ivxelen.....This is a day for celebration.
  • Va. Hia jub. At tese hijub.....Yes. This day. I mean To-day.
  • Husi sa ha jubi, ata dat!....Those were the days, my friend!
  • Duhos se eta dyun?....What is your name?
  • Duhot aka ha igpek?....Who won the race?
  • Hyas uja fi.....Everything ended well.
  • Hyasi uje.....All things come to an end.
  • Hyayenasi vey kyesu.....All sorts of things might happen.
  • Hyos yokxa at.....Nothing surprised me.
  • Hyot ta hadut hu ako.....Nobody knew who would win.
  • Hoayti fu pier yefe.....Those females who would like to leave may.
  • Hyet yefe eker hia ifek.....Anyone can play this game.
  • Huyenasi voy afwo.....Such things will not be permitted.
  • Hua twob voy taxe hia toyb.....That man does not remember this woman.
  • Huti yanyexe fi.....Those guys work well together.
  • Huuyti hyaj yubixe tezex.....Such females always attract attention.
  • At jay teataye hiyenasi.....I've seen such things before.
  • Huyenwat voy vabiwu.....A guy like that would not be accepted.
  • Duhoyenasi weti iyfe xer je ha maj.....What kinds of things do you guys like to do during the day?

Numerical Deictic Determiners edit

Sometimes, a deictic determiner specifies numerical information. This chart shows those forms:
Number-incorporating Deictic Determiners
ADJECTIVE INANIMATE PRONOUN ANIMATE PRONOUN PRONOMINAL DETERMINER POSSESSIVE PRONOUN
hawa1
the only
hawas
the only thing
hawasi
the only things
hawat
the only one (person)
hawati
the only ones
hawata
the only person's
hawatas
the only one's
hawatasi
the only one's (things)
hyawa*
each
hyawas
each one
hyawat
each person
hyawata
each person's
hyawatas
each one's
hyawatasi
each one's (things)
hyaewa
both
hyaewasi
both (things)
hyaewati
both (people)
bi hyaewati
both person's
has bi hyaewati
both person's
hasi bi hyaewati
both persone's (things)
hyaiwa
all three
hyaiwasi
all three (things)
hyaiwati
all three (people)
hyaiwata
all three person's
has bi hyaiwati
all three person's
hasi bi hyaiwati
all three person's (things)
ohyawa
not every
ohyawas
not everything
ohyawat
not everyone
ohyawata
not every person's
ohyawatas
not everyone's
ohyawatasi
not everyone's (things)
hyoawa
not a single
hyoawas
not a single thing
hyoawat
not a single person
hyowata
not a single person's
hyowatas
not a single person's
hyowatasi
not a single person's (things)
hyeawa
either
hyeawas
either one
hyeawat
either one (person)
hyeawata
either one's
hyeawatas
either one's
hyeawatasi
either one's (things)
hyeewa
any two
hyeewasi
any two things
hyeewati
any two people
bi hyeewati
any two person's
has bi hyeewati
any two persons'
hasi bi hyeewati
any two persons' (things)
hyeowa
neither
hyeowas
neither one
hyeowat
neither person
hyeawata
neither person's
hyeowatas
neither one's
hyeowatasi
neither one's (things)
hyuawa
another
hyuawas
another one
hyuawat
another
hyuawata
another's
hyuawatas
another's
hyuawatasi
another's (things)
hyuowa
no other
hyuowas
nothing else
hyuowat
nobody else
hyuowata
no other's
hyuowatas
no other's
hyuowatasi
no other's (things)
gawa2
another
gawas
another one
gawat
another (person)
gawata
another's
gawatas
another's
gawatasi
another's (things)
1Hawa and hyawa are short for haawa and hyaawa, respectively.
2Gawa is short for ga awa, yet one.

Notes on Numerical Deictic Determiners edit

Examples using the above number-incorporating deictic determiners:
  • Ohyawat se iva bay eta vaod.....Not everyone is happy with your decision.
  • Hyaewasi yafwe uxer yata efi.....Both (things) can serve our needs.
  • Hyeawa tim ivlaxo at.....Either room will satisfy me.
  • Hyeowas oivlaxo at.....Neither one will dissatisfy me.
Note:
  • hyua means another (an alternative). Ex. At fu hyua til.....I would like another (a different) drink.
  • hyuawa means another (an additional). Ex. At fu hyuawa til.....I would like another (an additional) drink.
  • ha hyua means the other (the alternative). Ex. At fu ha hyua til.....I would like the other drink.


Similarly, hya means every, all, while hyawa means each, and hyaha....all the, ex:
  • Hya dom ayse tebixea suni teaxer.....Every city has interesting things to see.
  • Hya domi ayse tebixusi.....All cities have things of interest.
  • Hyaha domi ayse tebixusi.....All the cities have things of interest.
  • Hyawa dom ayse tebixun.....Each city has something of interest.
Also, ha means the, while hawa means the only, eg.:
  • Ha twob hu at gwa ife se et.....The man I most love is you.
  • Hawa toyb nazea ata tezex se et.....The only woman worth my attention is you.
By appending y to hawa, we get the adverb haway....only, solely, eg;
  • Haway et nize ata tezex.....Only you deserve my attention..
The singular person pronouns in the above chart can be converted into pronominal determiners by adding the adjective suffix a, eg.:
  • Hyawata tej se ge glatesa vyel hyutas.....Each one's life is as important as another's.
  • Hyeowata dyun se vyama.....Neither person's name is real.
However, the plural person pronouns in the above chart use the preposition bi (of) to form possessives, eg.:
  • Ha teji bi hyaiwati se kyebukuwa.....The lives of all three are in danger.
The above singular pronominal determiners can, in turn, be converted into inanimate pronouns with the suffix -s.
  • Hyawatas se glatesa.....Each one's is important.
  • Hyeowatas se vyama.....Neither's is real.
The plural pronominal determiners can be nominalized with the use of bi, eg:
  • Hyaiwasi bi huti se kyebukuwa.....All three of theirs' are in danger.
Correlative Number-incorporating Deictic Determiners are handled as follows:
  • Hyeawa A ey B....either A or B
  • Hyeowa A oy B....neither A nor B
  • Hyaewa A ay B....both A and B
  • Hawa A, voy B....only A, not B

elsewhere.

The different, somewhat confusing, meanings of how are illustrated here:
  • Duhoyen wit xa hus?....How did he do that?.... (Equivalent to Be duha byen...?....In what way...?) (ADVERB OF MANNER)
  • Duhoyen et xeye?....How are you doing?.... (This is the normal way of saying How are you? or How do you do? (ADVERB OF MANNER)
  • Duhoyena sa ha dyezun?.... How was the film?.... (How here is an ADJECTIVE OF KIND, and thus ends in -a.)
  • Duhonog (= Duhogla) aga it se?....How big is he?.... (ADVERB OF DEGREE)
  • Huunog (= Huugla) iyfla et se!....How nice you are!.... (ADVERB OF EMPHATIC DEGREE)
The conjunction as is expressed most often using relative pro-adverbs of manner:
  • Xu hoyen at de.....Do as I say. = (in) the way that...
  • Xu hyiyen (~ geyen) at xe.....Do as I do. ( = (in) the same way that...)
  • Xu hiiyen:....Do as follows. ( = (in) this hereby manner...)
However, the preposition/conjunction gel (like, as) can be substituted:
  • Xu gel at de.....Do as I say.
Many of the determiner adverbs in the above chart can be used in relative clauses, eg:
  • At teato et hoj et puo him.....I will see you when you get here.
  • It xa has hosav tosa yefa.....He did it because (for the reason that) he felt compelled.
  • Hyehom et po, et so ga iva.....Wherever you go, you'll be happier.
  • Hyet te ha did, pyaxu eta tuyab.....Whoever knows the answer, raise your hand.
  • At te hoyen et xa has.....I know how you did it.
See more about this in the section on relative clauses under Syntax.

Quantitative Deictic Determiners edit

The deictic prefixes can be combined with gla to form quantitative expressions acting as adverbial or adjectival determiners, and substantives (pronouns referring to things or people):
Quantitative Deictic Determiners
ADVERBIAL / ADJECTIVAL
DETERMINER
INANIMATE SINGULAR
PRONOUN
INANIMATE PLURAL
PRONOUN
ANIMATE PLURAL
PRONOUN
Interrogative duhogla?
how?/how much?/how many?
duhoglas?
how much?
duhoglasi?
how many
duhoglati?
how many (people)?
Relative hogla
as many/much
hoglas
how much
duhoglasi
how many
duhoglati
how many (as)
Definite hagla
how/as much/as many
haglas
as much
haglasi
as many
haglati
as many (people)
Indefinite hegla
somewhat/some/some
heglas
some
heglasi
some
heglati
some (people)
Proximal higla
this/this much/this many
higlas
this much
higlasi
this many
higlati
this many (people)
Distal hugla
that/that much/that many
huglas
that much
huglasi
that many
huglati
that many (people)
Intensive huugla
so very, so much, so many
huuglas
so much
huuglasi
so many
huuglati
so many (people)
Negative hyogla
none, not very
hyoglas
none of it
hyoglasi
none of them
hyoglati
none
Distributive hyagla
totally/all/all
hyaglas
all of it
hyaglasi
all of them
hyaglati
all
Indeterminate hyegla
however/any/any
hyeglas
any of it
hyeglasi
any of them
hyeglati
any number of them
Identical hyigla
as/as much/as many, equally
hyiglas
the same amount
hyiglasi
the same number
hyiglati
as many (people)
Non-identical hyugla
not as much/not as much/not as many
hyuglas
a different amount
hyuglasi
a different number of things
hyuglati
a different number of people
Here are some examples showing how these quantitative determiners are used:
  • Et deuze huugla fi.....You sing so well.
  • At se hegla booka.....I am somewhat tired.
  • Duhogla pati et teata hijub?....How many birds did you see today?
  • At teata vyavay hugla tami.....I saw exactly that many houses.
  • Iyt fe hyiglas vyel et.....She wants the same amount as you.
  • Duhoglati yantexe yet?....How many (people) agree with you?
  • Hyoglati yantexe.....None agree.
  • Yit fu heglasi.....They would like some (of them).
  • Et yafe bier hyehoglasi et fe.....You can take however many you want.
  • Besu hogla job bay at et fe.....Stay as long with me as you want.
  • At se huugla booka.....I am so tired.
NOTE: The following determiners are synonymous and interchangeable:
  • hegla = gle = henog (somewhat, to some degree)
  • hyigla = ge = hyinog (as, equally, to the same degree)
The determiner huugla' can be used as an exclamatory adverb, eg.:
  • Huugla et agsaye!....How you have grown!
  • Hua twob jagsaye huugla!....That man has aged so much!
  • Hia jotul se huugla fiteluza!....This dessert is sooo delicious!

Pronominal Determiners edit

Pronominal Determiners are what are more often called possessive adjectives such as my or your and are discussed in a subsection of Pronouns.

Quantitative Determiners edit

Quantitative determiners act in one of several ways, they:
  • specify mass, uncountable, singular nouns for relative AMOUNT, eg. much happiness, less work
  • specify countable nouns for relative NUMBER, eg. one apple, two birds, many places
  • specify adverbs, adjectives, and verbs for relative DEGREE, eg. how poorly, very good, eat too much.
From these, pronominalized quantitative determiners for PERSONS and THINGS can be derived.
  • Inanimate singular pronouns are formed by adding s for AN AMOUNT OF A THING
  • Inanimate plural pronouns are formed by adding si for A NUMBER OF THINGS
  • Animate plural pronouns are formed by adding ti for A NUMBER OF PERSONS.
The following table presents most of these word forms (Note that the determiners are in a plus (+), equal (=), or minus (-) row.):
Quantitative Determiners
Adverb / Adjective Singular Pronoun Plural Pronoun
Degree/Amount/Number Amount Number of Things Number of People
+ ga....more gas....more (stuff) gasi....many (things) gati....many (people)
= ge....as, as much, as many ges....as much (stuff) gesi....as many (things) geti....as many people
- go....less, fewer gos....less (stuff) gosi....fewer (things) goti....fewer (people)
+ gla....very, much, many
glay....so, so much, so many
glaa....several
glas....much (stuff)
glays....so much stuff)
glasi....many (things)
glaysi....so many (things)
glaasi....several things
glati....many (people)
glayti....so many (people)
glaati....several people
= gle....rather, quite a lot, quite a few gles....quite a lot (of stuff) glesi....quite a lot (of things) gleti....quite a few (people)
- glo....slightly, a little, few glos....a little bit glosi....a few (things) gloti....few (people)
+ gra....too, too much, too many gras....too much (stuff) grasi....too many (things) grati....too many (people)
= gre....enough gres....enough (stuff) gresi....enough (things) greti....enough (people)
- gro....insufficiently, too little, too few gros....too little grosi....too few groti....too few (people)
+ gwa....most gwas....the most (stuff) gwasi....the most (things) gwati....most people
= gwe....just so (much/many) gwes....just so much gwesi....just so many gweti....just so many (people)
- gwo....least gwos....the least (stuff) gwosi....the least (number of) gwoti....the least number (of people)
Examples Using Graded Quantitative Determiners
Adverbs of degree modifying an adjective:
  • At se gla iva.....I am very happy.
  • Et sa gra uga.....You were too slow.
Adverbs of Degree modifying another adverb:
  • Twobi dale ge igay vyel toybi.....Men talk as fast as women.
  • Yat yexe ga igay vyel yet.....We work faster (= more quickly) than you.
Adjectives quantifying a singular mass noun:
  • Ga nas efwo.....More money will be needed.
  • Gra nas noxwa.....Too much money was spent.
Adjectives quantifying a plural countable noun (= things or people):
  • At ayse gro sari.....I've got too few tools.
  • Gla tami osexwa.....Many houses were destroyed.
  • Yat efe gla ga valkdibuti.....We need many more policemen.
Pronouns referring to a mass amount of something (= stuff):
  • Gas ilokeye.....More (stuff) is leaking.
  • Et dileye gras.....You are asking for too much (stuff).
  • Yat kexo gwas.....We will seek as much (stuff) as possible.
  • At iba gwes.....I received just the right amount.
Pronouns referring to a countable number of things:
  • Hisi se fia oy yat fe gasi.....These (items) are good but we want more (items).
  • At teate drilari oy grosi.....I see pens, but too few.
Pronouns referring to a countable number of people:
  • Grati xaye vyoki be hia yexem.....Too many (people) have made mistakes at this work site.
  • Glati dyunwe oy gloti kexbiwe.....Many are called but few are chosen.

Numerical Determiners edit

This category of determiners, which includes cardinal, ordinal and other number words like two, a tenth, and first, is such a vast topic that it is treated in its own chapter Mirad_Grammar/Numbers


Types of Numbers edit

Numbers are scalar words used to count and quantify things and people. They are words used to vocalize numerals, the symbols themselves. For example the number two is how the numeral 2 is read or spoken. Mirad used Roman numerals (0, 1, 2, 3...), as in Western World languages.
Numbers can be various parts of speech:
  • numeric nouns (The score was six to four.)
  • numeric pronouns (I want two. Give me the fifth one.)
  • numeric determiners (Five days ago. The fifth day. A double dose.)
  • prefixes (monochrome, bicentennial, triangle)
  • rootwords (anxer....to unite, onxer....to annihilate)
Number-based words include:
  • cardinal numbers (one, two, three... used in counting and arithmetic)
  • ordinal numbers (first, second... indicating ordered position)
  • multiplicative numbers (double, triple, foursome...)
  • fractional numbers (half, third, hundredth...)
  • frequency numbers (once, twice, thrice...)
  • miscellaneous number-based words (only, percentage, annihilate)

Cardinal Numbers edit

 
The cardinal numbers are words used in counting and reciting numerals such as telephone numbers, social security numbers, and zip codes, and in arithmetic. They are also used as the so-called "ordinal" stem vowels of words that relate to one another in a scalar, hierarchical, or some other ontological relationship. See this in the chapter on Vocabulary Formation.

Units edit

  • The unit cardinal numbers are formed from the simple and pre-y-glided vowels.
Units
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
  • Ata yibdalar sag se 703-842-6190 (pronounced: ye-o-i-yi-u-e-ya-a-yu-o).....My telephone number is....
  • At tambese 114 (pronounced: a-a-u) Maple Street.
  • E gab e se u.....Two plus two is four.

Decades edit

  • The decade formant -l- is used to form the decades. Followed by -o....zero, we have the base decade numbers. These can be used for number recitation, arithmetic, and as numeric adjectives followed by plural nouns:
Decades with the -l- Formant
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety
By changing the o....zero in lo to other cardinal unit numerals, the numerals within decades can be generated as follows:
Decadal Counting
ala....11 ela....21 ila....31 ula....41 yola....51 yala....61 yela....71 yila....81 yula....91
ale....12 ele....22 ile....32 ule....42 yole....52 yale....62 yele....72 yile....82 yule....92
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
alyu....19 elyu....29 ilyu....39 ulyu....49 yolyu....59 yalyu....69 yelyu....79 yilyu....89 yulyu....99
  • At ayse alo dati.....I have ten friends.
  • It yafe sagder byu alyo.....He can count up to fifteen.
  • Yulyu gob alo gese yilyu.....Ninety-nine minus ten equals eighty-nine.

Hundreds edit

  • By adding the hundreds formant s, you get the hundreds:
Hundreds with the -s- Formant
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
aso eso iso uso yoso yaso yeso yiso yuso
All the numerals in-between the hundreds, can be generated by modifying the so ending with the units and decades:
  • asa....101
  • asale....112
  • usyulyu....599

Thousands edit

  • The thousands are generated with the formant r:
Note: The number categories starting with the thousands on up end in -o and are separated from the rest of a number by a space.
Thousands
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
aro ero iro uro yoro yaro yero yiro yuro
  • aro....1,000
  • aro a....1,001
  • ero isi....2,300
  • yoro yasula....5,641

Millions edit

  • The millions are generated with the formant ml:
Millions with the -ml- Formant
1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 8,000,000 9,000,000
amlo emlo imlo umlo yomlo yamlo yemlo yimlo yumlo
  • emlo yala....2,000,051
  • umlo esu....4,000,204
  • yumlo usyoro isyala....9,405,361

Billions edit

  • The billions are generated with the formant mr;
Billions
1,000,000,000 2,000,000,000 3,000,000,000 4,000,000,000 5,000,000,000 6,000,000,000 7,000,000,000 8,000,000,000 9,000,000,000
amro emro imro umro yomro yamro yemro yimro yumro
In numbers ending in -ro (thousand), -mlo (million), and -mro (billion), these numbers keep the -o and are separated by a space from the other elements of the number.
  • imro emlo yoro asyula....three billion, two million, five thousand, one hundred fifty one
  • iro asyulyo....3,195
  • yamlo asyulyo....6,000,195
  • alomro yelyomlo asyilyaro yusele....10,075,186,922

Trillions etc. edit

The trillions are generated with the word garale, which means 10 to the positive power of 12 or 1010.
The trillionths are generated with the word gorale, which means 10 to the negative power of 12 or 10-10.
These numbers do not combine with surrounding numbers.
  • iwa garale aoti....three trillion people
  • eso garale pati....two hundred trillion birds
Even higher numbers are shown in the Number Chart later in this chapter.

Numeric Determiners edit

Numeric Determiners are adjectives based on numbers that modify a following noun.

Integers edit

The unit numeric integer determiners, which are used to quantify nouns, consist of the cardinal units followed by the unit formant wa. The noun following the numeric determiner is plural if the number is greater than one. The wa formant is used on unit numerals when they are stand-alone, not when they are part of a larger number. In contrast with English usage, "zero" is followed by a singular noun (zero box vs. zero boxes. Think of it as not a single box).
Standalone Unit Numeric Determiners
owa tam awa tam ewa tami iwa tami uwa tami yowa tami yawa tami yewa tami yiwa tami yuwa tami
no/zero houses one house two houses three houses four houses five houses six houses seven houses eight houses nine houses
If a unit number is used in forming larger numbers like 13 or 204, no wa is used.
In a sequence of noun modifiers, the numerical determiner goes in the same place as in English, eg:
  • Ata iwa gajaga twidi bese bay at.....My three older brothers live with me.
  • Hia uwa tomi losexwo.....These four buildings will be destroyed.
  • At fu ewa ey iwa gouni.....I would like two or three pieces.
The numeric determiners beyond the units do NOT take the -wa suffix. For example, ala tami....eleven houses.
Numeric Determiners modifying a singular or plural noun
Mirad English Wa Behavior Pluralization Behavior
owa tam no houses, zero houses The numeral is a unit,
so wa is suffixed.
The numeral is less than 2,
so the noun is singular.
awa tam one house, a house " "
ewa tami two houses " The numeral is greater than 2,
so the noun is plural.
iwa tami three houses " "
uwa tami four houses " "
yowa tami five houses " "
yawa tami six houses " "
yewa tami seven houses " "
yiwa tami eight houses " "
yuwa tami nine houses " "
alo tami ten houses The numeral is not a unit
so no wa is suffixed.
"
ase tami a hundred two houses " "
ero iwa tami two thousand three houses The numeral i is a unit,
so wa is suffixed.
"
iro alo tami three thousand ten houses The numeral alo is not a unit,
so wa is not suffixed.
"
Numeric determiners can be pronominalized as things and persons by suffixing s or t, respectively. These can, in turn, be pluralized by suffixing i. Furthermore, person pronouns can be feminized with a y before the t. The s suffix is short for sun....thing or suni....things. The t ending is short for aot....person or aoti....persons. For example:
  • Et bayse awa tam. At gey bayse awas. (singular inanimate pronoun)....You have one house. I have one too.
  • At baysa alo dresari. Hij at bayse anay ewasi (plural inanimate pronoun).....I had ten pencils. Now I only have two.
  • Esa asoti yeb be ha duzam. (plural animate pronoun).... There were a hundred people in the concert hall.
  • Yat yefe kebier awoyt bi huti. (singular animate female pronoun)....We must choose one female person from those people.

Ordinals edit

Ordinal numeric determiners (= ordinals) like first, second, etc. are formed from the cardinal numerals by adding the adjectival ending a to the cardinal numeral. A variation of this is with the word nap (order) inserted:
Ordinal Numeric Determiners
Cardinal Numeral Ordinal Numeric Determiner Variation with nap (order)
o....zero oa....zeroth onapa....zeroth
a....one aa....first anapa....first
e....two ea....second enapa....second
i....three ia....third inapa....third
alo....ten aloa....tenth alonapa....tenth
asu....104 asua....104th asunapa....104th
garale....trillion garalea....trillionth garalenapa....trillionth
There are other ordinal adjectives that are not based on numbers:
  • ijna....initial, first, original
  • ujna....last, final
  • ajna....past, ex-, former, old, previous
  • ojna....future, upcoming
  • ejna....current, new, present
  • jana....previous, last, foregoing
  • jona....next, following
  • zana....next
  • zona....previous, last
Ordinal determiners and adjectives can be converted to adverbs by adding the suffix y to the adjectival counterparts:
Ordinal Adverbs
ADJECTIVE ADVERB
aa....first aay....firstly
anapa....first anapay....primarily
ea....second eay....secondly
ujna....last ujnay....finally
Ordinal determiners can be converted to animate pronouns (persons) with the suffix t and inanimate pronouns (things) with the suffix s. These, in turn, can be pluralized with the suffix i. Neutral-gender animate pronouns can be made specifically masculine or feminine by changing at to wat for the former, and to ayt for the latter:
  • ha aas....the first thing
  • ha aat....the first person
  • ha aati....the first people
  • hua aayt....that first female
  • ha enapas....the second thing
  • ewat....another guy
  • ha ujnati so ha ijnati....the last shall be first
Again, in the sequencing of stacked adjectival elements, the order is as in English, that is: <deictic or pronominal determiner> | <ordinal determiner> | <cardinal numerical determiner> | <adjective>
  • hua uwa aga tami....those four big houses
  • ha aa alo oga tami....the first ten little houses
  • ata anapa ewa oga tudi....my first two little children

Note: Ordinal numeric determiners are not to be confused with ordinal vowels, which are used to derive scalar iterations of nouns. Cardinal numbers are used in the latter case, eg.:

  • dob....state (1st level)
  • dab....government (2nd level derivative)
  • deb....leader (3rd level derivative)
  • dib....administration (4th " " )
  • dub....minister (5th " " )

Fractions edit

Fractional numeric determiners ( = fractions) like half and quarter are formed by adding -yn for those functioning as nouns, -yna for adjectives, -ynay for adverbs, or -yn for prefixes, to the respective cardinal number.
Fractional Numeric Determiners
CARDINAL NUMERAL FRACTION AS NOUN AS ADJECTIVE AS ADVERB AS PREFIX AS VERB
o....zero oyn....a void, vacuum, null oyna....null, nil -- oyn-....devoid of oynxer....annihilate, nullify
a....one ayn....whole ayna....entire, whole aynay....entirely ayn-....holo-, whole-, all- aynxer....integrate
e....two eyn....a half eyna....half eynay....halfway eyn-....half-, semi-, hemi-, demi- eynxer....halve
i....three iyn....a third iyna....third iynay....by a third iyn-....terci- iynxer....cut in third
u....four uyn....a quarter uyna....quarter uynay....quarterly uyn-....quadri- uynxer....quarter
alo....ten aloyn....a tenth aloyna....tenth aloynay....by a tenth aloyn-....deci- aloynxer....decimate
aso....hundred asoyn....hundredth, percent asoyna....hundredth asoynay....by a hundredth asoyn-....centi- asoynxer....cut by a hundred
Here are some examples:
  • His uxo ha oynxen bi yata mir.....This will cause the anihilation of our world.
  • Ha ayna mir te ayv et.....The whole world knows about you.
  • Has se gas vyel ha ayn bi hasa goni.....It is more than the whole of its parts.
  • Ferad se ayndyana dalzeyn.....French is a holophrastic language.
  • Et yafe bier eyn bi has.....You can take half of it.
  • Yat yefo eynxer eta yexnix.....We will have to halve your salary.
  • Hus sa eynvyan.....That was a half-truth.
  • Eso eynzyunida dropek.....There is going to be a hemispheric war.
  • Duven his se eynutexea dopar?....Is this a semi-automatic weapon?
  • Iynxu hua ableyavol.....Cut that pie in thirds.
  • It yeyfe bixwer ay uynxwer.....He should be drawn and quartered.
  • Hia nas se aloyn bi hos yat aysa zojab.....This money is a tenth of what we had last year.
  • Ha dep aloynxwu.....The army would be decimated.
  • Ewa asoyni bi ha dityan baksa.....Two percent (=hundredths) of the citizenry got sick.
  • Hia tom se anay asoyn ge aga vyel hua tom.....This building is only a hundredth as big as that building.
  • Hwut se oyntofa.....That guy is naked.
The fractional adverbs can be used as in these examples:
  • Et so aynay dudyefa av eta xeyni.....You will be wholly accountable for your actions.
  • Iyt eynay tikabeloka.....She almost (= halfway) threw up.
Pronominalizations like half of it, a third of them:
  • Eynas sa fia.....Half of it was good.
  • Eynasi sa fua.....Half of them (things) were bad.
  • Esa uwa tobi se hua fukyes. Eynati toja.....There were four people in that accident. Half (of them) died.
  • Iynati bi yet se vyaka.....A third of you are right.
  • Uynati bi yat yantexe.....A quarter of us agree.
  • Alo asoyni bi hia dyesi fyunxwa.....Ten percent of these books were ruined.

Multiples edit

Multiplicative numeric determiners ( = multiples) like double, triple can be formed by adding -on to the respective cardinal numeral if the numeral is monosyllabic, otherwise just -n. These noun forms can be adjectivized with the suffix -a. They can also serve as prefixes on animate nouns, inanimate nouns, and prefixes, as the following chart shows. The prefix ending, -n is often dropped.
Multiplicative Numeric Determiners
CARDINAL NUMERAL MULTIPLE AS NOUN ...AS ADJECTIVE ...AS ADVERB ...AS PREFIX ...AS VERB-MAKER
o....zero oon....null oona....nil on-....zero- onxer....cancel, zero out
a....one aon....single aona....single aonay....singly an-....uni-/mono- anxer....unify
e....two eon....twosome, double eona....double eonay....doubly en-....di-/bi- enxer....double
i....three ion....threesome, triplet iona....triple ionay....triply in-....tri-- inxer....triple
u....four uon....quartet uona....quadruple uonay....quadruply un-....quadri-/tetra- unxer....quadruple
yo....five yoon....quintet yoona....quintuple yoonay....quintuply yoon-*....quinti-/penta- yoonxer*....quintuple
ya....six yaon....sextet yaona....sextuple yaonay....sextuply yaon-*....sexi-/hexa- yaonxer*....sextuple
alo....ten alon....decade alona....decadic alonay....by a multiple of ten alon-....deca- alonxer....multiply by ten
aso....hundred ason....hundredfold asona....hundredfold asonay....by a hundredfold ason-....hecato- asonxer....multiply by a hundred
* An extra o is added to these prefixes to avoid ambiguity with yan meaning together and yon meaning apart.
The multiplicative noun dozen is expressed by aleon.
  • Aleoni bi pati yizpapa.....Dozens of birds flew by.
By adding the suffix -at to the noun multiple, we get groupings of people. The -na- in some of these words can be omitted, thereby simplifying the words:
  • aonat or aot ....solo, single, person
  • aonatser of aotser....become single, become a person
  • aonawat....singleton
  • eonat or eot....duo, pair, twosome, couple
  • eotxer....to copulate
  • eontajat....twin
  • ionat or iot....trio, threesome, trinity
  • iotxer....to do a threesome
  • Ionatin....Trinitarianism
  • iontajati....triplets
  • uonat or uot ....quartet, foursome
  • uontajat....quadruplet
  • yoonat or yoot....quintet, group of five people
  • yoontajati....quintuplets
  • yoonati....quintets


By adding the suffix -un instead of -on, we get the following:
  • aun....unit
  • auna....unitary, individual
  • aunser....unite
  • aunyan....series
  • aunyana....serial
  • eun....pair
  • euna....even, paired, binary
  • oleuna....odd, non-binary, uneven, unpaired
  • oleunat....odd man out
  • eunxer....even out
Some examples where the above multiple determiners and derivatives are used:
  • Yat naptyopa be eo(na)ti yez bi ha mep.....We marched in twos (= pairs) down the street.
  • Asonati upo bay yat bu hia ovdal.....Hundreds (of people) will come with us to this protest.
  • Hia ivxel xwe enjabay.....This celebration happens biennially.
  • Iyt se untupokyat.....She is a quadriplegic. (Lit: x 4+limb+loss+person)
  • Diwe sagu ha auni.....Please count the units.
  • Yet gafisa aronay!....You all have improved a thousandfold!
  • Tob se entyoyaba sat.....Man is a bipedal creature.
Note: Sometimes the multiple prefix ending in -on in the numbers below ten is shortened to -n in common words:
  • anzyuk....monocycle
  • enzyuk....bicycle
  • ingun....triangle
  • ungun....quadrangle
  • yoongon....pentagon
  • yaongon....hexagon
Note: The prefixes for penta-/quinti- and hexa-/sext- must keep the -on so as to distinguish them from the prefixes yon....apart and yan....together. This rule does not apply to numbers inside chemical names and formulas (See Coding Chemical Elements).
  • yoongona....quintipartite  BUT: yonper....separate, go apart
  • yaongun....hexagon  BUT: yanuper....meet, come together

Number Chart edit

The following chart shows numbers in Mirad as symbols, adjectives, pronouns, prefixes, and verbs:
Number Chart
MULTIPLE FRACTION
SYMBOL ADJECTIVE NOUN PREFIX1 VERB SYMBOL NOUN PREFIX VERB
0 owa
zero
oon
nonentity, null
oot
nobody
on-
zero-
onxer
nullify
1/0 oyn
zeroth
oyn-
nihil-
oynxer
anihilate
1 awa
one
aa
first
ana
single, lone
aon
unit
aot
solo, individual
an-
uni-, mono-
anxer
unify
1/1 ayn
whole
ayn-
holo-
aynxer
integrate
2 ewa
two
ea
second
ena
dual
ensuana
binary
eon
double
eot
duo, pair, couple
eontajat
twin
en-
bi-, di-
enxer
double
eotxer
copulate
1/2 eyn
half
eyn-
semi-
eyxner
halve
3 iwa
three
ia
third
insuana
ternary
ion
triple
iot
trio, threesome
iontajat
triplet
in-
tri-
inxer
triple
1/3 iyn
third
iyn-
terci-
iynxer
split into three
4 uwa
four
ua
fourth
uon
quadruple
uot
quartet, foursome
uontajat
quadruplet
un-
tetra-
unxer
quadruple
1/4 uyn
fourth
uynjab
quarter
uyn-
quadri-
uynxer
quarter
5 yowa
five
yoa
fifth
yoon
quintuple
yoot
quintet
yoontajat
quintuplet
yoon-2
penta-
yoonxer
quintuple
1/5 yoyn
fifth
yoyn-
quint-
yoynxer
cut in fifths
6 yawa
six
yaa
sixth
yaon
sextuple
yaot
sextet
yaontajat
sextuplet
yaon-3
hecto-
yaonxer
sextuple
1/6 yayn
sixth
yayn-
hexi-
yaynxer
cut in sixths
7 yewa
seven
yea
seventh
yeon
septuple
yeot
septet
yeontajat
septuplet
yejub
week
yen-
hepto-
yenxer
mult
seven
1/7 yeyn
seventh
yeyn-
hepti-
yeyxner
cut in sevenths
8 yiwa
eight
yia
eighth
yion
octuple
yiot
octet
yiontajat
octuplet
yin-
octo-
yinxer
mult
eight
1/8 yiyn
eighth
yiyn-
octi-
yiynxer
cut in eighths
9 yuwa
nine
yua
ninth
yuon
nonuple
yuot
set of nine
yuontajat
nonuplet
yun-
nona-
yunxer
mult
nine
1/9 yuyn
nineth
yuyn-
novi-
yuynxer
cut in ninths
10 alo
ten
aloa
tenth
alosuana
decimal
alon
tenfold
alojab...decade
alon-
deca-
alonxer
increase by a
factor of ten
1/10 aloyn
tenth
aloyn-
deci-
aloynxer
decimate
100
104
aso
hundred
asoa
hundredth
ason
hundredfold
asojab
century
ason-
heca-
asonxer
increase a
hundredfold
1/100
10-2
asoyn
hundredth
percentage
cent
asoy-
centi-
asoynxer
divide
by a hundred
1,000
103
aro
thousand
aroa
thousanth
aron
thousandfold
arojab
millennium
aron-
kilo-
aronxer
divide by a
thousand
1/1000
10-3
aroyn
thousandth
aroy-
milli-
aroynxer
1,000,000
106
amlo
million
amloa
millionth
amlon
millionfold
amlon-
mega
amlonxer
multiply
by a million
10-6 amloyn
millionth
goryan
amloyn-
micro-
amloynxer
divide by a million
109 amro
billion
amroa
billionth
amron
billionfold
amron-
giga-
amronxer
multiply
by a billion
10-9 amroyn-
nano-
amroynxer
divide by a billion
1012 garale3
trillion
garalea
trillianth
garalen
trillionfold
garalen-
tera
10-12 goralen-
pico-
goralen
trillionth
1015 garalyo
quadrillion
garalyoa
quadrillionth
garalyon
quadrillionfold
garalyon-
peta-
10-15 garalyon-
femto-
goralyon
quadrillionth
1018 garalyi
quintillion
garlyia
quintillionth
garalyin
quintillionfold
garalyin-
exa-
10-18 goralyin-
atto-
goralyin
quintillianth
1021 garela
sextillion
garelaa
sextillionth
garelan
sextillionfold
garelan-
zetta-
10-21 gorelan-
zepto-
gorelan
sextillionth
1024 garele
septillion
garelea
septillionth
garelen
eptillionfold
garelen-
yotta-
10-24 gorelen-
yocto-
gorelen
septillionth
1027 garelye
octillion
garelyea
octillionth
garelyen
ctillionfold
garelyen-
ronna-
10-27 gorelyen-
ronto-
gorelyen
octillionth
1030 garilo
nonillion
gariloa
nonillionth
garilon
nonillionfold
garilon-
quetta-
10-30 gorilon-
quecto-
gorilon
nonillionth
  • Note 1: Sometimes the final -n on the numeric prefix is dropped, especially as an ordinal vowel in scalar words, eg. anapa
    first, atistam
    elementary school.
  • Note 2: An extra o is inserted into this prefix to distinguish it from yon-
    dis-, apart
  • Note 3: An extra o is inserted into this prefix to distinguish it from yan-
    con-, together
  • Note 4: Garale is short for alo gar ale
    ten to-the-power-of 12. By the same token, gorale is short for alo gor ale
    ten to-the-power-of-minus 12

Metric Units edit

Mirad uses the International System of Units (SI) for rendering measurement units. These symbols are pronounced as if you were spelling each letter out (see the alphabet. Bear in mind that majuscules (uppercase letters are prefaced with the word ag- (big). Similarly, Greek letters are rendered by their Greek names (ω = omega, Ω = Omega). The measurement unit names are followed by nak (measurement unit).
SI base units
ENGLISH
UNIT
NAME
SYMBOLIC
ABBREVIATION
QUANTITY
UNIT
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
second s time sonak
meter m length minak
kilogram kg mass kigenak
ampere A electric current aganak
kelvin K thermodynamic temperature agkinak
Mole mol amount of substance miolinak
candela cd luminous intensity cadanak
The hyphen in the above "spelled out" words ensure that each syllable gets even stress.
Here are SI derived units with special names and symbols:
 
 
SI derived units with special names and symbols
ENGLISH
NAME
SYMBOLIC
WRITTEN
ABBREVIATION
QUANTITY
UNIT
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
radian rad plane angle roadanak
steradian sr solid angle soronak
hertz Hz frequency aghezunak
newton N force, weight agninak
pascal Pa pressure, stress agpoanak
joule J energy agjinak
watt W power agwunak
coulomb C electric charge agcanak
volt V electrical potential difference agvunak
farad F capacitance agfenak
ohm Ω electrical resistance Omeganak
Siemens S electrical conductance agsonak
Weber Wb magnetic flux agwubanak
tesla T magnetic flux density agtonak
henry H inductance aghenak
degree Celsius °C temperature nogagcanak
lumen lm luminous flux liminak
lux lx illuminance lixuak
becquerel Bq radioactivity agbakonak
gray Gy absorbed dose (of ionizing radiation) aggeyunak
sievert Sv equivalent dose (of ionizing radiation) agsovunak
katal kat catalytic activity kiatonak
byte b 8 bits of information banak
Also, here are some non-SI units that are very convenient and acceptable:
Convenient non-SI units
ENGLISH
NAME
SYMBOLIC
WRITTEN
ABBREVIATION
QUANTITY
UNIT
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
litre L volume aglonak or litr(i)
hectare ha area heanak or hektar(i)
ton t area tonak or ton(i)
decibel dB loudness daagbanak or decibel(i)
The following chart shows how in Mirad to pronounce coherent derived unit formulae in terms of base units. Note that the backslash means per or divided by and is pronounced gol. The symbol x means times and is pronounced gal. The superscript number is a power and is pronounced gar plus the number (with -wa, if a unit number). The negative superscript number is pronounced gor plus the number (again, with -wa if a unit number). See Arithmetical Expressions for further information on these terms.
Examples of coherent derived units in terms of base units
NAME SYMBOLIC
FORMULA
DERIVED
QUANTITY
TYPICAL
SYMBOL
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
square meter m2 area A minak-gar-ewa
cubic meter m3 volume V minak-gar-iwa
meter per second m/s speed, velocity v minak-gol-sonak
meter per second squared m/s2 acceleration a minak-gol-sonak-gar-ewa
reciprocal meter m−1 wavenumber σ, minak-gor-awa
vergence (optics) V, 1/f
kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3 density ρ kigenak-gol-minak-gar-iwa
kilogram per square meter kg/m2 surface density ρA kigenak-gol-minak-gar-ewa
cubic meter per kilogram m3/kg specific volume v minak-gar-iwa-gol-kinak-ge
ampere per square meter A/m2 current density j aganak-gol-minak-gar-ewa
ampere per meter A/m magnetic field strength H aganak-gol-minak
mole per cubic meter mol/m3 concentration c minolinak-gol-minak-gar-iwa
kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3 mass concentration ρ, γ kinak-ge-gol-minak-gar-iwa
candela per square meter cd/m2 luminance Lv canak-da-gol-minak-gar-ewa
The SI has a whole list of prefixes that act as multipliers (macro) or dividers (micro) of the above and other measurement units. For example, a kilometer is a meter times a 1,000 (macro unit), whereas a millimeter is a meter divided by a 1,000 (micro unit). Sagon means byte, so garale-sagon is terabyte. This breaks down to 1012 bytes. Here is a table showing the Mirad macro and micro prefixes:
Scalar Metrics
MACRO MICRO
BASE
10
US/UK NAME MIRAD PREFIX....SI PREFIX SI SYMBOL BASE
10
(US/UK NAME) MIRAD PREFIX....SI PREFIX SI SYMBOL
1 one an- *... mono-, uni- 1/1 whole ayn-....holo-, uni-
2 two en-....bi- 1/2 half eyn-....demi-, di-
3 three in-....tri- 1/3 third iyn-....terci-
4 four un-....tetra- 1/4 fourth uyn-....quadri-
5 five yoon- *....penta- 1/5 fifth yoyn....quinti-
6 six yaon-....hexa- 1/6 sixth yayn....sexti-
7 seven yeon-....hepta- 1/7 seventh yeyn....septi-
8 eight yion....octo- 1/8 eighth yiyn....octi-
9 nine yuon....nona- 1/9 ninth yuyn....novi-
10 ten alon-....deca- da 1/10 tenth aloy-....deci- d
102 hundred aso-....hecto- ** h 10-2 hundredth asoy-....centi- c
103 thousand amso-....kilo- k 10-3 thousandth) amsoy-....milli- m
106 million amlo-....mega- M 10-6 millionth amloy-....micro- r
109 billion /milliard amro-....giga- G 10-9 billionth/ milliardth amroy-....nano- n
1012 trillion /billion garale-....tera- T 10-12 trillionth / billionth) gorale-....pico- p
1015 quadrillion)/ billiard garalyo-....peta- P 10-15 quadrillionth) / billiardth goralyo-....femto- f
1018 quintillion / trillion garalyu-....exa- E 10-18 quintillionth)/ trillionth goralyu....atto- a
1021 sextillion)/ trilliard garela-....zetta- Z 10-21 sextillionth / trilliardth gorela....zepto- z
1024 septillion)/ quadrillion garelu-....yotta- Y 10-27 septillionth / quadrillionth gorelu....yocto- y
*Note: The -n or -on can sometimes be omitted in macro-prefixation, especially where there is no ambiguity. The -n (but NOT the -yn) in the micro prefixes can also sometimes be omitted.
**Note: The gar (to a plus power) and gor (to a minus power) forms are alternatives for the numeric prefixes beyond 100. For example, billion (109) could be expressed as garyu-(ten) to the 9th power, while billionth could be expressed by goryu ((ten) to the minus 9th power). The prefix garya- is composed of the positive exponential operator gar (to the power of), followed by the number 6. The prefix gorale- is composed of the negative exponential operator gor (to the root of), followed by the number 12.

The macro and micro values can also be represented with abbreviated symbols, which can be pronounced in Mirad as spelled out alphabetics. Greek letter are rendered by their names in Greek. Upper case equivalents are preceded with ag-. Here is a table showing grams:

Kg Metrics With Abbreviated Symbols
MACRO MICRO
SYMBOL (EXPANSION) MIRAD PRONUNCIATION SYMBOL (EXPANSION) MIRAD PRONUNCIATION
dag (decagram) daagenak (decigram) dagenak
hg (hectogram) hegenak cg (centigram) cagenak
kg (kilogram) kogenak mg (milligram) migenak
Mg (macrogram) agmigenak μg (microgram) mugenak
Gg (gigagram) aggegenak ng (nanogram) nigenak
Tg (teragram) agtogenak pg (picagram) pogenak
Pg ( petagram) agpogenak fg (femtogram) fegenak
Eg (exagram) agegenak ag (attogram) agenak
Zg (zettagram) agzegenak zg (zeptogram) zegenak
Yg (yottagram) agyugenak yg (yoctogram) yugenak
The squared and cubed representations of the above are followed by gar e (squared) and gar i (cubed), respectively:
  • 10 kg2....(pronounced as:) alo kogenaki gar e
  • 12 mm3....(pronounced as:) ale miminaki gar i

Expressing Frequency edit

There are two ways to form determiners of frequency:
  • Using jod(i) meaning occasion(s), instance(s), time(s), or
  • Using xag meaning frequency
Here is a chart showing the most common frequency determiners:
Frequentative Determiners
"JOD" METHOD "XAG" METHOD MEANING
duhogla jodi? duhoxag? how often?, how many times?
hogla jodi hoxag how often, how frequently
hagla jodi haxag the frequency
hegla jodi hexag sometimes, on some occasions
higla jodi hixag this often, this many times
hugla jodi huxag that often, that many times, so many times
huugla jodi huuxag so often, so many times
hyogla jodi hyoxag never
hyagla jodi hyaxag always, at all times
hyegla jodi hyexag any number of times, however often
hyigla jodi hyixag as often, the same number of times
hyugla jodi hyuxag not as often, some other number of times
ga jodi gaxag (vyel) more often (than)
ge jodi gexag (vyel) as many times (as), as often (as)
go jodi goxag (vyel) less often (than)
gla jodi glaxag many times, often
gle jodi glexag quite a few times, quite often
glo jodi gloxag not so many times, seldom
gra jodi graxag too often
gre jodi grexag often enough
gro jodi groxag too seldom
gwa jodi gwaxag as often as possible, most often, most times
gwe jodi gwexag an average number of times
gwo jodi gwoxag least often, as seldom as possible
owa jod oxag never, at no time, zero times
awa jod axag once, one time
awa ga jod ga axag again, once more
ewa jodi exag twice, two times
iwa jodi ixag thrice, three times
alo jodi aloxag ten times
Examples:
  • Duhoxag et pe ha tayegoblam?....How often do you go to the barber shop?
  • Duhogla jodi et akaye hia ekun?....How many times have you won this game?
  • At teataye hua dyezun iwa ey uwa jodi.....I have seen that film three or four times.
  • At teataye is huugla jodi (or: huuxag) van at bokseye.....I have seen it so many times that I am getting sick.
  • Hus xwaye gaxag vyel et te.....That has happened more often than you know.

Mathematical Expressions edit

 
Mathematical vocabulary is based mostly on deriviatives of the degree word ga....more.

Chart of Mathmatical Components edit

The following chart shows mathematical operator verbs and derived terms:
Arthmetic Expressions
VERB OPERATION PATIENT SUBJECT OPERATOR SIGN RESULT
gaber
add
gaben
addition
gabwas
addend, summand
gabus
augend
gab
plus
+
gabsiyn
plus sign
gabix
sum
galer
multiply
galen
multiplication
galwas
multiplicand
galus
multiplier
factor
gal
times
x
galsiyn
times sign
galix
product
garer
raise to the power of
garen
exponentiation
garwas
base
garus
exponent
gar
raised to the power of
garsiyn
exponent sign
garix
power
gazer
logarithmize
gazen
logarithmization
gazwas
base
gazus
antilogarithm
gaz
log
gazix
logarithm
gober
subtract
goben
subtraction
gobwas
subtrahend
gobus
minuend
gob
minus
-
gobsiyn
minus sign
gobix
difference
goler
divide
golen
division
fraction
golwas
dividend
numerator
golus
divisor
denominator
gol
divided by
÷
golsiyn
division sign
golix
quotient
gorer
derive the nth root of
goren
root extraction
gorwas
radicand
gorus
degree
gor
the nth root of
gorsiyn
radical sign
gorix
root
gexer
equal
gexen
equation
gexwas
thing being equated
gexus
equator
ge
equal to
=
gesiyn
equal sign
gexix
equation solution

How to Verbalize Math Expressions edit

  • 1 + 1 = 2.....A gab a gese e.
  • 3 - 1 = 2.....I gob a gese e.
  • 2 x 4 = 8.....E gal u gese yi.
  • 10 % 2 = 5.....Alo gol e gese yu.
  • 52 = 25.....Yo gar e gese elyu.
  • 23 = 8.....E gar i gese yi.
  • 4 √2 = 2 = 2.....U gor e gese e.
  • log10 1000 = 3.....Aro gaz alo gese i.
Note 1: gese (equals) can be substituted with se (is), eg.:
  • E gab e se u.....Two plus two is four.
Note 2: If numbers are used as numeric adjectives, the units take the suffix -wa, eg.:
  • Ewa lafebi gab awa afeb gese vavol.....Two oranges plus one apple equals a salad.
Examples of mathematical expressions:
  • E gab e gese u.....Two plus two equals four.
  • E gal i gese ya.....Two times three equals six.
  • I gar e gese yu.....Three to the second power equals nine.
  • E gob e gese o.....Two minus two equals zero.
  • Yu gol i gese i.....Nine divided by three equals three.
  • Yu gor i gese i.....Nine cubed equals three.
  • Aso gor e gese alo.....One hundred squared equals ten.
  • Aro gaz alo gese i.....Log10(1000) = 3. (= Logarithm of a thousand to base ten equals three)

Decimal Expressions edit

Decimal expressions like 2.5 use the word nod....point as in English.
  • Hia bavol kyinse ga vyel 10.8 (alo nod yiwa) kigenaki.....This tomato weighs more than 10.8 (ten point eight) kilograms.

Calendar and Time Expressions edit

The word for calendar is judar. The sections below explain how calendar expressions are formed and used:

Basic Calendar Units edit

 
Time is divided using the following basic terms:
Calendar Units
MIRAD ENGLISH
job time
jab year
jeb season
jib month
jub day
jwob* hour
jwab* minute
jweb* second
  • Note: These would ordinarily be jyob, jyab, and jyeb respectively, but the w glide is much easier to pronounce after the letter j, and is therefore substituted.

Other Calendar Units edit

Other calendar units are formed through the agglutination of numerical stubs to some of the time units above:
Other Calendar Units
MIRAD ENGLISH NUMERICAL FORMULA
rojab millenium year x 1,000
sojab century year x 100
lojab decade year x 10
eynjab half year year x 1/2
uynjab quarter year x 1/4
yajib semester month x 6
yejub week day x 7
yejubuj weekend day x 7 end
eynjwob half hour hour x 1/2
This, next, last, etc. are expressed as follows:
Day Pointers
MIRAD ENGLISH
hijub
hia yejub
hijab
today
this week
this year
zojub
zoyejub
zajab
yesterday
last week
last year
zajub
zayejub
zajab
tomorrow
next week
next year
hujub
huyejub
hujab
that day
that week
that year
jazojub
ja ewa yejubi
jazojab
the day before yesterday
two weeks ago
the year before last
jozajub
jo ewa yejubi
jozajab
the day after tomorrow
two weeks from now
the year after next
Duhajub? Which day?
hyajub every day
hyejub any day
hejub someday
hejubi some days

Seasons of the Year edit

 
Seasons of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for season jeb:
Seasons of the Year
MIRAD ENGLISH
jeab spring
jeeb summer
jeib autumn, Fall
jeub winter
Examples of usage:
  • be jeab....in spring
  • ja jeeb....before summer
  • ju jeib....until autumn
  • ji jeub....since winter
  • je ha jeb....during the season
  • ub ha uj bi jeeb....toward the end of summer
  • eb jeab ay jeeb....between spring and summer
  • jeeba gemoj....vernal equinox
  • jeiba fayebi....autumn leaves
  • jeba til....seasonal drink
  • jeubyena jebmalyen....wintry climate
  • jeabyena malyen....spring-like weather
  • jeuben....hibernation
  • hijeab....this season
  • zajeab....next season
  • zojeab....last season
  • hyajeab....every season

Months of the Year edit

Months of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for month jib:
Months of the Year
MIRAD ENGLISH
jiab January
jieb February
jiib March
jiub April
jiyob May
jiyab June
jiyeb July
jiyib August
jiyub September
jilob October
jilab November
jileb December
Some expressions using the months:
  • be jilob....in October
  • ja jiyab....before June
  • lojo zajiyeb....by next July (lojo = not after)
  • hijib....this month
  • zojib....last month
  • zajib....next month
  • bi-jib-bu-jiba jobnis....month-to-month rent
  • jibay....monthly
  • jibi joy....months later
  • jiba sindryen....monthly magazine
  • hujiba jobnis....that month's rent
  • hya ionjib....every trimester
  • jiber....menstruate
  • byi zojilob....since last October
  • ub zejib....toward mid-month

Days of the Week edit

Days of the week are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for day jub:
Days of the Week
MIRAD ENGLISH
juab Monday
jueb Tuesday
juib Wednesday
juub Thursday
juyob Friday
juyab Saturday
juyeb Sunday
Here are some common terms relating to days of the week:
Day Expressions
MIRAD ENGLISH
Duhojub? Which day?
hojub hu... the day that...
hejub someday
hijub today
hujub that day
hyijub (on) the same day
hyajub every day
hyejub any day
zajub yesterday
zojub tomorrow
ha jajub
be ha jana jub
the day before, (on) the previous day
ha jojub
be ha jona jub
the day before, (on) the previous day
jazojub the day before yesterday
jozajub the day after tomorrow
hya ea jub every other/second day
hyajub boy juyeb every day except Sunday
yejub week
hiyejeb this week
yejubuj weekend
yexjub (or) zeyejub weekday
enyejuba(y) bi-weekly
zoyejub last week
Examples of Usage:
  • (be) juyob....on Friday
  • ju juib....until Wednesday
  • ji zojub....since yesterday
  • lojo jubuj....by [Lit: not after] day's end
  • jo zajub....after tomorrow
  • je ha jub....during the day
  • bi juab bu juub....from Monday to Friday
  • yejubuja ponpop....a weekend getaway

Parts of the Day edit

Here are the principal parts of a day:
Parts of the Day
DAYTIME NIGHTTIME
maj....daytime, day moj....nighttime, night
bi maj....A.M. bi moj....P.M.
jamajij....pre-dawn jamojij....pre-dusk
majij....daybreak, dawn mojij....dusk
amaryap....sunrise, sunup amaryop....sunset, sundown
jwamaj....morning
zajwamaj....tomorrow morning
hijwamaj....this morning
zojwamaj....yesterday morning
hujwamaj....that morning
hyajwamaj....every morning
jwamoj....evening
zajwamoj....tomorrow evening
hijwamoj....this evening
zojwamoj....yesterday evening
hujwamoj....that evening
hyajwamoj....every evening
zemaj....noon zemoj....midnight
jozemaj....afternoon jozemoj....after midnight
majuj....day's end jwomoj....late night
  • Examples of Usage:
  • At tijpa ja majij.....I woke up before dawn.
  • At iyfe tuyjer be ha jwoa jozemaj.....I like to nap in the late afternoon.
  • It yexe bi amaryap bu amaryop.....He works from sunup to sundown.
  • Be gwa jwamoji, at teaxe sinibar.....Most evenings, I watch television.

Expressing Dates edit

The following is a how a date (jud) is normally expressed:
  • be juab, 11 jieb 2018 joK.....on Monday, February 11th, 1918 A.D.
A date like 2018 can be expressed as twenty eighteen (elo alyi) or two thousand eighteen (ero alyi).
The day 11 in the above expression is pronounced ala.
The acronym for B.C. is jaK, short for ja Krist (before Christ).
The acronym for the de-Christianized "BCE", meaning Before the Common/Current Era is expressed in Mirad with jaEJ (ja ha Eja Joeb).
The acronym for A.D. is joK, short for jo Krist (after Christ).
The acronym for the de-Christianized C.E. is EJ, shoft for ha Eja Joeb (the Current Era).
Other date expressions follow:
  • be ha 1800 jabi (alyi aso jabi)....In the 1800's (eighteen hundreds)
  • ja ha 20a (eloa) asojab....before the 20th (twentieth) century
  • eb 1920 (yulo elo) ay 2001 (emso awa)....between 1920 (nineteen twenty) and (two thousand one)
  • hyaje hua alojab....throughout that decade
  • At yexa hum je gla jabi.....I worked there for [Lit: during] many years.
  • Ujbu his lojo jiyab.....Finish this by [Lit: not after] May.
  • Iyt so him ub ha uj bi 2 (ewa) jiab.....She will be here toward the end of January 2nd.
  • At taja je ha Tejika Eloni.....I was born in the Roaring Twenties.

Telling Time edit

 
Clock time expressions use mostly the word jwob (hour) or jwobi (hours).
Times of the day are expressed in the 24-hour European system, or what might be called by Americans "military clock time." So, 3PM in U.S. parlance should be expressed in Mirad as 15 hours (ulo jwobi), which is the same as 15:00 or 15 hundred hours.
The usual time-of-day question is Se duhojwob?....What time is it? [Lit: is what-hour?]
The typical answer is in the format Se alo (jwobi) yuwa. (Lit: (It) is ten hours five). The use of jwobi is optional, but if jwobi is modified by awa....one, then the singular form jwob is used.
Here are some typical answers:
  • Se awa jwob.....It is one o'clock AM [Lit: It is one hour.]
  • Se ewa jwobi.....It is two o'clock AM [Lit: It is two hours.]
  • Se ale jwobi.....It is twelve o'clock AM.
  • Se alyu jwobi elo.....It is 15:30 (3:30 PM).
  • Se eli jwobi ali.....It is 23:13 (11:13 PM).
  • Se elu jwobi.....It is 24:00 (12 PM).
The words jwob and jwobi can be abbreviated as j..
  • be elo j.....At 8:00 PM
The designation AM and PM can be used but are not necessary in the 24-hour clock system:
  • bi maj....(AM)
  • bi moj.... (PM)
  • Se vyavay 15:10 (= alu alo).....It is exactly 7:10 P.M..  [Lit: It is exactly fifteen ten.]
  • Et sa jwoa bey alo jwabi.....You were late by 10 minutes.  [Lit: You were late by ten minutes.]
  • Has ijo yuz 21:30 (= ela jwobi ilo).....It will begin around 10:30 PM.
  • Puu him lojo jwoa vyel 15:00 j.....Get here no later than 3 PM.
  • Ha yuzpar puo hum yeb 10 jwabi.....The bus will arrive there within 10 minutes.
  • Ha jwobar izeade1 17:00.....The clock says [Lit. indicates] 5 PM.
  • Yit pua be 3 j. be ha nod.....They arrived at 3 on the dot.
Note 1: izeade (indicates) can be substituted with de (says).
Note the following clock time idioms:
Clock Idioms
MIRAD ENGLISH
jwa early
jwe on time
jwo late
Se vyavay elo j. It is exactly 8 PM.
yub bi zemaj
or yuz bi zemaj.
around noon
ub zemoj toward midnight
yeb bi jwebi within seconds
alo jwabi ja hij ten minutes ago [= before now]
lojo 3 j. no later than / by 3 o'clock AM.
jwobay hourly / by the hour / on the hour
Hia pop efxe 2 1/2 (= ewa gab eyn) jwobi. This trip takes (Lit: necessitates) 2 1/2 hours.
ju awa jwob bi hij until one hour from now
ji zojub be 10a j. since yesterday at 10 o'clock.
je ha jana 12 jwabi for/during/over the last 12 minutes
ja ojo 10 j. before / by 10 AM.
lojo 10 jwobi. by / in / within 10 hours.
jo 10 j. after 10 o'clock AM.
At saye him ji ewa jwobi. I have been here for [= since] two hours.

Expressing Age edit

 
Many expressions relating to age are built on the Mirad word for age: jag.
The typical question is:
  • Et se duhojaga?....How old are you? (Lit. what-aged)
A typical answer is:
  • At se eli (jabi) (jaga).....I am twenty-three (years old).
The word jaga can be left understood, as well as the word jabi....years:
  • At se ilo.....I am thirty.
Here is a list of important age expressions and categories:


  • duhojaga?....how old?
  • hojoga....of which age
  • hajaga....of the age
  • hejaga....of some age
  • hijaga....this old
  • hujaga....that old
  • huujaga....so old
  • hyajaga....of every age
  • hyejaga....of any age
  • hyijaga / gejaga....of the same age, as old
  • hyujaga / ogejaga....of a different age
  • zejaga .... middle-aged
  • jaga....old
  • jayga....oldish
  • joga....young
  • joyga .... youngish
  • gle jaga....rather old, oldish
  • gla jaga....very old
  • gra jaga....too old, super-aged
  • gro jaga....under-aged, minor
  • ge jaga....as old, of the same age
  • awa (jab) jaga....one year old
  • ewa (jabi) jaga....two years old
  • alo (jabi) jaga....ten years old
  • ga jaga vyel et....older than you
  • ga joga vyel at....younger than me
  • ge joga vyel iyt....as young as her
  • ha gwa jagat bi ata tidetyan....the youngest of my siblings
  • gajagat .... an elder
  • grojagat....a minor
  • alojagat....a ten-year-old
  • aloynjagat....a teenager
  • jagat .... old person, elder, senior
  • jagwat .... old man
  • jagayt .... old woman
  • jogat....a youth
  • jogwat....a boy
  • jogayt....a girl
  • grejat....an adult, someone of age
  • jagseat....an adolescent
  • jagsyat/agsyat....a grownup
  • yilojagat....an octogenarian
  • asojagat....a centenarian
  • tud .... child, offspring
  • twud .... male child, son
  • tuyd .... female child, daughter
  • tudet .... baby, infant
  • tobet .... youth, young person
  • twobet .... boy, young man
  • toybet .... girl, young woman, maiden
Some other examples of usage:
  • Et jagseye fi.....You are aging well.
  • At voy jogseye hyegla.....I am not getting any younger.
  • His se taam av ha jagati.....This is a home for the ederly.
  • Gawaku eta jogan!....Regain your youth!
  • At se ga jaga vyel ha yazmeli.....I am older than the hills.
  • Teaxu ata gwa joga tud.....Look at my youngest child.
  • Yat ife yata awajagat.....We love our one-year-old.
  • Jagseatan se yika joob bi tej.....Adolescence is a difficult period of life.
  • Agsu!....Grow up!
Note the difference:
  • agaser....to get bigger
  • agser....to grow

Currency Nomenclature edit

 
The ISO abbreviation for the currency expressions from various countries of the world are used to form the Mirad equivalents. The lowercase ISO code abbreviation for a particular country's denomination is spelled out in Mirad alphabetics and then the letter n is suffixed (mnemonic for nas....money). Then, since a monetary unit can be considered a proper noun, the first letter is capitalized, eg.:
  • The ISO code abbreviation for "U.S. dollar" is "USD".
  • Lowercase is "usd"
  • Spelled out in Mirad alphabetics is u so da.
  • This, with n suffixed, results in usodan.
  • Finally, the first letter is capitalized, giving Usodan.
  • Pluralized, Usodan becomes Usodani (= U.S. dollars).
  • The Euro is therefore Euron.
  • The Thai baht is Toheban.
  • The Russian ruble is Rouban.
The ISO codes can be found at List of circulating currencies. A portion of that file is replicated here:
Currencies
English Currency Name Currency
symbol
ISO code Mirad Name
Jordanian dinar JD JOD Jiodan
Moroccan dirham DH MAD Miadan
Australian dollar $ AUD Audan
Bitcoin (BTK?) Batokin
Brunei dollar $ BND Banidan
Eastern Caribbean dollar $ XCD Xucadan
Hong Kong dollar $ HKD Hekidan
New Zealand dollar $ NZD Nizudan
Singapore dollar $ SGD Sogedan
United States dollar $ USD Usodan
Armenian dram ֏ AMD Amidan
Euro EUR Euron
Central African CFA franc Fr XAF Xuafen
CFP franc Fr XPF Xupofen
Swiss franc Fr CFN Cufenin
West African CFA franc Fr XOF Xuofen
Netherlands Antillean guilder ƒ ANG Anigen
Danish krone kr DKK Dakikin
Turkish lira TRY Toroyun
Mauritanian ouguiya UM MRU Miroun
Sterling £ GBP Gebapon
Saint Helena pound £ SHP Sohepon
South African rand R ZAR Zuaron
Russian rouble RUB Rouban
Indian rupee INR Iniron
Israeli new shekel ILS Ilison
The hundredth fractional unit for most currencies can be converted into Mirad by appending the word -asoyn to the end of the Mirad name of the currency.
For example:
  • The American cent is Usodan-asoyn.
  • The Euro cent is Euron-asoyn.
  • The British penny is Gebapon-asoyn.
In context, all of the above can be abbreviated to asoyn.
The symbol used for each currency can also be taken from the Wikipedia table referenced above. The symbol precedes the number and a comma is used for the thousand breaker and a period is used for the decimal breaker. For example:
  • Five point six Euros ==> Yowa nod yawa Euroni ==> €5.6
  • Two thousand nine dollars ==> Emro yuwa Usodani ==> $2,009
Note: : The bitcoin has no ISO code, so it is arbitrarily translated into Mirad as Batokin (for BTK). Its billionth fractional unit is called a satoshi and is translated into Mirad as Batokin-amroyn.
Other monetary vocabulary:
  • nas....money
  • nasa....monetary
  • nasyen....currency
  • nases....change
  • nasmug....coin
  • syagnas....cash
  • syagnasuer....to cash
  • ejnux....debit, cash
  • ojnux....credit
  • nasyef....debt
  • ojbier....to borrow
  • ojbuer....to lend
  • drefnas....paper money
  • nasdrev....bill, note, banknote
  • alo Usodan nasdrev....ten dollar bill
  • nax....price
  • nayx....cost
  • namper....to shop
  • nusbier....to buy
  • nisbuer....to sell
  • nun....merchandise, product
  • nuer....to supply
  • nuxer....to pay
  • nyuxer....to deliver
  • nier....to demand
  • nixer....to earn
  • nyixer....to order
  • nexer....to save
  • nyexer....to stock
  • noxer....to spend
  • nyoxer....to waste
  • kyaxler nas....convert money
  • nasokrer....go bankrupt
  • nasam....bank
  • nuien....trade
  • nuiem....market
  • nam....store


Pronoun Categories edit

Pronouns are words that substitute for explicit nouns. For example, the pronoun I stands for the person standing at this place. The pronoun this stands for the thing or person nearest. The pronoun big one stands for a person or thing of some stature.
In this grammar, pronouns are divided into three categories:
  • personal pronouns
  • deictic determiners
  • deadjectival pronouns
Deictic determiners like who?, this, that, such a, all, anything are discussed in a later chapter called Determiners.
Deadjectival pronouns are discussed in the chapter on Adjectives, because they are basically pronouns built from an adjective or adjective stem, such as:
  • fia....good
  • fiat....a good guy
  • fias....a good thing
  • ha gwa fiasi....the best ones
This chapter discusses personal pronouns.

Personal Pronouns edit

In Mirad, personal pronouns can be classified by the following features:
  • person
  • 1st
  • 2nd
  • 1st & 2nd hybrid
  • 3rd
  • specificity
  • person-specific
  • generic
  • reciprocal
  • reflexive
  • gender
  • gender-neutral
  • masculine
  • feminine
  • case
  • subject
  • direct object
  • indirect object
  • animacy
  • animate
  • inanimate
  • other
  • emphatic
  • possessive
 
The chart below shows the principal personal pronouns, but does not include hybrid, reciprocal, emphatic, and possessive forms.
Personal Pronouns
PERSON TYPE ANIMACY GENDER SINGULAR PLURAL
1st Specific Animate Neutral at....I, me yat....we, us
2nd et....you yet....you, you all
3rd it....he, she, him, her yit....they, them
Masculine wit....he, him
Feminine iyt....she, her
Inanimate Neutral is....it yis....they, them
Generic Animate ot....one, they yot....people
Reflexive ut....self yut....selves

Animacy edit

If a Mirad pronoun ends in -t, the pronoun is animate. If the pronoun ends in -s, the pronoun is inanimate.
The Mirad 3rd person specific animate pronouns it (he/she), iyt (she), wit (he), and yit can refer to any animate or pseudo-animate creatures such as animals, babies, dolls, angels, gods, or monsters. However, Mirad it cannot refer to non-animate things such as tables, ideas, abstractions, etc. Instead, the 3rd person inanimate pronoun is (singular) or yis (plural) is used. A deictic determiner (this/that, these/those) can also be used in such cases, as discussed in the chapter on Determiners, eg.:
  • Eta dom se via. At iyfe is.....You house is beautiful. I like it.
  • Ata dyun se Pierre. Is se Feroda.....My name is Pierre. It's French.
  • Tej se vira, oy is uje gra ig.....Life is wonderful, but it ends too soon.
  • Teaxu hua amaryop. Has se via.....Look at that sunset. It (=the thing) is beautiful. In this case, is and the determiner has are synonymous.
If the English word they or them refers to inanimate objects, concepts, or abstractions, then the Mirad 3rd person inanimate plural pronoun isi is used, eg.:
  • At ujba dyeer ha dyesi. Isi sa gla fia.....I finished reading the books. They were very good.
Note that the endings -t and -s alternate regularly in the language for things and persons.

Gender edit

Personal pronouns are gender-neutral, except that the 3rd singular animate pronoun it (he/she) can be made to express gender by prefixing w for masculine or inserting y before the final t for feminine. This is optional and only used where needed to differentiate referents.
  • it....he/she/him/her
  • iyt....she/her
  • wit....he/him
  • ita....his/her
  • iyta....her
  • wita....his
  • iut....himself/herself
  • iuyt....herself
  • wiut....himself
  • iuta....his/her own
  • iuyta....her own
  • wiuta....his own
In rare cases, distinguishing other personal pronouns for gender might be possible:
  • wat....I/me, as a male
  • eyt....you, a female

Number edit

All plural personal pronouns begin with y:
  • yat....we, us
  • yet....you (all)
  • yit....they, them (m. or f.)
  • yot....people
  • yut....themselves
Plural personal pronouns do not express gender.

Case edit

Personal pronouns in Mirad do not express case with inflected forms such as he vs. him or she vs. her, or they vs. them in English. Rather, the position in the sentence or prepositions do the job.
  • Et teate at.....You see me. (subject)
  • At teate et.....I see you. (direct object)
  • Yat teate yit.....We see them. (subject)
  • Yit teaate yat.....They see us. (direct object)
  • Du at din.....Tell me a story. (indirect object)
  • Buu is bu at.....Give it to me. (indirect object)
Tell me a story. can also be expressed in Mirad as Du din bu at. (Tell a story to me.). Some verbs in Mirad like der (to tell), buer (to give), and uper (to come) have a built-in dative notion and do not require the preposition bu (to) if the object pronoun immediately follows the verb.

Expressing Pronouns with Quantitative Elements edit

Here are some possible personal pronouns with quantitative elements:
  • awat bi yat....one of us
  • ewat bi yet....two of you
  • Hyaewat bi yit....both of them
  • hya yat....we/us all
  • anay wet....only you (m.)
  • duhot bi yet?....who of you?
  • Hyawas se fia.....Each one is good.
The above terms involve deictic determiners, which are discussed in the chapter on Determiners, as well as numbers, discussed in Numbers.

Generic Pronouns edit

The third person generic pronouns ot and yot are used as in English one and they, people (meaning unspecifed persons), as in the following examples:
  • Ot yefe xer ha yakwas.....One must do what is expected.
  • Yot de van et vyode hyoj.....They/People say you never lie.

Hybrid Pronouns edit

Mirad offers two special hybrid 1st & 2nd person pronouns, aet and ayet, which mean, respectively, I and you (dual) and I and you (plural). These are used only where the situation calls for it, eg.:
  • Aet yeyfe tadser.....You and I should get married.
  • Ayet efe yanbeser.....You people and I need to stick together.

Reflexive Personal Pronouns edit

Reflexive personal pronouns like English myself, yourself, etc. are formed by postfixing a u just before the final t. Reflexive personal pronouns are invariable for gender. Translating iut as herself depends on the context.
Reflexive Pronouns
PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL
1st specific animate aut....myself yaut....ourselves
2nd specific animate eut....yourself yeut....yourselves
3d specific animate iut....himself/herself yiut....themselves
3d specific inanimate ius....itself yius....themselves
3d generic animate out....oneself yout....people themselves
Reflexive pronouns do not have gendered forms, because they hearken back to personal pronouns which can be gendered.
The above reflexive pronouns can be adjectivized, as in the following:
  • auta tam....my own house
  • yiuta byen....their own way
  • iusa volz....its own color
These in turn can be pronominalized, as in the following:
  • At bese yub bi autati.....I stay nearby my own (people).
  • Eutas se ga fia.....You own is better.
  • Iyt bexe iutasi.....She has her own things.
Examples of personal pronoun usage:
  • At yafe teater aut be ha sinzyef.....I can see myself in the mirror.
  • Iyt yubteaxa iut.....She examined herself.
  • Tru eut!....Know thyself.
  • Yat yeyfe tadser.....We should get married.
  • Iyt vey tojbo iut.....She may kill herself.
  • Ot yefe ifer out.....One must love oneself.
  • Yot glaxag voy ife yout.....People often don't love themselves.
  • Yet ufe yeut.....You (people) hate yourselves.
  • Yet yeyfe yovser yeut.....You people should be ashamed of yourselves.
  • Yat ufe yet.....We hate you.
  • Upu eker bay yat.....Come play with us.
  • At aut voy movie.....I myself do not smoke.
The reflexive pronoun ut....self can sometimes be prefixed (with no variation in gender or number) to a verb to form a reflexive version of that verb, or it can be prefixed to other parts of speech to mean auto-, or self-, eg.:
  • tojber....kill uttojber....commit suicide
  • vyixer....clean utvyixer....wash up, clean oneself, self-clean
  • exer....function utexer....function automatically, self-run
  • izber....pilot utizber....auto-pilot, self-drive
  • exut....operator utexut....automaton
  • deber....rule utdebea....autocratic, self-ruling
  • tejdin....biography uttejdin....autobiography
  • fider....praise utfider....boast   (= self-praise)

Emphatic Personal Pronouns edit

Emphatic personal pronouns can be formed by following the personal pronoun with the reflexive correspondent, eg.:
Emphatic Personal Pronouns
PERSON GENDER SINGULAR PLURAL
1st neutral at aut....I myself, me myself yat yaut....we ourselves, us ourselves
2nd et eut....you yourself yet yeut....you yourselves
3rd it iut....the person him or herself yit yiut....they themselves
masculine wit iut....he himself wit wiut....they themselves
feminine iyt iut....she herself yit yiut....they themselves

Note: Gender is not expressed in personal reflexive pronouns. Only the personal specific pronouns express gender, and then only optionally.

Examples:
  • At aut voy vatexe Tot.....I myself don't believe in God.
  • At jateate yet yeut be hua dezyem.....I foresee you yourselves on that stage.
  • Iyt iut voy sa hum.....She herself was not there.

Reciprocal Personal Pronouns edit

The animate reciprocal personal pronoun....one another, each other is translated with hyuit, which is a melding of hyut (the other person) and hyit (the same person). This is an invariable pronoun and does not express gender or number, but refers to sentient beings.
  • Yat yefe ifer hyuit.....We must love one another.
This reciprocal pronoun can be converted to a pronominal determiner by suffixing a, as in hyuita....one another's, mutual, reciprocal:
The inanimate reciprocal personal pronoun....one another, each other is translated with hyuis, which is a hybridization of hyus (the other thing) and hyis (the same thing. This is an invariable pronoun and does not express gender or number, but refers to inanimate objects, concepts, and abstractions.
  • Meri glexag yanpyexe hyuis.....Planets sometimes crash into each other.
  • Yat tobweti yefe fiyzaxer hyuita fwasi.....We guys must respect one another's wishes.
This reciprocal pronouns can sometimes be used as a prefix, eg.:
  • Yat yefe hyuitifer.....We must love one another.
  • Hyuitfiyz....mutual respect
  • Hyuisloyexen....mutual destruction.

Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns edit

Possessive adjectives are derived from pronouns by adding the adjectival ending a to the end of the pronoun, as follows:
  • at....I, me    ata....my
  • aut....myself    auta....my own
  • yat....we, us    yata....our
  • yaut....ourselves    yauta....our own
  • iut....himself/herself    iuta....his/her own
  • hyuit....one another    hyuita....one another's
In turn, these possessive adjectives can be pronominalized with singular and plural forms referring to things. The following chart shows these forms:
Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns
Adjective Pronoun
Singular (thing) Plural (things)
ata....my atas....mine atasi....mine
auta....my own autas....your own autasi....your own
aeuta....your and my own, our own aeutas....your and my own, our own aeutasi....your and mine, our own
eta....your etas....yours etasi....yours
euta....your own eutas....your own eutasi....your own
ita....his/her itas....his/hers itasi....his/hers
iuta....his/her own iutas....his/hers own iutasi....his/hers own
wita....his witas....his witasi....his
wiuta....his own wiutas....his own wiutasi....his own
iyta....her iytas....hers iytasi....hers
iuyta....her own iuytas....her own iuytasi....her own
hyuita....one another's hyuitas....one another's hyuitasi....one another's
isa....its isas....its isasi....its
iusa....its own iusas....its own iusasi....its own
ota....one's otas....one's otasi....one's
outa....one's own outas....one's own outasi....one's own
yata....our yatas....ours yatasi....ours
yauta....our own yautas....our own yautasi....our own
yaeta....your and ours yaetas....yours and ours yaetasi....yours and ours
yaeuta....your and our own yaeutas....yours and our own yaeutasi....yours and our own
yeta....your yetas....yours yetasi....yours
yeuta....your own yeutas....your own yeutasi....your own
yita....their yitas....theirs yitasi....theirs
yiuta....their own yiutas....their own yiutasi....their own
yisa....their yisas....theirs yisasi....theirs
yiusa....their own yiusas....their own yiusasi....their own
yota....people's yotas....people's yotasi....people's
youta....people's own youtas....people's own youtasi....people's own
Examples of possessive adjectives and pronouns in use.
  • Ata tej se fia.....My life is good.
  • Yata twed.......Our father...
  • Ota fyadili yeyfe ser dola.....One's prayers should be silent.
  • At voy teata ita dyes.....I did not see his/her book.
  • At tre wita twed.....I know his father.
  • Yat yefe ovmasber yatasi.....We must protect our own [pl. things].
  • Etasi naze ga vyel atasi.....Yours are worth more than mine.
  • Biku yeutasi.....You guys, mind your own business (= things).
  • Yat toybeti fe ayser yauta nig.....We gals want to have our own space.
  • Hia vafil bayse iusa toleuz.....This wine has its own taste.
In rare cases, inanimate possessive pronouns like, say, yatasi (our own [things]) can be animated by changing the s to a t, yielding yatati (our own [people]), as in Ha Feromati ife vafil. Yatati gey.....The French people love wine. Ours do too.

Translating various uses of it in English edit

When translating English it referring to animate creatures such as babies, animals, dolls, angels, ghosts, and monsters, the Mirad third person animate personal pronouns it he/she/it, iyt she, or wit he is used, eg:
  • At eke bay ha epet hosav at iyfe it / iyt / wit.....I play with the dog because I like it / her / him.
When translating English it referring to an inanimate object or abstraction, the inanimate personal pronoun is can be used.
  • At teasa ha dyezun ay at iyfa is gla.....I saw the movie and I liked it a lot.
  • Ha mes sa yija oy at voy ta is.....The door was open but I didn't know it.
Deictic determiners like this and that can also be used. Read more about that in the chapter on Determiners.
If it introduces a non-previously-mentioned abstraction in English or has no antecedent, then the it is left unexpressed in the Mirad equivalent sentence. For example:
  • Mamilo.....It will rain. ( = Will rain.)
  • Se fia van et upa.....It is good that you came. ( = Is good that you came.)
  • Sa via jub bay et.....It was a beautiful day with you. ( = Was a beautiful day...)
  • Voy se yuka yaprer hia yazmel.....It is not easy to climb this mountain. ( = Is not easy...)

The Verb Stem edit

 
Verbs in Mirad are listed in the dictionary under the present active infinitive (see Mirad Grammar/Verbs#Non-finite Forms), such as yexer....to work. The infinitive minus the er ending is the stem. The stem is used as the base for all other verbal instantiations. The infinitive as listed in the dictionary is usually active in voice, but occasionally a passive infinitive ending in -wer will be lexicalized because it is somehow special, so then, the stem is the infinitive minus the -wer ending. All Mirad verbs are conjugated in the same way and there are no exceptions.
This shows how to determine the stem of a verb listed in the dictionary:


Verb Stems
SIMPLE INFINITIVE STEM+INFINITIVE ENDING
yexer....to work yex+er
poser....to (come to a) stop pos+er
xer....to do x+er
xwer....to happen, be done (PASSIVE) x+wer

Verb Formants edit

The active stem of verbs most often end in one of the following verb formants:
Verb Formats
Verb Formant Function Examples
-xer action or causation xer....to do, saxer....to create, agaxer....to magnify, yixer....to use
-xler forceful action yixler....to employ
-xrer more forceful action yixrer....to wear out
-ber gesture ber....to put, aber....to apply, yujber....to close
-bler forceful gesture yujbler....to lock
-brer more foreful gesture yobrer....to knock down
-ser state or becoming ser....to be, eser....to exist, aser....to become, zyaser....to widen, become wider
-per motion or going per....to go, yaper....to ascend, paper....to fly
-ier action toward subject bier....to take, nier....to consume, ifier.'..to enjoy, dier....to ask
-uer action toward object buer....to give, nuer....to supply, ifuer....to please, duer....to suggest
-ner various verbs uxner....to motivate, axner....to behave
-der communication der....to say, vader....to affirm, yevder....to judge
-drer writing drer....to write, teedrer....to report, taxdrer....to record
-ter knowing ter....to know, tester....to understand, teater....to see
-fer volition fer....to want, ifer....to love, ufer....to hate
-ver some modal verbs yiver....to have a right to, yuver....to have a duty to
-ker various verbs aker....to win, oker....to lose, eker....to play
-jer opening/closing ijer....to begin, ujer....to end, tajer....to be born, tojer....to die, yijer....to open
-ler various verbs baler....to press, boler....to support, beler....to carry, daler....to speak
-[aiu]rer tool use ukarer....to shovel, purer....to drive, myekirer....to mill
-zer perform an art dazer....to dance, dezer....to act, deuzer...to sing

Verb Categories edit

Verbs have morphological categories, which involve changes to the verb not always found in the dictionary, but developed through rule-bound affixation (such as live, lives, lived, living). They also have lexical categories', which involve derived forms usually listed in dictionaries (enjoy, enjoyable, enjoyment)

Morphological Categories edit

Verbs are inflected with the following morphological categories:
  • 2 STATES: finite, non-finite
  • 4 TENSES: present, past, future, atemporal1
  • 5 ASPECTS: simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, potential
  • 2 VOICES: active, passive
  • 2 MOODS: indicative, hypothetical

Note 1: The term "atemporal" means that tense is not marked. For example, in Mirad, Pu! is the imperative of the verb per....to go. It means Go! and is atemporal. The -u ending is an atemporal hypothetical mood marker.

In effect, the PERSON/NUMBER category is not listed above, because this category does not affect the morphology of the Mirad verb form itself. The Mirad verb form stays the same for all persons and numbers. That information is contained in the external subject pronouns governing the verb. In English, for example, the verb "be" has several different forms in the present tense verb form depending on the person and number (I am, you are, he is, we are, etc.), but not so in Mirad. The following chart shows how the English pattern differs from the corresponding single Mirad verb form se for all persons and numbers:


Verb ser (to be) Unchanged for person/number
PERSON NUMBER ENGLISH MIRAD
1st Singular I am at se
2nd you are et se
3rd he/she/it is it se
1st Plural we are yat se
2nd you are yet se
3rd they are yit se
This invariability of person/number exists for all tenses.

Lexical Categories edit

In addition, verbs can be described in terms of the following opposing lexical categories. By lexical, is meant that verbs having different lexical properties are listed in the dictionary and have nothing to do with conjugation.


Verb Lexical Categories
STATIVE DYNAMIC
ser....to be xer....to do
INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE
agaser....to grow large agaxer....to magnify
SUBJECT-DIRECTED PATIENT-DIRECTED
bier....to take buer....to give
REFLEXIVE NON-REFLEXIVE
utvyixer....to wash up (wash oneself) vyixer....to wash
INCHOATIVE CAUSATIVE
tujper....fall asleep tujber....put to sleep
AUTONOMOUS DYNAMIC
yijer....to open (by itself) yijber....to (make it) open
RECIPROCAL NON-RECIPROCAL
hyuittujber....to kill one another tujber....to kill
GESTURAL LOCOMOTIVE
baser....to stir, budge paser....to move
SUBJECT-ORIENTED OBJECT-ORIENTED
teetyiker....to be hard of hearing teetyikwer....to be hard to hear

Non-finite Forms edit

Non-finite verb forms are
  • not conjugated for person or number
  • cannot form a predicate
  • and do not have a subject.
There are three kinds of non-finite verb forms in Mirad:
  • infinitives: the dictionary lookup form of a verb, ending in -er
  • gerunds: verbal nouns, ending in -en
  • participles: verbal adjectives, ending in -a

Infinitives edit

Verbs are listed in the dictionary under the active voice simple aspect infinitive form, which always ends in er and means to X, or rarely the passive voice simple aspect infinitive form, which ends in wer and means to be Xed. The part of the verb form minus the -er or -wer is the verb stem.


Infinitive Stems
INFINITIVE STEM ENDING
agser....to grow ags- -er
igxer....to quicken igx- -er
per....to go p- -er
xwer....to happen, be done x- -wer
The infinitive in Mirad is used very much as its counterpart in English. The infinitive can be marked for two aspects (simple, perfect) and two voices (active, passive), as shown in the chart below, where the verb stems are underlined:


Active and Passive Infinitive Stems
ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
Simple igxer....to quicken igxwer....to be quickened
Perfect igxayer....to have quickened igxawer....to have been quickened
In the above chart,
  • the verb stem is igx- and
  • the infinitive marker is -er;
  • the simple aspect active voice marker is zero;
  • the simple aspect passive voice marker is w;
  • the perfect aspect active voice marker is -ay-;
  • the past aspect passive voice marker is -aw-.

Intransitive verbs like per to go do not have a passive voice. Also, the passive voice form of a verb will not appear in the dictionary unless it has a special meaning, such as xwer to happen. The perfect infinitives are never listed in the dictionary.

Gerunds edit

The gerund is a verbal noun like English playing in playing ball.
The gerund has two possible aspects (simple and perfect) and two possible voices (active and passive):
Gerund Formation
ASPECT VOICE ENDING EXAMPLE
Simple Active -en agaxen....magnifiying, magnification
Simple Passive -wen agaxwen....being magnified
Perfect Active -ayen byekayen....having cured
Perfect Passive -awen byekawen....having been cured
Note: Intransitive verbs like per to go do not have a passive gerund form.
Lexicalized gerunds, such as sanxen formation, forming generally appear in the dictionary in the active voice.
Some examples of gerund usage:
  • (sanxer....to form)    Ha sanxen bi hia mar efxa amroni bi jabi.....The forming (or: formation) of this star took millions of years.
  • (deuzer....to sing)    Iyta deuzen sa gla via.....Her singing was very beautiful.
  • (poper....to travel)    Popen se yika yex.....Traveling is hard work.
  • (teeter....to hear)    Teetwen fiay se glatesa av dezuti.....Being heard well is important for actors.
  • (teater....to see)    Teaten se vyatexen......Seeing is believing.
  • (uper....to come)    His se ha jeb bi Upen.....This is the season of Advent (coming).
  • (tadier....to get married)    Ata tadiayen ewa jodi bixa tepzex.....My having married twice drew attention.
  • (aker....to win)    At voy ta ita akawen hua nuz.....I did not know about his having won that prize.
Gerunds, being verb forms, can take direct and indirect objects:
  • At ifxwe bey eta buayen at hua nas.....I am pleased by your having given me that money.
  • Tojben eut voy se kebiyaf.....Killing yourself is not an option.
The special gerundive ending -eyn gives a nuance emphasizing the action as a single act, much like the English endings -ment or -tion. Here are a few examples showing the difference between -en and -eyn.
  • yanlaxen....combining  ≠<  yanlaxeyn....combination
  • xen....doing  ≠<  xeyn....action, deed
  • zayben....advancing  ≠<  zaybeyn....advancement
Another special gerundive (but lexical) ending is -un, which expresses the result of an action, eg.:
  • zyegxer....to puncture  ≠<  zyegxun....a puncture
  • zyeuber....to transmit  ≠<  zyeubun....a broadcast
  • deuzer....to sing  ≠<  deuzun....a song

Participles edit

Participles are verbal adjectives and can modify nouns and pronouns. Since they act as adjectives, they have the adjectival ending -a. Participles are marked by aspect (simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, potential) and voice (active, passive).
The aspect markers per voice are:
Aspect Markers
ASPECT VOICE FORM EXAMPLE
Progressive Active -ea- tejea....living
Passive wea xwea....happening
Perfect Active -ya pya....gone (< pyaa)1
Passive -wa xwa....done (< xwaa)2
Imminent Active -oa tojoa....about to die
Passive -woa dodelwoa....about to be announced
Potential Active -ua tojbua....lethal
Passive -wua opoxwua....unstoppable


1: The double aa in the perfect endings is reduced to a.
2: The wa ending is changed to awa after stems ending in a double consonant, the second being l or r. Example: dr- (to write) becomes drawa (written).
Note 1: The perfect active particple is used only for intransitive verbs.
Note 2: The potential aspect, represented by the vowel u is much like the conditional in English, but is not considered a tense in Mirad. For example, tojbu means would kill and the participle tojbua means lethal (referring to something that would/has the potential to kill). More about this in a later section.
Note 3: There is another form of the progressive participle that falls in the lexical, rather than morphological category, in that such forms are listed in the dictionary as adjectives. For example, in the phrase The animals bothering our bird feeder..., the participle bothering would be oboxea in Mirad. By inserting the letter y between the verb stem and the participial ending, the participle becomes an adjective denoting a propensity or habit, as in bothersome (oboxyea). Such participles are invariably in the active voice. Most such adjectives in English end in -ive as in repulsive or -ly as in wiggly or -ous as in circuitous. Such adjectives in Mirad are listed in the dictionary and end in -yea.
Adverbial participles can be made from the above adjectival participles, by suffixing the letter y. Examples:
  • Iyt yepa ha tim deuzeay.....She entered the room singing.
  • Ujbaway ha dodal, it pia.....The speech having been finished, he left.
Also, the above participles can be converted into abstract nouns by suffixing n. Examples:
  • tiluwa....drinkable tiluwan....potability
  • tojbua....lethal tojbuan....lethality
  • mansea....shining he mansean bi iyta deuzen....the brilliance of her singing
  • aakaxyea....inventive aakaxyean....inventiveness
Furthermore, these participles can sometimes be pronominalized with s for things and t for people or living things. These forms can, in turn, be pluralized:
  • xwa....known xwas....what is known, a fact
  • xwa....known xwasi....facts, information
  • oxwa....unknown oxwas....what is not known, a mystery
  • osexea....destroying osexeas....a destroyer
  • tojbua....lethal tojbuas....something lethal, a lethal thing
  • tojboa....moribund tojboati....people about to die, fatal cases
  • tejea....living tejeat....a living person
  • tejea....living tejeasi....living things
There is a special tenseless, nominalized, animate participle used for agent nouns (English one who does something, Xer, Xant, Xist), which refers to a person who habitually does some action, perhaps as a profession or trade. These agent nouns end in -ut.
  • sexut....builder
  • nuut....supplier
  • tojbut....killer
  • ifut....lover
  • akuti....winners
Note: There is a slight difference of meaning between the tensed participial pronoun ha akeat....the one winning and the non-tensed agent noun ha akut....the winner.
Similarly, there is a special tenseless, nominalized, inanimate participle used for a thing that performs the action denoted by the verb stem. These agent nouns end in -us.
  • yuxus....aid (a thing that helps)
  • byuxwus....button (a thing that gets touched on the keyboard)
  • paxus....motive (a thing that moves one)
  • jaupus....precedent (a thing that comes before)
The above -us ending contrasts with the endings -ar (instrument), -ir (machine), -ur (motor, engine), which are physical objects and not always suffixed to a verbal root.

Finite Forms edit

 
In Mirad, finite verb forms are those that can take a person subject, serve as a predicate, and be conjugated. Finite verb forms are conjugated by using suffixes indicating, through their presence or absence, the following categories:
  • TENSES
  1. present
  2. past
  3. future
  4. atemporal
  • MOODS
  1. indicative
  2. hypothetical
  • ASPECTS
  1. simple
  2. progressive
  3. perfect
  4. imminent
  5. potential
  • VOICES
  1. active
  2. passive
  3. reflexive
  4. reciprocal
Person and number are not marked on the verb form itself. For example, am, is, are, which change according to the person subject in English, are all expressed with the same verb form in Mirad: se. Thus, at se....I am, et se....you are, it se....he/she/it is, etc.

Moods edit

There are two moods in Mirad:
  • indicative
  • hypothetical.
Indicative Mood edit
The indicative form of the verb indicates an action or state that occurs in actual time, such as he went, he is going, he will go.
The indicative mood has three tenses, present, past, future, indicated by the suffixes -e, -a, and -o, respectively.
Hypothetical Mood edit
Wheras the indicative verb forms expresses actuality in time, the hypothetical mood expresses one of the non-actuality situations below and uses the vowel u.
  • a command , i.e. the IMPERATIVE (Go!)
  • a wish or suggestion, i.e. the HORTATIVE or JUSSIVE (May the king live long!, Let's celebrate!)
  • an unrealized situation, i.e. the SUBJUNCTIVE (It is important that you be early.)
  • an imagined if-then-situation, i.e. the CONDITIONAL (If I were rich, I would be happy.)

Aspects edit

There are five aspects in the Mirad verb system.
  • the SIMPLE aspect (default), i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional.
  • the PROGRESSIVE aspect, i.e. an action or state on-going in the particular tense, using ey
  • the PERFECT aspect, i.e. an action or state anterior or already completed, using ay
  • the IMMINENT aspect, i.e. an action or state about to happen, using oy
  • the POTENTIAL aspect, i.e. an action potentially happening, using uy
The Simple Aspect edit
Unless specifically marked, the default aspect is simple, i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional. Three indicative tenses can be expressed in the simple aspect:
  • Present with e
  • Past with a
  • Future with o.
An atemporal, verb from ending in u in the simple aspect is considered hypothetical and expresses three things, depending on how it is used in the sentence:
  • a conditional like I would go (if...)
  • an imperative like Go!
  • a hortative like Let's go!
  • a subjunctive like (It is important that) we go.
Here is a chart showing the simple, active voice instantiations of the Mirad verb per (to go) with the endings underlined:
Simple Active Conjugation of Per
MOOD TENSE ASPECT VOICE INSTANTIATION VERB per
Indicative Present Simple Active At pe....I go
Indicative Past Simple Active At pa....I went
Indicative Future Simple Active At po....I will go
Hypothetical Atemporal Simple Active Conditional At pu....I would go
Hortative/Optative/Jussive Van yat pu!....Let's go!
Imperative Pu tam!....Go home!
Subjunctive Se efwa van et pu.....It is necessary that you go.
Note that the last four instantiations are the same tense, but differ in syntax. For example, if the verb form is hypothetical, atemporal, simple, active and has no subject, it operates as an imperative.

The Simple Indicative Present Active Tense edit

The simple indicative present instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix e and has a non-progressive (habitual) aspect as in English I work or I live. Progressive aspect forms like I am studying are explained later.
Examples:
  • At yexe be tam. ....I work at home.
  • Hia tom se nam. ....This building is a store.

The Simple Indicative Past Active Tense edit

The simple indicative past tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix a and has a non-progressive (punctual) meaning as in English I did something at some particular point in time. The simple past contrasts in aspect with the past progressive (I was doing something) or the present perfect (I have done something), or past potential (I would have done something). The simple past is punctual, that is, it describes an event that occurred at a particular point in time.
Examples:
  • Iyt iba ha nyuf zojub. ....She received the package yesterday.
  • At ujba ha dyes ji iwa jwobi. ....I finished the book three hours ago.
  • His kyesa exag hijub.....This happened twice today.

The Simple Indicative Future Active Tense edit

The simple indicative future tense is marked with the vowel suffix o and has the same meaning as in English I will do something at some particular point in the future.
Examples:
  • Yit tadso zajab.....They are going to get married next year.
  • Hua kaxon ujako. ....That solution will work.

The Simple Hypothetical Atemporal Active Tense edit

A verb form ending in u like pu has no time value and is used to express unreal actions or states, such as the imperative, hortative, conditional, or subjunctive.
Examples:
  • Upu him!....Come here! (IMPERATIVE)
  • Von upu! ....Don't come! (NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE)
  • Ha edeb fu teater et. ....The king would like to see you. (CONDITIONAL)
  • Ven at su et, at dolu. ....If I were you, I would be quiet. (CONDITIONAL)
  • Van yeyt ujaku be yeytia yexnadi. ....May all you (women) succeed in your careers. (HORTATIVE)
  • Van yat ijbu bay fyadil. ....Let's begin with a prayer. (JUSSIVE)
  • Se kyitesa van et puu jwa. ....It's important that you arrive early. (SUBJUNCTIVE)
  • Se kyitesa von et puu jwo.....It's important that you not arrive late. (NEGATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE)
Hypothetical verb forms ending in -u can be interpreted in various ways, depending on the following syntactical patterns in the sentence:
  • Generally, if a verb form ending in -u begins a sentence and has no subject, then it is an IMPERATIVE (a command). For example, Ipu!, Go away!.
  • If the verb form has a subject not preceded by the complementizers van, ven, or von, then it is probably a CONDITIONAL predicate like At fu per.....I would like to go..
  • If the subject of the verb is preceded by ven....if, then it is a CONDITIONAL clause as in Ven at su nasikat.......If I were a rich man..
  • If the subject is preceded by Van....that/let/may or von....don't, then it is a HORTATIVE wish like Van et yagteju.....May you live long. or a JUSSIVE suggestion like Van yat fyadilu.....Let us pray. or a prohibition like Von tiliu his!....Don't drink this!.

Voices edit

Mirad has four voices:
  • Active
  • Passive
  • Reflexive
  • Reciprocal.

Active Voice edit

The default voice is active, i.e. the subject of the verb is doing the action.
  • At teata ha kyes.....I saw the event.

Passive Voice edit

A verb form is converted from active to passive by inserting a w just before the last vowel of the verb form. The past passive particle ending -waa is usually abbreviated to -wa (done is xwa). However, if the verb stem ends in a consonant plus l or r, then -wa is changed to -awa for ease of pronunciation, eg. drawa....written.
The following chart shows the distinction between active and passive voice of various verbs:


Contrasting Active and Passive Voice
VERB FORM ACTIVE ACTIVE
EXAMPLE
PASSIVE PASSIVE
EXAMPLE
Infinitive xer
to do
At fe xer fi.
I want to do well.
xwer
to be done
Ese hyos xwer.
There is nothing to be done.
Present Participle sexea
constructing
Ha yansyem sexea hia tom...
The firm constructing this building...
sexewa
being constructed
His se sexewa.
This is under construction.
Present xe
do/does
At xe fi be tistam.
I do well in school.
xwe
is done
Huyenasi hoj xwe.
Such things are never done.
Past Participle xaa
having done
Iyt, xaa hya iyta yex,...
She, having done all her work,...
xwa
done
Hyas se xwa.
Everything is done.
Past tojba
killed
Duhat tojba hwut?
Who killed that guy?
tojbwa
was killed
Duhaj it tojbwa?
When was he killed?
Hypothetical bakxu
heal
Bakxu at!
Heal me!
bakxwu
be healed
Van it bakxwu.
May he be healed.
Many intransitive verbs cannot be made passive. For example, tajer....to be born is intransitive (takes no object) and has no passive voice form. However, the transitive verb tajber....to bear, give birth can be passive, as in Ha tudet tajbwa zajub.....The child was delivered yesterday (as opposed to Ha tudet taja zajub.....The child was born yesterday.) Notice the following verb:
  • Ha mes uja.....The door opened. (medio-passive)
  • Ha mes ujpa.....The door came open. (dynamic medio-passive)
  • Ujbu ha mes.....Open the door. (transitive active)
  • Ha mes ujbwa.....The door opened. (passive)

Reflexive Voice edit

A verb is made reflexive by prefixing the reflexive pronoun ut (self), for example:
  • tojber....to kill uttojber....to kill oneself
  • vyilxer....to wash utvyilxer....to wash up
  • teater....to see utteater....to see oneself
  • yalber....to lift utyalber....to lift oneselfUtyalbu!....Lift yourself up!
  • trer....to know uttrer....to know oneselfUttru!....Know thyself!

Reciprocal Voice edit

A verb is made reciprocal by prefixing the reciprocal pronoun hyuit....one another, for example:
  • tojber....to kill hyuittojber....to kill one another
  • vyilxer....to wash hyuitvyilxer....to wash one another
  • teater....to see hyuitteater....to see one another
Both the reflexive pronoun and reciprocal pronoun can be used as standalone objects. However, the plural form yut is used if the subject is plural, for example:
  • Yit vyilxa yut.....They (f.) washed up. (= washed selves).
  • Ha twobeti dizeuda hyuit.....The boys laughed at one another.
The word hyuit is a hybrid of hyit....the same one combined with hyut....the other one.

Aspects Revisited edit

Mirad verbs have the following aspects:
  • SIMPLE -- this is the default aspect, shown above, i.e. NON-PROGRESSIVE, NON-PERFECT, NON-IMMINENT, and NON-POTENTIAL.
  • PROGRESSIVE -- this is an aspect where the verb describes an on-going action or state spread over time.
  • PERFECT -- this presents the action or state as anterior, or completed prior to another action or state.
  • IMMINENT -- this describes an action or state about to happen.
  • POTENTIAL -- this refers to an action or state where something is possible.

The Simple Aspect edit

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Simple aspect. In the active voice, the tense vowels a, e, o, and u are affixed to the stem. In the passive voice, the passive marker consonant w is inserted between the stem and the final tense vowels. The simple present tense refers to actions or states that are habitual (I regularly go to school.), regular (The earth revolves around the sun.), or permanent (Blue is a color.). The simple past refers to actions or states that occurred at a fixed point in time (I did my homework last night.). The simple future refers to actions or states that will occur at some particular point in the future (The sun will rise tomorrow at dawn.). The simple atemporal hypothetical ( = conditional) refers to an imagined action or state that has not be realized (You would make a good president.).
Simple Aspect
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
Simple Present Indicative At xe....I do Has xwe....It is done
Simple Past Indicative At xa....I did Has xwa....It was done
Simple Future Indicative At xo....I will do Has xwo....It will be done
Simple Atemporal Hypothetical At xu....I would do Has xwu....It would be done

Note: Absence of tense (Atemporal) + Hypothetical mood = CONDITIONAL

The Progressive Aspect edit

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Progressive aspect. The present tense vowel e followed by a buffer consonant, are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
Progressive Aspect
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
Progressive Present Indicative at xeye....I am doing Has xewe....it is being done
Progressive Past Indicative at xeya....I was doing Has xewa....it was being done
Progressive Future Indicative at xeyo....I am going to be doing Has xewo....it will be happening
Progressive Atemporal Hypothetical at xeyu....I would be doing Has xewu....it would be happening

The Perfect Aspect edit

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Perfect aspect. The past tense vowel a following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
Perfect Aspect
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
Perfect Present Indicative At xaye....I have done Has xawe....It has been done
Perfect Past Indicative At xaya....I had done Has xawa....It had been done
Perfect Future Indicative At xayo....I will have done Has xawo....It will have been done
Perfect Atemporal Hypothetical At xayu....I would have done Has xawu....It would have been done

The Imminent Aspect edit

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Imminent aspect (sometimes referred to as the Prospective aspect). The future tense vowel o following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice. Not that only indicative mood imminent tenses are ever used.
Imminent Aspect
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
Imminent Present Indicative At xoye....I am about to do Has xowe....It is about to be done
Imminent Past Indicative At xoya....I was about to do Has xowa....It was about to be done

The Potential Aspect edit

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Potential aspect. The hypothetical vowel u followed by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice. The future potential and hypothetical potential aspects are never used.
Potential Aspect
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
Potential Present Indicative At xuye....I am to do Has xuwe....It is to be done, it is doable
Potential Past Indicative At xuya....I was to do Has xuwa....It was to be done, it was doable

Verb Conjugation Chart edit

The following chart presents the totality of the Mirad affirmative verb conjugation system using the verb xer....to do and its passive xwer....to be done, happen. The rows beginning with a light blue background are finite forms, while those beginning with light green are non-finite forms.
Verb Conjugation Chart
STATE MOOD ASPECT TENSE VOICE
ACTIVE PASSIVE
Finite Indicative Simple Present xe
does
xwe
is done, happens
Past xa
did
xwa
was done, happened
Future xo
will do
xwo
will be done, will happen
Hypothetical xu
would do, do!
xwu
would be done, would happen, be done!
Indicative Progressive Present xeye
is doing
xewe
is being done, is happening
Past xeya
was doing
xewa
was doing, was happening
Future xeyo
will be doing
xewo
will be happening
Hypothetical xeyu
would be doing
be doing!
xewu
would be happening
Indicative Perfect Present xaye
has done
xawe
has been done, has happened
Past xaya
had done
xawa
had been done, had happened
Future xayo
will have done
xawo
will have been done, will have happened
Hypothetical xayu
would have done
xawu
would have been done, would have happened
Indicative Imminent Present xoye
is about to do
xowe
is about to be done, is about to happen
Past xoya
was to be done
xowa
was to be done, was to happen
Potential Present xuye
is supposed to do
xuwe
is supposed to happen
Past xuya
was supposed to do
xuwa
was supposed to be done, was supposed to happen
Infinitive Simple xer
to do
xwer
to be done, to happen
Perfect xayer
to have done
xawer
to have been done, to have happend
Participle Progressive xea
doing
xewa
being done, happening
Perfect x(a)ya2
having done
x(a)wa1
done, happened
Imminent xoa
about to do
xowa
about to happen
Potential xua
bound to do
xuwa
doable
Gerund Simple xen
doing
xwen
being done, happening, event
Perfect xayen
having done
xawen
having happened
Note 1: The perfective passive participle usually ends in -wa, but occasionally the longer form -awa is used, especially if the verb stem ends in a consonant followed by l or r that make the shorter form harder to pronounce, eg. pyuxrwa becomes pyuxrawa (shocked).
Note 2: Intransitive verbs such as per to go have no passive forms. An expression such as They are gone. would be translated as Yit se pya.

Negative Forms edit

All of the above verb forms are affirmative. The indicative and conditional forms can be made negative by preceding the negative adverb voy. Those forms that are subjunctive, jussive, or imperative ending in -u use the negative subordinate conjunction von.
  • Voy mamilo.....It will not rain. (indicative)
  • Von mamilu.....Let it not rain. (subjunctive)
  • Von yat fuyaku.....Let us not despair. (jussive)
  • At voy te.....I don't know.
  • Von pu!....Don't go. (imperative)
  • At voy xu hus.....I would not do that.

How to Express Certain English Tenses edit

English speakers have some tenses that do not fit into the above schema:
  • The English tense I have been studying French for four years. is translated in Mirad by At tixeye Ferad ji uwa jabi.....I am studying French since four years. (Mirad present progressive tense).
  • The English tense I had been studying is translated in Mirad by At tixeya. (Mirad past progressive tense).
  • The English tense I am going to be starring in that role. is translated in Mirad by At dezdebeyo be hua dezgon. (Mirad future progressive).
  • The modern Black English tense Don't you be doing that. is handled in Mirad by Von et xeyu hus. (Mirad imperative progressive).

Transitive vs. Intransitive Verbs edit

Transitive verbs, which can take a direct object, oppose themselves to intransitive verbs, which do not take a direct object. Some verbs are marked overtly for transitivity.
Verbs that end in xer (to do, -ify, -ize) are by nature transitive, and often have intransitive counterparts in ser (to be, become, -ify, -ize). Likewise, verbs ending in ber (to put, take) are transitive and have intransitive counterparts in per (to go). Here are some examples:
Transitive vs. Intransitive
TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE
xer....do ser....be
agxer....grow (something) agser....grow (up)
amxer....heat, make hot amser....become hot, heat up
puxer....throw puser....jump
per....go ber....put
aber....put on aper....get on
yaber....raise yaper....rise
poxer....stop (something) poser....(come to a) stop
yuber....bring yuper....approach
yeber....insert yeper....enter
  • At agxe vobi.....I grow [TRANSITIVE] plants.
  • Ha vobi agseye ig.....The plants are growing [INTRANSITIVE] fast.
  • Poxu ha pur!....Stop [TRANSITIVE] the car!
  • Ha pur posa.....The car stopped [INTRANSITIVE].
  • At yaba ha mis.....I raised [TRANSITIVE] the window.
  • Ha maar yapaye.....The sun has risen [INTRANSITIVE].


Marking -jer Verbs for Transitivity edit

Note the following verbs, whose stems end in j are hard to pronounce with intransitive s and transitive x, so these two endings are placed with p and b, respectively, although the presence of the p is optional, i.e. it's presence or absence can slightly change the meaning from static to dynamic, eg. tujer....to sleep vs. tujper....to fall asleep. The transitive forms can be either active or passive.
Marking -jer Verbs for Transitivity
INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE
STATIC DYNAMIC ACTIVE PASSIVE
Ha mes yija
The door opened.
Ha nasyef yijpa
The purse came open.
At yijba ha mes.
I opened the door.
Ha mes yijbwa bey yelput.
The door was opened by an intruder
Ha mes yuja.
The door closed.
Ha yanup yujpa.
The meeting adjourned.
At yujba ha mes.
I closed the door.
Ha mes yeyfe yujbwer ja sumjob.
The door should be closed by bedtime.
Ha dezun ijaye.
The play has started.
Ha par ijpa boy poys.
The car started up immediately.
At ijba ata tyal.
I started my meal.
Ha tyal ijbwa jwa.
The meal was started early.
Ha dezun ujaye.
The play has ended.
Ata yex ujpaye.
My work has come to an end.
A ujba ha dyes.
I finished the book.
Ha dyes hyoj ujbwa.
The book never got finished.
Ha tob toja zomoj.
The man died yesterday evening.
Ha tob tojpa.
The man dropped dead.
Hot tojba ha twob?
Who killed the man?
Ha twob tojbwa bey ita tayd.
The man was killed by his wife.
Teju.
Live!.
Tejpu!.
Come alive!.
Yat efe tejber ha twob.
We need to revive the man.
Ha twob yofwa tejbwer.
The man could not be revived.
Ha tobot taja zojub.
The baby was born yesterday.
Hoj ha tobot tajpo?
When will the baby pop out?
Iyt tajba awa twobot zojub.
She gave birth to a baby boy yesterday.
Ha twobot tajbwa jo eymoj.
The baby boy was birthed after midnight.
At tija jwe.
I woke up on time.
It voy tijpa.
He did not come to..
At tijbo et jwa.
I will wake (you) up early.
At voy fe tijbwo gra jwa.
I don't want to be woken too early.
At tujeya.
I was sleeping.
At tujpeya.
I was falling sleep.
At tujbo it.
I will put (him) to sleep..
Ha tobot tujbwo glojo.
The baby will be put to sleep soon.

Reflexive Verbs edit

 
Reflexive verbs, where the object refers back to the subject, work just as in English, where the object is a reflexive pronoun, eg.:
  • At tujboye aut.....I am going to kill myself.
  • Tru eut!....Know thyself!
  • It gobla iut bey goblar.....He cut himself with a knife.
  • Ot yefe yuxer out.....One must help oneself.
Sometimes, verbs incorporate the reflexivity in the actual verb form using ut as the prefix:
  • uttujber....commit suicide (= self-kill)
  • utboler....support oneself (= self-support)
  • utdider....wonder (= self ask)
Sometimes, verbs are used reflexively in Mirad even though they are used simply intransitively in English, eg.:
  • Et efe vyilxer eut.....You need to wash up [= wash yourself]. (or)
  • Et efe utvyilxer.....You need to wash up [= self-wash].

Omission of Prepositions After Certain Verbs edit

Some verbs inherently incorporate a preposition and so it is not necessary to use that assumed preposition before what would normally be an indirect object.
Inherent Propositions
PREPOSITION-INCORPORATING VERB EXAMPLE
per....go (to) Pu tam! (Not: Pu bu tam!) Go home.
It pa Paris.....He went to Paris.
der....say (to), tell Du at eta dyun.....Tell me your name.
Du at has.....Tell it to me.
peser....wait (for) Pesu at.....Wait for me.
buer....give (to) Buu at hua dyes.....Give me that book.
As in English, in omitting the inherent preposition in a sentence with both a direct object and an indirect object, place the indirect object before the direct object. If the direct object comes first, then the preposition must be overtly specified before the indirect object, eg. Buu at hus.....Give me that. or Buu hus bu at.....Give that to me. See more about this in the chapter on Syntax.

Causative vs. Inchoative Verbs edit

Derived from Adjectives edit

Adjectives can be converted into transitive/causative and intransitive/inchoative verbs. A causative verb has the sense to make something have some quality, while an inchoative verb means to become or take on the quality of something. Causative verbs are always transitive (taking an object), while inchoative verbs are intransitive (not taking an object). English causative / inchoative verbs often end in -ify like magnify, or -ate, liberate, or ize, like sensitize.
To derive a causative verb from an adjective, add the suffix xer....to do to either the stem or the whole adjective (with the a ending). Whether you do the former or the latter depends on several factors, but the end result is slightly different in nuance. A verb with adjective stem + xer is slightly more idiomatic or less literal than the adjective stem + axer.
-axer vs -xer in Transitive Verbs
ADJECTIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE
-xer LITERAL IDIOMATIC
aga
big
agaxer
to magnify
agxer
to grow
ana
one
anaxer
to unify
anxer
to unite
yona
apart
yonaxer
to separate
yonxer
to cut
yaga
long
yagaxer
to lengthen
yagxer
to stretch
yuga
slow
yugaxer
to retard
yugxer
to brake
sana
formal
sanaxer
to formalize
sanxer
to form
gea
equal
geaxer
to equalize
gexer
to copy, equate
jaa
prior
jaaxer
to prioritize
jaxer
to prepare
To derive an inchoative verb from an adjective, add the suffix ser....to be to either the stem or the whole adjective.
Creating Inchoative Verbs
ADJECTIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE
-ser LITERAL IDIOMATIC
aga
big
agaser
to get bigger
agser
to grow
ana
one
anaser
to unify
anser
to unite, become united
yona
apart
yonaser
to become separate
yonser
to break


Be careful to use the transitive, causative verb form when you have a direct object, and the intransitive, inchoative verb form when no direct objects are present or possible, eg.:
  • Ansu ey yet golxwo.....Unite or you will be divided. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • At yontadsa hoj at sa eta jag.....I got divorced when I was your age. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • Hisi agaxo hos et teate.....These will magnify what you see. [TRANSITIVE]
  • Hia tud agseye ig.....This child is growing up fast. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • Ata tayd agxe vosi be oyebzom.....My wife grows flowers out back. [TRANSITIVE]

Derived from Nouns edit

Transitive/causative/active and intransitive/inchoative/passive verbs can also be formed from nouns. The sense of the former is to make be X and of the latter, to become X.
Verbs Derived from Nouns
NOUN TRANSITIVE/CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE INTRANSITIVE/INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE
mog....ash mogxer
to incinerate
mogser
to become ashes
yan....collection yanxer
to collect
yanser
to get together
tad....spouse tadxer
to marry
tadser
to get married
yom....ice yomxer
to freeze/make ice
yomser
to freeze/become ice
mag....fire magxer
to burn, set fire to
magser
to burn, get burned
uk....void ukxer
to empty
ukser
become empty, empty out

Intermediary Causative Verbs edit

Intermediary verbal causatives like have/get my car washed, make/force him go, get one's hair cut are formed by suffixing the causative verb infix -ux- (active) or uxw (passive) to the stem of the verb signifying the action to be arranged or caused by someone other than the subject, eg.:
  • At gorbuxo ata tayeb zamaj.....I will get my hair cut tomorrow.
  • Et voy yafe puxer at.....You cannot make me go.
  • It tojbuxa yit.....He had them killed.
  • At efe vyilxuxer ata par.....I need to have my car washed.
  • Et upuxwa him hesav.....You were made to come here for some reason.
  • At bakambuxo et.....I will have you hospitalized.
  • Et voy yafe deuzuxer at.....You cannot make me sing.
  • At hihiduxwa.....I was tickled (= made to laugh).
  • Eta deuz hihiduxa yat.....Your song tickled us. (= Made us laugh.)
  • Van het ivasuxu weti.....May someone get you guys to be happy.
  • Hua enzyukpur uzpuxa ha pur.....That motorcycle caused the car to veer.

Subject-directed vs. Patient-directed Verbs edit

The directionality of some verbs can be distinguished by the verbal formant infix -i- for an action or motion toward the speaker and -u- for an action or motion away from the speaker toward some patient, eg.:
Directional Verbs
SUBJECT-DIRECTED PATIENT-DIRECTED
bier....to take buer....to give
nier....to consume nuer....to supply
nyier....to order nyuer....to deliver
nunier....to buy nunuer....to sell
nazunier....win a prize nazunuer....award a prize
noysier....pay off noysuer....charge
ojbier....borrow ojbuer....lend
tadier....get married taduer....marry off
papier....take flight papuer....send off flying
pipier....set sail pipuer....dock
simbier....take a seat simbuer....offer a seat
tampier....leave home tampuer....arrive home
tamier....settle in tamuer....shelter
nuxbier....to buy nixbuer....to sell
telier....to eat teluer....to feed
gonbier....to participate gonbuer....to share
tilier....to drink tiluer....to ply with drink
teubier....to swallow teubuer....to spit out
teatier....to observe, watch teatuer....to show
taxier....to memorize taxuer....to remind
alier....to breathe in aluer....to breathe out, expire
ilier....to absorb iluer....to pour
ifier....to enjoy ifuer....to please
dier....to ask duer....to suggest
tier....to learn tuer....to inform
pier....to depart puer....to arrive
kebier....to choose kebuer....to distribute
byier....to originate byuer....to target
mempier....to take off mempuer....to land
sinier....visualize sinuer....display
xier....to result xuer....to cause
yifier....to get up the courage yifuer....to encourage, challenge
yafonier....to gain power yafonuer....to empower
trier....to become acquainted with truer....to acquaint with, introduce to
tepizier....to pay attention to tepizuer....to draw attention to
In some cases, the directionality can be both ways in a verb, in which case the verb formant infix -ui- (a hybrid form) is used, eg.:
  • nunier ....to purchase (subject-directed)
  • nunuer....to sell (patient-directed)
  • nunuier....to trade (subject & patient-directed)
  • tier....to learn, realize (subject-directed)
  • tuer....to inform, tip off (patient-directed)
  • tuier....to communicate (subject & patient-directed)
  • alier....to breathe in, inhale (subject-directed)
  • aluer....to breathe out, exhale (patient-directed)
  • aluier....to breathe, respire (subject & patient-directed)
  • bier ....to take (subject-directed)
  • buer....to give (patient-directed)
  • buier....to give and take, exchange (subject & patient-directed)

Verbs with Vectorial Prefixes edit

Prepositions and directional adverbs can be prefixed to verbs in order to change their vectorial semantics. A preposition ending in b will assimilate to p before the verb per....to go and a preposition ending in b will lose the b before a verb beginning with b. Here are some examples:
Verb Prepositional Prefixes
PREPOSITION/ADVERB TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
ab....on aber....apply aper....get on, mount
ob....off ober....remove oper....get of, dismount
eb....between eber....block eper....intervene
yab....up yaber....raise yaper....rise
yob....down yober....take down yoper....descend
yub....near yuber....bring near yuper....approach
yib....far yiber....take away yiper....go far away
yeb....in yeber....insert yeper....enter
yeb....in yepuxer....throw in yepuser....jump in
oyeb....out oyeber....expose oyeper....exit
oyeb....out oyepuxer....eject oyepuser....jump out
zyu....round zyuber....rotate zyuper....revolve
zya....throughout zyaber....spread zyaper....tour
av....for avdaler....plead avper....pursue
ov....against ovber....oppose ovper....countervene
yan....together yanber....compose yanper....meet
yon....apart yonber....separate yonper....separate
iz....direct izber....lead izper....head
uz....curved uzber....divert uzper....diverge
yuz....around yuzbexer....surround yuzper....circulate
yiz....beyond yizber....transfer yizper....surpass
zoy....back, re- zoyber....return zoyper....go back

Verbs with Other Semantics-altering Prefixes edit

As in English and many other languages, prefixes can be used on verbs to reverse, mitigate, or otherwise alter the semantics:

Expressing re- with zoy- or gaw- edit

The prefix zoy-....back or gaw-1....again are used like the English prefix re-, eg.:
  • ember....to positionzoyember....to reposition, replace
  • buer....to givezoybuer....to return (an object), give back
  • sanxer....to shape, formzoysanxer....to reshape, reform, transform
  • zyauber....to broadcastgawzyauber....to re-broadcast
  • taja....borngawtaja....reborn
  • aber....to applygawaber....to reapply
  • uper....to comezoyuper....to return (come back)
  • teaper....to visitgawteaper....to revisit
  • uper....to comezoyuper....to return, come back
  • buxer....to pushzoybuxer....to repel, push back
  • puxer....to throwzoypuxer....to reject, throw back, jettison
Note 1: The prefix gaw- before a consonant is pronounced like the gaw in the English word gawk. It is short for ga awa jod or gawa meaning one more time, again. If the "re-" word means to do something again, then gaw- is used, eg. To reconvene ( = meet again)....gawyanuper If the sense of back is intended, than the prefix zoy- is used, eg. To return ( = come back)....zoyuper. Both prefixes are used in the expression Come back again!....Gawzoyupu!.

Until we meet again. is expressed by Ju van yat gawyanupo.

Expressing de-, dis-, un- with lo- edit

The prefix lo- reverses the semantics of a verb and is like English dis-, de-, or un-, eg.:
  • saxer....to build, constructlosaxer....to destroy, deconstruct
  • anxer....to uniteloanxer....to disunite
  • xer....to doloxer....to undo
Note the difference between o- and lo-.
  • odoparuwa....unarmed (= not armed)
  • lodoparuwa....disarmed (= from the verb lodoparuer....to disarm)

Expressing co- with yan- edit

The prefix yan-....together is used as the English co-, eg.:
  • exer....to operateyanexer....to cooperate
  • tamer....to dwellyantamer....to cohabit
  • napber....to put in orderyannapber....to coordinate

Making Verbs Completive with ik- edit

Verbs can be made completive by prefixing them with ik- (fully). Such verbs are comparable to phrasal verbs in English with up and other prepositions as in to eat up. Here are some examples in Mirad:
  • tojber....to killiktojber....to kill off, exterminate
  • telier....to eatiktelier....to eat up
  • ujber....to finishikujber....to finish off/up
  • gofler....to ripikgofler....to rip up
  • drer....to writeikdrer....to write down
  • byexer....to beatikbyexer....to beat up

Making Verbs Continuative with je- edit

Verbs can be given a continuative nuance with the addition of the prefix je-:
  • daler....to talkjedalar....to go on talking, to blabber
  • tejer....to livejetejer....to go on living, to survive
  • yexer....to workjeyexer....to go on working, to keep working
  • teaxer....to lookjeteaxer....to watch
  • teexer....to listenjeteexer....to keep listening, to pay attention
  • duler....to insistjeduler....to nag

Making Verbs Inchoative with ij- edit

Verbs can be given an inchoative nuance with the addition of the prefix ij-:
  • texer....to thinkijtexer....to start to think
  • ifier....to enjoyijifier....to start liking
  • tyer....to knowijtyer....to get to know

Making Verbs Terminative with uj- edit

Verbs can be given a terminative nuance with the addition of the prefix uj-:
  • telier....to eatujtelier....to finish eating
  • dyeer....to readujdyeer....to finish reading
  • ufteuder....to complainujufteuder....to quit carping

Giving Verbs a Nuance of Pleasure with if- edit

  • tyoper....to walkiftyoper....to stroll
  • tuyuxer....to fingeriftuyuxer....to tickle
  • teaxer....to lookifteaxer....to ogle (voyeuristically)
  • piper....to sailifpiper....to go cruising
  • teuder....to shoutifteuder....to laugh

Giving Verbs a Nuance of Displeasure with uf- edit

  • tosier....to feeluftosier....to get angry
  • eker....to playufeker....to fight
  • der....to sayufder....to express displeasure
  • aluer....to exhaleufaluer....to huff
  • daler....to talkufdaler....to rant

Giving Verbs a Nuance of Prohibition with of- edit

  • bier....to takeofbier....to steal
  • deler....to declareofdeler....to ban
  • yeper....to enterofyeper....to intrude, break in
  • zeyper....to crossofzeyper....to transgress, poach
  • gelxer....to copyofgelxer....to pirate, plagiarize
  • bekuluer....to administer medicineofbekuluer....to dope
  • nuxuer....to payofnuxuer....to bribe, pay off, suborn

Giving Verbs a Nuance of Holiness with fya- edit

  • bexler....to keepfyabexler....to enshrine
  • buer....to givefyabuer....to sacrifice
  • der....to sayfyader....to bless
  • daler....to speakfyadaler....to preach, sermonize
  • diler....to requestfyadiler....to pray
  • deuzer....to singfyadeuzer....to chant
  • ifrer....to love dearlyfyaifrer....to worship, adore
  • jader....to predictfyajader....to prophesy
  • miluer....to sprinklefyamiluer....to sprinkle with holy water
  • ojvader....to promisefyaojvader....to swear
  • xeler....to practicefyaxeler....to celebrate
  • koser....to hidefyakoser....to go on a retreat, go into hermitage
  • teazer....perform a showfyateazer....to perform a miracle

Giving Verbs a Nuance of Profanity with fyo- edit

  • der....to sayfyoder....to curse
  • diler....to requestfyodiler....to conjure
  • tyezer....to perform magicfyotezer....to engage in black magic
  • xer....to dofyoxer....to sin

Expressing Good Actions with fi- edit

  • der....to sayfider....to praise
  • fer....to wantfifer....to mean well
  • xer....to dofixer....to do well
  • yaker....to expectfiyaker....to hope
  • yuxer....to helpfiyuxer....to benefit

Expressing Bad Actions with fu- edit

  • yevder....to judgefuyevder....to critique negatively
  • fer....to wantfufer....to will ill
  • der....to sayfuder....to badmouth
  • napxer....to arrangefunapxer....to mess up
  • yuxer....to helpfuyuxer....to abuse

Expressing More Intense Actions with az- edit

  • yujber....to closeazyujber....to lock
  • der....to sayazder....to emphasize
  • duer....to suggestazduer....to urge
  • dizeuder....to laughazdizeuder....to guffaw

Expressing Less Intense Actions with oz- edit

  • der....to utterozder....to whisper
  • duer....to suggestozduer....to hint
  • dizeuder....to laughozdizeuder....to chuckle
  • uvteuder....to moanozuvteuder....to whimper
  • tyoper....to walkoztyoper....to limp

Expressing pre-, fore- with ja- edit

  • der....to telljader....to foretell, predict
  • teater....to seejateater....to foresee, preview
  • ter....to knowjater....to presage, have foreknowledge of
  • yever....to judgejayever....to prejudge
  • juder....to datejajuder....to antedate

Expressing post-, after- with jo- edit

  • juder....to datejojuder....to postdate
  • texer....to thinkjotexer....to reflect on, review
  • uvder....to express sadnessjouvder....to mourn, regret
  • ibler....to obtainjoibler....to inherit

Expressing excessively with gra- edit

  • telier....to eatgratelier....to overeat
  • fer....to wantgrafer....to covet
  • der....to saygrader....to exaggerate
  • daler....to talkgradaler....to yammer

Expressing inadequately with gro- edit

  • fyinder....to valuegrofyinder....to underestimate
  • mageler....to cookgromageler....to undercook
  • xaer....to performgroxaer....to underperform

Expressing counter-, contra- with ov- or oyv- edit

  • axler....to actovaxler....to counteract
  • apyexer....to attackovapyexer....to counterattack
  • daler....to speakovdaler....to oppose
  • der....to sayoyvder....to contradict
  • ber....to putoyvber....to reverse, overturn
  • texer....to thinkoyvtexer....to contest, disagree
  • per....to gooyvper....to contravene

Expressing on behalf, for with av- edit

  • axler....to actavaxler....to act on behalf of
  • daler....to speakavdaler....to advocate, speak on behalf of

Making Verbs Reflexive with ut- (self-, auto-) edit

  • tojber....to killuttojber....to commit suicide
  • vyovider....to flatterutvyovider....to flatter oneself
  • zaypuxwer....to be propelledutzaypuxwer....to be self-propelled
  • fider....to praiseutfider....to brag
  • gober....to decrementutgober....to autodecrement

Making Verbs Reciprocal with hyuit- (one another) edit

  • tojber....to killhyuittojber....to kill one another
  • ifer....to lovehyuitifer....to love one another

Expressing inter-, intra- with eb- (between) edit

  • tadier....to marryebtadier....to intermarry
  • zyaber....to spreadebzyaber....to intersperse
  • vyexer....to relateebvyexer....to interrelate

Expressing the Opposite of an Action with o- (un-) edit

  • bexler....to keepobexler....to release, let go of
  • aynser....to integrateoaynser....to disintegrate, to decay
  • beler....to carryobeler....to drop
  • bier....to takeobier....to leave, relinquish
  • boser....to be quietoboser....to be upset
  • drer....to writeodrer....to erase
Note: If the base verb already begins with the negative prefix o-, then the prefix is changed to ol-, eg. obexler....to releaseolobexwa....to unreleased

Expressing a Public or Official Action with do- edit

Do- is a stub for dot (society).
  • afder....to allowdoafder....to authorize
  • bier....to takedobier....to conquer, take over, take control of
  • tojber....to killdotojber....to execute
  • buer....to givedobuer....to dedicate
  • daler....to speakdodaler....to orate, speak in public
  • deler....to declaredodeler....to announce
  • drer....to writedodrer....to publicize, report

Giving Verbs a Nuance of Truth with vya- edit

  • der....to sayvyader....to avow, be frank
  • ber....to set, putvyaber....to control
  • napxer...to arrange, ordervyanapxer....to adjust
  • kexer....to seekvyakexer....to investiage
  • tuer....to informvyatuer....to advise

Giving Verbs of Nuance of Falseness with vyo- edit

  • der....to sayvyoder....to lie, to misstate
  • tester....to understandvyotester....to misunderstand
  • tuer....to informvyotuer....to misinform, to deceive
  • xer....to dovyoxer....to do wrong, fail, misdo
  • yuxler....to servevyoyuxler....to betray, to serve unfaithfully

Making Verbs Positive with va- edit

  • der....to sayvader....to affirm
  • texer....to thinkvatexer....to believe
  • yeker....to expectvayeker....to presume
  • bier.....to takevabier....to accept

Making Verbs Negative with vo- edit

  • der....to sayvoder....to deny
  • texer....to thinkvotexer....to doubt
  • yeker....to expectvoyeker....to rule out
  • bier.....to takevobier....to reject

Making Verbs Suppositional with ve- edit

  • der....to sayveder....to conjecture
  • texer....to thinkvetexer....to suppose, hypothesize
  • yovder....to blameveyovder....to indict, accuse

Speeding up Verbs with ig- edit

  • pier....to leaveigpier....to flee
  • pyoser....to dropigpyoser....to plummet
  • tyoper....to walkigtyoper....to run
  • yeper....to enterigyeper....to rush in

Slowing up Verbs with ug- edit

  • paser....to moveugpaser....to amble
  • teaxer....to lookugteaxer....to gaze
  • ilper....to flowugilper....to trickle
  • tilier....to drinkugtilier....to sip

Expressing the Nuance of Suddenness with yok- edit

  • baxer....to stiryokbaxer....to startle
  • hihider....to laughyokhihider....to burst out laughing
  • teaser....to appearyokteaser....to suddenly appear
  • yoktojer....to dieyoktojer....to drop dead

Expressing the Notion of Fixedness with kyo- edit

  • byaser....to standkyobyaser....to stand still
  • kexer....to seekkyokexer....to hound, stalk
  • teaxer....to lookkyoteaxer....to stare, glare
  • texer....to thinkkyotexer....to obsess with, fixate on

Expression the Notion of Randomness with kye- edit

  • der....to saykyeder....to guess, divine
  • per....to perkyeper....to fluctuate
  • poper....to travelkyepoper....to wander
  • napxer....to orderkyenapxer....to scramble
  • bier....to takekyebier....to select

Expressing the Notion of Change with kya- edit

  • baser....to make a movekyabaser....to shift
  • sanxer....to formkyasanxer....to transform
  • xer....to do/makekyaxer....to change
  • napxer....to orderkyanapxer....to shuffle
  • dyanxer....to phrasekyadyanxer....to paraphrase

Expressing Covert Actions with ko- edit

  • ber....to putkober....to hide
  • beler....to carrykobeler....to smuggle
  • bier....to takekobier....to steal
  • ebkyaxer....to exchangekoebkyaxer....to traffic
  • exer....to operatekoexer....to spy, operate under cover
  • fler....to wish forkofler....to covet, be jealous of
  • apyexer....to attackkoapyexer....to ambush, to sneak-attack
  • loexer....to destroykoloexer....to sabotage

Expressing Actions with Intentionality with ke- edit

  • teaxer....to lookketeaxer....to scan
  • vyaxer....to provekevyaxer....to experiment
  • tier....to learnketier....to be interested in

Expressing Lateral Actions with ku- edit

  • buxer....to pushkubuxer....to rebuff, shun
  • der....to saykuder....to comment, remark
  • tyoper....to stepkutyoper....to step aside

Expressing Near Actions with yub- edit

  • der....to sayyubder....to intimate, hint
  • gexer....to equateyubgexer....to approximate
  • bixer....to pullyu(b)bixer....to attract, draw near
  • teaxer....to lookyubteaxer....to scrutinize, examine

Expressing Distance Actions with yib- (far, tele-) edit

  • drer....to writeyibdrer....to wire, telegraph
  • bixer....to pullyi(b)bixer....to distract
  • tuier....to communicateyibtuier....to telecommunicate
  • nyuxer....to deliveryibnyuxer....to mail, post

Expressing up-, super- with yab- edit

  • ber....to putya(b)ber....to raise, to put up
  • bixler....to dragya(b)bixler....to dredge up
  • uper....to comeyabuper....to come up
  • nogyanxer....to scaleyabnogyanxer....to scale up, escalate

Expressing down-, sub- with yob- edit

  • ber....to putyo(b)ber....to lower, put down
  • kyaber....to shiftyobkyaxer....to downshift
  • musper....to climbyobmusper....to climb down
  • nogyanxer....to scaleyobnogyanxer....to downscale

Expressing in- with yeb- edit

  • ber....to putye(b)ber....to insert, put in
  • beler....to carryye(b)beler....to import
  • uzber....to bendyebuzber....to inflect
  • yujber....to closeyebyujber....to enclose, include

Expressing out-, ex-, extra- with oyeb- edit

  • ber....to putoye(b)ber....to put out, expose
  • beler....to carryoye(b)beler....to export
  • uber....to sendoyebuber....to emit, send out
  • yujber....to closeoyebyujber....to exclude

Expressing pro-, forward with zay- edit

  • ber....to putzayber....to advance, put forward
  • kexer....to seekzaykexer....to scout out
  • puxer....to throwzaypuxer....to propel, thrust
  • tyoper....to walkzaytyoper....to progress, to walk forward

Expressing back-, retro-, re- with zoy- edit

  • uber....to sendzoyber....to send back
  • kixer....to bendzoykixer....to reflect
  • puxer....to throwzoypuxer....to repel
  • neadper....to trackzoyneadper....to backtrack

Expressing across, trans-, over-, cross- with zey- edit

  • per....to gozeyper....to cross, transit
  • beler....to carryzeybeler....to transport, convey
  • drer....to writezeydrer....to transcribe
  • kyober....to fixzeykyober....to transfix, transplant
  • vyayeker....to checkzeyvyayeker....to crosscheck

Expressing through, per- with zye- edit

  • per....to gozyeper....to permeate, get through
  • kexer....to seekzyekexer....to rummage, sift through
  • drer....to writezyedrer....to cross out, draw a line through
  • iluer....to pourzyeiluer....to soak
  • koper....to sneakzyekoper....to sneak through

Expressing all over, widely, all about with zya- edit

  • ber....to putzyaber....to spread
  • buer....to givezyabuer....to distribute
  • ijber....to openzyaijber....to open wide
  • nuxer....to payzyanuxer....to disburse
  • puxer....to throwzyapuxer....to scatter, cast about

Expressing mid-, center with ze- edit

  • ber....to putzeber....to balance
  • byaser....to standzebyaser....to straddle
  • der....to sayzeder....to interject
  • pyoser....to fallzepyoser....to sag
  • poxer....to stopzepoxer....to interrupt

Expressing futurity with oj- edit

  • ber....to putojber....to put off, postpone
  • bier....to takeojbier....to borrow
  • fer....to wantojfer....to wish, aspire
  • texer....to thinkojtexer....to plan
  • teater....to seeojteater....to envision
  • vader....to affirmojvader....to promise

Expressing past with aj- edit

  • ber....to putajber....to pass, relegate to the past
  • der....to sayajder....to evoke, hearken, recount
  • embier....to occupyajembier....to haunt
  • texer....to thinkajtexer....to reminisce, to reflect
  • uvtosder....to express sadnessajuvtosder....to apologize
  • nexer....to storeajnexer....to archive

Expressing present with ej- edit

  • buer....to giveejbuer....to present
  • eser....to existejeser....to attend, to be present
  • nuxer....to payejnuxer....to pay cash
  • tuer....to informejtuer....to update
  • uvtosder....to express sadnessejuvtosder....to apologize

Expressing a stretched out action with yag- (long) edit

  • beser....to stayyagbeser....to linger
  • bexer....to holdyagbexer....to conserve, preserve
  • daler....to talkyagdaler....to ramble
  • dodaler....to orateyagdodaler....to harangue
  • fer....to wantyagfer....to yearn, pine
  • teaxer....to lookyagteaxer....to stare
  • fer....to wantyagfer....to yearn, pine

Expressing a brief action with yog- (short) edit

  • drer....to writeyogdrer....to abbreviate
  • teaxer....to lookyogteaxer....to glance at
  • tujer....to sleepyogtujer....to snooze, nap
  • gobler....to cutyoggobler....to cut short, truncate

Some Hybrid Prefixes edit

The prefix kui- is a hybrid of ku- (lateral) and ki- (diagonal)

  • per....to gokuiper....to wobble
  • tyoper....to walkkuityoper....to limp

The prefix zao- is a truncated hybrid of zay- (forward) and zoy- (backwards), eg:

  • baser....to movezaobaser....to rock
  • per....to gozaoper....to alternate
  • beler....to carrykuibeler....to shuttle, ferry
  • pyoser....to fallkuipyoser....to pendulate

The prefix yaob- is a hybrid of yab- (up) and yob- (down). The final b- is assimilated or dropped before a b or p.

  • baser....to moveyaobaser....to bob
  • per....to goyaoper....to heave
  • beler....to carryyaobeler....to shuttle, ferry
  • peper....to rideyaopeper....to jounce
  • puser....to jumpyaopuser....to hop, bounce

The prefix bui- is a hybrid of bu- (to) and bi- (from), eg:

  • drer....to writebuidrer....to correspond
  • -er....to xbuier....to trade
  • beler....to carrybuibeler....to shuttle, ferry
  • xer....to dobuixer....to push and pull, spring
  • poper....to travelbuipoper....to travel to and fro, travel round trip

The prefix uiz- is a hybrid of uz- (crooked) and iz- (straight), eg:

  • drer....to writeuizdrer....to squiggle
  • der....to sayuizder....to equivocate
  • baser....to moveuizbaser....to wiggle, to squirm
  • per....to gouizper....to careen, reel
  • paser....to moveuizpaser....to swerve, yaw

The prefix zui- is a hybrid of zu- (left) and zi- (right), eg:

  • drer....to writeuizdrer....to squiggle
  • buxer....to pushzuibuxer....to push around
  • baser....to movezuibaser....to sway, totter
  • per....to gozuiper....to zigzag
  • pasler....to shakezuipasler....to wobble

The prefix aoyeb- is a hybrid of (a)yeb- (in) and oyeb- (out), eg:

  • ber....to putaoyeber....to insert and extract
  • tiexer....to breatheaoyetiexer....to breath in and out
  • paper....to flyaoyepaper....to fly in and out

The prefix aob- is a hybrid of ab- (on) and ob- (off), eg:

  • ber....to putaober....to put on and off
  • per....to goaoper....to get on and off, embark and disembark

The prefix vao- is a hybrid of va- (yes) and vo- (no), eg:

  • der....to sayvaoder....to decide
  • daler....to talkvaodaler....to waffle
  • duder....to answervaoduder....to answer yes or no
  • kyaxer....to changevaokyaxer....to redact
  • texer....to thinkvaotexer....to deliberate, vacillate

The prefix uij is a hybrid of uj- (end) and ij- (begin)

  • ber....to putuijber....to switch off and on
  • daler....to talkuijdaler....to stutter

The prefix yuij is a hybrid of yuj- (close) and yij- (open)

  • ber....to putyuijber....to open and close, blink

The prefix huim is a hybrid of hum (there) and him (there)

  • paper....to flyhuimpaper....to fly here and yon
  • per....to gohuimper....to wander
  • kexer....to seekhuimkexer....to search high and low

Different Nuances of teaxer with Prefixes edit

  • teaxer....to look, behold, regard
  • aybteaxer....to supervise, look over
  • ajteaxer....to look back on (retrospect)
  • eynteaxer....to squint
  • fizteaxer....to respect
  • fuzteaxer....to disrespect
  • gawteaxer....to review, re-look
  • hyuitteaxer....to look at one another
  • ibteaxer....to ignore
  • igteaxer....to glance, glimpse
  • ifteaxer....to marvel at
  • izteaxer....to view directly, confront, aim
  • jateaxer....to preview
  • jeteaxer....to watch, observe
  • joteaxer....to review
  • kateaxer....to look for
  • keteaxer....to scan
  • kiteaxer....to look askance
  • koteaxer....to peek, spy
  • kozyeteaxer....to peep
  • kozyoteaxer....to peer
  • kuteaxer....to observe
  • kyeteaxer....to browse
  • kyoteaxer....to stare, glare
  • oteaxer....to ignore, overlook
  • ufteaxer....to glare, leer
  • ugteaxer....to gaze
  • yagteaxer....to gape, gawk
  • yebteaxer....to inspect
  • yibteaxer....to view from afar
  • yogteaxer....to glance at
  • yokteaxer....to get a glimpse of
  • yubteaxer....to examine
  • yuibteaxer....to look near and far
  • yuzteaxer....to look around, circumspect
  • yanteaxer....to view together
  • yizteaxer....to look beyond, overlook
  • vyateaxer....to investigate, check out
  • vyoteaxer....to view wrongly
  • zateaxer....to face, confront
  • zayteaxer....to look ahead, expect
  • zoyteaxer....to look back
  • zeyteaxer....to look across
  • ziteaxer....to look to the right
  • zuteaxer....to look to the left
  • zuiteaxer....to look right and left
  • zyateaxer....to look all over, survey
  • zyeteaxer....to look through, peruse
  • zyoteaxer....to squint
  • yobteaxer....to look down
  • yaobteaxer....to look up and down
  • zaoteaxer....to look back and forth
  • yabteaxer....to look up
  • yubketeaxer....to pry
  • uzteaxer....to look indirectly at
  • oyebteaxer....to look out
  • ojteaxer....to peer into the future
  • marteaxer....to star-gaze
  • tabteaxer....to autopsy

Modal Verbs edit

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are usually followed by the main verb in the infinitive or a subjunctive dependent clause and have to do with wanting, permitting, prohibiting, being able, being unable, needing, being obliged to do something, etc.

Principal Modal Auxiliary Verbs edit

 
Mirad has a set of modal auxiliary verbs that can be followed by a main verb in the infinitive mode. This is very much like Enlish modal auxiliary verbs in the following examples:
  • I want to go.
  • You must wait.
  • You may stay.
  • I dare say.
Here is a chart showing the main modal auxiliary verbs in Mirad:
Principle Modal Auxiliary Verbs
TYPE POSITIVE NEGATIVE
Permission afer....may
ayfer....might
ofer....may not
oyfer....might not
Ability yafer....can yofer....cannot
Need efer....need to
Obligation yefer....must
yeyfer....should
oyefer....must not
oyeyfer....should not
Desire fer....want to
Enjoyment ifer....love to, enjoy
iyfer....like to
ufer....hate to
uyfer....dislike to
Courage yifer....dare to yufer....be afraid to, fear
Liberty yiver....have a right to, be free to yuver....be bound to, be supposed to
Expectation yaker....expect to yoker....be surprised to
Conation yeker....try to
These modal auxiliary verbs are often followed by a verbal infinitive, as in the following examples:
  • At fe ter.....I want to know.
  • Wit yifa yeper.....He dared to enter.
  • Yat yafe teater yet.....We can see you.
  • Duven et yaka aker?....Did you expect to win?
  • Diwe yeku xer ga fi.....Please try to do better.
If the modal verb is in the hypothetical aspect (conditional), then the sense is somewhat mitigated, as in these examples:
  • At fe per.....I want to go.
  • At fu per.....I would like to go.
  • Et yafe aker.....You can win.
  • Et yafu aker.....You could win.
  • Yet yefe iper.....You must leave.
  • Yet yefu iper.....You ought to leave.
Post-y-gliding the stem vowel of the modal verb also reduces the strength, for example:
  • At ife et. ....I love you.
  • At iyfe et. ....I like you.
  • Et yefe iper.....You must leave.
  • Et yeyfe iper.....You should leave.
  • Iyt yafe aker.....She can win.
  • Iyt yayfe aker.....She might win.
  • At ufa uda tuz.....I hated that art.
  • At uyfa uda tuz.....I disliked that art.
The use of l and r intensify the meaning of the auxiliary verbs, eg:
  • Et yuve puer jwe.....You are supposed to arrive on time.
  • Et yuvle tepzexer.....You have to pay attention.
  • Et yuvre buer nas.....You absolutely must give money.
  • At yeka ser yeva.....I tried to be fair.
  • At yekla ujber jwa.....I strove to finish early.
  • At yekra nixer ga nas.....I struggled (= worked hard)) to earn more money.
  • Iyt ife eker zyun.....She loves to play ball.
  • Iyt ifla teater et.....She was delighted to see you.
  • Iyt ifre teaper him.....She adores visiting here.
Here are some examples showing how these modal verbs are used as auxiliaries:
  • Et afe oyeper ay ifeker.....You may go out and play.
  • Yat efa tujer.....We needed to sleep.
  • Ot ofe mavier him.....One is prohibited to smoke here.
  • Mavier him ofwe.....Smoking here is prohibited.
  • At ife dyeer.....I love to read.
  • Duven et fe yeper?....Do you want to come in?
  • At fu teaper et edjub.....I would like to visit you some day.
  • It ufaye hyaj teaxwer.....He has always hated being looked at.
  • Duven et iyfe per tilami?....Do you like going to bars?
  • At uyfe tijer gra jwa.....I dislike waking up too early.
  • Et yafe xer hyehos et fu.....You can do whatever you like.
  • Et yefer xer ad vyaas.....You must do the right thing.
  • Et yeyfe voy daler huuyen azay.....You should not talk so loud.
  • At yeyfa ter ga fi.....I should have known better.
  • At voy yifu der hyea fuas.....I would not dare say anything bad.
  • Von yufu der hos et tesde.....Don't be afraid to say what you mean.
  • Et yive dier yevanavdut.....You have a right to ask for a lawyer.
  • Yat voy yuvle kyoejer.....We are not bound to stick around.

Subject-oriented vs. Patient-oriented Modal Verb Forms edit

All of these modal verbs can be passive, in which case they are "patient-oriented" rather than "subject-oriented." The participial adjective yafa....able is subject-oriented and refers to a person, whereas the passived adjective yafwa....possible is patient-oriented and refers to a thing or event. Here is a chart of the principal modal verbs and corresponding participial adjectives with this subject/object-orientation distinction shown:
Subject-oriented vs. Patient-oriented Modal Verb Forms
MODAL TYPE SUBJECT-ORIENTED SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED
VERB ADJECTIVE VERB ADJECTIVE
Permission afer
may
afa
allowed
afwer
be permitted
afwa
permissable
Necessity efer
need
efa
needful
efwer
be necessary
efwa
necessary, required
Prohibition ofer
be unallowed
ofa
prohibited
ofwer
be prohibited
ofwa
banned
Possibility yafer
be able
yafa
able
yafwer
be possible
yafwa
possible
Obligation yefer
must
yefa
obliged
yefwer
be obligatory
yefwa
obligatory
Duty yeyfer
should
yeyfa
supposed, duty-bound
yeyfwer
be supposed
yeyfwa
due
Impossibility yofer
be unable
yofa
unable
yofwer
be impossible
yofwa
impossible
Volition fer
want
fa
desirous
fwer
be desirable
fwa
desirable, wanted
Love ifer
love
iyfer
like
ifa
enamored
iyfa
fond
ifwer
be loved
iyfwer
be liked
ifwa
lovable
iyfwa
likeable
Hate ufer
hate
uyfer
dislike
ufa
averse
uyfa
displeased
ufwer
be hated
uyfwer
be disliked
ufwa
odious
unliked
Courage yifer
dare
yifa
daring, brave
yifwer
be safe
yifwa
safe
Fear yufer
be afraid
yufa
afraid
yufwer
be a danger
yufwa
frightening
Joy iver
enjoy
iva
glad
ivwer
be a joy
ivwa
enjoyable
Sorrow uver
be sorry
uva
sorry, sad
uvwer
be a shame
uvwa
regrettable
Examples of subject-oriented forms:
  • At se yafa xer hes.....I am capable of doing anything.
  • Et ofe teater hia dyezun.....You are not allowed/are prohibited to see this film.
  • Duven at afe per hum?....Am I allowed to go there?
  • Yat fu ter eta dyun.....We would like to know your name.
  • Piti ufe beser be mel.....Fish hate to remain on dry land.
  • At ajay ifa dazer.....I once loved to dance.
  • Et se iva, at yife der.....You are beautiful, I dare say.
  • At yeyfa xer has ga ig.....I should have done it sooner.
  • Von yufu; At yupeye.....Fear not; I am coming.
  • Et yefe puer ja eymaj.....You must arrive before noon.
  • Yet yofe daler je ha dezun.....You people must not talk during the performance.
  • Yat yeyfe (= se yeyfa) aker.....We should (= are bound/supposed/due) to win.
  • At ive teater et bakser.....I'm glad to see you get better.
  • Su iva.....Be happy.
  • At uvu (= su uva) teater et iper.....I would be sad to see you leave.
Examples of patient-oriented forms:
  • Afwe (= se afwa) mavier him.....It is permissible to smoke here.
  • Ofwe (= se ofwa*) puxer fyumul him.....It is prohibited to throw litter here.
  • Fwe (= se fwa) van yet dolu.....It is desired that you stop talking.
  • Voy yafwe beser him gajob.....It is not possible to remain here any longer.
  • Yofwa av at ivteuder.....It was not possible for me to laugh.
  • Yefwe van et piu ig.....It is essential that you leave quickly.
  • He yeyfwe ober ata tyoyafi?....Is it obligatory to remove my shoes?
  • Ga yux efwo.....More help will be needed.
  • Yuxren se ufwa xetyen.....Slavery is an odious practice.
  • Uvwe van wit oka.....It's a shame that he lost.
*lofwa is used for unwanted for disambiguation purposes.

Deriving Causatives from Modal Stems edit

Various causative verbs can be formed from modal stems, as shown in the chart below:
Deriving Causatives from Modal Stems
SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED
afxer....allow (someone to do sthg.) afwaxer....permit (something to be done)
efxer....require efwaxer....necessitate
ofxer....prohibit ofwaxer....prohibit
yafxer....enable yafwaxer....make possible
yefxer....oblige yefwaxer....make obligatory
yofxer....cripple yofwaxer....disable
yifxer....embolden yifwaxer....make safe
yufxer....intimidate yufwaxer....make frightening
ifxer....please ifwaxer....make pleasant

Creating Modal Verbs and Adjectives with Modal Stem Suffixes edit

Verb stems can be suffixed with modal participles to produce related modal verbs and adjectives. The first chart shows the modal participles themselves that can be suffixed to verb stems. Subject-oriented forms refer only to people, while patient-oriented forms (ending in -wa) refer only to things.
Modal Suffixes
Subject-oriented Patient-oriented
-yafa....able to X, -able -yafwa....possible to X
-yofa....unable to X -yofwa....impossible to X
-ifa....fond of Xing, Xophile -ifwa....enjoyable to X
-ufa....averse to Xing, Xophobic -ufwa....unenjoyable to X
-yika....hard of Xing -yikwa....hard to X
-yuka....comfortable/easy Xing -yukwa....easy to X
-yaka....expecting to X yakwa....expected/likely to X
-efa....in need of Xing -efwa....necessary to X
-yefa....obliged to X -yefwa....obligatory/due to X
-yufa....afraid of Xing -yufwa....frightening to X
This table shows some of these modal suffixes applied to actual verb and noun stems:
Modals and Orientation
ORIENTATION POSITIVE ADJECTIVE POSITIVE VERB NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE NEGATIVE VERB
Subject teatyafa
able to see, sighted
teatyafer
be able to see
teatyofa
blind
teatyofer
be blind
Patient teatyafwa
visible
teatyafwer
be visible
teatyofwa
invisible
teatyofwer
be invisible
Subject teetyafa
able to hear, hearing
teetyafer
be able to hear
teetyofa
deaf
teatyofer
be deaf
Patient teetyafwa
audible
teetyafwer
be audible
teeyofwa
inaudible
teeyofwer
be inaudiable
Subject dalyafa
able to speak
dalyafer
be able to speak
dalyofa
mute, dumb
dalyofer
be mute, dumb
Subject doabifa
patriotic
doabifer
be patriotic
doabufa
rebellious
doabufer
rebel
Subject tosyafa
sensitive
tosyafer
be able to feel
tosyofa
insensitive
tosyofer
be numbed
Patient tayotyafwa
palpable
tayotyafwer
be palpable
tayotyofwa
numb
tayotyofwer
be impalbable, numb
Patient testyukwa
easy to understand
testyukwaxer
make easily understood
testyikwa
hard to understand
testyikwaxer
make hard to understand
Subject tudyaka
pregnant, expecting
tudyaker
be expecting
Patient mamilyakwa
likely to rain
mamilyakwer
to be expected to rain
mamilyokwa
unlikely to rain
mamilyokwer
to be unlikely to rain
Subject tilefa
thirsty
tilefer
be thirsty
Subject telefa
hungry
telefer
be hungry
Patient tejefwa
vital
tejefwer
be vital
Subject tujefa
sleepy
tujefer
be sleepy
Subject nasefa
poor, needy
nasefer
be needy
Subject dudyefa
accountable, responsible
dudyefer
be responsible
Patient texiyefwa
noteworthy
texiyefwer
be noteworthy

Sensing Verbs edit

Verbs involving the senses, such as sight or hearing, follow a similar pattern, as the following chart shows:
Sensing Verbs
TYPE teab....eye
teata....visual
teeb....ear
teeta....audial
teib....nose
teita....olfactory
teub....mouth
teuta....gustatory
tayob....skin
tayota....tactile
Receptive
Active
teater
see
teeter
hear
teiter
smell
teuter
taste
tayoter
feel
Receptive
Passive
teatwer
be seen
teetwer
be heard
teitwer
be smelled
teutwer
be tasted
tayotwer
be felt
Stative teaser
seem
teeser
sound
teiser
smell
teuser
taste
tayoser
feel
Dynamic
Active
teaxer
look at
teexer
listen
teixer
sniff
teuxer
taste
tayoxer
touch
Dynamic
Passive
teaxwer
be looked at
teexwer
be listened to
teixwer
be sniffed
teuxwer
be tasted
tayoxwer
be touched
Causative
Active
teatuer
show
teetuer
make hear
teixuer
make smell
teuxuer
offer a taste
tayoxuer
make feel
Causative
Passive
teatuwer
be shown
teetuwer
be made to hear
teituwer
be made to smell
teutuwer
be given a taste
tayotuwer
be made to feel
Inchoative
Active
teatier
perceive,
catch sight of
teetier
catch the
sound of
teitier
get a whiff of
teutuer
get a taste of
tayotier
get the sensation of
Inchoative
Passive
teatiwer
be perceived
teetiwer
be heard
teitiwer
be whiffed
teutiwer
be tasted
tayotiwer
be felt
Negative-Modal
Patient-oriented
Stative
teatyofer
be blind
teetyofer
be deaf
teityofer
be unable to smell
teityofer
be unable to taste
tayotyofer
be insensitive
Negative-Modal
Patient-oriented
Stative
teatyofwer
be invisible
teetyofwer
be inaudible
teityofwer
be undetectable
odorwise
teityofwer
be insipid
tayotyofwer
be undetectable
by touch
Negative-Modal
Patient-oriented
Causative
teatyofxer
blind
teetyofxer
deafen
teityofxer
desensitize
to smell
teutyofxer
desensitize to
taste
tayotyofxer
desensitize
Negative-Modal
Patient-oriented
Causative
teatyofwaxer
make invisible
teetyofwaxer
make inaudible
teityofwaxer
make odorless
teutyofwaxer
render tasteless
tayotyofwaxer
numb
Examples of usage:
  • At teatyofxwa bey ha mani.....I was blinded by the lights.
  • Ha xeus sa teetyofxyea.....The noise was deafening.
  • Hia tit se gla teatiyafa.....This pupil is very perceptive.
  • Hua bekil se teityofwa.....That medicine is odorless (impossible to smell).
  • Teatyofwaxu ha vyuni.....Make the spots invisible.
  • Ha magmeb yonprex tayotyafwa zya ha mir.....The volcano eruption could be felt throughout the world.

Frequentative Verbs edit

Frequentative verbs or repetitive action verbs can be formed with the infix -eg- placed between the verb stem and verb ending, eg.:
Frequentative Verbs
NORMAL FREQUENTATIVE
pyaser....jump pyaseger....bounce
paper....fly papeger....flitter
kobirer....steal kobireger....pilfer
braser....shake braseger....vibrate
brasea....shaking brasegea....vibrating

Hybridized Verbs edit

Verbs that involve motion directions that change back and forth can be formed by hybridizing the stem vowel or the vowel of the vectorial prefix. Here are some examples:
Frequentative Verbs
FIRST DIRECTION SECOND DIRECTION HYBRIDIZED DIRECTION
pyaser....jump pyoser....fall pyaoser....bounce, undulate
buer....give bier....take buier....exchange
nuer....furnish nier....consume nuier....trade
tuer....inform tier....learn tuier....communicate
yaper....ascend yoper....descend yaoper....go up and down
zayper....go forward zoyper....go back zaoper....vacillate
vader....affirm voder....deny vaoder....decide
yijber....open yujber....close uijber....valve
baser....stir boser....be still baoser....vibrate

Expressing Habitual Actions and States edit

Mirad uses the term gel jubyen (as a habit) to express a verb reflecting habitual action, eg:
  • At tijeya be yiwa jwobi gel jubyen.....I used to wake up at 9 o'clock. (Lit. I was waking up at 9 o'clock as a habit.).
The term hyujod....one another occasion (or be aj....in the past) is use to express once (upon a time), eg:
  • At sa tuxut hyujod (~ be aj) sa tuxut. ....I once was a teacher.
The term vyabxelay (routinely) can also be used, eg:
  • Yat eke duz yuz bi ha doym vyabxelay.....We play music around town routinely.

Expressing an Immediate Past edit

To express an immediate past, such as in the sentence "We have just gotten married.", Mirad uses the adverb ejnay (newly) much like the word just in English:
  • Yat tadsaye ejnay.....We have just gotten married.
  • Ejnay tadxwa.....Just married.
  • Wit dokebiwa ejnay.....He was just elected.
  • At ujbaya yex ejnay hoj iyt yebupa.....I had just finished work when she came in.

Verb Predicate Types edit

Mirad verb predicates can be classified as follows:
  • Voice
  • Active (The subject is the doer of the action)
  • Passive (The subject is the receiver of the action)
  • Middle (The subject is both the agent and patient)
  • Reflexive (The subject is also the patient.)
  • Reciprocal (Plural subjects interact.)
  • Stativity
  • Stative (Does not involve action)
  • Dynamic (Action is involved)
  • Valency
  • Impersonal (There is no subject)
  • Transitive (There is an object)
  • Intransitive (There is no object)
  • Auto-transitive (The subject is a patient and there is no agent)
  • Anti-transitive (There is the patient but an agent is assumed)
  • Causative (Subject causes an action to be performed)
  • Copula (X is Y)
  • Other
  • Modal (can, must, should, wants to...)
  • Auxiliary (help to, hope to, prepare to + verb)
  • Motion (run, go, ride...)
  • Communication (say, answer, claim that...)
  • Gesture (put, shake, hit...)
  • State/Stative (be, become, live, be born...)
  • Action/Dynamic (do, act, make)
Verb Predicate Types
VOICE STATIVITY VALENCY EXAMPLE
active stative impersonal, -agent, -object Mamilo zajub.....It will rain tomorrow.
active stative impersonal, -agent, +complement Sa gla oma.....It was very cold.
active stative impersonal, +subject Ese het be ha mes.....There is someone at the door.
active stative copula, subject + noun/adjective complement Et se ata twud.....You are my son.
At aseye epyextipa.....I am becoming angry.
middle stative auto-transitive, +subject=patient -agent -object Iyt toja.....She died
middle stative auto-transitive, +subject=patient +agent -object Ha mes yija.....The door opened.
active stative intransitive, +subject -object Et bokso.....You will get sick.
active stative transitive, sense, +subject +object At teate et.....I see you.
active stative transitive, modal, +subject +verb complement At fe per.....I want to go.
active stative intransitive, subject-oriented modal, -subject +verb complement Yofwe teater.....It is impossible to see.
passive stative patient-oriented modal, +subject Mamil yakwe.....Rain is expected.
middle dynamic anti-transitive, +subject=patient +agent -object Ha mes yijpa.....The door came open.
active dynamic intransitive, +subject -object Ha fab pyosa.....The tree fell.
active dynamic transitive, +subject +-object Yit pyoxa ha fab.....They felled the tree.
passive dynamic intransitive, +subject, -object Ha fabi pyoxwa.....The trees were felled.
active dynamic transitive, +subject, +object Obu eta tef.....Take your hat off.
active dynamic ditransitive, +subject, +object +object Von et buu iyt ha nas.....Don't give her the money.
active dynamic transitive, motion, +subject, +destination/origin Yupu ha mees.....Approach the bench.
Pu tam!....Go home! (you implied)
active dynamic causative, +subject +object, +agent At tayegobluxo Jon.....I will get my hair cut by John.
passive dynamic causative, +subject +object, +agent At tayegobluxwo.....I will get my hair cut.
active dynamic auxiliary, ditransitive, +patient +verb object Yuxu at xer his.....Help me do this.
passive dynamic auxiliary, ditransitive, +patient +verb object At tuxwa eker duz.....I was taught to play music.
middle dynamic reflexive, +subject = patient, -object Iyt uttojba.....She killed herself.
active dynamic reciprocal, +subjects = patients Yit voy hyuitdale gaj.....They don't talk to one another anymore.


Prepositions are words that connect and show a relationship between a noun or noun phrase and the rest of the sentence. In Mirad, prepositions are simple monosyllables or phrases. Prepositions, as in English, are positioned before the noun or noun phrase they connect.


Simple Prepositions edit

 
In Mirad, there are single-word and multi-word prepositions. Single-word prepositions are called simple propositions.
Here is a chart of simple prepositions. Most are spatial, but some are temporal, relational, or mathematical.
Simple Prepositions
POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE
SPATIAL
ab....on, upon eb....between ob....off, off of
ayb....over, above eyb....among, amid oyb....under, below
bu....to be....at bi....from, of
byu....as far as, up to bey....by, via byi....since, starting with
ub....toward   ib....away from
za....in front of ze....at the middle of zo....behind, in back of
zya....throughout zye....through
zu....(to the) left (of) zey....across zi....(to the) right (of)
TEMPORAL
ja....before je....during, while jo....after
lojo....no later than, by
ju....until   ji....since
RELATIONAL
bay....with bey....by, via, with boy....without
av....for vyel....than, as, compared to, about ov....against
ayv....about oyv....despite
ay....and ey....or
oey....nor
oy....but, except
MATHEMATICAL
ge....equal to oge....unequal to
gab....plus, + gaob....plus or minus gob....minus, -
gal....times, × gel....like
ogel....unlike
gol....divided by, ÷
gar....to the power of, ˆ gor....to the root of,
The most versatile and useful preposition is be, which means at as a general locative when used literally, but is used before many nouns and noun phrases when the meaning is idiomatic. Some examples follow:
  • Yat se be tam.....We are at home. (literal, general locative)
  • Yat se be dropek.....We are at war. (idiomatic)
  • At teata et be yibsin.....I saw you on television. (idiomatic)
  • Be Ejna York ese mamyabtomi.....In New York, there are skyscrapers. (general locative)
The preposition bi can mean of or from. Here are some examples:
  • Hus se tam bi ifron.....That is a house of worship.
  • At tyopa bi ha nam bu ata pur.....I walked from the store to my car.
  • Bi him bu hyatob.....From here to eternity.
  • Ha tajnem bi Tom se him.....Tom's birthplace is here.
  • His sa ha gwaifwa tuzun bi eta teyd.....This was your mother's favorite piece of art.
As you can see above, bi is used to form the possessive form of nouns and names.
Examples showing how single-word prepositions are used:
  • Ha dyes se ab ha sem.....The book is on the table.
  • Von pyosu ob ha abtamas!....Don't fall off the roof!
  • Ha pati papa ayb ata tam.....The birds flew over my house.
  • It kosa oyb ha yagsim.....He hid under the bench.
  • Simbiu eb hut ay at.....Take a seat between that person and me.
  • Yat teje eyb fiati.....We live among good people.
  • Duhos se nax bi pop bu ay bi Boston?....What is the cost of a trip to and from Boston?
  • His se ifek bi kyen.....This is a game of luck.
  • Duven et sa be hua duzun zomoj?....Were you at that concert last night?
  • Yit se embwa be ha zenod bi ha mapil.....We are positioned at the hub of this storm.
  • Iyt tyopa byu ha mis.....She walked up to/as far as the door.
  • Ha twob tojbwa bey goblar.....The man was killed with/by a knife.
  • Et xu ga fiay ser bay at vyel boy at.....You would do better to be with me than without me.
  • Teaxu ib ha amar.....Look away from the sun.
  • Von teaxu iz ub ha man.....Don't look directly toward the light.
  • Iyt simpa za at. ....She sat in front of me.
  • Et yeyfe simbier zo hua toyb.....You should sit in back of that woman.
  • Embu has zu ha mis.....Put it to the left of the door.
  • At simpo zi et.....I will sit to the right of you.
  • Ha pat besa ze ha tim.....The bird stayed in the middle of the room.
  • Mil upeye zye ha ijun.....Water is coming through the opening.
  • Bikiu je pen zey ha domep......Take care when going across the street.
  • Eso ivan zya ha mir.....There will be happiness throughout the world.
  • His xwo ja zajub. ....This will happen before tomorrow.
  • Esa mapil je ha moj.....There was a storm during the night.
  • Ju zamaj.....Until tomorrow morning.
  • At voy teataye et ji zoyejub.....I have not seen you since last week.
  • Diwe xu hes av at.....Please do something for me.
  • Hia dyes se ayv dalzeyntun.....This book is about linguistics.
  • Hia dyen se din vyel ewa fiuti.....This book is a story about two lovers.
  • Datan se ga fia vyel nas.....Friendship is better than money.
  • Hos se ge fua vyel has hu yat xoa zojab.....Nothing is as bad as what we underwent last year.
  • Yit yexeya ov yat.....They were working against us.
  • Ha vakdibut dopoxa at oyv ata azovdeyni.....The police officer arrested me despite my protests.
  • Et ay Bob yeyfe ser dati.....You and Bob should be friends.
  • Duhot ako, et ey at?....Who will win, you or I?
  • Hyat oy hwut ta ha dud.....Everyone but that guy knew the answer.
  • Et voy se gel at.....You are not like me.
  • Et se hyagla ogel at.....You are totally unlike me.
  • E gab e gese u.....Two plus two equals four.
  • U gob e gese e.....Four minus two equals two.
  • E gal e gese u.....Two times two equals four.
  • E gol e gese a.....Two divided by two equals one.
  • U gar e gese asya.....Four squared (42) equals sixteen. (Lit: Four to the power of two...)
  • Alya gor e gese u.....The square root (√16) of sixteen is four. (Lit: Sixteen to the minus power of two...)

Phrasal Prepositions edit

Some prepositions involve multiple word expressions, that is, phrasal prepositions.

Phrasal Prepositions Using Adverbs edit

There are certain directional adverbs that can play a part in forming phrasal prepositions, but cannot act as prepositions in and of themselves:
Adverbs Used in Phrasal Prepositions
yub....near yib....far
iz....directly, straight uz....indirectly, roundabout
yab....up yeb....in
oyeb....out
yob....down
yiz....beyond yez....along, flush yuz....around
zay....forward, ahead zoy....back
The next chart lists some phrasal prepositions using the above adverbs:
Phrasal Prepositions Using Adverbs
PHRASAL PREPOSITION EXAMPLE
yub bu....near to, close to At fe tujer yub bu et.....I want to sleep close to you.
yib bi....far from Ha amar se yib bi ha imer.....The sun is far from the earth.
yab bu....up to It fu paper yab bu ha mam.....He would like to fly up to the sky.
yab bi....up from Su yab bi ha sim.....Get up from the bed.
yab bey....up (by way of) Yat tyoyapo yab bey ha meab.....We will walk up the hill.
yab be....up at Ha yipet kaxwa yab be ha tam.....The cat was found up at the house.
yob bu....down to Igpu yob bu ha obmos.....Run down to the cellar.
yob bi....down from Ha tat upa yob bi ha mam.....The angel came down from the sky.
yob bey....down (by way of) Iyt igtyoyapa yob bey ha meab.....She ran down the hill.
yob be....down at Ha dyes kaxwa yob be ha obem.....The book was found down at the bottom.
yob ab....down at Has kaxwa yob ab eta oybmos.....It was found down on your floor.
yeb be....in, inside Eta teyd se yeb be ha tam.....Your mother is in(side) the house.
yeb bu....into It pyasa yeb bu ha mip.....He jumped into the river.
yeb bi....in from Upu yeb bi ha oma oyebem.....Come in from the cold outdoors.
oyeb be....out in/at Ha tudi sa oyeb be ha zodeym.....The children were out in the backyard.
oyeb bi....out from Yepu oyeb bi ha om.....Come in out from the cold.
oyeb bu....out to Yat fu peper oyeb bu ha meim.....We'd like to ride out to the countryside.
iz bu....straight to Pu iz bu fyomir! ....Go straight to hell!
iz zoy bi....right back from It upu iz zoy bi ha yexim.....He came right back from the office.
zay bu....on to, forth to, ahead to Ha bixpur popa zay bu zona doym.....The train traveled on to the next town.
zoy bi....back from At se zoy bi ha yexim.....I am back from the office.
zoy bu....back to Pu zoy bu ha nam.....Go back to the store.
zoy be....back at Duven et se zoy be tam?....Are you back at home?
Some simple prepositions can also be combined into prepositional phrases:
  • Ha yipet yapra ab bu ha abtamas.....The cat climbed onto the roof.
  • He yepet pyosa ob bi ha sem.....The dog fell off (from) the chair.
  • Pu zey bu ha hyua kum bi ha domep.....Go across to the other side of the street.

Phrasal Prepositions Using Spatial Nouns edit

The following chart shows how prepositions and directional adverbs can be joined with the spatial ending -(e)m meaning place (or others) to be form spatial nouns, which, in turn, can be used in idiomatic prepositional phrases:
Spatial Nouns Built on Prepositions or Adverbs
ab....on abem....top
abned....upper surface
abmas....roof
eb....between ebem....interstice
ebjob....interval
ebnod....intersection
ebmas....partition
ob....off obem....bottom
obned....lower surface
obmas....foundation
ayb....above aybem....area above
aybmas....ceiling
oyb....below oybem....area below
oybmas....floor
eyb....among eybem....midst
yab....up yabem....upstairs, upper area
yabneg....top level
yob....down yobem....downstairs, lower area
yobneg....bottom level
yeb....in yebem....inside, interior, indoors
yebnig....inner space
oyeb....out yobem....outside, exterior, outdoors
za....in front of zam....front, foreground
zan....face
ze....in the middle of zem....middle
zenod....center, hub
zen....center
zenad....median
zo....behind zom....back, rear, background
zi....right zim....right area
zikum....left side
ziizon....right direction
imer....east
zu....left zum....left area
zukum....left side
zuizon....left direction
umer....west
iz....straight izmep....direct route
iznad....vector
izon....direction
uz....indirectly uzmep....detour
uznad....curve
uzon....deviation
yub....near yubem....vicinity
yubkum....near side
yubaj....recent past
yib....far yibem....distance
yibkum....far side
yibnod....pole
yiboj....distant future
yuz....around yuzem....perifery
yuznad....perimeter
yuznig....environment
yiz....beyond yizem....area beyond
yiznod....extremity
The following chart shows phrasal prepositions that can be created with the use of the spatial nouns in the previous section or other nouns. These phrases are considered idiomatic, because they are abbreviated by the omission of the definite article ha in front of the noun:
Idiomatic Phrasal Prepositions
AT SOMEWHERE TO SOMEWHERE FROM SOMEWHERE
be abem bi....at the top of bu abem bi....to the top of bi abem bi....from the top of
be obem bi....at the bottom of bu obem bi....to the bottom of bi obem bi....from the top of
be ebem bi....in the area between bu ebem bi....to the area between bi ebem bi....from the area between
be aybem bi....above, over bu aybem bi....to the area above bi aybem bi....from the area above
be oybem bi....below, under bu oybem bi....to the area below bi oybem bi....from the area below
be eybem bi....amid zye eybem bi....through the midst of bi eybem bi....from the midst of
be zam bi....at the front of bu zam bi....to the front of bi zam bi....from the front of
be zem bi....at the middle of bu zem bi....to the middle of bi zem bi....from the middle of
be zom bi....at the back of bu zom bi....to the back of bi zom bi....from the back of
be zim bi....at the right of bu zim bi....to the right of bi zim bi....from the right of
be zum bi....at the left of bu zum bi....to the left of bi zum bi....from the left of
be yubem bi....in the vicinity of bu yubem bi....to the vicinity of bi yubem bi....from the vicinity of
be yibem bi....at a distance from bey azon bi....by dint of be avon bi....in favor of
be ubem bi....in the direction of bay ux bi....with assistance from be byux bay....in touch with
be yabem bi....in the upper reaches of be vyen bu....in relation to doytaxwa bay....associated with
be yobem bi....in the bottom area of be ned bi....on the level of be mep bu....on the way to, en route
be yebem bi....on the inside of, inside be oyebem bi....on the outside of, outside bu oyebem bi....to the exterior of
bey mep bi....by way of, via be kum bi....beside, at the side of be ij bi....at the start of
be uj bi....at the end of bey uxun bi....by means of be kunad bi....at the edge of
be nod bi....at the point of be yebem bi....at the interior of, inside be oyebem bi....at the exterior of, outside
be nad bay....in line with be uznod bi....alongside be tes bi....in the sense of
be teas bi....in the guise of be san bi....in the form of be yanx bi....in conjunction with
be bol bi....in support of be gab bu....in addition to be dyun bi....in the name of
be avson bi....on behalf of be vyeson bi....on the subject of bay yux bi....with the aid of

Separable Verb Prefixes edit

Verbal prefixes that formed from prepositions and adverbs can usually be "unpacked", that is, treated as separate words. This works like separable verbs in German. The following table demonstrates how that works:
Separable Verb Prefixes
VERB-BOUND UNPACKED ENGLISH
Zyulmap yuzpa yata tam. Zyulmap pa yuz bi yata tam. The tornado circled/went around our house. (= went around)
Ha yux bi yams yeyfe yobnogxwer. Ha yux bi cal yeyfe nogxwer yob. The use of carbon should be downscaled. (= scaled down)
Yat zaybuxo hia dovyabdren. Yat buxo hia dovyabdren zay. We shall advance this legislation. (= push forward)


Types of Conjunctions edit

Conjunctions are words that join or introduce clauses. There are two major types of conjunctions, with some minor categories, noted below:
1. Coordinating Conjunctions
  • Simple Linking Conjunctions, such as and, or, but
  • Correlative Conjunctions, such as either...or, neither...or, both...and
  • Adverbial Coordinating Conjunctions, such as then, also, therefore
2. Subordinating Conjunctions
  • Complementizing Conjunctions, such as that, if, whether, lest
  • Relative Conjunctions, such as as, when, because, while

Coordinating Conjunctions edit

Mirad has three types of coordinating conjunctions, as shown in the following charts:

Simple Linking Conjunctions edit

Simple Linking Conjunctions
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE
ay....and At oveko ay at ako.
I will compete and I will win.
ey....or Bosu ey at tuyapyexo et.
Be still or I will spank you.
oy....but It yeka oy it oka.
He tried but he lost.
oey....nor At voy tilo oey at telo.
I shall not drink, nor shall I eat.
bayhus....yet At ayse hyas at fe, bayhus at voy se iva.
I have everything I want, yet I'm not happy.
avhus....so Ha amar yapaye, avhus et yefe sumpier.
The sun has risen, so you must get up out of bed.

Correlative Coordinating Conjunctions edit

The following conjunctions come in pairs:
Correlative Coordinating Conjunctions
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE
hyaewa...ay....both...and At hyaewa dyede ay dre Mirad.
I both read and write Mirad.
hyeawa...ey....either...or Et yafe hyeawa beser ey pier. Se eta kebiun.
You can either stay or leave. It's your choice.
hyoawa...oey....neither...nor Yat hyoawa move oey tile.
We neither smoke nor drink.
voy hyawa...oy (gay)....not only...but (also) At voy hyawa deuze oy gay at daze.
I not only sing but also I dance.
ven....avhus....if...then Ven et te ha dud, avhus du has.
If you know the answer, then say it.
ha...ha....the...the Ha ga et tixe, ha ga et akujo.
The more you study, the more you'll succeed.
ga yukay...vyel....rather...than At oku ga yukay vyel vyoeker.
I'd rather lose than cheat.
ji van...iz huj....no sooner...than Ji van ha dezut yepa, iz huj ha hyaydeux ija.
No sooner did the actor enter than the applause began.
huugla...van....so/such...that Ha map sa huugla aza van ha fab pyoxwa.
The wind was so strong that the tree was felled.
ven...ey (voy)....whether...or (not) Ven et te is ey voy, at tadioye.
Whether you know it or not, I am about to get married.

Adverbial Coordinating Conjunctions edit

Some grammars call these conjunctive adverbs:
Adverbial Coordinating Conjunctions
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE
jo hus / joy
then, next, after that
Yat deuza, jo hus hyat daza.
We sang, then everyone danced.
je hus / jey
meanwhile
Je hus, at ujba hyas.
Meanwhile, I finished everything.
av hus
so, therefore
It vuda at, av hus at pia.
He insulted me, so I left.
(gey) ov hus
nevertheless, even so, despite that, yet, however
At yexa kyotepay, ov hus, at ujoka.
I work diligently, yet I failed.
gel hus / gelay
likewise, also, similarly
At daze. Gel hus, at deuze.
You dance; likewise, I sing.
hyiyen / geyen
in the same way, likewise
Yit xa fi; hyiyen, et xo gay fi.
They did well; in the same way, you will too.
ogel hus / ogelay
otherwise, else
Du hes, ogel hus, piu.
Say something, otherwise, leave.
gay
also
Et yeka; gay, et ujaka!
You tried; also, you succeeded!
be nem (bi hus)
instead (of that)
Hyot fida iyt; be nem bi hus, yit fuda iyt.
Nobody praised her; instead, they badmouthed her.
huyen
thus, in that way
Tixu jestay; huyen, et ujako.
Study diligently; in that way, you'll succeed.
husav
for that reason, so, therefore
At voy ifeyie has; husav, at pio.
I'm not enjoying it, so I will leave.
vray
as a matter of fact, actually, in fact
Vray, et se vyasa.
In fact, you're right.
gel jos
consequently, as a consequence
It baksa; gel jos, it toja.
He got sick; as a consequence, he died.
gel xin
as a result
At voy tixa; gel xin, at okuja.
At didn't study; as a result, I failed.
ga vyel hus
moreover, what's more
Mamila. Ga vyel hus, esa mamxeus.
It rained. Moreover, there was thunder.
be hyua duni
in other words
At voy da ha vyan; be hyua duni, at vyoda.
It did not tell the truth; in other words, I lied.
jey
meanwhile, in the meantime
Ha toboti xeya gla xeus; jey, at jesa tixer.
The children were making a lot of noise; meanwhile, I continued to study.
ovay
on the contrary
Ha tam voy se aga; ovay, has se gle oga.
The house is not big; on the contrary, it's rather small.
bi hyua teasgun
on the other hand
At voy deuze. Bi byua teagun, at eke duzar.
I don't sing. On the other hand, I play a musical instrument.
gey bay hus
still, even so
Voy esa duz, gey bay hus, ha xej sa ifxea.
There was no music. Even so, the event was entertaining.
ujnay
finally, in the end
Unjnay, hyoa fus xwa.
In the end, nothing bad happened.

Subordinating Conjunctions edit

Subordinating Conjunctions introduce three types of dependent or subordinate clauses:
1. Adjectival subordinate clauses (also called relative clauses)
  • He is the guy that earned the most this year. The subordinate clause modifies a noun in the main clause. Adjectival clauses are introduced in Mirad by the relative complementizer ho. Relative clauses are discussed in the Relative Clauses section of the chapter on Verbs.
2. Nominal subordinate clauses (also called factive clauses)
  • I knew that she would come. The subordinate clause is the object or complement of a verb in the main clause. Nominal subordinate clauses are introduced by one of the factive complementizers van, ven, or von, depending on whether the subordinate clause is positive, conditional, or negative.
3. Adverbial subordinate clauses (also called circumstantial clauses).
  • Did you see where they went?. The subordinate clause is an adverbial clause modifying a verb in the main clause for time, place, manner, and other circumstances. Adverbial subordinate clauses are introduced by relative deictic adverbs like hom....where, hoj....when, and hosav....why.

Complementizers edit

The complementizers above are part of an overall scheme. In the chart below, the six complementizers act:
  • as a clause linker, where the complementizer introduces a clause that is a statement of FACT or CONDITION, or
  • as a sentence introducer, where the complementizer introduces a sentence that is a command/wish, a prohibition, or a yes-no question. Some of these complementizers can act in either or both roles. In actuality, all of the complementizers introduce or link a subordinate clause; it's just that in some cases, the main clause is left unexpressed.
Complementizers
TYPE COMPLEMENTIZER CLAUSE LINKER SENTENCE INTRODUCER
Positive / Hortative van that, the fact that May....(something happen), Let....(something happen)
Conditional ven if, whether --
Negative / Prohibitive von lest, that...not Don't
Anti-Conditional oven unless --
Interrogative Duven...? -- Is it true that, say whether..., do(es)?
Relative ho that, which, who(m) --
Examples of these conjunctions linking a main and subordinate clause:
  • At ta van et upo.....I knew that you would come. (FACTIVE)
  • At xa is av van et testu.....I did it so that you would understand.
  • At voy ta ven et upo.....I did not know whether you would come. (CONDITIONAL)
  • Ven et te ha dud, du has.....If you know the answer, say it. (CONDITIONAL)
  • At yufa von et upu.....I feared lest you might come. (PROHIBITIVE)
  • At voy upo oven et upo gay.....I will not come unless you come, too. (ANTI-CONDITIONAL)
  • At fe teater ha tob ho xa his.....I want to see the man who did this. (RELATIVE)
  • At fe teater hoa tob xa his.....I want to see which man did this.
  • Iyt akeye oyv van iyt bayse yofi.....She is winning despite the fact that she has disabilities.
Example of these conjunctions introducing different types of sentences:
  • Van yat fyadilu.....Let us pray. (Hortative, i.e., A WISH)
  • Van yit teliu avol!....Let them eat bread.
  • Van ha edweb yagteju.....May the king live long.
  • Duven et te ha dud?....Do you know the answer? (YES/NO QUESTION)
  • Duven et se tadxwa.....Are you are married. (SAY WHETHER...)
  • Von (et) yufu.....Don't (you) be afraid. (Prohibitive, i.e., AN INJUNCTION)
  • Von hus xwu.....Let that not happen. (NEGATIVE HORTATIVE)
The sentence-initial interrogative complementizer Duven (Is it true that?) is used to introduce a yes/no question. The word can be analyzed as a command meaning Say whether... where Say... is the main clause in the imperative mood.
  • Duven et se tadokyayt?....Are you a widow? (= Say whether you are...).
Av van + a predicate in the hypothetical mood expresses a "so that, in order that" clause, eg.:
  • At uzba ata teb av van at yafu teater hos xowe*.....I turned my head so that I could see what was about to happen.
Using the negative complementizer, von, the above sentence could be rephrased as:
  • At uzba ata teb av von at teatu hos xowe.....I turned my head so that I wouldn't see what was about to happen.
Since the subject is the same in both clauses, the sentence could be expressed more easily with an infinitive:
  • At uzba ata teb av (~ ov) teater hos xowe.....I turned my head so as (not) to see what was about to happen.
* xowe means is about to happen/be done. Unlike English, there is no relative sequencing of tenses in conjoined clauses. "I knew she would come." is rendered in Mirad with direct sequences of tenses, i.e. as "I knew that she will come." Also, unlike English, the "that" conjunction cannot be left out: At ta van iyt upo.

Conjunctions with the subordinate conjunctions van/ven/von edit

Conjunctions introducing nominal subordinate clauses consist of a preposition followed by the positive complementizer van, the conditional complementizer ven, or the negative complementizer von. English can use a bare preposition as a conjunction, as in the sentence "He will grow up before you notice it." However, Mirad requires the complementizer, much as in French, where "avant" (before) must be accompanied by "que" when followed by a clause ("Il se grandira avant que tu ne le remarques.") Here is a chart showing the most important of these conjunctions:
Subordinating conjunctions with van and ven
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE
ja van
before
Du hay ja van et pio.
Say hi before you leave.
je van
while, as long as
Je van at so him, at xo gle yex av et.
While I'm here, I'll do some work for you.
jo van
after
At buo et has jo van et nuso.
I will give it to you after you pay.
ojo van
by the time
Ojo et puo him, at piayo.
By the time you get here, I will have departed.
ju van
until
Yat voy ijo ju van et puo him.
We won't start until you get here.
ji van
since
At voy teataya huyenas ji van et sa hum.
I had not seen such a thing since you were there.
gey ven
even if
Gey ven et yontexe, at bolo et.
Even if you disagree, I'll support you.
gel ven
as if
Yat yeyfe axler gel ven yat teata hyos.
We should act as if we saw nothing.
gey ov van
even though, though
Gey ov van ha pansin sa gra yaga, at ifia has.
Even though the movie was too long, I enjoyed it.
ov van
(al)though, despite the fact that
At po ov van at voy fe.
I'll go, although I don't want to.
av van
so (that)
It utifbua av van hyuti teju.
He sacrificed himself so that others might live.
av von
lest, so that...not
It utifbua av von hyuti toju.
He sacrificed himself so that others might not die (= lest others might die).
Buwa van
in as much as, given that
Buwa van iyt se tadiwa, at voy byuxo iyt.
Given that she's married, I won't touch her.
Hij van
now that
Hij van et se him, biu hegla kafeyl.
Now that you're here, have some coffee.
Vakuwa van
provide that
Vakuwa van et se yukoma, at hoydo.
Provided you're comfortable, I will say my goodbyes.
ven
if
Ven yat fe iber ixuni, yat yefe yexer ga jestay.
If we want to get results, we must work harder.
ven
whether
Ven et ijbo ha yexes obyose et.
Whether you finish the job is up to you.
Oven
unless
Oven et do hyuyen, at dolo.
Unless you say otherwise, I will be silent.

Conjunctions as Circumstantial Clause Headers edit

If the conjunction contains a deictic adverb like where, when, how, etc., then the relative form of the deictic adverb is used. The most common of these begin with ho- or hye- and behave as in English.
Subordinating Conjunctions
CONJUNCTION CIRCUMSTANCE EXAMPLES
hoj
when
TIME Hoj et pua, ha if ija.
When you arrived, the fun began.
hyej
whenever
TIME Hyej et dale, at hihide.
Whenever you talk, I laugh.
hom
where
PLACE At voy te hom it pa.
I don't know where he went.
hyem
wherevere
PLACE Et yafe per hyem et fu.
You can go wherever you'd like.
hyam
everywhere
PLACE Hyam at pe, et se hum.
Everywhere I go, you're there.
hosav
why
CAUSE Duven et te hosav it xa his?
Do you know why he did it?
hosav
because
CAUSE It xa has hosav it fa teatuer yat hes.
He did it because he wanted to show us something.
hoyen
how, as
MANNER Xu hoyen et fu van hyuti axlu ub et.
Do as you'd want others to act toward you.
hogla
as
DEGREE Yexu hogla ugay et efe.
Work as slowly as you need to.
hyegla
however much (that)
DEGREE Dalu hyegla et efo.
Talk however much you need to.
hoglas
as much (as)
QUANTITY At telio hoglas at fe.
I will eat as much as I want.
Other conjunctions of circumstance are sometimes used. This is not a complete list.


Assertive Interjections edit

 
Interjections in Mirad include the assertive expressions yes, no and maybe:
Common Assertive Interjections
Va! Yes!
Ve! Maybe!, Perhaps!
Vo!* No!
* Not to be confused with voy, which translates the English adverb not, as in Vo, wit voy se tadxwa.....No, he is not married.
Examples:
  • Va. At se otadxwa.....Yes. I am unmarried.
  • Va. At se vay otadxwa.....Yes. I am indeed/really unmarried.
  • Va, vay.....Yes, indeed.
  • Va ay vo. Hus vey se vyaa.....Yes and no. That may be true.
  • Va ey vo?....Yes or no?
  • Ve. At te voy valay.....Maybe. I don't know for sure.
  • Vo. At voy vatexe et.....No. I don't believe you.
  • Vo! Dilwe von xu hus.....No! Please don't do that.
  • Et se Amerikama, vao?....You're American, yes or no?
  • Ven va, (van et) xu has.....If so, (let you) do it.
  • Ven vo, von (et) xu has.....If not, don't (you) do it.
There are also some hybrid combinations of the above assertive expressions:
Hybrid Interjections
Vao? Yes or no?
Vea! Maybe so!
Veo!* Maybe not!

Other interjections edit

There is a group of common interjections called the H interjections, because they all begin with the letter h:
Greetings
Initial Greeting hay! Hello!, Hi!
Vocative Greeting hey! Hey!, O!, Oh!
Terminal Greeting hoy! Goodbye!, Bye!
Proximal Specifier hiy! Voici!, Here is...
Distal Specifier huy! Voila!', There is...
Positive Exclamation hyay! Great! Wow!, Bravo!, Woopee!, Hurrah!
Surprise Exclamation hyey! What a...!, Oh!, Well!
Negative Exclamation hyoy! What a pity!, It's a shame!, Woe is...!, Darn it!, Yikes!, Boo!
Expression of Thanks hway!1 Thanks!
Expression of Welcome hwey! You're welcome!, Please
Expression of Sorrow hwoy! Sorry!, Excuse me!
Expression of Joy hwiy! Whee!, O la la!
Expression of Pain hwuy! Ouch!, Ow!, That hurts!
Laughter hihi! Ha ha!, Hee hee!
Lamentation huhu! Boo hoo!, Woe is me!, Oy veh!
Admiration waw!2 Wow!, What a show!
Disgust wow!3 Yuck!, Eeoow!, Gross!
1Pronounced like English why. Mirad hw is pronounced like English wh.
2Pronounced like English wow.
3Pronounced like English woe.


Examples:
  • Hay! Ata dyun se Johan.....Hi! My name is John.
  • Hey, Johan! Duhoyen et xeye?....Hey, John, how are you doing?
  • Hey, Tot!....O, God!
  • Hoy. At teato et zajub.....Bye. I will see you tomorrow.
  • Hiy ha dyen ho et dila.....Here's the book you requested.
  • Hiy Tob.....Behold Man. (Ecce Homo).
  • Hiy ata dyundraf.....Here's my caling card.
  • Huy! Se xwa.....Voilà! It's done.
  • Huy hos at yaka.....There's what I expected.
  • Hyay et!....Good for you!
  • Hyay! Et utnaze his......Bravo! You deserve this.
  • Hway! Et sa gla fitipa......Thanks.! You were very kind.
  • At fu hwayder et.....I'd like to congratulate you.
  • Hwey!....You're welcome!
  • Et efe hwoyder at.....You need to apologize to me.
  • Fi. Hwoy.....Ok. I'm sorry.
  • Hyey via imaj! ....Oh, what a beautiful morning!
  • Hyey At ta voy van et upo.....Oh! I didn't know you were coming.
  • Hyoy at.....Woe is me.
  • Hyoy! Ga fia fikyen jonay.....Pity!. Better luck next time.
  • Hwoy. At yefe hyoder et.....Sorry. I must take leave of you.
  • Hihi! Hus sa gla diza.....Ha ha! That was very funny.
  • Von hihidu.....Don't laugh.
  • Huhu!.....Oy!
  • Ha tudet voy poxo huhuder.....The baby won't stop crying.
Vulgar expletives are not offered here, but may arise naturally in daily speech.
Note: The English expression Please can be expressed in various ways:
  • Hwey! Yepu.....Please! Come in. (Hwey can also mean you're welcome in answer to thank-you.
  • Diwe von (et) tyopu ab ha vaz.'....Please (= it is requested) don't walk on the grass.
  • Diwe van et yanupu yat.'....Please (= it is asked that) join us.
  • Diwe!....Please!
  • Xu (at) (ha) fis bi yubeler at hua tyoyafi.....Please (= do (me) (the) favor of) bring me those shoes.
Stronger forms of please include dilwe....it is requested or dirwe....it is begged.
Many of the interjections in this section can be made into verbs with the addition of -der (to utter), eg.:
  • hayder....greet, say hi
  • heyder....address, call out to, wave down
  • hoyder....say goodbye to
  • hyayder....congratulate
  • hwayder....thank
  • hwoyder....apologize, excuse oneself, say you're sorry
  • hihider....laugh
  • huhuder....boo, cry
  • vaoder....decide


 
There is a class of words in Mirad which are called hybrids, i.e. cross-combinations of opposite words that mean something and something else or something or something else. For example, in English, swinging is "moving BACK-AND-FORTH", or, questions can be of the type "YES-OR-NO". The vowels in these directionals are, for euphonic purposes, ao, eo, or ui. These alternating expressions are often used as adverbs or verbal prefixes. Here is an incomplete list of such expressions, the elements decomposed, and examples of their usage:
Hybrid Expressions
Opposite Elements Hybrids
ab....on
ob....off
aoper....get on and off
aober....take on and off
bu....to, give
bi...from, take
buinax....round trip fare
buipar....shuttle bus
buier....trade
ga....more
go....less
gao....more-or-less
hum....there
him....here
huimpoper....travel here and yon
hus....that
his....this
huisbier....select between this and that
hyas....everything
hyos....nothing
hyaoson....all-or-nothing matter
hyut....another
hyit....the same person
hyuita....mutual
hyuitifer....love one another
tej....life
toj....death
teoja ebyem....life-and-death situation
u....away/west
i....toward/east
uinab....row
uinada....horizontal
Uiyanmel....Eurasia
a....up/north
o....down/south
aonab....column
aonada....vertical
pyaoser....to bounce
uz....crooked
iz....straight
uizpaser....careen, stagger
uizder....to equivocate
ub....toward
ib....away
uipeni....comings and goings
uj....end
ij....beginning
uijbar....on-off switch
uga....slow
iga....fast
uigpar....scooter
va....yes
vo....no
vaoder....decide
vaotexer....wonder
vaodid....yes-or-no question
yuja....closed
yija....open
yuija....open-and-shut
yuijar....valve
manyuijar....light switch
teabyuijer....blink
yab....up
yob....down
yaoblir....elevator (up-and-down taker)
yaoblar....lever
yaopyaser....jump up and down
yaobsum....bunkbed
ayeb1....in
oyeb....out
aoyebar....piston (in-and-out-device)
za....front
zo....back
zaobaser....rock
zaopaser....swing
zu....left/west
zi....right/east
zuibaser....wobble
zuipaser....zigzag
zuimera....east-west
zuituyaba....ambidextrous
malza....white
molza....black
maolza....gray
yav-....innocent
yov-....guilty
yaovyek....trial (Lit: innocent-guilty-test)
zyu-....round
zyi-....flat
zyuis....oval, ellipse
up-....come
ip-....go, leave
mimuip....tide (Lit: sea-come-go)
uipeni....comings and goings
uv-....sad
iv-....happy
uivdin....tragicomedy
1This is a long form of yeb (in) that contrasts with oyeb (out).
Keep in mind that if a hybrid word ends in b, the b assimilates by dropping from per (to go) and ber (to put) words, eg:
  • aob + ber = aober
  • uib + per = uiper


Exclamations Using the H-words edit

 
 
Many common exclamatory expressions in Mirad use words that begin with the letter h:
Common Exclamatories
MIRAD ENGLISH EMOJI
Hay! Hello! 🙋  
Hey! Hey!, Oh...!, Yahoo!  
Hoy! Bye! 🙋  
Hiy... Here is / Here comes... / Voici   
Huy... There's... / There goes... / Voilà   
Hway!* Great! / Good for you! / Congratulations!, wow! / hurray!  
Hwey! Oh my! / Goodness gracious! / Well!  
Hwoy! Too bad! / What a shame! / Sorry!/ oy!  
Hyay! Thanks!   🙏
Hyey! Your're welcome! / That's ok.  
Hyoy! Sorry!  😢
Hihi! Ha ha! / That's funny!  
Huhu! Boo hoo!  
* Pronounced like English why.
The above h-exclamations can be made into verbs by suffixing forms of -der....to utter, eg.:
  • hyay....thanks hyayder....to thank
  • At fu hyayder et av hos et xa.....I'd like to thank you for what you did.
  • hihi....ha ha hihider....to laugh hihiduer....to make laugh
  • Et hihidua.....You made me laugh.

Expressions by Category edit

Offering Suggestions edit

  • If I were you,.......Ven at su et,...
  • In my opinion,.......Be ata texyen,...
  • Speaking personally,.......Dalea av aut,...
  • If I might suggest,.......Ven at duyafu,...
  • I would suggest that.......At duu van...
  • You would be well-advised to X.......Et su fiduwa Xer...
  • Have you thought of Xing...?....Duven et vyetexaye Xen...?
  • Why not X...?....Duhosav voy Xer...?

Asking for Suggestions edit

  • What would you do if...?....Duhos et xu ven...?
  • I'd like your opinion on.......At fu eta texyen vyel...
  • Please advise me on.......Diwe fyidu at vyel...

Dispensing Advice edit

  • I think you should X....,At texe van et yefu Xer
  • If I were you,.......,Ven at su et,...
  • You would be wrong to X.....Et su vyoa Xer.
  • It would be good if.......Et su fia ven...
  • I warn you that.......At jwatue et van...

Requests edit

  • Would you mind Xing...?....Duven oboxu et Xer...?
  • May I X...?....Duven at yafu Xer...?
  • I'd like to X.......At fu Xer...
  • Could you possibly X.......Duven et yafu hyeyen Xer...
  • I would be much obliged if you were to X.......At su gla yefxwa ven et Xu...
  • Please do me the favor of Xing.......Diwe xu at ha avun bi Xer...
  • Could I ask you to X?....Duven at yafu dier et Xer?

Asking for Opinions edit

  • I'd like to know you opinion on.......At fu ter eta texyen vyel...
  • Tell me what you think about.......Du at hos et texe vyel...

Offering Opinions edit

  • It seems to me that.......Tease at van...
  • I believe that.......At vatexe van...
  • I don't think that.......At votexe van...
  • We don't feel that.......Wat voy tose van...
  • I must say.......At dyefe...
  • As far as I'm concerned.......Auta texyen se van...
  • Personally, .......Aotay, ...
  • I am convinced that.......At se vatexuwa van...

Expressing Preferences edit

  • Which do you prefer, X or Y?....Duhaas et gaife, X ey Y?
  • Would you like to X...?....Duven et fu Xer...
  • I would prefer to X... ....At gaifu Xer...
  • It doesn't matter to me whether.......Av at, getese ven...
  • I don't mind if.......Av at glotese ven...

Expressing Intentions edit

  • Do you intend to X?....Duven et ojtexe Xer?
  • What are you going to do?....Duhos et xo?
  • He is determined to X.......It vafe Xer...
  • I would like to X.....At fu Xer.
  • We would like you to X.....Wat fu van et Xu.

Permission and Prohibition edit

  • May I come in?....Duven at afe yeper?
  • Is that permitted?....Duven hus afwe?
  • Parking is prohibited.....Purkoxwen ofwe.
  • Do not walk on the grass.....Von tyope ab ha vab.
  • You are authorized to X.....Et se afdwa Xer.
  • No entry.....Von yepu. ~ Yepen ofwe.
  • You must not cry.....Et yofe huhuder.
  • Permit me to say.......Afxu at der...

Obligation and Necessity edit

  • You must pay attention.....Et yefe tepzexer.
  • You should leave.....At yefu ~ yeyfu iper.
  • I have to go.....At yefe per.
  • You are obliged to X.....Yet yefxwe Xer.
  • We need your help.....Yat efe yeta yux.
  • It is urgent that you respond.....Igefwe van et dudu.
  • I am asking you to X.....At dieye et Xer.
  • He demands that you X.....Wit dire van et Xu.
  • It is required that you stay longer.....Dirwe van et besu gaj.

Agreement edit

  • Yes, I agree with you.....Va, at yantexe et.
  • He disagreed with me.....It yontexa at.
  • My opinion differs from yours.....At texyen ogelse etas.
  • This book will concur with me.....Hia dyes geltexo at.
  • I don't accept your view.....At voy vabie eta texgun.
  • I reject the concept that.......At vobie ha tyun van...
  • What you said is entirely true.....Hos et da se aynay vyaa.
  • What a great idea!....Huu agala teyen!
  • Your application has been approved.....Eta didras fivadawe.
  • Blessed be this food.....Van hia tel fyadwu.
  • We are glad that you came.....Yat se iva van et upa.

Disagreement edit

  • No, that's wrong.....Vo, hus se vyoa.
  • You are lying.....Et vyodeye.
  • I disagree with your opinion.....At yontexe eta texyen.
  • We don't approve of you actions.....Yat voy fivade eta axleni.
  • I cannot accept the fact that.......At vabiyofe van...
  • Do you refuse to answer?....Duven et vobie duder?
  • That's out of the question.....Hus se vabiyofwa.
  • I must decline that suggestion.....At yefe voder hua dul.
  • We condemn your views.....Yat fuvade eta texguni.
  • I must disapprove of your actions.....At fuvadyefe eta axleni.
  • Your statement be damned!....Eta del fyodwu!
  • It's a pity (~ shame) that you don't understand.....Se yov van et voy teste.
  • I hate the fact that.......At ufe van...
  • It is sad that you have to leave now.....Se uva van et yefe pier hij.

Affirmation, Quibbling, Negation edit

  • Yes.....Va.
  • Yes, indeed.....Va, vay.
  • Certainly ~ Of course....Vla(y).
  • True.....Vya.
  • Truly.....Vyay.
  • Maybe.....Ve.
  • Maybe so.....Vey va.
  • Maybe not.....Vey vo.
  • Possibly.....Vey.
  • Probably.....Vle(y)
  • Hardly.....Yikay.
  • Almost.....Yubge.
  • Barely.....Haway gwe.
  • Exactly.....Gwe.
  • No.....Vo.
  • Most certainly not.....Vlo.
  • Perhaps no.....Vey vo.
  • Yes and no.....Vao.
  • False.....Vyo.
  • Absolutely not.....Abray voy.
  • In no way.....Hoyen.
  • In no way whatever.....Hyoyen.

Certainty, Probability, Possibility, and Capability edit

  • I'm sure she'll come.....At se vlata van iyt upo.
  • It is not certain that.......Voy se vlatwa van...
  • It is probable that.......Se vlea van...
  • You'll probably change your mind.....Et vley kyaxer eta texyen.
  • In all likelihood,.......Gwa vley,...
  • It might rain.....Vey mamilo.
  • It will definitely rain.....Vlay mamilo.
  • What is the probability that it will rain?....Duhos se ha vlean van mamilo?
  • It is conceivable that she will win.....Texiyafwe van iyt ako.
  • It would be inconceivable.....Texiyofwu.
  • I am persuaded that nothing will happen.....At se vatexuwa van hos xwo.
  • It could be true.....Has yafwu ser vyaa. ~ Has syafwu vyaa.
  • Those results are impossible.....Hua ixuni se yofwa.
  • The odds of that happening.......Ha vlean van hus xwo...
  • I can't understand you.....At yofe tester et. ~ At voy yafe tester et.
  • Could you speak a little louder?....Duven et yafu daler ga az?
  • It is not impossible that.......Voy se yofwa van...
  • I would not be surprised if.......At voy yoku ven...
  • Am I expected to be early?....Duven at yakwe ser jwaa?
  • I doubt they will survive.....At vlotexe van yit yiztejo.
  • She suspected that I'd be late.....Iyt vetexa van at so jwo.
  • She assumed that I would be.......Iyt vletexa van at so...
  • I bet you know.....At vlede van et te.
  • You can't know for sure.....Et yofe ter vlay.
  • That's impossible to predict.....Hus jadyofwa. ~ Hus se yofwa jader.
  • I will be unable to X.....At yofo Xer.

Apologies edit

  • I'm sorry but.......At se tipuva oy...
  • Excuse me but.......Yovobu at oy...
  • Please forgive me.....Diwe yovobu at.
  • It pains me to say.......Byokxe at der...
  • It is sad to say.......Se uva der...
  • It is regrettable that.......Se uvtexyafwa van...
  • They expressed their regrets.....Yit uvtaxde.
  • I regret my crimes.....At zoyuvtose ata doyovi.
  • I regret to inform you that.......At uvtose tuer et van...

Thanks edit

  • Thank-you for your kind words.....Hyay av eta tipifa duni.
  • I shall be forever grateful......At so byu hyaj ivtaxika.
  • I am much obliged for your gift.....At se gla yefxwa av eta fibun.
  • Thank-you very much!....Hyay hyay! ~ Ivtaxwo! ~ Gla yefxwa! ~ Gla naxtwe.
  • I appreciate your help.....At nazte eta yux.
  • Your words are much appreciated.....Eta duni gla naztwe.

Best Wishes edit

  • Congratulations!....Hyay! ~ Yanfyaztos!
  • I congratulate you!....At hyayde et! ~ At yanfyaztosde et!
  • Best wishes to you!....Fia ojfoni av et!
  • Happy birthday!....Iva tajjub!
  • May your day be blessed!....Van eta jub fyadwu! ~ Fyadwu eta jub!
  • I wish you a good trip!....At ojfe et fia pop!
  • Bon voyage!....Fia pop!
  • Season's greetings!....Iva jeb!
  • Merry Christmas!....Iva Kristtaj!
  • Happy New Year! ~ Nowruz!....Iva Ejna Jab!
  • Happy Anniversary!....Iva jabzyus!
  • Happy Hannukka!....Iva Hanuka!
  • Get well soon!....Fibaksu ig!
  • Good luck on your exams!....Fikyen be eta vyaoyeki!
  • I wish you every success!....At ojfe et hya akuj!
  • Good luck! (~ Mazel Tov!)....Fikyen!
  • Be well!....Baksu!
  • Long live the king!....Van ha edeb yagteju! ~ Yagteju ha edeb!
  • Vive la France!....Hyay Ferom!
  • Bravo! ~ Well done! ~ Congratulations!....Hyay!
  • Get better soon! ~ Speedy Recovery!....Baksu ig! ~ Byekwu ig!

Common Greetings edit

  • Hello!....Hay!
  • Hey!....Hey!
  • Goodbye!....Hoy!
  • Good day!....Fijub!
  • Good morning!....Fimaj!
  • Good afternoon!....Fijwomaj!
  • Good evening!....Fijwamoj!
  • Goodnight!....Fimoj!
  • How are you?....Duhoyen et se?
  • How are you doing?....Duhoyen et xeye?
  • I'm doing fine.....At xeye fi.
  • What's new?....Duhos se ejna?
  • See you later! ~ Au revoir!....Ju ha gawteat!
  • Be well!....Su baka!
  • Sleep well!....Tuju fi!
  • What's happening?....Duhos kyeseye?
  • Until then!....Ju huj!
  • Take care!....Bikiu!

Announcements edit

  • We are pleased to announce the birth of.......Yat ifie dotuer ha taj bi...
  • I am happy to say that.......At se iva der van...
  • I am sorry to report that.......At se uva dotuer van...
  • It is with deep sorrow that we announce the death of.......Bay gla uvan, yat dotue ha toj bi...
  • Ladies and Gentlemen, please be seated.....Duyti ay Dwuti, diwe simbiu.
  • Welcome to the stage: X!....Fiupdiu bu ha dezyem: X!
  • I would like to introduce you to our speaker, X.....At fu tyuer yet yata dalut: X.
  • Attention! ~ Hear ye, hear ye!....Tepzexu!

Regrets and Condolences edit

  • I'm very sorry for your loss.....At uvtose eta ok.
  • My condolences on the death of.......Ibu ata yanuvtosi av ha toj bi...
  • I am so sorry.....At se huugla uvtosika.
  • Alas!....Hyoy!
  • I share your grief.....At yantipuvie et.
  • I regret having done that.....At ajuvtose xaer hus.
  • I apologize for my actions.....At ajuvtosde (~ hyoyde) ata axleni.
  • We were terribly upset to hear the news that.......Yat gla yobaxwa teeter ha tuun van...

Invitations and Responses edit

  • You are hereby invited to join us.......Yet hiyen updiwe yanser yat...
  • Welcome to our home.....Fiupu yata toom.
  • Would you like to dine with us?....Duven yet fu tyaler bay yat?
  • Be my guest!....Updiwe!
  • I would be happy to come.....At su iva uper.
  • Sorry, but I am otherwise engaged then.....Hyoy, at se hyuyen yuvlaxwa huj.
  • Unfortunately, I must decline.....Fukyenay, at yefe vobier.

Establishing Parallels edit

  • On the one hand...,on the other.......Ayen...,hyuyen ....
  • Just as...so, too.......Gwe gel van...gey gel van...
  • What is more,.......Gayen,...
  • Furthermore,.......Gayen,...
  • Added to this,.......Gabwa bu his,...
  • By the same token,.......Geyen,...
  • As far as...is concerned,.......Vyelea...
  • As for.......Ayv...

Enumerating edit

  • or...or even.......ey...ey gey...ey ujay
  • but finally.......oy ujay...
  • First of all.......Ujnay...
  • Next, but not least.......Zanapay, oy voy gwo...

Favorable Comparisons edit

  • far superior to....gla fia vyel
  • We can't compete with....Yat yofe yanyeker bay
  • has the edge over....se gyoay fia vyel

Unfavorable Comparisons edit

  • was nowhere near as good as.......sa yib bi ser ge fia vyel'
  • is no match for....yofe yanyeker bay
  • is far inferior to....se gla oba vyel
  • does not measure up to....voy se be neg bi
  • bears no comparison with....voy se vyegexyafwa bay

Similar Comparison edit

  • is equivalent to....genaze
  • on a par with....gekyinse
  • corresponds to....vyegexe
  • can be likened to....se vyegexyafwa bu

Asking an Opinion edit

  • What do you thing of X?....Duhos et texe ayv X?
  • What is your opinion on X?....Duhos se eta texyen vyel X?
  • What is your attitude to X?....Duhos se eta tepkin ub X?
  • How do you see...Xing?....Be eta texyen, duhoyen...Xo?

Expressing an Opinion edit

  • In my opinion,....be ata texyen,
  • As I see it,....Be ata duni,
  • Personally, I believe that.......Aotay, at vatexe van...
  • It seems to me that.......Tease at van...
  • I dare say (that).......At dyife van...
  • As far as I'm concerned,....Ven et didu at,
  • It is our belief that....Se yata vatex van
  • I'm convinced that.......At se vetexuwa van...

Saying What You Like edit

  • I would like to X.......At fu Xer...
  • I would prefer to X.......At gaifu Xer...
  • I very much enjoy Xing.....At gla ifie Xen.
  • I have a weakness for X.....At ayse ozan av X.
  • I love chocolate.....At ifle dyofyel.
  • I adore ballet.....At ifre dyaz.
  • Do you like dogs?....Duven et iyfe yepeti?
  • I am very pleased to meet you.....At se gla ifxwa trier et.

Saying What You Don't Like edit

  • I am not keen on seafood.....At voy iyfe piit.
  • Do you dislike X?....Duven et uyfe X?
  • I hate X.....At ufe X.
  • I can't stand (~bear) the thought of Xing.....At yofe xorer ha tex bi Xen.
  • That is disgusting.....Hus se ufxea.
  • I despise rude people.....At ufre fubyenati.

Expressing Indifference edit

  • I don't care about X.....At voy bikse vyel X.
  • It doesn't matter to me.....Voy bikxe at (or: Getese bu at.)
  • That doesn't matter.....Hus voy glatese.
  • I couldn't care less about X.....X trefxe at hyohen.

Giving Reasons edit

  • Why did you do that?....Duhosav et xa hus?
  • I came because.......At upa hosav van...
  • Because of X...?....Be ux bi X...?
  • As a result of X...?....Gel ix bi X...?
  • In order to X.......Av Xer...
  • So that we would understand.......Av van yat testu...
  • Therefore,.......Av hus,...
  • As a result,.......Gel ix,...
  • As a consequence,.......Gel jos,...
  • As a result of X....Gel ix bi X
  • As a consequence of X....Gel jos bi X
  • I don't understand why.......At voy teste hosav van...
  • This is due to the fact that.......His se ux bi van...
  • Given that.......Twa van...
  • The child died for lack of X.....Ha tud toja bi oys bi X.
  • This happened by illegal means.....His kyesa bey odovyaba zeyeni.
  • Tell me why you did it.....Duhosav et xa has.
  • So, leave!....Av hus, ipu!
  • I think, therefore I am.....At texe, av hus, at ese.

Correspondence Greetings edit

  • Dear Sir....Hey Dwut
  • Dear Madam....Hey Duyt
  • Dear beloved.......Hey ifwa...
  • To Whom it May Concern:....Hey Hyet:
  • Yours truly, X....Hoy, X...

Euphemisms edit

Mirad sometimes offers polite ways to express certain things that might sound too direct or rude in normal conversation. Here are some examples:
Euphemisms
POLITE DIRECT
ujpon....final rest toj ....death
ujponxelam....final rest ceremony house tojxelam....mortuary
ujpondin....final rest story tojdin....obituary, death notice
eftim....necessity room fyusulsom....toilet (waste appliance)
pontim....rest room fyusulsom....toilet
twoobgon....male part tiyub....penis
ogoblawa....uncut, uncircumcized otiyugoblawa....un-penis-cut
xer sag awa....to do a number one tiyabiler....pee (lit: bladder-fluid-do)
xer sag ewa....to do a number two tikyeler....sh-t (lit: anus-fluid-do)

Mirad Gammar/Acronyms and Abbreviations

Onomatopoeia refers the words in languages that represent sounds as they are heard by the speakers of those languages. They are the noise words you see in comics, such as pow or bang bang. These charts show equivalent sound words in Mirad. Often, they are reduplicated, hyphenated expressions like pop-pop. Any onomatopoetic word can be made into an action verb by suffixing some form of -der, if a human or animal vocalization, or -xer if it is a noise made by an object. Some example:
  • hihi....ha ha
  • hihider....to laugh
  • plop-plop....plop, splat
  • plop-plopxer....to go plop, to go splat

Human Sounds edit

Consuming food or drink edit

Language Biting Eating food Drinking Swallowing
English chomp, crunch yum yum slurp gulp
Mirad nyam-nyam, krac-krac yum-yum slup-slup glu-glu

Body sounds edit

Language Heart-beating Belching Vomiting Coughing Flatulence Sneezing Snoring Yawning
English thump thump burp barf cough cough toot, fart achoo zzzz ho-hum, yawn
Mirad tump-tump brup-brup blug-blug kah-kah hwuf-hwuf acuh-acuh zii-zuu yaa-yaa

Cries of Distress edit

Language Baby crying Scream Shriek
English wah wah ow, ouch, yeow, eek
Mirad waa-waa awc-awc iik-iik

Expression of Positive Emotions edit

Language Laughter Kiss
English ha ha mwa
Mirad hihi mwa-mwa

Interrupted Speech edit

Language Hushing Pausing or thinking
English shh, shush uh, um, er
Mirad xux-xux hum-hum

Others edit

Language Laughter Kissing Crying
English ha ha mwa boo hoo
Mirad hihi mwa-mwa huhu

Non-human Noises edit

Objects edit

Language Balloon bursting Canon, gunfire, machine gun Crash Door or floor creaking Engine back-firing Knocking Dull strike Falling strike Sharp strike Wet strike Crunching, cracking (of sticks, bones, etc.)
English pop kaboom, pow, ra-ta-tat wham, bang bam, crash put-put knock knock, tap tap, bang bang, rap bump, thud, thump plop, splat, thunk clang, clink, clank, clunk, chink, dink, tink, plink, ding, ping, conk splash, splish, splosh, splat crunch, crack
Mirad pop-pop bum-bum krax-krax bam-bam pat-pat bang-bang, tap-tap bop-bop, dump-dump plop-plop, slap-slap cink-cink, tink-tink, konk-konk splax=splax, splox-splox, splak-splak krunc-krunc, krak-krak

Machinery edit

Language Camera shutter Car engine revving Car horn honking Clock ticking Door bell ringing Keyboard striking Telephone ringing Siren wailing Train whistling
English click vroom vroom beep beep tick tock ding dong, bing bong click clack ring ring, ringaling wee-woo, awooga choo choo
Mirad klik-klik vrum-vrum bip-bip tik-tuk din-don klik-kluk riin-riin ninu-ninu cu-cu

Physical and natural phenomena edit

Language Electricity flowing Electric shock Fire Rain Thunder Steam hissing Water dripping Wind blowing
English buzz zap crackle pitter-patter crack, kaboom, rumble psss drip drop, plink plonk swish, whizz, wheeze, howl, sigh
Mirad bzuu-bzuu psiit-psiit knit-knut plip-plop bum-bum psii plik plok kxuu-kxuu, hwuu-hwuu

Animal Noises edit

Animal noises are formed by replacing the final -t of an animal name to a form of -der, eg.:
yepet....dog
yepeder....to bark, to bow-wow
yipet....cat
yipeder....to meow, to mew
eopet....cattle
eopeder....to moo
upyot....wolf
upyoder....to howl
sopyet....snake
syopeder....to hiss
Here is a fuller list. If you replace the final der of the noise word with t, you'll get the animal that produces it.
  • alapyoder....snarl
  • apader....chanticleer, cock-a-doodle-doo, crow
  • apatuder....cheep
  • apayder....cluck
  • apayeder....screech, squeak
  • apaytogder....pule
  • apeder....hinny, neigh, whinny
  • apelader....buzz, drone, thrum
  • apoder....whinny
  • apwader....cock-a-doodle-doo, crow
  • apyader....squawk
  • apyoder....roar
  • awapeider....whistle, toot
  • bepader....warble
  • eopeder....bellow, low, moo
  • epader....quack
  • epeder....bellow, moo, snort
  • epiyeder....rivet, croak
  • epleder....wail
  • epyader....scream
  • epyoder....growl
  • eyepyader....screech
  • gapader....bleep
  • gapiader....honk
  • gapoder....trumpet
  • gapyoder....growl
  • gepiader....cry
  • gipiader....quack
  • gupoder....hum
  • ipader....gobble
  • ipeder....bray, he-haw, heehaw, hehaw
  • ipelader....buzz
  • ipieder....chitter
  • ipweder....bray, hee-haw
  • ipyoder....yelp
  • kalepoder....dook
  • kapeder....eek, squeak
  • kipeder....squeak
  • kipoder....growl
  • mapader....coo, cuckoo
  • mapioder....chitter
  • mepoder....shriek
  • milapoder....trill
  • mipioder....groan
  • nalopelder....chirp, trill
  • napeder....grunt
  • nepiader....clang
  • pader....chirp, peep, tweet
  • poder....bellow, howl, roar, shriek, yell
  • potyader....low
  • rapader....caw
  • repader....scream, caw
  • ripader....chatter
  • sopyeder....hiss
  • syupader....strut
  • tapader....parrot, squawk
  • tapelader....chirp, twitter
  • tapiader....honk
  • tapyoder....gibber
  • tepader....parrot
  • tepelader....chirp, chirrup
  • tepyoder....growl
  • tipelader....chirr
  • tyapoder....chatter
  • upader....honk
  • upeder....baa, bleat
  • upyeder....bellow
  • upyoder....bay, howl, ululate, howl, bay, ululate
  • vapader....beep, pipe
  • vepoder....bellow, blare
  • vipader....zoom
  • vyapoder....snort
  • vyipader....chatter
  • vyipoder....bellow
  • xepader....coo
  • yapeder....grunt, oink, snort, squeal
  • yepeder....bark, go arf-arf, go bow-wow, woof
  • yepiider....creak
  • yepyader....hoot
  • yepyoder....howl with laughter, laugh like a hyena
  • yipeder....meow, mew, purr
  • yopyeder....go to-key, croak
  • yupeder....drum
  • zapader....squall, squeal



Introduction edit

In order to facilitate word-building and to maximize comprehension and decipherability of words, certain meanings and functions have been attached to consonants and vowels.
The vocabulary of Mirad is composed of base words and derived words.
The vocabulary is built on base words, that is, indivisible, building-block words. The choice of the root of these words (formed generally from two or three letters) is determined by:
  • The meaning of each letter of the word.
  • The importance of the group of ideas that this word evokes in its proper sense and in the sense that is directly opposite it, eg.: fixed vs. variable.
  • How frequently the word and its derivations are used in the language.
  • The geometric system of vocabulary construction (see a later section on what this is all about).
  • The logic of its composition.
  • The mnemonic associations this word suggests.
The words derived from base words in turn follow very simple laws called vocabulary-building rules, which are spelled out below.

Base Words edit

Base words are elements of vocabulary that cannot be broken down any further and which serve as the basis for many derived words in the language. Base words are divided into two groups:
  • Group 1:  consisting of nouns
  • Group 2:  consisting of prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, determiners, and verbs.

Base words of Group 1 edit

Base words of Group 1 (nouns) are composed of three letters:
  • The first, a consonant called the classifier
  • The second, a vowel or vowel cluster called the ordinal
  • The third, a consonant called the generic
Examples:


Base Word Composition
CLASSIFIER ORDINAL GENERIC MEANING
t o b man
d o t society
p o t animal
f o b plant

Base words of Group 2 edit

Base words of Group 2 (everything but nouns) are composed of one or two letters, not including grammatical endings. If one letter, it is a consonant or sometimes a vowel(*). If two letters, they consist of a consonant + vowel combination or a vowel + consonant combination. Here are some examples (the hyphen at the end means that the base word does not stand alone, but is followed in usage by a grammatical ending such as -er (verb infinitive marker) or -a (adjective marker):
Some Examples of Group 2 Base Words
b-....put p-....go
s-....be x-....do
d-....say t-....know
ab....on ob....off
bu....to bi....from
if-....love uf-....hate
fi-....good fu-....bad
va....yes vo....no
vya*-....true vyo-....false
a....one o....zero
* As mentioned above, "vowel" in this case may include complex vowels, i.e. those preceded and/or followed by one of the glides y or w. So, for purposes here, ya, ye, yi, yo, yu, wa, and other pre- and post-glided vowels, are considered "complex vowels".

Consonants and Their Meanings edit

The classifier (initial letter) and generic (final letter) in group 1 base words (nouns) are consonants. Also, group 2 base words almost always have one consonant. So, you need to be familiar with the general meaning of the consonants in the Mirad alphabet, as shown in the following chart:
Consonants and Their Meanings
CONSONANT GROUP 1 CLASSIFIER GROUP 1 GENERIC GROUP 2 CLASSIFIER IN NUMBERS
b organ, health organism gesture, position
d society family communicating
f vegetation textile, clothing volition, attributes
g -- measurement quantity, attributes
j time time time
k -- health change, risk, attributes
l -- element, food, liquid -- ten
m nature place, building, furniture temperature, light ml = million
mr = billion
n commerce -- --
p animal, vehicle motion movement
r -- tool, machine -- thousand
s form, image, furniture thing being, form, thing hundred
t human, body person, animal intelligence, knowing
v plant, color linen truth, attributes
x action -- action, doing, making
z -- precious, art spatial, attributes
The following consonants have semantic functions rather than, or in addition to semantic values:
  • l and r:   Liquids used after vowels to intensify the semantics of a word, eg.: baer....to lean, baler....to press, barer....to crush;
  • y:   Glide used 1) before a stem vowel to intensify the semantics of a word, eg. voa....negative -> vyoa....false, or 2) after a vowel to de-intensify the semantics of a word, eg. ama....hot -> ayma....warm.
  • h:   Used functionally only in certain interjections like hoy....goodbye, conjunctions like ven....if, and determiners like his....this, and has no semantic value.
  • w:   Has no semantic value of its own, but is used only 1) to form the masculine gender of nouns and pronouns, eg. tob....person -> twob....man, or 2) to form the passive voice of verbs, eg. uber....to send -> ubwer....to be sent, or 3) to form a numerical unit marker, eg. awa....one, or 4) sometimes to substitute for y when this letter would cause ambiguity or difficulty in pronunciation with other consonants eg. jwo....late, instead of jyo.
  • n:   In addition to its semantic values, functions often 1) as a buffer letter, as in ana....only, or 2) as a suffix to derive a nominal abstraction from an adjective, such as fian....goodness from fia....good, or from a verb, such axnen....behaving from axner....to behave.

Vowels and Their Meanings edit

Vowels in Mirad have meanings or values of the following types:
  • numeric/scalar/hierarchical/taxonomic
  • geo-specific
  • oppositional/polar
  • vectorial
  • directional and positional
  • special

Ordinal Vowel Values edit

The numerical value of ordinal vowels is shown in the chart below. The vowels beginning with y are considered pre-y-glided vowels. These numeric values serve as the "ordinal vowel" in scaled base words. See the section on Vowels.
Numeric Values of Vowels
Ordinal Vowel o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
Cardinal Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Taxonomic Vowel Values edit

Ordinal vowels can be used as the stem vowel in Group 1 base words to form a taxonomic or hierarchical series, eg.:
Taxonomic/Hierarchical Series
RANK TAXONOMIC HIERARCHICAL
0 tob....human fob....plant vob....crop xob....organization dob....state dot....society tod....family
1 tab....body fab....tree vab....grass xab....staff dab....government dat....friend tad....spouse
2 teb....head feb....fruit veb....tuft xeb....boss deb....leader det....associate ted....parent
3 tib....trunk fib....trunk vib....stalk xib....department dib....administration dit....citizen tid....sibling
4 tub....arm fub....branch vub....shoot xub....branch dub....minister dut....gentleman tud....child
5 tyob....leg fyob....root vyob....tuber xyob....base
The words that descend from the base word are called subordinal words.

Scalar Vowel Values edit

Ordinal vowels can also be used as the stem vowel in Group 1 base words to form a scalar series, where each member of the series is a smaller or less important component as it descends.
Scalar Series
ORDER SCALAR
0 mos....masonry som....furniture
1 mas....wall sam....cabinet
2 mes....door sem....table
3 mis....window sim....chair
4 mus....stairs sum....bed

Geo-specific Vowel Values edit

Ordinals can have geo-specific values, that is values, related to the sky, land, sea, outer space, and underground.
Geo-specific Vowel Values
ORDINAL MEANING GEO-SPECIFIC ENTITIES
o outer space, top level mop....orbit mom....outer space mol....nature dop....military
a air, gas, sky map....wind mam....sky mal....air dap....air force
e ground, soil, solid mep....road mem....land mel....soil dep....army
i liquid, water, sea mip....river mim....sea mil....water dip....marines
u underground, mineral, substance mup....tunnel mum....underground mul....mineral

Oppositional (or Polar) Vowel Values edit

In Group 1 and 2 words:
Oppositional Vowel Values
a    ya intermediate i    yi
positive
negative
e    ye positive
negative
o    yo value u    yu
  • positive a contrasts with negative o (av....for vs. ov....against)
  • positive ya contrasts with negative yo (yava....innocent vs. yova....guilty)
  • positive i contrasts with negative u (fia....good vs. fua....bad)
  • positive yi contrasts with negative yu (yiva....free vs. yuva....bound)
  • e and ye are in-between values (eva....neutral, yeva....fair)
Group 1 Oppositional Vowel Values
positive intermediate negative
aga....big ega....normal oga....small
yava....innocent yeva....just yova....guilty
fia....good fua....bad
ava....for eva....neutral ova....against
ifer....love ufer....hate
yifa....brave yufa....afraid
The Group 1 base word bok (illness) represents a set of words that have oppositional vowels:
Group 1 base word with oppositional values
NEGATIVE INTERMEDIATE POSITIVE NEGATIVE POSITIVE
bok....illness
byok....pain
byoyk....ache
brok....agony
book....fatigue
bek....treatment
byek....cure
bak....health
byak....hygiene
baak....sanitation
buk....wound
buyk....sore
bik....care

Vectorial Vowel Values edit

These ordinal vowels have to do with directions, up, down, south, left, etc.
Vectorial Values
a
u e i
o
a....on, above, north (ab....on, zamer....north)
e....center, middle, equator (eb....between, ze....center)
o....off, below, south (ob....off, zomer....south)
i....right, east (zi....right, zimer....east)
u....left, west (zu....left, zumer....west)

Directional and Positional Vowel Values edit

Directional and Positional Vowel Values
A
U a

a

ya
ya
I
u e ye i
u e ye i
yu E yi
yu yi

o
o
yo

yo
O
Explanation of the above chart:
  • If the vowel is capitalized, it indicates a positional value. It is used in its lowercase spelling as a prefix in Group I words.
  • The non-capitalized vowels (including y-glides) indicate directional values.
  • If the vowel is underlined, it means that it is placed before the classifier consonant (prefixed) in verbs
  • Otherwise, a normal vowel means that it is placed after the classifier consonant (infixed) in Group 2 words.
Explanation of the Vowel Meanings Chart
A position on, above, north amer....north
a movement (free) on baer....lean
a movement (contact) onto aber....put on
ya movement (free) up, ascend byaer....lift
ya movement (contact) up, get up, set up yaber....raise
O position under, lower, south omer....south
o movement (free) off boer....hang
o movement (contact) on the bottom of, underneath oper....get off
yo movement (free) down pyoser....fall
yo movement (contact) fall yoper....rise
U position left, west umer....west
u movement (free) move toward the center, come uber....send
u movement (contact) reach the center, arrive pyuer....reach
yu movement (free) near, approach yuber....approach
yu movement (contact) near, reach byuser....touch
I position right, east imer....east
i movement (free) from the center out, go away pier....go away
i movement (contact) from the center out, leave iper....leave
yi movement (free) away, go far yiper....go far
yi movement (contact) from afar, originate pyiser....originate
E position center, equator emer....equator
e rest between eb....between
e rest at, stay, hold bexer....hold
ye movement in, into, enter yeper....enter
ye (contact) contain byeer....contain

Special value of certain vowels edit

The prefixes a- or an- meaning one, sole, singular contrast with
the prefixes ya- or yan- meaning collection, plural.
Also, the prefix yan- meaning together contrasts with yon-....apart.

The Meaning of Group 1 Base Words edit

The meaning of the base words of Group 1 comes from the combination of the values of the classifier and the generic consonants.
The ordinal vowel of those Group 1 base words has a 1) scalar/hierachical, 2) geo-spatial, 3) oppositional, 4) vectorial/positional, or 5) mnemonic values.
The following table shows some Group 1 bases words, the meaning of their consonants, and the type of ordinal vowel scalarity:
Group 1 Zeroth-level Scalar Base Words and Meanings of the Consonants
BASE WORD CLASSIFIER CONSONANT GENERIC CONSONANT SCALARITY TYPE
tob....person t = human b = organism hierarchical
tof....clothing " " " f = fabric scalar
tod....family " " " d = society hierarchical
tom....building " " " m = place vectorial/positional
tov....lingerie " " " v = linen scalar
tol....nourishment " " " l = food oppositional
top....soul, spirit " " " p = motion taxonomic
dob....state d = society b = organism hierarchical
dop....military " " " p = movement geo-specific
dot....society " " " t = human taxonomic
dom....city " " " m = place geo-specific
job....time j = time b....organism hierarchical
fob....vegetation f = vegetable b = organism hierarchical
vob....crop v = plant b = organism hierarchical
vos....flower " " " s = thing hierarchical
volz....color " " " lz = color, art scalar
som....furniture s = thing m = place scalar
mos....masonry m = place, nature s = thing scalar
mor....universe " " " r = machine, system scalar
mom....outer space " " " m = place geo-specific
mol....nature " " " l = substance geo-specific
mop....orbit " " " p = movement geo-specific
pot....animal p = movement t = human, animal geo-specific/scalar
bok....illness b = organ k = condition oppositional
nom....place n = commercial m = place geo-specific
nog....degree " " " g = measurement oppositional
nof....cloth " " " f = cloth scalar
nov....linen " " " v = linen scalar
nod....point " " " d = communication oppositional
xob....organization x = action b = organism hierarchical

Scalar/Hierarchical/Taxonomic Arrangement edit

In the following chart the ordinal vowel o, which is also the cardinal number zero, is the zeroth element of a descending hierarchy of terms. Therefore these noun clusters are called scalar, taxonomic, or hierarchical:
Examples:
The ordinal vowel of each of these base words is an enumeration beginning with o for zero or the top level. As the words progress down the hierarchy. branching can occur as in a tree diagram, where a second ordinal vowel is juxtaposed to the first. Let's take tob....human as an example. The ordinal vowel in this diagram will be replaced with the actual number equivalent. The second-level number or ordinal vowel is underlined.
  • t0b....human    (tob)
  • t1b....body    (tab)
  • t10b....flesh    (taob)
  • t11b....lymph node    (taab)
  • t12b....muscle    (taeb)
  • t13b....bone    (taib
  • t14b....cartilege    (taub)
  • t15b....skin    (tayob)
  • t16b....fat    (tayab)
  • t17b....hair    (tayeb)
  • t18b....nerve    (tayib)
  • t19b....gland    (tayub)
  • t110b....artery    (talob)
  • t111b....joint    (talab)
  • t2b....head    (teb)
  • t21b....eye    (teab)
  • t22b....ear    (teeb)
  • t23b....nose    (teib)
  • t24b....mouth    (teub)
  • t25b....neck    (teyob)
  • t3b....trunk    (tib)
  • t31b....chest    (tiab)
  • t32b....lung    (tieb)
  • t33b....heart    (tiib)
  • t34b....belly    (tiub)
  • t35b....kidney    (tiyob)
  • t36b....bladder    (tiyab)
  • t37b....prostate    (tiyeb)
  • t38b....testicle    (tiyib)
  • t39b....penis    (tiyub)
  • ....
  • t311b....teat    (tilab)
  • ....
  • t4b....arm    (tub)
  • t41b....shoulder    (tuab)
  • t42b....upper arm    (tueb)
  • t43b....elbow    (tuib)
  • t44b....forearm    (tuub)
  • t45b....wrist    (tuyob)
  • t46b....hand    (tuyab)
  • t47b....fist    (tuyeb)
  • t48b....knuckle    (tuyib)
  • t49b....finger    (tuyub)
  • t410b....fingernail    (tulob)
  • t5b....leg    (tyob)
  • t51b....hip    (tyoab)
  • t52b....thigh    (tyoeb)
  • t53b....knee    (tyoib)
  • t54b....tibia    (tyoub)
  • t55b....sole    (tyoyob)
  • t56b....foot    (tyoyab)
  • t57b....heel    (tyoyeb)
  • t58b....ankle    (tyoyib)
  • t59b....toe    (tyoyub)
  • t510b....toenail    (tyolob)

Mnemonic Arrangement edit

Other Group 1 nouns, listed in the chart below, have an ordinal vowel which is not so much geo-physical or hierarchical per se, but rather mnemonic in some fashion. The consonants, especially the classifier consonant, have meanings like those in the above chart.


Other Group 1 Base Words
d = communication
daz
dance
dyaz
ballet
dez
theater
diz
comedy
duz
music
dyez
cinema
drez
poetry
din
story
dun
word
dyun
name
dyan
sentence
dyes
book
dr = write
drof
board
draf
card
dref
paper
drov
cardboard
drav
notebook
drev
page
drar
pencil
drir
typewriter
drur
printer
m = nature
mag
fire
mog
ash
meg
stone
mug
metal
mez
crystal
mak
electricity
mek
powder
mav
flame
mov
smoke
maf
cloud
maj
daytime
moj
night
man
light
mon
dark
n = commerce
naz
value
nas
money
nax
price
nyaz
wealth
nyan
stack
nox
expense
nyox
waste
nex
saving
nyex
storing
nix
earning
nyix
order
nux
pay
nyux
supply
nun
merchandise
nyun
product
nuz
jewel
nem
location
nyem
place
nyeb
box
nab
row
nap
order
j = time
jag
age
jud
date
jod
instance
s = thing
sag
number
saz
sculpture
san
form
saun
kind
son
matter (abstract)
sin
image
siz
painting
sun
thing (concrete)
syan
class
syen
style
syin
subject
syun
object
sar
instrument
sir
machine
sor
engine
sur
motor
t = human / intelligence
taz
statue
tep
mind
top
spirit
tuz
art
toz
skin color
tez
culture
tin
doctrine
tun
science
tyan
class
tyen
trade
tyun
idea
tyez
magic
tos
sensation
tes
meaning
tot
god

The Meaning of Group 2 Base Words edit

The meaning of Group 2 base word stems comes from the combination of the values of the classifier consonant and the ordinal (stem) vowel. The stem does not include adjectival (-a), adverbial (-ay), and verbal inflections (-er, -ser, -xer, etc.), which are shown in a smaller typeface after the stem.
The ordinal (stem vowel) holds oppositional values like positive, intermediary, and negative.
Examples:
Stems of Group 2 Base Words
CLASSIFIER CONSONANT POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE
j
(time)
ja
before
je
during
jo
after
ji
since
ju
until
aj
past
ej
present
oj
future
ij
beginning
uj
end
taj
birth
tej
life
toj
death
tij
awake state
tuj
sleep
jwa
early
jwe
on time
jwo
late
yij
opening
yuj
closing
g
(measurement)
ga
more
ge
equal
go
less
gin
point
gun
angle
aga
big
ega
normal
oga
small
iga
fast
uga
slow
yaga
long
yega
normal
yoga
short
yiga
hard
yuga
soft
gyaa
thick
gyea
enough
gyo-
thin
gyia
solid
gyua
fragile
k
(randomness)
kaxer
find
kexer
seek
koxer
hide
kia
oblique
kua
lateral
aker
win
eker
play
oker
lose
ika
full
uka
empty
yaker
expect
yeker
try
yoker
suprise
yika
difficult
yuka
easy
kyaa
mobile
kyea
haphazard
kyoa
fixed
kyia
heavy
kyua
light
m
(nature)
ama
hot
-- oma
cold
ima
wet
uma
dry
fer
(want, qualities)
fia
good
fua
bad
fyaa
holy
fyea
mythical
fyoa
profane
fyia
useful
fyua
harmful
yafer
be able
yefer
must
yofer
cannot
yifer
dare
yufer
fear
afer
may
efer
need
ofer
be prohibited
ifer
love
ufer
hate
v
(truth, qualities )
va
yes
ve
maybe
vo
no
via
beautiful
vua
ugly
av
for
eva
neutral
ov
against
iva
happy
uva
sad
vyaa
true
vyea
relative
vyoa
false
vyia
clean
vyua
dirty
yava
innocent
yeva
fair
yova
guilty
yiva
free
yuva
captive
z
(spatial)
za
in front of
ze
in the middle of
zo
in back of
zia
right
zua
left
zay
ahead
zey
across
zoy
back, re-
zyaa
wide
zye
through
zyoa
narrow
zyia
flat
zyua
round
aza
strong
eza
moderate
oza
weak
iza
straight
uza
curved
yaza
convex
yez
along
yoza
concave
yiz
beyond
yuz
around
b-er
(put)
baxer
agitate
be(xer)
at, (hold)
boxer
calm
bi(er/xer)
from, (take/pull)
bu(er/xer)
to, (give/push)
ab(er)
on,(put on)
eb(er)
between,(block)
ob(er)
off,(take off)
ib(er)
away,(receive)
ub(er)
toward,(send)
byaser/xer
stand/erect
byexer
tap
byoser/xer
hang/hang
byi(ser)
since,(originate)
byu(ser/xer)
up to,(contact/touch)
yab(er)
up,(raise)
yeb(er)
in,(enter)
oyeb(er)
out,(exit)
yob(er)
down,(lower)
yib(er)
far,(remove)
yub(er)
near,(bring)
per
(go)
paser/xer
move/move
peser/xer
wait/trap
poser/xer
stop/stop
pier/ser/xer
leave/get stuck/catch
puer/ser/xer
arrive/jump/throw
pyaer/ser/xer
hover/jump up/launch
pyeser/xer
encounter/strike
pyoser/xer
fall/drop
pyier
emanate
pyuer/xer
reach/impact
yaper
rise
yeper
enter
yoper
descend
yiper
go far
yuper
approach
aper
get on
eper
intervene
oper
get off
iper
go away
uper
come
ser
(be)
san/s/xer
evolve/make
sexer
build
son/xer
matter/destroy
sin/yn
image/sign
sun/er/xer
thing/provide/realize
aser
become
eser
exist
oser
cease to be
x-er
(do )
xaler
execute
xeler
practice
xoler
fail
xiler
undertake
xuler
provoke
axler
act
exer
function
oxler
abstain
ixer
effect
uxer
cause
yaxer
be busy
yexer
work
yoxer
be idle
yixer
use
yuxer
help
ter/rer/yer
(know/recognize/know how)
taxer
remember
texer
think
toxer
forget
tier/xer
learn/study
tuer/xer
inform/teach
der/rer
(say/write)
daler
talk
deler
state
dyeer
read
doler
be silent
dier/ler/rer
ask/beg/require
duer/ler/rer
suggest/insist/demand
h-
(determiners)
ha(a)
the
hea
some
hoa
which
hia
this
hua
that
hya(a)
all
hyea
any
hyoa
no
hyia
same
hyua
other
(conjunctions) ay
and
ey
or
oy
but
yan
together
yon
apart
(numbers) a
one
e
two
o
zero
i
three
u
four
ya
six
ye
seven
yo
five
yi
eight
yu
nine
(privatives) lo- (dis-/un-)
lyo- (dis-)
oy- (-less)
* Mixed root. taj/tej/toj instead of yaj/yej/yoj, because the human letter root t is more intuitive.
Note: The opposition (y)a-(y)e-(y)o is a three-way opposition with an intermediary sense, but (y)i-(y)u is two-way, without any intermediary sense.

Derived Word Formation Rules edit

Derived words are formed in accordance with certain simple rules of word-building:
These consist of the following rules:
  1. Compounding
  2. Affixation
  3. Ordinal Vowel Scaling
  4. Overlapping
  5. Adding Ordinal Vowels
  6. Swapping Generic Consonants
  7. Marking Words for Gender
  8. Deriving Words with Geo-specific Vowels
  9. Deriving Words with Directional and Positional Vowels
  10. Deriving Words with a Mnemonic Pattern
  11. Deriving Nuanced Words Phonetically

Rule #1: Compounding edit

 
Compound words are obtained through the combination of two or more whole words or stub words. In the combining process, the determining word is placed quite simply in front of the word it determines. Compounds consist mainly of noun + noun, but there can be other part-of-speech combinations.
Examples:
Compounding
COMPONENT 1 COMPONENT 2 COMPOUND
mor....cosmos tun....science, -ology mortun....cosmology
mag....fire yazmel....mountain magyazmel....volcano
dob....state mem....land dobmem....territory
tul....dish dras....something written tuldras....menu
sin....picture dras....something written sindras....description
tam....house kyoxer....to fix (in place) tamkyoxer....to settle
tax....memory drer....to write taxdrer....to record
kyo-....fixed tep-....head kyotepa....stubborn
Sometimes, the first element can be a stub of a whole word, i.e. the word with the final consonant dropped. The word for rain, for example, is ma(m) (sky) + mil (water), where the final consonant of the first word is dropped, thus, mamil.
When compounding an adjective with a noun, if the adjective begins with a vowel, often it will be suffixed to the noun, otherwise prefixed, (but this is not a strict rule), eg:
  • uzra....twisted + tep....mind ---> tepuzra....crazy
  • kyoa....fixed + tep....mind ----> kyotepa....stubborn, obsessed
  • aza....strong + tep....mind ----> tepaza....intelligent
  • fua....bad + tip....mood ----> futipa....cross, ill-tempered
  • aga....big + tip....mood ----> tipaga....magnanimous, generous

Rule #2: Affixation edit

 
Most adverbs and prepositions can be used as prefixes:

Prefixes edit

Adverbs and Prepositions as Prefixes
PREFIX BASE COMPOUND
ja....before per....to go japer....to precede
jo....after per....to go joper....to follow
va....yes der....to say vader....to affirm
jo....after dras....something written jodras....postscript
za....ahead jub....day zajub....tomorrow
yon....apart mel....land yonmel....island
Prepositional prefixes ending in b with verbs per and ber (and their derivations) lose the b before verbal elements based on per (go) and ber (put), as shown in the following chart:
Assimilation of b and p
PREFIX BASE VERB NEW VERB
yab....up ber....put yaber....raise (NOT: yabber)
yab....up per....go yaper....rise (NOT: yabper)
ab....on ber....put aber....put on, apply
ab....on per....go aper....get on, mount
yob....down ber....put yober....take down
yob....down per....go yoper....descend
ob....off ber....put ober....take off, remove
ob....on per....go oper....get off, dismount
yeb....in bux....a push yebux....impulse
yeb....in pyoser....fall yepyoser....collapse
The loss of the b in the above words in one of the only cases of fusion in Mirad's grammar. Mirad is by and large an agglutinative language where building-blocks are juxtaposed with no change of form. Another case of fusion is when so-called stubs are combined. For example, doyijem (public square), which is composed of do(m)....city + yij(a)....open + (n)em....place. The morphemes (= building-block words) of Mirad always have one and only one meaning, unlike in English where the prefix a- can have many different meaninings.
The adjective ending a is often dropped1, as is the er or prefixes taken from verbs. Longish noun prefixes are sometimes clipped, so that tyoyab becomes tyoya-.
Prefixes Built on Words and Word Stubs
PREFIX BASE VERB COMPOUND VERB
oza....weak der....say ozder....whisper
yaga....long der....say yagder....ramble
aja....past der....say ajder....evoke
yoga....short der....say yogder....summarize
tyoyab....foot per....go tyoyaper....walk
dreer....write sar....tool dresar....pencil
tuyob....hand dren....writing tuyodren....manuscript
mam....sky mil....water mamil....rain
1: Sometimes, the adjective ending a is retained when an adjective is compounded with xer or ser. This device may be used to distinguished two differently nuanced verbs. For example, aga + xer can produce agaxer....to magnify or agxer....to grow. Usually, the compound where the adjective suffix has been eclipsed has the more idiomatic meaning.

Most Common Mirad Prefixes edit

Common Prefixes
PREFIX EXAMPLES
a(n)-....north, uni-, number one, up amer....north
anzyuspar....unicycle
antotin....monotheism
adeb....emperor
aa-....arch-, first-, prime aadub....prime minister
aatat....archangel
aavyan....principle
aag-....arch-, proto-, main aagmep....highway
aagdoyab....constitution
aagovekut....archrival
aaj-....paleo-, proto- aajtobtun....paleoanthropology
aajsiyn....fossil
ab-....ad-, arch-, on, super-, sur-, epi- abtob....superman
abtim....attic
abzen....epicenter
agl(a)-....macro- aglamor....macrocosm
agr(a)-....mega(lo)- agravyotos....megalomania
agratoj....megadeath
alo(n)-....deca-, ten- alojaga....ten years old
alojab....decade
alonsuna....decimal
aloy(n)-....deci-, tenth- aloynux....tithe
aloyngoler....decimate
am-....thermo- amzemula....thermonuclear
amvyabxar....thermostat
amlo(n)-....mega- amloagvunak....megavolt
amlotoj....megadeath
amloyn-....micro- amloynjweb....microsecond
anyen-....idio- anyenboka....idiopathic
anyendyan....idiom
anyentepa....idiotic
ao(b/p)-....north-south, up-down, vertical, vertically, y-axis aonab....column, x-y-axis
aopuys yuzpar....hop-on-hop-off bus
aonada....vertical
aoye(b/p)-....in-and-out aoyebar....piston
aoyebelen....import-exports
aoyepaper....fly in and out
aro(n)-....kilo- aronminak....kilometer
arobanak....kilobit
aroyn-....milli- aroynvunak....millivolt
aoynwunak....milliwatt
(a)so(n)....cent- asojagat....centenarian
asolinak....hectoliter
sojab....century
asoy(n)-....cent-, centi- asoygenak....centigram
asoylinak....centiliter
av-....pro- avyaotina....pro-communist
ayb-....above, hyper-, over-, super-, sur- aybteaxut....supervisor
aybtyoyaf....overshoe
ayn-....full-, holo-, whole- aynnuut....wholesaler
aynsin....hologram
aynteptija....fully-conscious
e(b/p)-....inter- ebmos....mezzanine
ebyanmulxer....intermingle
eper....intercede
ejna-....neo- ejnadun....neologism
ejnaobdabin....neocolonialism
e(n)-....ambi-, bi-, di-, duo-, two- entyoba....bipedal
enzyuspar....bicycle
envolza....dichromatic
eon-....duo-, double-, twin- eonin....dualism
eondal....double-speak
eonsum....twin bed
ev-....a-, neutral evdofina....amoral
evdabtuna....apolitical
ey(b/p)-....intra-, among eybmasa....intramural
eybmimkuma....intracoastal
ey(n)-....demi-, half-, hemi-, mixed-, pen-, quasi-, semi- eynzyus....semi-circle
eynzyup....half-turn
eyntilsyeb....demitassee
eynyonmel....peninsula
fi-....bene-, eu-, good-, nice-, well- fixut....benefactor
fidrawa....well-written
fitos...euphoria
fu-....dys-, ill-, mal-, mis-, poorly- futos....dysphoria
futuwa....ill-informed
fuxeyn....malfeasance
fya-....hiero-, holy-, sancti- fyasdresiyn....hieroglyphic
fyader....sanctify
fyatwed....holy father
fye-....mythical, fantasy fyetop....phantom
fyetobet....elfin
fyetexer...fantacize
fyedin....fantasy
fyo-....evil, profane fyotez....occult
fyotat....devil
fyotyez....witchcraft
ga-....re-, again gateaper....revisit
gaaker....regain
garale-....tera- garaleagbanak....terabyte
garalyi-....exa- garalyibanak....exabit
garalyo-....peta- galayoagbanak....petabyte
garela-....zetta- garelaagbanak....zettabyte
garelu-....yotta- gareluagbanak....yottabyte
ge-....equal to, equi-, even- geyafwa....equipollent
genaza....equivalent
gel-....homo-, like-, simul- gelzena....homocentric
gelvolza....homochromatic
geyl-....simul- geyldyan....simile
geylxer....assimilate
gla-....many-, multi-, poly- glatyenika....multi-skilled
glatwada....polyandrous
glavolza....many-hued
glo-....mini-, little-, few- gloduna....succint, of few words
glonixea....low-earning
gorale-....pico- goraleagfenak....picofarad
goralyi-....atto- goralyigenak....attogram
goralyo-....femto- goralyoon....quadrillionth
goralyu-....nano- goralyusonak....nanosecond
gorela-....zepto- gorelagenak....zeptogram
gorelu-....yocto- gorelugenak....yoctogram
gra-....extra-, hyper-, over-, ultra- gratosea....hypersensitive
grazoyaxler....overreact
granoxea....extravagant
gro-....hypo-, under- groyixlawa....underemployed
groaman....hypothermia
gwa-....hyper-, maxi-, -most, pleisto-, uber-, ultra-, pure gwayelza....pure pink
gwayafa....supreme
gwauja....ultimate
gwazoa....hindmost
gwo-....least-, mini- gwosag....minimum
gwoyuzpur....minibus
hi-....hither, these, this his....this
hisi....these
him....here
hya(s)-....pan(to)-, omni-, all-, every- hyas....everthing
hyati....all of them
hyastea....omniscient
hyataadifa....pansexual
hu-....that hus....that
huj....then
huyen...that way
huim-....here-and-there, here-and-yon huimkexer....search high and low
huimpaper....fly here and there
hyuimpoper....travel here-and-there
huu-....so, such huugla....so, so very
hus....such
huyen....in such a way, so, thus
hyaewa-....ambi- hyaewati....both of them
hyaewaziza....ambidextrous
hyaewatoobifa....ambi-sexual
hye-....-ever, any, whatever, whichever hyem....anywhere, wherever
hyempea....erratic
hjej....ever, anytime
hyi-....homo-, like-, same hyitoobifa....homosexual
hyis....same thing
hyij....at the same time
hyo(s)-....nothing, a- hyostosea....apathetic
hyu(t/s)-....alter-, hetero-, other-, xeno-, else hyutoobifa....heterosexual
hyua....another, alternate
hyutufa....xenophobic
hyus....something else
hyui(t/s)-....cross-, mutual, one thing and another, reciprocal hyuitvikaxen....mutual admiration
hyuixer....reciprocate
hyuisa....mutual, reciprocal
hyuitif....mutual love
i-....toward the speaker iber....receive
ik-....fully, thoroughly iktoxer....forget completely
iktos....satisfaction
ikyebixer....engulf, swallow up completely
i(n)-....three-, tri-, tripl-, tern- inzyuspar....tricycle
inaga....three-dimensional
injiba....trimensual
insuna....ternary
intotan....trinity
iyn-....terci-, third iyna....terciary
iynxer....cut into thirds
iz-....ortho-, recti-, right-, straight- iznada....rectilinear
izguna....orthogonal
iztin....orthdoxy
izdea....forthright
ja-....ante-, fore-, pre- jaupya....foregone
jauper....precede
jadropeka....antebellum
jo-....after-, meta-, post- joexlen....postprocessing
jomir....metasphere
jotej....afterlife
jwa-....early-, eo-, preter-, proto- jwaber....prepare
jwader....warn, premonish
jwadodin....early history, protohistory
jwamola....preternatural
jwajoeb....eocene
jwo-....ceno-, late-, latter-, tard- jwonux....late payment
jwoa....tardy
jwoteja....cenozoic
ko-....cover-, hidden, secret-, stealth- koa....covert
koexut....spy
koyeper....sneak in
kovyo-....pseudo- kovyotun....pseudoscience
ku-....para- kuifut....paramour
keteliut....parasite
kuteptun....parapsychology
kya-....alternate, dia-, re-, trans-, vari-, cross- kyaember....relocate
kyajoba....diachronic
kyatajnad....crossbreed
kyatooba....transgendered
kyavolza....variegated, motley
kyao-....falteringly, unsteadily kyaoper....stagger
kyaotexer....vacillate
kye-....chance-, hap-, random- kyea....haphazard
kyebyus....chance encounter
kyeteater....happen to see
kyesauna....of a random type
kyo-....fixed-, still-, stereo-, stat- kyosaun....stereotype
kyopa....stable, static, stationary
kyoson....status
lo-....dis-, semantic reversing prefix, un- lozeb....disequilibrium
loyuvlaxer....disengage
loyuzyuber....uncoil
lomulvyusber....decontaminate
ma-....bright- mateaba....bright-eyed
mial-....hygro- mialama....hygrothermal
mil-....aqua-, hydro-, water- milyexun....aquaculture
milmaka....hydroelectric
miltilsyeb....water glass
mul-....hylo-, substance mulsana....hylomorphic
o(l)-....a-, dis-, non-, south, un-, in- ovyilxwa....unwashed
omalza....non-white
ototina....atheist
otepzexea....inattentive
omira....southern
olo
o(b/p)-....de-, hypo-, off-, sub-, vice- oper....get off
obneg....sublevel
obxeb....sous-chef, sub-officer
ogel-....hetero- ogelsauna....heterogenous
ogl(a)-....micro- oglamor....microcosm
oglateaxer....microscope
ov-....contra-, counter-, dis-, non-, the opposite of, un- ovalxer....countervail
ovper....contravene
ovkyin....counterweight
ovdat....enemy
olovmasbwa....undefended
oy-....-less, a(n)-, without oytofa...naked
oyxer....deprive
oytosen....apathy
oyteupiba....toothless
oyb-....hypo-, infra-, sub-, under- oybnadrer....underline
oybtomsan....infrastructure
oybseuxa....subsonic
oybtayoba....hypodermic
oyeb-....ex-, extra-, out- oyebnad....outline
oyebyujber....exclude
oyebdoabuer....extradite
oyeyb-....extra- oyeybdovyaba....extralegal
oyeybtadiena....extramarital
oyv-....contra-, opposite, reverse oyvkuma...opposite
oyvder....contradict
oyvduer....contraindicate
oyvaxer....reverse
tayi(b)-....neuro-, nerve tayibteptun....neuropsychology
tayibyok....neuralgia
teeb-....auri-, oto-, ear- teebbekut....aurist
teeteiteyobtut....otorhinolaryngologist
teebyel....earwax
tee(sxt)-....audio-, son-, phono- teesnagen....audiography
teestaxdras....phonogram
teestun....audiology
teexdras....audiogram
teetyofwa....inaudible
tei-....nasal, nose, rhino-, aroma-, olfact-, osmo- teibbok....rhinitis
teibyeg....nostril
teiz....perfume
teizuka....aroma-free
teityaf....olfactory sense
tiibil-....blood-, hema-, hemato-, hemo-, sanguin- tiibililp....hemorrhage
tiibiliut....bloodsucker
tiibloker....exsanguinate
tiibiltun....hematology
tuj-....hypno-, somni-, sopor- tujbek....hyptotherapy
tujbyea....somniferous, soporific
u-....away from the speaker uber....send
ui-....horizontal, left-right, x-axis uinab....row, x-axis
uinada....horizontal
uib-....back-and-forth, toward-and-away, transmit-receive uibar....transceiver
uig-....fast-and-slow uigpar....scooter
uij-....begin-and-end, start-and-stop uijdaler....stutter
uip-....come-and-go uipen....traffic, coming and going
uiz-....straight-then-crooked uizbaser....swagger
uizdrer....scribble
uizpaser....swerve
u(n)-....four-, quadri-, tetra-, quater- ungona....quadripartite
unnednid....tetrahedron
unsuna....quaternary
uyn-....fourth-, quarti- uynxer....quarter
uynjab....quarter (of a year)
ut-....auto-, self-, sui-, ego- utifon....egoism
utgober....autodecrement
utfuyix....self-abuse
uttujben....suicide
va-....yes- vayovder....convict
vabier....accept
vatexer....believe
vao-....yes-no vaoder....decide
vaodaler....waffle
vaonaza....boolean
vi-....bell-, eu-, fine-, pulchri- vituzyan....fine arts, beaux arts
vidun....euphemism
vidrenyan....literature, belles lettres
visuana....classic
vo-....non-, neg- voyafxer....veto
voxer....negate
voyovder....acquit, declare not guilty
vya-....justi-, recti-, true-, reg- vyadin....true story
vyader....avow
vyamol....essence
vyak-....ortho-, correct- vyakdred....orthography
vyakxer....correct
vyo-....mis-, para-, wrong- vyoyufa....paranoid
vyoyux....perfidy
vyoyixer....misuse
ya-....more than one, multi- yaota....communal
yab-....hyper-, supra-, sur-, up-, upper- yabdom....uptown
yabdoneg....upper class
yabduzneg....high pitch
yabexer....support
yabzyobix....hypertension
yabnan-....height-, hypso-, alti- yabnanagar....hypsometer, altimeter
yag-....long- yagyiban....long distance
yagyeker....strive
yagblokea....long-suffering
yan-....co(n)-, fellow-, -mate yanzena....concentric
yanyeker....compete
yandit....fellow-citizen
yao(b/p)-....up-and-down yaopuyser....skip
yaopsim....seesaw
yaoblir....elevator
yaobaser....bounce
yaon-....six-, hexa-, sex- yaonat....sextet
haongun....hexagon
yaona....six-fold, sextuple
yaov-....guilty-or-innocent yaovder....adjudicate
yaovdutyan....jury
yaovkader....plead
yaovyek....trial
yaoz-....serrated, bumpy, jagged yaozaxer....serrate
yaozgoblar....saw
yaozper....bump along
yayb-....supra- yaybdooba....supranational
yayn-....sex-, sixth yayna...sixth
ye(on)-....hept-, hepta-, septi-, seven- yejub....week
yeongun....heptagon
yeonat....septuplet
ye(b/p)-....en-, endo-, in-, intra-, intro- yebuzaser.....inflect
yebzoytiibufa....intravenous
yebyujer....enclode
yebtayoba....endodermal
yeper....enter
yeber....introduce
yeg-....anew, re- yegxer....redo
yeov-....fair or not yeovdut....umpire
yeyb-....intra- yeybmepyan....intranet
yeybdoeba....intrastate
yeyn-....seventh yeynxer....split into sevenths
yi(on)-....oct-, eight- yiona...eight-fold
octuple
yib-....far-, tele-, remote yibsin....televison
yibteata....far-sighted
yibtrawa....famous
yibaj-....archai-, archeo-, ancient yibajtun....archaeology,yibajtun....archeology
yiyn-....eighth yiynxer....divide into eighths
yiz-....beyond, extra-, meta-, out-, para-, past, super-, supra-, trans-, ultra- yiztyun...metaphor
yizeza....paranormal
yizmeirat....extraterrestrial
yizseux....utrasound
yo(on)-....five-, penta-, quint- yoongun....pentagon
yoongol...quintile
yoon....group of five
quintet
yo(b/p)-....down-, hypo-, sub- yobdom...downtown
yoper....go down
yobgoler....subdivide
yon-....apart, dis-, se- yonzyaber....disperse
yonxer....separate
yonsauna....distinct
yoyn-....fifth-, quinti- yoynnaga....quintic
yoyn....a fifth
yu(o)(n)-....nine-, nona- yunapa....ninth (in order)
yungunid....nonagon
yunkunid....nonahedron
yub-....near-, proxi- yuboj....near future
yubna....next
yubteas....closeup (view)
yubge....almost
yubfia....intimate
yubgeser....approximate
yui(b/p)-....near-and-far yuibjo....sooner or later
yuibteabar....bifocals
yuipoper....travel near and far
yuij-....open-and-shut yuijar....valve
yuijer....blink, wink
manyuijer....blink
makyuijar....switch
yuyb-....quasi-, pen- yuybyonmel....peninsula
yuybega....quasi-normal
yuyn-....ninth-, novi- yuonat....nonuplet
yuz-....circ-, circum-, peri-, roto-, round- yuzper....circulate
yuznad....perimeter
yuzof....wrap-around
yuznadrer....circumscribe
za-....ante-, fore-, front-, pre-, pro- zatim....antechamber
zamimuf....foremast
zagab....prefix
zajuber....procrastinate
zao-....back-and-forth, front-and-back zaopaser....wobble
zaokuper....slalom
zaopyoser....pendulate
zay-....forth-, pro-, forward, ahead zaypuyser....skip ahead
zaypuxer....propel
zayper....go forward, procede
zayupea....forthcoming
ze-....mid-, central, medio- zetej....midlife
zepoxer....interrupt, stop midway
zetem....central hall
zey-....cross-, meta-, over-, trans-, across zeyper....transit, get across
zeynod....crosspoint
zeytyun....metaphor
zi-....right, east zim....right side
zimera....eastern
zo-....back-, hind-, retro- zotib....back
zotiub....hindquarters
zonapa....retrograde
zoy-....back-, retro-, re- zoyper....recede, go back
zoybeler....carry back
zoyzyublen....backspin
zu-....left-, west- zutinut....leftist
zukum....left side
zumera....western
zui-....left-and-right, zig-zag, east-west zuibyoser....dangle, hang left-and-right
zuiper....zigzag
zuituyaba....ambidextrous
zuimera....east-west
zya-....-wide, wide-, broad-, all about zyauber....broadcast
zyateaba....wide-eyed
zyasauna....general
zyapoper....cruise, wander
zyamira....global, worldwide
zye-....per-, thorough-, thru-, trans- zyetejer....live through, experience
zyeteaxer....peruse
zyeteatyafwa....transparent
zyemep....thoroughfare
zyeper....permeate, transit
zyo-....narrow zyotepa....narrow-minded
zyoteat....tunnel vision
zyu-....cyclo-, roto-, round- zyutim....rotunda
zyusem....roundtable
zyuper....cycle, gyrate, rotate

Suffixes edit

Mirad has semantic stub suffixes, derivational suffixes, and normal semantic suffixes.


Semantic Stub Suffixes
Semantic stub suffixes are generally formed from the last letters of a base word minus the initial consonant. They serve to put a word into some category, such as liquid, place, person, or material.
Semantic Stub Suffixes
SUFFIX STUB SUFFIX FULL FORM SUFFIXED EXAMPLE < BASE WORD
-il....liquid, drink mil....water teabil....tear  <  teab....eye
teubil....saliva  <  teub....mouth
tayebil....sweat  <  tayeb....skin
mamil....rain  <  mam....sky
-al....gas mal....air tiebal....breath  <  tieb....lung
-(e)l....food tel....food yapel....pork  <  yapet....swine
taol  <  taob....flesh
fel  <  feb....fruit
-ul....stuff mul....substance vixul....cosmetic  <  vix-....to beautify
bekul....medecine  <  bek....treatment
-yel....oil, gel, wax, pulp yel....oil kafyel....olive oil  <  kaf-....olive
apelatyel....wax  <  apelat....bee
magyel....grease  <  mag....fire
bekyel....salve  <  bek....treatment
megyel....cement  <  meg....stone
yanyel....paste  <  yan....together
-am....house tam....house apatam....chicken coop  <  apat....chicken
apelatam....beehive  <  apelat....bee
melyexam....farmhouse  <  melyex....agriculture
datibam....hostel  <  datib....guest-reception
-(e)m....place nem....place vobyexem....plantation, farm  <  vob....plant + yex....work
vabem....field  <  vab....grass
abem....top, surface  <  ab....above, upper
zem....middle  <  ze(a)....middle
tim....room
-im....room tim....room tulim  <  tul....cuisine
tujim....bedroom  <  tuj....sleep
-um....cell, booth tum....compartment pexum....cage  <  pexer....catch
ilzyapixum....shower stall  <  ilzyapix....shower
-yem....space nyem....enclosure yomyem....icebox  <  yom....ice
-yeb....container nyeb....container zyeb....bottle  <  zye(f)....glass
vosyeb....vase  <  vos....flower
-of....material nof....cloth tof....clothes  <  t-....human
misof....curtain  <  mis....window
faof....wood  <  fa(b)-....tree
tayof....leather  <  tayo(b)....skin
-ov....linen nov....linen teyov....collar  <  teyob....neck
-ar....instrument sar....tool par....cart  <  p-....motion
zyupar....rotor  <  zyup....turn
gobrar....knife  <  gobrar....cut
jwobar....watch  <  jwob....hour
-ir....machine sir....machine drir....typewriter  <  dr-....write
gwobir....clock
-ur....large machine sur....engine purr....car
jwoburr....grandfather clock  <  jwob....hour
-(u)n....thing sun....thing dun....word  <  d-....utter, say
gofrun....piece, scrap  <  gofrer....rip, shread, tear
zyiun....plaque, plate  <  zyia....flat
vyun....spot  <  vyua....dirty
-on....abstract thing son....issue yovon....tort, wrong  <  yov....guilt
yen....manner, kind byen....manner texyen....opinion  <  tex....thought
hiyen....this way, thus  <  hi-....this
esyen....status  <  es-....exist
-in....-ism tin....doctrine totin....theism, religion  <  tot-....god
Kristin....Christianity  <  Krist....Christ
vyisatin....puritanism  <  vysiat....puritan, clean person
otofin....nudism  <  otofa....nude
-uf....cylinder object fuf....pipe manuf....candle  <  man....light
tiibuf....artery  <  tiib....heart
miluf....toilet  <  mil....water
movuf....cheminee  <  mov....smoke
-uv....cylinder object fuf....pipe suv....nail, peg, stud  <  s-....furniture
muv....rod  <  m-....masonry
-ab....government dab....government ditab....democracy  <  dit....citizen
-eb....leader deb....leader xeb....boss  <  x-....do
tameb....master of the house  <  tam....house
-ub....branch tub....arm patub....wing  <  pat....bird
-ad....language -a + d(alzeyn)....language Fransad....French (language)
-uz....jewelry nuz....jewel teyobuz....necklace  <  teyob....neck
teebuz....earring  <  teeb....ear
-u(er)....give buer....give tiebaluer....exhale  <  tieb....lung + al....air
-i(er)....take bier....take tiebalier....inhale  <  tieb....lung + al....air
-ui(er)....exchange buier....exchange tiebaluier....breathe  <  tieb....lung + al....air


Derviational Suffixes edit

Mirad has only a few derivational suffixes, i.e. suffixes that change the part of speech.
Derivational Suffixes
DERIVATIONAL
SUFFIX
FUNCTION BASE WORD

--> SUFFIXED
DERIVATION
-er NOUN
--> VERBAL INFINITIVE
sag....count
-->
sager....to count
-n PRESENT TENSE VERB
--> VERBAL NOUN (GERUND)
ADJECTIVE
--> ABSTRACT NOUN
yexe....(he/she/...) works
-->
yexen....working
via....beautiful
-->
vian....beauty
yuba....near
-->
yuban....proximity, nearness
-a NOUN
--> ADJECTIVE
ACTIVE VERB
--> VERBAL ADJECTIVE (PRESENT PARTICIPLE)
PAST PASSIVE VERB
--> PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE (ADJECTIVE)
mor....universe
-->
mora....universal
ake....wins
-->
akea....winning
teatwa....was seen
-->
teatwaa (or, shortened to: teatwa....seen)
-ya INTRANSITIVE VERB STEM
--> PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
ip-....go away
-->
ipya....gone away
-yea VERB STEM
--> HABITUAL PRESENT PARTICIPLE (ADJECTIVE)
zaypas-....progress
-->
zaypasyea....progressive
-y ADJECTIVE
--> ADVERB
iga....quick
-->
igay....quickly
tea-....knowing
-->
teay....knowingly
-ut VERB STEM
--> ANIMATE AGENT NOUN one who Xes, -er
ak-....win
-->
akut ....winner
-us VERB STEM
--> INANIMATE AGENT NOUN thing that Xes, -er
gol-....divide
-->
golus ....divisor
*Derivational affixes change the part of speech of a base word, whereas inflexional affixes change the status of a word within a grammatical paradigm. Verb tense/mood/voice affixes and the plural marker -i fall under the latter category.

Normal Semantic Suffixes edit

  • Augmentative Suffixes
Augmentative Suffixes
AUGMENTATIVE SUFFIX BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-ag (augmentative) tam....house tamag....mansion
-ayg (affectionate augmentative) sem....chair semayg....big old chair
-yag (pejorative augmentative) apet....horse apetyag....nag
  • Diminutive Suffixes
Diminutive Suffixes
DIMINUTIVE SUFFIX BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-og (diminutive) tam....house tamog....hut
-oyg (affectionate diminutive) tam....house tamoyg....cottage
-yog (pejorative diminutive) tam....house tamyog....shack
-et (a smaller person) twob....man twobet....boy
-es (thing of lesser importance) nas....money nases....change, coin
-ud (child of, offspring) tob....man tobud....infant
  • Semantic Adjectival Suffixes
Semantic Adjectival Suffixes
ADJECTIVAL SUFFIX MEANING BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-a mor....universe related to, -al, -ic mora....universal
-aya miek....dust full of, -ous, -y miekaya....dusty
-oya vyun....spot empty of, -less, -free vyunoya....spotless
-ika miek....dust full of, -ous, -y miekika....dusty
-uka miek....dust empty of, -less, -free miekuka....dust-free
-yea vyod....lie given to doing X, -ive vyodyea....mendacious, given to lying
-yena tat....angel like, -ly, -ic tatyena....angelic
  • Other Semantic Suffixes
Other Semantic Suffixes
SUFFIX BASE WORD DERIVATION
-tun....science, ...ology tej....life tejtun....biology
-tut....-ologist, expert, -ist dar....language dartut....linquist
-tuin....theory tob....mar martuin....astrology
-yan....collection, aggregate fab....tree fabyan....forest
-tyen....trade, -ics sir....machine sirtyen....mechanics
-if....pet name twed....father twedif....papa
ifa....-philic, -loving dyes....book dyesifa....bibliophilic
ifwa....liked by tyod....people tyodifwa....popular
ufa....-phobic, -hating toyb....woman toybufa....misogynous
ufwa....hated by tyod....people tyodufwa....unpopular
yafa....able to tyoyap-....walk tyoyapyafa....ambulatory
yafwa....possible to teat-....see teatyafwa....visible
yofa....unable to teat-....see teatyofa....blind
yofwa....impossible to dye-....read dyeyofwa....illegible
yika....hard of...ing teet-....hear teetyika....hard of hearing
yikwa....hard to teet-....hear teetyikwa....hard to hear
yuka....easy at...ing vatex-....believe vatexyuka....gullible
yukwa....easily...ed test-....understand testyukwa....easily understood
yufa....fearful of, -phobic tot....god totyufa....god-fearing
yufwa....feared hyat....everybody hyatyufwa....feared by all
yiva....free to kebi-....choose kebiyiva....free to choose
efa....needful of tel....food telefa....hungry
efwa....necessary to tej....life tejefa....vital
yefa....duty-bound to, -worthy of dud....answer dudyefa....responsible
yefwa....due, -worthy of fid-....laud fidyefwa....praiseworthy
afa....authorized to dokebi-....vote dokebiafa....franchised
ofwa....prohibited to movi-....smoke moviofwagonem....no-smoking zone
yiva....free to kebi-....choose kebiyiva....free to choose
yivwa....free to be ...ed kebi-....choose kebiyivwa....optional
yuva....bound tam....house tamyuva....house-bound
ova....resistant, anti- aagdovyab....constitution aagdovyabova....anti-constitutional
ava....in favor of, pro- tyodab....democracy tyodabava....pro-democracy
eva....neutral toos....gender tooseva....gender-neutral

Rule #3: Ordinal Vowel Scaling edit

Creating a hierarchy of scalar terms applies only to base words of the Group 1. The hierarchy of scalar terms is built by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel of the base word as the importance or relevance of the word decreases from the topmost, zeroth object. This process is called first-level ordinal scaling.

First-level Ordinal Scaling edit

First-level Ordinal Scaling
ORDINAL VOWEL t...b m...r j...b m...s t...m d...b f...b s...m d...t t...d
o = 0 tob
man
mor
universe
job
time
mos
floor
tom
building
dob
state
fob
plant
som
furniture
dot
society
tod
family
a = 1 tab
body
mar
sun
jab
year
mas
wall
tam
house
dab
government
fab
tree
sam
armoire
dat
friend
tad
spouse
e = 2 teb
head
mer
planet
jeb
season
mes
door
tem
hall
deb
leader
feb
fruit
sem
table
det
associate
ted
parent
i = 3 tib
trunk
mir
earth
jib
month
mis
window
tim
room
dib
office
fib
tree trunk
sim
chair
dit
citizen
tid
sibling
u = 4 tub
arm
mur
moon
jub
day
mus
stairs
tum
cell
dub
minister
fub
branch
sum
bed
dut
gentleperson
tud
child
yo = 5 tyob
leg
jyob*
hour
fyob
root
tyod
people
* The palatal glide y in these words, which follows a palatal j is hard to pronounce, so the y is replaced with a w, giving jwob, jwab, and jweb.

Second-level Ordinal Scaling edit

A second-level hierarchy of scalar words can be creating by adding a vowel immediately after the ordinal vowel of the word stem.
Examples:
Second-level Ordinal Scaling
mi...p me...p tu...b tyo...b ma...f me...g do...b
mip
river
mep
way
tub
arm
tyob
leg
maf
cloud
meg
stone
dob
state
miap
stream
meap
road
tuab
shoulder
tyoab
hip
maaf
stratus
meag
marble
doab...fatherland
miep
brook
meep
path
tueb
upper arm
tyoeb
thigh
maef
cumulus
meeg
slate
doeb
province, state
miip
rivulet
meip
trail
tuib
elbow
tyoib
knee
maif
stratocumulus
meig
granite
doib
county, shire
miup
torrent
meup
track
tuub
forearm
tyoub
shin
mauf
cumulonimbus
meug
clay, dough
doub
district
miyop
trickle
tuyob
wrist
tyoyob
ankle
mayof
nimbostatus
meyog
china
tuyab
hand
tyoyab
foot
mayaf
altostratus
meyag
chalk
tuyeb
fist
tyoyeb
heel
mayef
altocumulus
meyeg
limestone
tuyib
palm
tyoyib
sole
mayif
cirrus
meyig
alabaster
tuyub
finger
tyoyub
toe
mayuf
cirrostratus
meyug
gypsum
tulob
fingernail
tyolob
toenail
malof
cirrocumulus

Third-level Ordinal Scaling edit

A third-level hierarchy can be created by prefixing a third ordinal number vowel to the word.
Example:
Third-level Ordinal Scaling
tuyub....finger
atuyub....thumb
etuyub....index
ituyub....middle finger
utuyub....ring finger
yotuyub....pinky
So, to sum up, we have:
Summary of Scaling
t...b tob = human being
FIRST-LEVEL tub....arm
SECOND-LEVEL tuyub....finger
THIRD-LEVEL atuyub....thumb

Scaling with Prefixed Numbering edit

We can also obtain a very convenient classification for new words through prefixed numbering even though there is no first-level or second-level numbering. In this case, the first subordinal level usually begins with a.
Example:
Prefix Numbering
NUMBER dob....state pet....animal deb....leader mez....gem mer....planet maf....cloud sagtun....mathematics
1 adob....empire apet....horse adeb....emperor amez....diamond Amer....Mercury amaf....nimbus asagtun....arithmetic
2 edob....kingdom epet....bull edeb....king emez....topaz Emer....Venus emaf....stratus esagtun....geometry
3 idob....principality ipet....ass ideb....prince imez....ruby Imer....Earth imaf....nimbostatus isagtun....algebra
4 udob....duchy upet....ram udeb....duke umez....emerald Umer....Mars umaf....cumulus usagtun....trigonometry
5 yodob....marquisate yopet....goat yodeb....marquis yomez....saphire Yomer....Jupiter yomaf....cumulostatus yosagtun....calculus
6 yadob....county yapet....pig yadeb....count yamez....lapis lazuli Yamer....Saturn yamaf....stratocumulus
7 yedob....dominion yepet....dog yedeb....lord yemez....amthyst Yemer....Uranus yemaf....altocumulus
8 yidob....viscounty yipet....cat yideb....viscount yimez....amber Yimer....Pluto yimaf....altostratus
9 yudob....barony yupet....rabbit yudeb....baron yumez....topaz yumaf....cirrocumulus
10 alodob....tribe alodeb....tribal chief alomez....opal alomaf....cirrus

Rule #4: Overlapping edit

When combining two words, if the generic (final) consonant of the first word is the same as the classifier (first) consonant of the second word, the generic consonant of the determining word is dropped. This results in overlapping or a portmanteau.
Examples:
Overlapping in Compounds
FIRST WORD SECOND WORD PORTMANTEAU
dom....city mep....road domep....boulevard
pat....bird teub....mouth pateub....beak
pat....bird tub....arm patub....wing
teypib....tooth byok....pain teypibyok....toothache
In some cases, this type of overlapping can cause ambiguity, and is therefore avoided.

Rule #5: Adding Ordinal Vowels edit

When forming a compound word with the words of a same family of terms, if the ordinal vowel is an o, replace it with the ordinal vowel of the determinant word.
Examples:
  • edob....kingdom -> deb....chief -> edeb....monarch (edweb....king, edeyb....queen)
  • udob....principality -> deb....chief -> udeb....prince (udweb....prince, udeyb....princess)
By contrast, if the two words are already ordered, the vowel of the determinant (first word) is inserted between the ordinal vowel of the determined (second) word and the generic (final) consonant:
Examples:
mil....water + mal....air -> mial....vapor, steam

Rule #6: Swapping Generic Consonants edit

When the generic (final) consonant of a base word is replaced by that of another base word, the entire family of the latter undergoes the transformation by the new generic consonant.
Example:
Swapping Generic Consonants
BASE WORD 1 BASE WORD 2 DERIVED WORD
tob....human nov....linen tov....lingerie
tab....body nof....cloth taf....suit
teb....head nof....cloth tef....hat
tib....trunk nof....cloth tif....vest
tyoyab....foot nof....cloth tyoyaf....shoe
tyoyab....foot nov....linen tyoyav....sock
tuyab....hand nof....cloth tuyaf....glove
doob*....nation nof....cloth doof....flag
taob*....flesh tol....food taol....meat
* This is a derived, not base, word, but the principle holds.

Rule #7: Marking Words for Gender edit

Words in Mirad are neutral with respect to gender, but specifically masculine or feminine gender can be marked in nouns and pronouns with the use of the masculine infix w and the feminine infix y. If the noun or pronoun is animate, then gender can marked. If the noun or pronoun is inanimate, then it can be marked for predominate use by or reference to a male or female.
  • To make a neutral animate noun or pronoun specifically male, precede the ordinal (stem) vowel with w.
  • To make a neutral animate noun or pronoun specifically female, follow the ordinal (stem) vowel with y.
Examples:
Marking Animate Nouns for Gender
GENDER NEUTRAL MALE FEMALE
tob....human being twob....man toyb....woman
tobet....young person twobet....boy toybet....girl
ted....parent twed....father teyd....mother
it....he/she/it wit....he iyt....she
apat....cock apwat....rooster apayt....hen
toob....gender twoob....male tooyb....female
  • Inanimate objects, such as items of clothing or body pats, can be "feminized" in a similar way. In such a case, the feminized form refers to an object that is for woman, rather than men, eg.:
Making Inanimate Objects Female-related
MALE-ORIENTED OR NEUTRAL FEMALE-ORIENTED
taf....suit tayf....dress
tyoyav....sock tyoyayv....stockings
tiav....shirt tiayv....blouse
  • Some body parts can be marked for maleness or femaleness:
Body Parts Genderized
NEUTRAL MALE-ORIENTED FEMALE-ORIENTED
tilab....breast twilab....male breast tilayb....female breast
twiyib....testicals tiyiyb....ovary
tiyub....sexual organ twiyub....penis tiyuyb....vagina
  • In nouns that end in -ut, the agentive suffix meaning -er, one who..., the nouns can be feminized by changing -ut to -uyt, eg. dezut....actor -> dezuyt....actress. Because the stem of such words is often a verb, prefixing -ut with w to make it specifically male is normally not done, because the w can sometimes be confused with the passive voice marker. For this reason, a word like dezut can mean actor of neutral or male gender.
  • Animate nouns having the ending -et (smaller version of some person), are genderized by adding w or y to the semantic base of the word, eg. tobet....child, youth -> toybet....girl or twobet....boy.

Rule #8: Deriving Words with Geo-specific Vowels edit

A series of related words can be derived from a Group 1 base word by replacing the ordinal vowel with one of the following vowels, which have certain specific geographic meanings.
Geo-specific Vowels:
  • o  =  outer space, abstract object, initial stuff
  • a  =  sky, air, gas
  • e  =  land, soil, solid
  • i  =  sea, water, liquid
  • u  =  underground, mineral, concrete object, other
Examples:
Deriving Words with Geo-specific Vowels
m...p m...m d...p p...t m...l m...r
Space mop....orbit mom....space dop....military pot....animal mol....nature mor....universe
Sky map....wind mam....sky dap....air force pat....bird mal....air mar....star
Land mep....road mem....land dep....army pet....land animal mel....soil mer....planet
Water mip....river mim....sea dip....marine force pit....fish mil....water mir....world
Underground (or other) mup....tunnel mum....underground mul....mineral mur....moon
This vowel codification also allows generating other categories of words by infixing, just before the generic (final) consonant, a vowel having the value that is attributed to it in Rule #9. This creates "hybrid" nouns. See the chapter on Hybrids for more on this subject.
Examples:
Hybrid nouns
FIRST-LEVEL DERIVATION + GEOSPECIFIC VOWEL SECOND-LEVEL DERIVATION
pet....land animal i....water, sea peit....aquatic mammal
pelt....insect a....air, sky pelat....flying insect
mel....soil i....water, sea meil....mud
mil....air a....air, gas mial....vapor

Rule #9: Deriving Words with Vectorial Vowels edit

The rule for deriving words with vectorial ( = directional and positional) vowels starts with the following schema:
Vectorial Vowel Values
A
U a

a

ya
ya
I
u e ye i
u e ye i
yu E yi
yu yi

o
o
yo

yo
O
Explanation of the above chart:
  • If the vowel is capitalized, it indicates a positional value. It is used in its lowercase spelling as a prefix in Group I words.
  • The non-capitalized vowels (including y-glides) indicate directional values.
  • If the vowel is underlined, it means that it is placed before the classifier consonant (prefixed) in verbs and involves contact.
  • Otherwise, a normal vowel means that it is placed after the classifier consonant (infixed) in Group 2 words and involves free movement.
Explanation of the Vectorial Vowels Chart
A position on, above, north amer....north
a movement (free) on baer....lean
a movement (contact) onto aber....put on
ya movement (free) up, ascend byaer....lift
ya movement (contact) up, get up, set up yaber....raise
O position under, lower, south omer....south
o movement (free) off boer....hang
o movement (contact) on the bottom of, underneath oper....get off
yo movement (free) down pyoser....fall
yo movement (contact) fall yoper....rise
U position left, west umer....west
u movement (free) move toward the center, come uber....send
u movement (contact) reach the center, arrive pyuer....reach
yu movement (free) near, approach yuber....approach
yu movement (contact) near, reach byuser....touch
I position right, east imer....east
i movement (free) from the center out, go away pier....go away
i movement (contact) from the center out, leave iper....leave
yi movement (free) away, go far yiper....go far
yi movement (contact) from afar, originate pyiser....originate
E position center, equator emer....equator
e rest between eb....between
e rest at, stay, hold bexer....hold
ye movement in, into, enter yeper....enter
ye (contact) up against, strike pyexer....strike

Special value of certain vowels edit

The prefixes a- or an- meaning one, sole, singular:
  • aot....person, individual
  • anota....alone, solitary
  • anay....only
  • aun....unit
The prefixes ya- or yan- meaning collection, plural:
  • yat....we, us
  • yanot....constituent
  • yanota....communal
  • yanotyan....community
  • yan....together
Also, the prefix yan- meaning together contrasts with yon-....apart.
  • yon....apart
  • yanota....communal vs. yonota....private
  • yanxer....to combine vs. yonxer....to separate

Rule #10: Deriving Words with Mnemonic Patterns edit

Sometimes part of a derived word can serve as a mnemonic pattern for forming other words having some relationship or parallelism in meaning.
For example, the mnemonic eu pattern from the word for mouth, teud can be used to form many other words having an oral, acoustic, vocal, or sound-related meaning:
Mnemonic Pattern Derivation
PATTERN WORD
teub....mouth
CLASSIFIER GENERIC
teud....shout t = human d = communication
teuz....voice t = human z = art
deuz....song d = communication z = art
seuz....tone s = thing z = art
seux....sound s = thing x = action
xeus....noise x = action s = thing
teuf....muzzle t = human f = apparel
teuv....mask t = human v = linen
teus....taste t = human s = thing
More Mnemonic Pattern Derivations
PATTERN WORD
teab....eye
(t)ea- = see GENERIC
teaper....visit " " " p = go
teader....witness " " " d = say
teaxer....look " " " x = do
teaser....seem " " " s = be
teater....see " " " t = know
keaxer....scan ke- = seek x = do
vyaleaxer....check vyal- = certain x = do
yoneater....distinguish yon- = apart t = know
beaxer....guard be- = hold x = do
teatier....perceive -i- = subject-directed
teatuer....show -u- = object-directed
PATTERN WORD
teeb....ear
(t)ee- = hear GENERIC
teeper....attend " " " p = go
teeder....testify " " " d = say
teexer....listen " " " x = do
teeser....sound (like) " " " s = be
teeter....hear " " " t = know
keexer....scan (acoustically) ke- = seek x = do
koteexer....snoop on ko- = hide x = do
vyaleexer....sound out vyal- = certain x = do
teetier....get wind of -i- = subject-directed
teetuer....make heard -u- = object-directed
zyateetuer....rumor zya- = all around -u- = objected-directed
A syllable of a long compound can be suppressed as long as it does not cause ambiguity or confusion.
Examples:
Shortening Long Compounds
WORD 1 WORD 2 LONG COMPOUND SHORTENED COMPOUND
apet....horse teuder....make a noise *apeteuder apeder....neigh
ipet....donkey teuder....make a noise *ipeteuder ipeder....bray
vafeb....grape il....liquid *vafebil....grape juice vafil....wine
yavob....hop il....liquid *yavobil....hop juice yavil....beer
Sometimes, the last syllable of a compound or last letters of a word will give birth to a new stubs whose derivations, through the application of this rule, will not be long.
Examples:
From Full Words to Stubs
COMPOUND NEW STUB DERIVATION
tilabil....breast milk bil....milk bilyug....butter
fauf....log -uf....(stub suffix for types of) cylinder muf....stick
zyeg....hole -yeg....(stub suffix for types of) hole, hollow thing mufyeg....pipe
levafil....alcohol fil....alcohol vafil....wine
The clipped word bil now gives rise to other compounds:
  • bilyig....cheese
  • bilyigem....cheese factory
  • bilyug....butter
  • bilyugyena....butter-like
The word mufyeg (Lit: hollow stick) means pipe, reed, cylinder

Rule #11: Deriving Nuanced Words Phonetically edit

Words which follow Rule #12 are those that are connected by a similarity of meaning or quality. These words differ by nuances and it is phonetic nuances that govern their formation.
These nuances are obtained by:
  • Addition of a subordinal vowel of the same type as the ordinal vowel.
These vowels are:
a for a and ya
e for e and ye
i for i and yi
o for o and yo
u for u and yu
Examples:
Creating Nuances with a Doubled Vowel
WORD NUANCED DERIVATION
nad....line naad....rail
dob....state doob....nation
vyab....rule vyaab....system
boka....sick booka....tired
  • Post-y-gliding the ordinal vowel or subordinal vowel, to produce a nuance of less intensity:
Deintensification with Post-y-gliding
WORD MITIGATED DERIVATION
ifer....love iyfer....like
iva....happy iyva....glad
zyutom....tower zyutoym....turret
ama....hot ayma....warm
oma....<