Mirad Grammar/Vocabulary Formation

Introduction edit

In order to facilitate word-building and to maximize comprehension and decipherability of words, certain meanings and functions have been attached to consonants and vowels.
The vocabulary of Mirad is composed of base words and derived words.
The vocabulary is built on base words, that is, indivisible, building-block words. The choice of the root of these words (formed generally from two or three letters) is determined by:
  • The meaning of each letter of the word.
  • The importance of the group of ideas that this word evokes in its proper sense and in the sense that is directly opposite it, eg.: fixed vs. variable.
  • How frequently the word and its derivations are used in the language.
  • The geometric system of vocabulary construction (see a later section on what this is all about).
  • The logic of its composition.
  • The mnemonic associations this word suggests.
The words derived from base words in turn follow very simple laws called vocabulary-building rules, which are spelled out below.

Base Words edit

Base words are elements of vocabulary that cannot be broken down any further and which serve as the basis for many derived words in the language. Base words are divided into two groups:
  • Group 1:  consisting of nouns
  • Group 2:  consisting of prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, determiners, and verbs.

Base words of Group 1 edit

Base words of Group 1 (nouns) are composed of three letters:
  • The first, a consonant called the classifier
  • The second, a vowel or vowel cluster called the ordinal
  • The third, a consonant called the generic
Examples:


Base Word Composition
CLASSIFIER ORDINAL GENERIC MEANING
t o b man
d o t society
p o t animal
f o b plant

Base words of Group 2 edit

Base words of Group 2 (everything but nouns) are composed of one or two letters, not including grammatical endings. If one letter, it is a consonant or sometimes a vowel(*). If two letters, they consist of a consonant + vowel combination or a vowel + consonant combination. Here are some examples (the hyphen at the end means that the base word does not stand alone, but is followed in usage by a grammatical ending such as -er (verb infinitive marker) or -a (adjective marker):
Some Examples of Group 2 Base Words
b-....put p-....go
s-....be x-....do
d-....say t-....know
ab....on ob....off
bu....to bi....from
if-....love uf-....hate
fi-....good fu-....bad
va....yes vo....no
vya*-....true vyo-....false
a....one o....zero
* As mentioned above, "vowel" in this case may include complex vowels, i.e. those preceded and/or followed by one of the glides y or w. So, for purposes here, ya, ye, yi, yo, yu, wa, and other pre- and post-glided vowels, are considered "complex vowels".

Consonants and Their Meanings edit

The classifier (initial letter) and generic (final letter) in group 1 base words (nouns) are consonants. Also, group 2 base words almost always have one consonant. So, you need to be familiar with the general meaning of the consonants in the Mirad alphabet, as shown in the following chart:
Consonants and Their Meanings
CONSONANT GROUP 1 CLASSIFIER GROUP 1 GENERIC GROUP 2 CLASSIFIER IN NUMBERS
b organ, health organism gesture, position
d society family communicating
f vegetation textile, clothing volition, attributes
g -- measurement quantity, attributes
j time time time
k -- health change, risk, attributes
l -- element, food, liquid -- ten
m nature place, building, furniture temperature, light ml = million
mr = billion
n commerce -- --
p animal, vehicle motion movement
r -- tool, machine -- thousand
s form, image, furniture thing being, form, thing hundred
t human, body person, animal intelligence, knowing
v plant, color linen truth, attributes
x action -- action, doing, making
z -- precious, art spatial, attributes
The following consonants have semantic functions rather than, or in addition to semantic values:
  • l and r:   Liquids used after vowels to intensify the semantics of a word, eg.: baer....to lean, baler....to press, barer....to crush;
  • y:   Glide used 1) before a stem vowel to intensify the semantics of a word, eg. voa....negative -> vyoa....false, or 2) after a vowel to de-intensify the semantics of a word, eg. ama....hot -> ayma....warm.
  • h:   Used functionally only in certain interjections like hoy....goodbye, conjunctions like ven....if, and determiners like his....this, and has no semantic value.
  • w:   Has no semantic value of its own, but is used only 1) to form the masculine gender of nouns and pronouns, eg. tob....person -> twob....man, or 2) to form the passive voice of verbs, eg. uber....to send -> ubwer....to be sent, or 3) to form a numerical unit marker, eg. awa....one, or 4) sometimes to substitute for y when this letter would cause ambiguity or difficulty in pronunciation with other consonants eg. jwo....late, instead of jyo.
  • n:   In addition to its semantic values, functions often 1) as a buffer letter, as in ana....only, or 2) as a suffix to derive a nominal abstraction from an adjective, such as fian....goodness from fia....good, or from a verb, such axnen....behaving from axner....to behave.

Vowels and Their Meanings edit

Vowels in Mirad have meanings or values of the following types:
  • numeric/scalar/hierarchical/taxonomic
  • geo-specific
  • oppositional/polar
  • vectorial
  • directional and positional
  • special

Ordinal Vowel Values edit

The numerical value of ordinal vowels is shown in the chart below. The vowels beginning with y are considered pre-y-glided vowels. These numeric values serve as the "ordinal vowel" in scaled base words. See the section on Vowels.
Numeric Values of Vowels
Ordinal Vowel o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
Cardinal Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Taxonomic Vowel Values edit

Ordinal vowels can be used as the stem vowel in Group 1 base words to form a taxonomic or hierarchical series, eg.:
Taxonomic/Hierarchical Series
RANK TAXONOMIC HIERARCHICAL
0 tob....human fob....plant vob....crop xob....organization dob....state dot....society tod....family
1 tab....body fab....tree vab....grass xab....staff dab....government dat....friend tad....spouse
2 teb....head feb....fruit veb....tuft xeb....boss deb....leader det....associate ted....parent
3 tib....trunk fib....trunk vib....stalk xib....department dib....administration dit....citizen tid....sibling
4 tub....arm fub....branch vub....shoot xub....branch dub....minister dut....gentleman tud....child
5 tyob....leg fyob....root vyob....tuber xyob....base
The words that descend from the base word are called subordinal words.

Scalar Vowel Values edit

Ordinal vowels can also be used as the stem vowel in Group 1 base words to form a scalar series, where each member of the series is a smaller or less important component as it descends.
Scalar Series
ORDER SCALAR
0 mos....masonry som....furniture
1 mas....wall sam....cabinet
2 mes....door sem....table
3 mis....window sim....chair
4 mus....stairs sum....bed

Geo-specific Vowel Values edit

Ordinals can have geo-specific values, that is values, related to the sky, land, sea, outer space, and underground.
Geo-specific Vowel Values
ORDINAL MEANING GEO-SPECIFIC ENTITIES
o outer space, top level mop....orbit mom....outer space mol....nature dop....military
a air, gas, sky map....wind mam....sky mal....air dap....air force
e ground, soil, solid mep....road mem....land mel....soil dep....army
i liquid, water, sea mip....river mim....sea mil....water dip....marines
u underground, mineral, substance mup....tunnel mum....underground mul....mineral

Oppositional (or Polar) Vowel Values edit

In Group 1 and 2 words:
Oppositional Vowel Values
a    ya intermediate i    yi
positive
negative
e    ye positive
negative
o    yo value u    yu
  • positive a contrasts with negative o (av....for vs. ov....against)
  • positive ya contrasts with negative yo (yava....innocent vs. yova....guilty)
  • positive i contrasts with negative u (fia....good vs. fua....bad)
  • positive yi contrasts with negative yu (yiva....free vs. yuva....bound)
  • e and ye are in-between values (eva....neutral, yeva....fair)
Group 1 Oppositional Vowel Values
positive intermediate negative
aga....big ega....normal oga....small
yava....innocent yeva....just yova....guilty
fia....good fua....bad
ava....for eva....neutral ova....against
ifer....love ufer....hate
yifa....brave yufa....afraid
The Group 1 base word bok (illness) represents a set of words that have oppositional vowels:
Group 1 base word with oppositional values
NEGATIVE INTERMEDIATE POSITIVE NEGATIVE POSITIVE
bok....illness
byok....pain
byoyk....ache
brok....agony
book....fatigue
bek....treatment
byek....cure
bak....health
byak....hygiene
baak....sanitation
buk....wound
buyk....sore
bik....care

Vectorial Vowel Values edit

These ordinal vowels have to do with directions, up, down, south, left, etc.
Vectorial Values
a
u e i
o
a....on, above, north (ab....on, zamer....north)
e....center, middle, equator (eb....between, ze....center)
o....off, below, south (ob....off, zomer....south)
i....right, east (zi....right, zimer....east)
u....left, west (zu....left, zumer....west)

Directional and Positional Vowel Values edit

Directional and Positional Vowel Values
A
U a

a

ya
ya
I
u e ye i
u e ye i
yu E yi
yu yi

o
o
yo

yo
O
Explanation of the above chart:
  • If the vowel is capitalized, it indicates a positional value. It is used in its lowercase spelling as a prefix in Group I words.
  • The non-capitalized vowels (including y-glides) indicate directional values.
  • If the vowel is underlined, it means that it is placed before the classifier consonant (prefixed) in verbs
  • Otherwise, a normal vowel means that it is placed after the classifier consonant (infixed) in Group 2 words.
Explanation of the Vowel Meanings Chart
A position on, above, north amer....north
a movement (free) on baer....lean
a movement (contact) onto aber....put on
ya movement (free) up, ascend byaer....lift
ya movement (contact) up, get up, set up yaber....raise
O position under, lower, south omer....south
o movement (free) off boer....hang
o movement (contact) on the bottom of, underneath oper....get off
yo movement (free) down pyoser....fall
yo movement (contact) fall yoper....rise
U position left, west umer....west
u movement (free) move toward the center, come uber....send
u movement (contact) reach the center, arrive pyuer....reach
yu movement (free) near, approach yuber....approach
yu movement (contact) near, reach byuser....touch
I position right, east imer....east
i movement (free) from the center out, go away pier....go away
i movement (contact) from the center out, leave iper....leave
yi movement (free) away, go far yiper....go far
yi movement (contact) from afar, originate pyiser....originate
E position center, equator emer....equator
e rest between eb....between
e rest at, stay, hold bexer....hold
ye movement in, into, enter yeper....enter
ye (contact) contain byeer....contain

Special value of certain vowels edit

The prefixes a- or an- meaning one, sole, singular contrast with
the prefixes ya- or yan- meaning collection, plural.
Also, the prefix yan- meaning together contrasts with yon-....apart.

The Meaning of Group 1 Base Words edit

The meaning of the base words of Group 1 comes from the combination of the values of the classifier and the generic consonants.
The ordinal vowel of those Group 1 base words has a 1) scalar/hierachical, 2) geo-spatial, 3) oppositional, 4) vectorial/positional, or 5) mnemonic values.
The following table shows some Group 1 bases words, the meaning of their consonants, and the type of ordinal vowel scalarity:
Group 1 Zeroth-level Scalar Base Words and Meanings of the Consonants
BASE WORD CLASSIFIER CONSONANT GENERIC CONSONANT SCALARITY TYPE
tob....person t = human b = organism hierarchical
tof....clothing " " " f = fabric scalar
tod....family " " " d = society hierarchical
tom....building " " " m = place vectorial/positional
tov....lingerie " " " v = linen scalar
tol....nourishment " " " l = food oppositional
top....soul, spirit " " " p = motion taxonomic
dob....state d = society b = organism hierarchical
dop....military " " " p = movement geo-specific
dot....society " " " t = human taxonomic
dom....city " " " m = place geo-specific
job....time j = time b....organism hierarchical
fob....vegetation f = vegetable b = organism hierarchical
vob....crop v = plant b = organism hierarchical
vos....flower " " " s = thing hierarchical
volz....color " " " lz = color, art scalar
som....furniture s = thing m = place scalar
mos....masonry m = place, nature s = thing scalar
mor....universe " " " r = machine, system scalar
mom....outer space " " " m = place geo-specific
mol....nature " " " l = substance geo-specific
mop....orbit " " " p = movement geo-specific
pot....animal p = movement t = human, animal geo-specific/scalar
bok....illness b = organ k = condition oppositional
nom....place n = commercial m = place geo-specific
nog....degree " " " g = measurement oppositional
nof....cloth " " " f = cloth scalar
nov....linen " " " v = linen scalar
nod....point " " " d = communication oppositional
xob....organization x = action b = organism hierarchical

Scalar/Hierarchical/Taxonomic Arrangement edit

In the following chart the ordinal vowel o, which is also the cardinal number zero, is the zeroth element of a descending hierarchy of terms. Therefore these noun clusters are called scalar, taxonomic, or hierarchical:
Examples:
The ordinal vowel of each of these base words is an enumeration beginning with o for zero or the top level. As the words progress down the hierarchy. branching can occur as in a tree diagram, where a second ordinal vowel is juxtaposed to the first. Let's take tob....human as an example. The ordinal vowel in this diagram will be replaced with the actual number equivalent. The second-level number or ordinal vowel is underlined.
  • t0b....human    (tob)
  • t1b....body    (tab)
  • t10b....flesh    (taob)
  • t11b....lymph node    (taab)
  • t12b....muscle    (taeb)
  • t13b....bone    (taib
  • t14b....cartilege    (taub)
  • t15b....skin    (tayob)
  • t16b....fat    (tayab)
  • t17b....hair    (tayeb)
  • t18b....nerve    (tayib)
  • t19b....gland    (tayub)
  • t110b....artery    (talob)
  • t111b....joint    (talab)
  • t2b....head    (teb)
  • t21b....eye    (teab)
  • t22b....ear    (teeb)
  • t23b....nose    (teib)
  • t24b....mouth    (teub)
  • t25b....neck    (teyob)
  • t3b....trunk    (tib)
  • t31b....chest    (tiab)
  • t32b....lung    (tieb)
  • t33b....heart    (tiib)
  • t34b....belly    (tiub)
  • t35b....kidney    (tiyob)
  • t36b....bladder    (tiyab)
  • t37b....prostate    (tiyeb)
  • t38b....testicle    (tiyib)
  • t39b....penis    (tiyub)
  • ....
  • t311b....teat    (tilab)
  • ....
  • t4b....arm    (tub)
  • t41b....shoulder    (tuab)
  • t42b....upper arm    (tueb)
  • t43b....elbow    (tuib)
  • t44b....forearm    (tuub)
  • t45b....wrist    (tuyob)
  • t46b....hand    (tuyab)
  • t47b....fist    (tuyeb)
  • t48b....knuckle    (tuyib)
  • t49b....finger    (tuyub)
  • t410b....fingernail    (tulob)
  • t5b....leg    (tyob)
  • t51b....hip    (tyoab)
  • t52b....thigh    (tyoeb)
  • t53b....knee    (tyoib)
  • t54b....tibia    (tyoub)
  • t55b....sole    (tyoyob)
  • t56b....foot    (tyoyab)
  • t57b....heel    (tyoyeb)
  • t58b....ankle    (tyoyib)
  • t59b....toe    (tyoyub)
  • t510b....toenail    (tyolob)

Mnemonic Arrangement edit

Other Group 1 nouns, listed in the chart below, have an ordinal vowel which is not so much geo-physical or hierarchical per se, but rather mnemonic in some fashion. The consonants, especially the classifier consonant, have meanings like those in the above chart.


Other Group 1 Base Words
d = communication
daz
dance
dyaz
ballet
dez
theater
diz
comedy
duz
music
dyez
cinema
drez
poetry
din
story
dun
word
dyun
name
dyan
sentence
dyes
book
dr = write
drof
board
draf
card
dref
paper
drov
cardboard
drav
notebook
drev
page
drar
pencil
drir
typewriter
drur
printer
m = nature
mag
fire
mog
ash
meg
stone
mug
metal
mez
crystal
mak
electricity
mek
powder
mav
flame
mov
smoke
maf
cloud
maj
daytime
moj
night
man
light
mon
dark
n = commerce
naz
value
nas
money
nax
price
nyaz
wealth
nyan
stack
nox
expense
nyox
waste
nex
saving
nyex
storing
nix
earning
nyix
order
nux
pay
nyux
supply
nun
merchandise
nyun
product
nuz
jewel
nem
location
nyem
place
nyeb
box
nab
row
nap
order
j = time
jag
age
jud
date
jod
instance
s = thing
sag
number
saz
sculpture
san
form
saun
kind
son
matter (abstract)
sin
image
siz
painting
sun
thing (concrete)
syan
class
syen
style
syin
subject
syun
object
sar
instrument
sir
machine
sor
engine
sur
motor
t = human / intelligence
taz
statue
tep
mind
top
spirit
tuz
art
toz
skin color
tez
culture
tin
doctrine
tun
science
tyan
class
tyen
trade
tyun
idea
tyez
magic
tos
sensation
tes
meaning
tot
god

The Meaning of Group 2 Base Words edit

The meaning of Group 2 base word stems comes from the combination of the values of the classifier consonant and the ordinal (stem) vowel. The stem does not include adjectival (-a), adverbial (-ay), and verbal inflections (-er, -ser, -xer, etc.), which are shown in a smaller typeface after the stem.
The ordinal (stem vowel) holds oppositional values like positive, intermediary, and negative.
Examples:
Stems of Group 2 Base Words
CLASSIFIER CONSONANT POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE
j
(time)
ja
before
je
during
jo
after
ji
since
ju
until
aj
past
ej
present
oj
future
ij
beginning
uj
end
taj
birth
tej
life
toj
death
tij
awake state
tuj
sleep
jwa
early
jwe
on time
jwo
late
yij
opening
yuj
closing
g
(measurement)
ga
more
ge
equal
go
less
gin
point
gun
angle
aga
big
ega
normal
oga
small
iga
fast
uga
slow
yaga
long
yega
normal
yoga
short
yiga
hard
yuga
soft
gyaa
thick
gyea
enough
gyo-
thin
gyia
solid
gyua
fragile
k
(randomness)
kaxer
find
kexer
seek
koxer
hide
kia
oblique
kua
lateral
aker
win
eker
play
oker
lose
ika
full
uka
empty
yaker
expect
yeker
try
yoker
suprise
yika
difficult
yuka
easy
kyaa
mobile
kyea
haphazard
kyoa
fixed
kyia
heavy
kyua
light
m
(nature)
ama
hot
-- oma
cold
ima
wet
uma
dry
fer
(want, qualities)
fia
good
fua
bad
fyaa
holy
fyea
mythical
fyoa
profane
fyia
useful
fyua
harmful
yafer
be able
yefer
must
yofer
cannot
yifer
dare
yufer
fear
afer
may
efer
need
ofer
be prohibited
ifer
love
ufer
hate
v
(truth, qualities )
va
yes
ve
maybe
vo
no
via
beautiful
vua
ugly
av
for
eva
neutral
ov
against
iva
happy
uva
sad
vyaa
true
vyea
relative
vyoa
false
vyia
clean
vyua
dirty
yava
innocent
yeva
fair
yova
guilty
yiva
free
yuva
captive
z
(spatial)
za
in front of
ze
in the middle of
zo
in back of
zia
right
zua
left
zay
ahead
zey
across
zoy
back, re-
zyaa
wide
zye
through
zyoa
narrow
zyia
flat
zyua
round
aza
strong
eza
moderate
oza
weak
iza
straight
uza
curved
yaza
convex
yez
along
yoza
concave
yiz
beyond
yuz
around
b-er
(put)
baxer
agitate
be(xer)
at, (hold)
boxer
calm
bi(er/xer)
from, (take/pull)
bu(er/xer)
to, (give/push)
ab(er)
on,(put on)
eb(er)
between,(block)
ob(er)
off,(take off)
ib(er)
away,(receive)
ub(er)
toward,(send)
byaser/xer
stand/erect
byexer
tap
byoser/xer
hang/hang
byi(ser)
since,(originate)
byu(ser/xer)
up to,(contact/touch)
yab(er)
up,(raise)
yeb(er)
in,(enter)
oyeb(er)
out,(exit)
yob(er)
down,(lower)
yib(er)
far,(remove)
yub(er)
near,(bring)
per
(go)
paser/xer
move/move
peser/xer
wait/trap
poser/xer
stop/stop
pier/ser/xer
leave/get stuck/catch
puer/ser/xer
arrive/jump/throw
pyaer/ser/xer
hover/jump up/launch
pyeser/xer
encounter/strike
pyoser/xer
fall/drop
pyier
emanate
pyuer/xer
reach/impact
yaper
rise
yeper
enter
yoper
descend
yiper
go far
yuper
approach
aper
get on
eper
intervene
oper
get off
iper
go away
uper
come
ser
(be)
san/s/xer
evolve/make
sexer
build
son/xer
matter/destroy
sin/yn
image/sign
sun/er/xer
thing/provide/realize
aser
become
eser
exist
oser
cease to be
x-er
(do )
xaler
execute
xeler
practice
xoler
fail
xiler
undertake
xuler
provoke
axler
act
exer
function
oxler
abstain
ixer
effect
uxer
cause
yaxer
be busy
yexer
work
yoxer
be idle
yixer
use
yuxer
help
ter/rer/yer
(know/recognize/know how)
taxer
remember
texer
think
toxer
forget
tier/xer
learn/study
tuer/xer
inform/teach
der/rer
(say/write)
daler
talk
deler
state
dyeer
read
doler
be silent
dier/ler/rer
ask/beg/require
duer/ler/rer
suggest/insist/demand
h-
(determiners)
ha(a)
the
hea
some
hoa
which
hia
this
hua
that
hya(a)
all
hyea
any
hyoa
no
hyia
same
hyua
other
(conjunctions) ay
and
ey
or
oy
but
yan
together
yon
apart
(numbers) a
one
e
two
o
zero
i
three
u
four
ya
six
ye
seven
yo
five
yi
eight
yu
nine
(privatives) lo- (dis-/un-)
lyo- (dis-)
oy- (-less)
* Mixed root. taj/tej/toj instead of yaj/yej/yoj, because the human letter root t is more intuitive.
Note: The opposition (y)a-(y)e-(y)o is a three-way opposition with an intermediary sense, but (y)i-(y)u is two-way, without any intermediary sense.

Derived Word Formation Rules edit

Derived words are formed in accordance with certain simple rules of word-building:
These consist of the following rules:
  1. Compounding
  2. Affixation
  3. Ordinal Vowel Scaling
  4. Overlapping
  5. Adding Ordinal Vowels
  6. Swapping Generic Consonants
  7. Marking Words for Gender
  8. Deriving Words with Geo-specific Vowels
  9. Deriving Words with Directional and Positional Vowels
  10. Deriving Words with a Mnemonic Pattern
  11. Deriving Nuanced Words Phonetically

Rule #1: Compounding edit

 
Compound words are obtained through the combination of two or more whole words or stub words. In the combining process, the determining word is placed quite simply in front of the word it determines. Compounds consist mainly of noun + noun, but there can be other part-of-speech combinations.
Examples:
Compounding
COMPONENT 1 COMPONENT 2 COMPOUND
mor....cosmos tun....science, -ology mortun....cosmology
mag....fire yazmel....mountain magyazmel....volcano
dob....state mem....land dobmem....territory
tul....dish dras....something written tuldras....menu
sin....picture dras....something written sindras....description
tam....house kyoxer....to fix (in place) tamkyoxer....to settle
tax....memory drer....to write taxdrer....to record
kyo-....fixed tep-....head kyotepa....stubborn
Sometimes, the first element can be a stub of a whole word, i.e. the word with the final consonant dropped. The word for rain, for example, is ma(m) (sky) + mil (water), where the final consonant of the first word is dropped, thus, mamil.
When compounding an adjective with a noun, if the adjective begins with a vowel, often it will be suffixed to the noun, otherwise prefixed, (but this is not a strict rule), eg:
  • uzra....twisted + tep....mind ---> tepuzra....crazy
  • kyoa....fixed + tep....mind ----> kyotepa....stubborn, obsessed
  • aza....strong + tep....mind ----> tepaza....intelligent
  • fua....bad + tip....mood ----> futipa....cross, ill-tempered
  • aga....big + tip....mood ----> tipaga....magnanimous, generous

Rule #2: Affixation edit

 
Most adverbs and prepositions can be used as prefixes:

Prefixes edit

Adverbs and Prepositions as Prefixes
PREFIX BASE COMPOUND
ja....before per....to go japer....to precede
jo....after per....to go joper....to follow
va....yes der....to say vader....to affirm
jo....after dras....something written jodras....postscript
za....ahead jub....day zajub....tomorrow
yon....apart mel....land yonmel....island
Prepositional prefixes ending in b with verbs per and ber (and their derivations) lose the b before verbal elements based on per (go) and ber (put), as shown in the following chart:
Assimilation of b and p
PREFIX BASE VERB NEW VERB
yab....up ber....put yaber....raise (NOT: yabber)
yab....up per....go yaper....rise (NOT: yabper)
ab....on ber....put aber....put on, apply
ab....on per....go aper....get on, mount
yob....down ber....put yober....take down
yob....down per....go yoper....descend
ob....off ber....put ober....take off, remove
ob....on per....go oper....get off, dismount
yeb....in bux....a push yebux....impulse
yeb....in pyoser....fall yepyoser....collapse
The loss of the b in the above words in one of the only cases of fusion in Mirad's grammar. Mirad is by and large an agglutinative language where building-blocks are juxtaposed with no change of form. Another case of fusion is when so-called stubs are combined. For example, doyijem (public square), which is composed of do(m)....city + yij(a)....open + (n)em....place. The morphemes (= building-block words) of Mirad always have one and only one meaning, unlike in English where the prefix a- can have many different meaninings.
The adjective ending a is often dropped1, as is the er or prefixes taken from verbs. Longish noun prefixes are sometimes clipped, so that tyoyab becomes tyoya-.
Prefixes Built on Words and Word Stubs
PREFIX BASE VERB COMPOUND VERB
oza....weak der....say ozder....whisper
yaga....long der....say yagder....ramble
aja....past der....say ajder....evoke
yoga....short der....say yogder....summarize
tyoyab....foot per....go tyoyaper....walk
dreer....write sar....tool dresar....pencil
tuyob....hand dren....writing tuyodren....manuscript
mam....sky mil....water mamil....rain
1: Sometimes, the adjective ending a is retained when an adjective is compounded with xer or ser. This device may be used to distinguished two differently nuanced verbs. For example, aga + xer can produce agaxer....to magnify or agxer....to grow. Usually, the compound where the adjective suffix has been eclipsed has the more idiomatic meaning.

Most Common Mirad Prefixes edit

Common Prefixes
PREFIX EXAMPLES
a(n)-....north, uni-, number one, up amer....north
anzyuspar....unicycle
antotin....monotheism
adeb....emperor
aa-....arch-, first-, prime aadub....prime minister
aatat....archangel
aavyan....principle
aag-....arch-, proto-, main aagmep....highway
aagdoyab....constitution
aagovekut....archrival
aaj-....paleo-, proto- aajtobtun....paleoanthropology
aajsiyn....fossil
ab-....ad-, arch-, on, super-, sur-, epi- abtob....superman
abtim....attic
abzen....epicenter
agl(a)-....macro- aglamor....macrocosm
agr(a)-....mega(lo)- agravyotos....megalomania
agratoj....megadeath
alo(n)-....deca-, ten- alojaga....ten years old
alojab....decade
alonsuna....decimal
aloy(n)-....deci-, tenth- aloynux....tithe
aloyngoler....decimate
am-....thermo- amzemula....thermonuclear
amvyabxar....thermostat
amlo(n)-....mega- amloagvunak....megavolt
amlotoj....megadeath
amloyn-....micro- amloynjweb....microsecond
anyen-....idio- anyenboka....idiopathic
anyendyan....idiom
anyentepa....idiotic
ao(b/p)-....north-south, up-down, vertical, vertically, y-axis aonab....column, x-y-axis
aopuys yuzpar....hop-on-hop-off bus
aonada....vertical
aoye(b/p)-....in-and-out aoyebar....piston
aoyebelen....import-exports
aoyepaper....fly in and out
aro(n)-....kilo- aronminak....kilometer
arobanak....kilobit
aroyn-....milli- aroynvunak....millivolt
aoynwunak....milliwatt
(a)so(n)....cent- asojagat....centenarian
asolinak....hectoliter
sojab....century
asoy(n)-....cent-, centi- asoygenak....centigram
asoylinak....centiliter
av-....pro- avyaotina....pro-communist
ayb-....above, hyper-, over-, super-, sur- aybteaxut....supervisor
aybtyoyaf....overshoe
ayn-....full-, holo-, whole- aynnuut....wholesaler
aynsin....hologram
aynteptija....fully-conscious
e(b/p)-....inter- ebmos....mezzanine
ebyanmulxer....intermingle
eper....intercede
ejna-....neo- ejnadun....neologism
ejnaobdabin....neocolonialism
e(n)-....ambi-, bi-, di-, duo-, two- entyoba....bipedal
enzyuspar....bicycle
envolza....dichromatic
eon-....duo-, double-, twin- eonin....dualism
eondal....double-speak
eonsum....twin bed
ev-....a-, neutral evdofina....amoral
evdabtuna....apolitical
ey(b/p)-....intra-, among eybmasa....intramural
eybmimkuma....intracoastal
ey(n)-....demi-, half-, hemi-, mixed-, pen-, quasi-, semi- eynzyus....semi-circle
eynzyup....half-turn
eyntilsyeb....demitassee
eynyonmel....peninsula
fi-....bene-, eu-, good-, nice-, well- fixut....benefactor
fidrawa....well-written
fitos...euphoria
fu-....dys-, ill-, mal-, mis-, poorly- futos....dysphoria
futuwa....ill-informed
fuxeyn....malfeasance
fya-....hiero-, holy-, sancti- fyasdresiyn....hieroglyphic
fyader....sanctify
fyatwed....holy father
fye-....mythical, fantasy fyetop....phantom
fyetobet....elfin
fyetexer...fantacize
fyedin....fantasy
fyo-....evil, profane fyotez....occult
fyotat....devil
fyotyez....witchcraft
ga-....re-, again gateaper....revisit
gaaker....regain
garale-....tera- garaleagbanak....terabyte
garalyi-....exa- garalyibanak....exabit
garalyo-....peta- galayoagbanak....petabyte
garela-....zetta- garelaagbanak....zettabyte
garelu-....yotta- gareluagbanak....yottabyte
ge-....equal to, equi-, even- geyafwa....equipollent
genaza....equivalent
gel-....homo-, like-, simul- gelzena....homocentric
gelvolza....homochromatic
geyl-....simul- geyldyan....simile
geylxer....assimilate
gla-....many-, multi-, poly- glatyenika....multi-skilled
glatwada....polyandrous
glavolza....many-hued
glo-....mini-, little-, few- gloduna....succint, of few words
glonixea....low-earning
gorale-....pico- goraleagfenak....picofarad
goralyi-....atto- goralyigenak....attogram
goralyo-....femto- goralyoon....quadrillionth
goralyu-....nano- goralyusonak....nanosecond
gorela-....zepto- gorelagenak....zeptogram
gorelu-....yocto- gorelugenak....yoctogram
gra-....extra-, hyper-, over-, ultra- gratosea....hypersensitive
grazoyaxler....overreact
granoxea....extravagant
gro-....hypo-, under- groyixlawa....underemployed
groaman....hypothermia
gwa-....hyper-, maxi-, -most, pleisto-, uber-, ultra-, pure gwayelza....pure pink
gwayafa....supreme
gwauja....ultimate
gwazoa....hindmost
gwo-....least-, mini- gwosag....minimum
gwoyuzpur....minibus
hi-....hither, these, this his....this
hisi....these
him....here
hya(s)-....pan(to)-, omni-, all-, every- hyas....everthing
hyati....all of them
hyastea....omniscient
hyataadifa....pansexual
hu-....that hus....that
huj....then
huyen...that way
huim-....here-and-there, here-and-yon huimkexer....search high and low
huimpaper....fly here and there
hyuimpoper....travel here-and-there
huu-....so, such huugla....so, so very
hus....such
huyen....in such a way, so, thus
hyaewa-....ambi- hyaewati....both of them
hyaewaziza....ambidextrous
hyaewatoobifa....ambi-sexual
hye-....-ever, any, whatever, whichever hyem....anywhere, wherever
hyempea....erratic
hjej....ever, anytime
hyi-....homo-, like-, same hyitoobifa....homosexual
hyis....same thing
hyij....at the same time
hyo(s)-....nothing, a- hyostosea....apathetic
hyu(t/s)-....alter-, hetero-, other-, xeno-, else hyutoobifa....heterosexual
hyua....another, alternate
hyutufa....xenophobic
hyus....something else
hyui(t/s)-....cross-, mutual, one thing and another, reciprocal hyuitvikaxen....mutual admiration
hyuixer....reciprocate
hyuisa....mutual, reciprocal
hyuitif....mutual love
i-....toward the speaker iber....receive
ik-....fully, thoroughly iktoxer....forget completely
iktos....satisfaction
ikyebixer....engulf, swallow up completely
i(n)-....three-, tri-, tripl-, tern- inzyuspar....tricycle
inaga....three-dimensional
injiba....trimensual
insuna....ternary
intotan....trinity
iyn-....terci-, third iyna....terciary
iynxer....cut into thirds
iz-....ortho-, recti-, right-, straight- iznada....rectilinear
izguna....orthogonal
iztin....orthdoxy
izdea....forthright
ja-....ante-, fore-, pre- jaupya....foregone
jauper....precede
jadropeka....antebellum
jo-....after-, meta-, post- joexlen....postprocessing
jomir....metasphere
jotej....afterlife
jwa-....early-, eo-, preter-, proto- jwaber....prepare
jwader....warn, premonish
jwadodin....early history, protohistory
jwamola....preternatural
jwajoeb....eocene
jwo-....ceno-, late-, latter-, tard- jwonux....late payment
jwoa....tardy
jwoteja....cenozoic
ko-....cover-, hidden, secret-, stealth- koa....covert
koexut....spy
koyeper....sneak in
kovyo-....pseudo- kovyotun....pseudoscience
ku-....para- kuifut....paramour
keteliut....parasite
kuteptun....parapsychology
kya-....alternate, dia-, re-, trans-, vari-, cross- kyaember....relocate
kyajoba....diachronic
kyatajnad....crossbreed
kyatooba....transgendered
kyavolza....variegated, motley
kyao-....falteringly, unsteadily kyaoper....stagger
kyaotexer....vacillate
kye-....chance-, hap-, random- kyea....haphazard
kyebyus....chance encounter
kyeteater....happen to see
kyesauna....of a random type
kyo-....fixed-, still-, stereo-, stat- kyosaun....stereotype
kyopa....stable, static, stationary
kyoson....status
lo-....dis-, semantic reversing prefix, un- lozeb....disequilibrium
loyuvlaxer....disengage
loyuzyuber....uncoil
lomulvyusber....decontaminate
ma-....bright- mateaba....bright-eyed
mial-....hygro- mialama....hygrothermal
mil-....aqua-, hydro-, water- milyexun....aquaculture
milmaka....hydroelectric
miltilsyeb....water glass
mul-....hylo-, substance mulsana....hylomorphic
o(l)-....a-, dis-, non-, south, un-, in- ovyilxwa....unwashed
omalza....non-white
ototina....atheist
otepzexea....inattentive
omira....southern
olo
o(b/p)-....de-, hypo-, off-, sub-, vice- oper....get off
obneg....sublevel
obxeb....sous-chef, sub-officer
ogel-....hetero- ogelsauna....heterogenous
ogl(a)-....micro- oglamor....microcosm
oglateaxer....microscope
ov-....contra-, counter-, dis-, non-, the opposite of, un- ovalxer....countervail
ovper....contravene
ovkyin....counterweight
ovdat....enemy
olovmasbwa....undefended
oy-....-less, a(n)-, without oytofa...naked
oyxer....deprive
oytosen....apathy
oyteupiba....toothless
oyb-....hypo-, infra-, sub-, under- oybnadrer....underline
oybtomsan....infrastructure
oybseuxa....subsonic
oybtayoba....hypodermic
oyeb-....ex-, extra-, out- oyebnad....outline
oyebyujber....exclude
oyebdoabuer....extradite
oyeyb-....extra- oyeybdovyaba....extralegal
oyeybtadiena....extramarital
oyv-....contra-, opposite, reverse oyvkuma...opposite
oyvder....contradict
oyvduer....contraindicate
oyvaxer....reverse
tayi(b)-....neuro-, nerve tayibteptun....neuropsychology
tayibyok....neuralgia
teeb-....auri-, oto-, ear- teebbekut....aurist
teeteiteyobtut....otorhinolaryngologist
teebyel....earwax
tee(sxt)-....audio-, son-, phono- teesnagen....audiography
teestaxdras....phonogram
teestun....audiology
teexdras....audiogram
teetyofwa....inaudible
tei-....nasal, nose, rhino-, aroma-, olfact-, osmo- teibbok....rhinitis
teibyeg....nostril
teiz....perfume
teizuka....aroma-free
teityaf....olfactory sense
tiibil-....blood-, hema-, hemato-, hemo-, sanguin- tiibililp....hemorrhage
tiibiliut....bloodsucker
tiibloker....exsanguinate
tiibiltun....hematology
tuj-....hypno-, somni-, sopor- tujbek....hyptotherapy
tujbyea....somniferous, soporific
u-....away from the speaker uber....send
ui-....horizontal, left-right, x-axis uinab....row, x-axis
uinada....horizontal
uib-....back-and-forth, toward-and-away, transmit-receive uibar....transceiver
uig-....fast-and-slow uigpar....scooter
uij-....begin-and-end, start-and-stop uijdaler....stutter
uip-....come-and-go uipen....traffic, coming and going
uiz-....straight-then-crooked uizbaser....swagger
uizdrer....scribble
uizpaser....swerve
u(n)-....four-, quadri-, tetra-, quater- ungona....quadripartite
unnednid....tetrahedron
unsuna....quaternary
uyn-....fourth-, quarti- uynxer....quarter
uynjab....quarter (of a year)
ut-....auto-, self-, sui-, ego- utifon....egoism
utgober....autodecrement
utfuyix....self-abuse
uttujben....suicide
va-....yes- vayovder....convict
vabier....accept
vatexer....believe
vao-....yes-no vaoder....decide
vaodaler....waffle
vaonaza....boolean
vi-....bell-, eu-, fine-, pulchri- vituzyan....fine arts, beaux arts
vidun....euphemism
vidrenyan....literature, belles lettres
visuana....classic
vo-....non-, neg- voyafxer....veto
voxer....negate
voyovder....acquit, declare not guilty
vya-....justi-, recti-, true-, reg- vyadin....true story
vyader....avow
vyamol....essence
vyak-....ortho-, correct- vyakdred....orthography
vyakxer....correct
vyo-....mis-, para-, wrong- vyoyufa....paranoid
vyoyux....perfidy
vyoyixer....misuse
ya-....more than one, multi- yaota....communal
yab-....hyper-, supra-, sur-, up-, upper- yabdom....uptown
yabdoneg....upper class
yabduzneg....high pitch
yabexer....support
yabzyobix....hypertension
yabnan-....height-, hypso-, alti- yabnanagar....hypsometer, altimeter
yag-....long- yagyiban....long distance
yagyeker....strive
yagblokea....long-suffering
yan-....co(n)-, fellow-, -mate yanzena....concentric
yanyeker....compete
yandit....fellow-citizen
yao(b/p)-....up-and-down yaopuyser....skip
yaopsim....seesaw
yaoblir....elevator
yaobaser....bounce
yaon-....six-, hexa-, sex- yaonat....sextet
haongun....hexagon
yaona....six-fold, sextuple
yaov-....guilty-or-innocent yaovder....adjudicate
yaovdutyan....jury
yaovkader....plead
yaovyek....trial
yaoz-....serrated, bumpy, jagged yaozaxer....serrate
yaozgoblar....saw
yaozper....bump along
yayb-....supra- yaybdooba....supranational
yayn-....sex-, sixth yayna...sixth
ye(on)-....hept-, hepta-, septi-, seven- yejub....week
yeongun....heptagon
yeonat....septuplet
ye(b/p)-....en-, endo-, in-, intra-, intro- yebuzaser.....inflect
yebzoytiibufa....intravenous
yebyujer....enclode
yebtayoba....endodermal
yeper....enter
yeber....introduce
yeg-....anew, re- yegxer....redo
yeov-....fair or not yeovdut....umpire
yeyb-....intra- yeybmepyan....intranet
yeybdoeba....intrastate
yeyn-....seventh yeynxer....split into sevenths
yi(on)-....oct-, eight- yiona...eight-fold
octuple
yib-....far-, tele-, remote yibsin....televison
yibteata....far-sighted
yibtrawa....famous
yibaj-....archai-, archeo-, ancient yibajtun....archaeology,yibajtun....archeology
yiyn-....eighth yiynxer....divide into eighths
yiz-....beyond, extra-, meta-, out-, para-, past, super-, supra-, trans-, ultra- yiztyun...metaphor
yizeza....paranormal
yizmeirat....extraterrestrial
yizseux....utrasound
yo(on)-....five-, penta-, quint- yoongun....pentagon
yoongol...quintile
yoon....group of five
quintet
yo(b/p)-....down-, hypo-, sub- yobdom...downtown
yoper....go down
yobgoler....subdivide
yon-....apart, dis-, se- yonzyaber....disperse
yonxer....separate
yonsauna....distinct
yoyn-....fifth-, quinti- yoynnaga....quintic
yoyn....a fifth
yu(o)(n)-....nine-, nona- yunapa....ninth (in order)
yungunid....nonagon
yunkunid....nonahedron
yub-....near-, proxi- yuboj....near future
yubna....next
yubteas....closeup (view)
yubge....almost
yubfia....intimate
yubgeser....approximate
yui(b/p)-....near-and-far yuibjo....sooner or later
yuibteabar....bifocals
yuipoper....travel near and far
yuij-....open-and-shut yuijar....valve
yuijer....blink, wink
manyuijer....blink
makyuijar....switch
yuyb-....quasi-, pen- yuybyonmel....peninsula
yuybega....quasi-normal
yuyn-....ninth-, novi- yuonat....nonuplet
yuz-....circ-, circum-, peri-, roto-, round- yuzper....circulate
yuznad....perimeter
yuzof....wrap-around
yuznadrer....circumscribe
za-....ante-, fore-, front-, pre-, pro- zatim....antechamber
zamimuf....foremast
zagab....prefix
zajuber....procrastinate
zao-....back-and-forth, front-and-back zaopaser....wobble
zaokuper....slalom
zaopyoser....pendulate
zay-....forth-, pro-, forward, ahead zaypuyser....skip ahead
zaypuxer....propel
zayper....go forward, procede
zayupea....forthcoming
ze-....mid-, central, medio- zetej....midlife
zepoxer....interrupt, stop midway
zetem....central hall
zey-....cross-, meta-, over-, trans-, across zeyper....transit, get across
zeynod....crosspoint
zeytyun....metaphor
zi-....right, east zim....right side
zimera....eastern
zo-....back-, hind-, retro- zotib....back
zotiub....hindquarters
zonapa....retrograde
zoy-....back-, retro-, re- zoyper....recede, go back
zoybeler....carry back
zoyzyublen....backspin
zu-....left-, west- zutinut....leftist
zukum....left side
zumera....western
zui-....left-and-right, zig-zag, east-west zuibyoser....dangle, hang left-and-right
zuiper....zigzag
zuituyaba....ambidextrous
zuimera....east-west
zya-....-wide, wide-, broad-, all about zyauber....broadcast
zyateaba....wide-eyed
zyasauna....general
zyapoper....cruise, wander
zyamira....global, worldwide
zye-....per-, thorough-, thru-, trans- zyetejer....live through, experience
zyeteaxer....peruse
zyeteatyafwa....transparent
zyemep....thoroughfare
zyeper....permeate, transit
zyo-....narrow zyotepa....narrow-minded
zyoteat....tunnel vision
zyu-....cyclo-, roto-, round- zyutim....rotunda
zyusem....roundtable
zyuper....cycle, gyrate, rotate

Suffixes edit

Mirad has semantic stub suffixes, derivational suffixes, and normal semantic suffixes.


Semantic Stub Suffixes
Semantic stub suffixes are generally formed from the last letters of a base word minus the initial consonant. They serve to put a word into some category, such as liquid, place, person, or material.
Semantic Stub Suffixes
SUFFIX STUB SUFFIX FULL FORM SUFFIXED EXAMPLE < BASE WORD
-il....liquid, drink mil....water teabil....tear  <  teab....eye
teubil....saliva  <  teub....mouth
tayebil....sweat  <  tayeb....skin
mamil....rain  <  mam....sky
-al....gas mal....air tiebal....breath  <  tieb....lung
-(e)l....food tel....food yapel....pork  <  yapet....swine
taol  <  taob....flesh
fel  <  feb....fruit
-ul....stuff mul....substance vixul....cosmetic  <  vix-....to beautify
bekul....medecine  <  bek....treatment
-yel....oil, gel, wax, pulp yel....oil kafyel....olive oil  <  kaf-....olive
apelatyel....wax  <  apelat....bee
magyel....grease  <  mag....fire
bekyel....salve  <  bek....treatment
megyel....cement  <  meg....stone
yanyel....paste  <  yan....together
-am....house tam....house apatam....chicken coop  <  apat....chicken
apelatam....beehive  <  apelat....bee
melyexam....farmhouse  <  melyex....agriculture
datibam....hostel  <  datib....guest-reception
-(e)m....place nem....place vobyexem....plantation, farm  <  vob....plant + yex....work
vabem....field  <  vab....grass
abem....top, surface  <  ab....above, upper
zem....middle  <  ze(a)....middle
tim....room
-im....room tim....room tulim  <  tul....cuisine
tujim....bedroom  <  tuj....sleep
-um....cell, booth tum....compartment pexum....cage  <  pexer....catch
ilzyapixum....shower stall  <  ilzyapix....shower
-yem....space nyem....enclosure yomyem....icebox  <  yom....ice
-yeb....container nyeb....container zyeb....bottle  <  zye(f)....glass
vosyeb....vase  <  vos....flower
-of....material nof....cloth tof....clothes  <  t-....human
misof....curtain  <  mis....window
faof....wood  <  fa(b)-....tree
tayof....leather  <  tayo(b)....skin
-ov....linen nov....linen teyov....collar  <  teyob....neck
-ar....instrument sar....tool par....cart  <  p-....motion
zyupar....rotor  <  zyup....turn
gobrar....knife  <  gobrar....cut
jwobar....watch  <  jwob....hour
-ir....machine sir....machine drir....typewriter  <  dr-....write
gwobir....clock
-ur....large machine sur....engine purr....car
jwoburr....grandfather clock  <  jwob....hour
-(u)n....thing sun....thing dun....word  <  d-....utter, say
gofrun....piece, scrap  <  gofrer....rip, shread, tear
zyiun....plaque, plate  <  zyia....flat
vyun....spot  <  vyua....dirty
-on....abstract thing son....issue yovon....tort, wrong  <  yov....guilt
yen....manner, kind byen....manner texyen....opinion  <  tex....thought
hiyen....this way, thus  <  hi-....this
esyen....status  <  es-....exist
-in....-ism tin....doctrine totin....theism, religion  <  tot-....god
Kristin....Christianity  <  Krist....Christ
vyisatin....puritanism  <  vysiat....puritan, clean person
otofin....nudism  <  otofa....nude
-uf....cylinder object fuf....pipe manuf....candle  <  man....light
tiibuf....artery  <  tiib....heart
miluf....toilet  <  mil....water
movuf....cheminee  <  mov....smoke
-uv....cylinder object fuf....pipe suv....nail, peg, stud  <  s-....furniture
muv....rod  <  m-....masonry
-ab....government dab....government ditab....democracy  <  dit....citizen
-eb....leader deb....leader xeb....boss  <  x-....do
tameb....master of the house  <  tam....house
-ub....branch tub....arm patub....wing  <  pat....bird
-ad....language -a + d(alzeyn)....language Fransad....French (language)
-uz....jewelry nuz....jewel teyobuz....necklace  <  teyob....neck
teebuz....earring  <  teeb....ear
-u(er)....give buer....give tiebaluer....exhale  <  tieb....lung + al....air
-i(er)....take bier....take tiebalier....inhale  <  tieb....lung + al....air
-ui(er)....exchange buier....exchange tiebaluier....breathe  <  tieb....lung + al....air


Derviational Suffixes edit

Mirad has only a few derivational suffixes, i.e. suffixes that change the part of speech.
Derivational Suffixes
DERIVATIONAL
SUFFIX
FUNCTION BASE WORD

--> SUFFIXED
DERIVATION
-er NOUN
--> VERBAL INFINITIVE
sag....count
-->
sager....to count
-n PRESENT TENSE VERB
--> VERBAL NOUN (GERUND)
ADJECTIVE
--> ABSTRACT NOUN
yexe....(he/she/...) works
-->
yexen....working
via....beautiful
-->
vian....beauty
yuba....near
-->
yuban....proximity, nearness
-a NOUN
--> ADJECTIVE
ACTIVE VERB
--> VERBAL ADJECTIVE (PRESENT PARTICIPLE)
PAST PASSIVE VERB
--> PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE (ADJECTIVE)
mor....universe
-->
mora....universal
ake....wins
-->
akea....winning
teatwa....was seen
-->
teatwaa (or, shortened to: teatwa....seen)
-ya INTRANSITIVE VERB STEM
--> PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
ip-....go away
-->
ipya....gone away
-yea VERB STEM
--> HABITUAL PRESENT PARTICIPLE (ADJECTIVE)
zaypas-....progress
-->
zaypasyea....progressive
-y ADJECTIVE
--> ADVERB
iga....quick
-->
igay....quickly
tea-....knowing
-->
teay....knowingly
-ut VERB STEM
--> ANIMATE AGENT NOUN one who Xes, -er
ak-....win
-->
akut ....winner
-us VERB STEM
--> INANIMATE AGENT NOUN thing that Xes, -er
gol-....divide
-->
golus ....divisor
*Derivational affixes change the part of speech of a base word, whereas inflexional affixes change the status of a word within a grammatical paradigm. Verb tense/mood/voice affixes and the plural marker -i fall under the latter category.

Normal Semantic Suffixes edit

  • Augmentative Suffixes
Augmentative Suffixes
AUGMENTATIVE SUFFIX BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-ag (augmentative) tam....house tamag....mansion
-ayg (affectionate augmentative) sem....chair semayg....big old chair
-yag (pejorative augmentative) apet....horse apetyag....nag
  • Diminutive Suffixes
Diminutive Suffixes
DIMINUTIVE SUFFIX BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-og (diminutive) tam....house tamog....hut
-oyg (affectionate diminutive) tam....house tamoyg....cottage
-yog (pejorative diminutive) tam....house tamyog....shack
-et (a smaller person) twob....man twobet....boy
-es (thing of lesser importance) nas....money nases....change, coin
-ud (child of, offspring) tob....man tobud....infant
  • Semantic Adjectival Suffixes
Semantic Adjectival Suffixes
ADJECTIVAL SUFFIX MEANING BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-a mor....universe related to, -al, -ic mora....universal
-aya miek....dust full of, -ous, -y miekaya....dusty
-oya vyun....spot empty of, -less, -free vyunoya....spotless
-ika miek....dust full of, -ous, -y miekika....dusty
-uka miek....dust empty of, -less, -free miekuka....dust-free
-yea vyod....lie given to doing X, -ive vyodyea....mendacious, given to lying
-yena tat....angel like, -ly, -ic tatyena....angelic
  • Other Semantic Suffixes
Other Semantic Suffixes
SUFFIX BASE WORD DERIVATION
-tun....science, ...ology tej....life tejtun....biology
-tut....-ologist, expert, -ist dar....language dartut....linquist
-tuin....theory tob....mar martuin....astrology
-yan....collection, aggregate fab....tree fabyan....forest
-tyen....trade, -ics sir....machine sirtyen....mechanics
-if....pet name twed....father twedif....papa
ifa....-philic, -loving dyes....book dyesifa....bibliophilic
ifwa....liked by tyod....people tyodifwa....popular
ufa....-phobic, -hating toyb....woman toybufa....misogynous
ufwa....hated by tyod....people tyodufwa....unpopular
yafa....able to tyoyap-....walk tyoyapyafa....ambulatory
yafwa....possible to teat-....see teatyafwa....visible
yofa....unable to teat-....see teatyofa....blind
yofwa....impossible to dye-....read dyeyofwa....illegible
yika....hard of...ing teet-....hear teetyika....hard of hearing
yikwa....hard to teet-....hear teetyikwa....hard to hear
yuka....easy at...ing vatex-....believe vatexyuka....gullible
yukwa....easily...ed test-....understand testyukwa....easily understood
yufa....fearful of, -phobic tot....god totyufa....god-fearing
yufwa....feared hyat....everybody hyatyufwa....feared by all
yiva....free to kebi-....choose kebiyiva....free to choose
efa....needful of tel....food telefa....hungry
efwa....necessary to tej....life tejefa....vital
yefa....duty-bound to, -worthy of dud....answer dudyefa....responsible
yefwa....due, -worthy of fid-....laud fidyefwa....praiseworthy
afa....authorized to dokebi-....vote dokebiafa....franchised
ofwa....prohibited to movi-....smoke moviofwagonem....no-smoking zone
yiva....free to kebi-....choose kebiyiva....free to choose
yivwa....free to be ...ed kebi-....choose kebiyivwa....optional
yuva....bound tam....house tamyuva....house-bound
ova....resistant, anti- aagdovyab....constitution aagdovyabova....anti-constitutional
ava....in favor of, pro- tyodab....democracy tyodabava....pro-democracy
eva....neutral toos....gender tooseva....gender-neutral

Rule #3: Ordinal Vowel Scaling edit

Creating a hierarchy of scalar terms applies only to base words of the Group 1. The hierarchy of scalar terms is built by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel of the base word as the importance or relevance of the word decreases from the topmost, zeroth object. This process is called first-level ordinal scaling.

First-level Ordinal Scaling edit

First-level Ordinal Scaling
ORDINAL VOWEL t...b m...r j...b m...s t...m d...b f...b s...m d...t t...d
o = 0 tob
man
mor
universe
job
time
mos
floor
tom
building
dob
state
fob
plant
som
furniture
dot
society
tod
family
a = 1 tab
body
mar
sun
jab
year
mas
wall
tam
house
dab
government
fab
tree
sam
armoire
dat
friend
tad
spouse
e = 2 teb
head
mer
planet
jeb
season
mes
door
tem
hall
deb
leader
feb
fruit
sem
table
det
associate
ted
parent
i = 3 tib
trunk
mir
earth
jib
month
mis
window
tim
room
dib
office
fib
tree trunk
sim
chair
dit
citizen
tid
sibling
u = 4 tub
arm
mur
moon
jub
day
mus
stairs
tum
cell
dub
minister
fub
branch
sum
bed
dut
gentleperson
tud
child
yo = 5 tyob
leg
jyob*
hour
fyob
root
tyod
people
* The palatal glide y in these words, which follows a palatal j is hard to pronounce, so the y is replaced with a w, giving jwob, jwab, and jweb.

Second-level Ordinal Scaling edit

A second-level hierarchy of scalar words can be creating by adding a vowel immediately after the ordinal vowel of the word stem.
Examples:
Second-level Ordinal Scaling
mi...p me...p tu...b tyo...b ma...f me...g do...b
mip
river
mep
way
tub
arm
tyob
leg
maf
cloud
meg
stone
dob
state
miap
stream
meap
road
tuab
shoulder
tyoab
hip
maaf
stratus
meag
marble
doab...fatherland
miep
brook
meep
path
tueb
upper arm
tyoeb
thigh
maef
cumulus
meeg
slate
doeb
province, state
miip
rivulet
meip
trail
tuib
elbow
tyoib
knee
maif
stratocumulus
meig
granite
doib
county, shire
miup
torrent
meup
track
tuub
forearm
tyoub
shin
mauf
cumulonimbus
meug
clay, dough
doub
district
miyop
trickle
tuyob
wrist
tyoyob
ankle
mayof
nimbostatus
meyog
china
tuyab
hand
tyoyab
foot
mayaf
altostratus
meyag
chalk
tuyeb
fist
tyoyeb
heel
mayef
altocumulus
meyeg
limestone
tuyib
palm
tyoyib
sole
mayif
cirrus
meyig
alabaster
tuyub
finger
tyoyub
toe
mayuf
cirrostratus
meyug
gypsum
tulob
fingernail
tyolob
toenail
malof
cirrocumulus

Third-level Ordinal Scaling edit

A third-level hierarchy can be created by prefixing a third ordinal number vowel to the word.
Example:
Third-level Ordinal Scaling
tuyub....finger
atuyub....thumb
etuyub....index
ituyub....middle finger
utuyub....ring finger
yotuyub....pinky
So, to sum up, we have:
Summary of Scaling
t...b tob = human being
FIRST-LEVEL tub....arm
SECOND-LEVEL tuyub....finger
THIRD-LEVEL atuyub....thumb

Scaling with Prefixed Numbering edit

We can also obtain a very convenient classification for new words through prefixed numbering even though there is no first-level or second-level numbering. In this case, the first subordinal level usually begins with a.
Example:
Prefix Numbering
NUMBER dob....state pet....animal deb....leader mez....gem mer....planet maf....cloud sagtun....mathematics
1 adob....empire apet....horse adeb....emperor amez....diamond Amer....Mercury amaf....nimbus asagtun....arithmetic
2 edob....kingdom epet....bull edeb....king emez....topaz Emer....Venus emaf....stratus esagtun....geometry
3 idob....principality ipet....ass ideb....prince imez....ruby Imer....Earth imaf....nimbostatus isagtun....algebra
4 udob....duchy upet....ram udeb....duke umez....emerald Umer....Mars umaf....cumulus usagtun....trigonometry
5 yodob....marquisate yopet....goat yodeb....marquis yomez....saphire Yomer....Jupiter yomaf....cumulostatus yosagtun....calculus
6 yadob....county yapet....pig yadeb....count yamez....lapis lazuli Yamer....Saturn yamaf....stratocumulus
7 yedob....dominion yepet....dog yedeb....lord yemez....amthyst Yemer....Uranus yemaf....altocumulus
8 yidob....viscounty yipet....cat yideb....viscount yimez....amber Yimer....Pluto yimaf....altostratus
9 yudob....barony yupet....rabbit yudeb....baron yumez....topaz yumaf....cirrocumulus
10 alodob....tribe alodeb....tribal chief alomez....opal alomaf....cirrus

Rule #4: Overlapping edit

When combining two words, if the generic (final) consonant of the first word is the same as the classifier (first) consonant of the second word, the generic consonant of the determining word is dropped. This results in overlapping or a portmanteau.
Examples:
Overlapping in Compounds
FIRST WORD SECOND WORD PORTMANTEAU
dom....city mep....road domep....boulevard
pat....bird teub....mouth pateub....beak
pat....bird tub....arm patub....wing
teypib....tooth byok....pain teypibyok....toothache
In some cases, this type of overlapping can cause ambiguity, and is therefore avoided.

Rule #5: Adding Ordinal Vowels edit

When forming a compound word with the words of a same family of terms, if the ordinal vowel is an o, replace it with the ordinal vowel of the determinant word.
Examples:
  • edob....kingdom -> deb....chief -> edeb....monarch (edweb....king, edeyb....queen)
  • udob....principality -> deb....chief -> udeb....prince (udweb....prince, udeyb....princess)
By contrast, if the two words are already ordered, the vowel of the determinant (first word) is inserted between the ordinal vowel of the determined (second) word and the generic (final) consonant:
Examples:
mil....water + mal....air -> mial....vapor, steam

Rule #6: Swapping Generic Consonants edit

When the generic (final) consonant of a base word is replaced by that of another base word, the entire family of the latter undergoes the transformation by the new generic consonant.
Example:
Swapping Generic Consonants
BASE WORD 1 BASE WORD 2 DERIVED WORD
tob....human nov....linen tov....lingerie
tab....body nof....cloth taf....suit
teb....head nof....cloth tef....hat
tib....trunk nof....cloth tif....vest
tyoyab....foot nof....cloth tyoyaf....shoe
tyoyab....foot nov....linen tyoyav....sock
tuyab....hand nof....cloth tuyaf....glove
doob*....nation nof....cloth doof....flag
taob*....flesh tol....food taol....meat
* This is a derived, not base, word, but the principle holds.

Rule #7: Marking Words for Gender edit

Words in Mirad are neutral with respect to gender, but specifically masculine or feminine gender can be marked in nouns and pronouns with the use of the masculine infix w and the feminine infix y. If the noun or pronoun is animate, then gender can marked. If the noun or pronoun is inanimate, then it can be marked for predominate use by or reference to a male or female.
  • To make a neutral animate noun or pronoun specifically male, precede the ordinal (stem) vowel with w.
  • To make a neutral animate noun or pronoun specifically female, follow the ordinal (stem) vowel with y.
Examples:
Marking Animate Nouns for Gender
GENDER NEUTRAL MALE FEMALE
tob....human being twob....man toyb....woman
tobet....young person twobet....boy toybet....girl
ted....parent twed....father teyd....mother
it....he/she/it wit....he iyt....she
apat....cock apwat....rooster apayt....hen
toob....gender twoob....male tooyb....female
  • Inanimate objects, such as items of clothing or body pats, can be "feminized" in a similar way. In such a case, the feminized form refers to an object that is for woman, rather than men, eg.:
Making Inanimate Objects Female-related
MALE-ORIENTED OR NEUTRAL FEMALE-ORIENTED
taf....suit tayf....dress
tyoyav....sock tyoyayv....stockings
tiav....shirt tiayv....blouse
  • Some body parts can be marked for maleness or femaleness:
Body Parts Genderized
NEUTRAL MALE-ORIENTED FEMALE-ORIENTED
tilab....breast twilab....male breast tilayb....female breast
twiyib....testicals tiyiyb....ovary
tiyub....sexual organ twiyub....penis tiyuyb....vagina
  • In nouns that end in -ut, the agentive suffix meaning -er, one who..., the nouns can be feminized by changing -ut to -uyt, eg. dezut....actor -> dezuyt....actress. Because the stem of such words is often a verb, prefixing -ut with w to make it specifically male is normally not done, because the w can sometimes be confused with the passive voice marker. For this reason, a word like dezut can mean actor of neutral or male gender.
  • Animate nouns having the ending -et (smaller version of some person), are genderized by adding w or y to the semantic base of the word, eg. tobet....child, youth -> toybet....girl or twobet....boy.

Rule #8: Deriving Words with Geo-specific Vowels edit

A series of related words can be derived from a Group 1 base word by replacing the ordinal vowel with one of the following vowels, which have certain specific geographic meanings.
Geo-specific Vowels:
  • o  =  outer space, abstract object, initial stuff
  • a  =  sky, air, gas
  • e  =  land, soil, solid
  • i  =  sea, water, liquid
  • u  =  underground, mineral, concrete object, other
Examples:
Deriving Words with Geo-specific Vowels
m...p m...m d...p p...t m...l m...r
Space mop....orbit mom....space dop....military pot....animal mol....nature mor....universe
Sky map....wind mam....sky dap....air force pat....bird mal....air mar....star
Land mep....road mem....land dep....army pet....land animal mel....soil mer....planet
Water mip....river mim....sea dip....marine force pit....fish mil....water mir....world
Underground (or other) mup....tunnel mum....underground mul....mineral mur....moon
This vowel codification also allows generating other categories of words by infixing, just before the generic (final) consonant, a vowel having the value that is attributed to it in Rule #9. This creates "hybrid" nouns. See the chapter on Hybrids for more on this subject.
Examples:
Hybrid nouns
FIRST-LEVEL DERIVATION + GEOSPECIFIC VOWEL SECOND-LEVEL DERIVATION
pet....land animal i....water, sea peit....aquatic mammal
pelt....insect a....air, sky pelat....flying insect
mel....soil i....water, sea meil....mud
mil....air a....air, gas mial....vapor

Rule #9: Deriving Words with Vectorial Vowels edit

The rule for deriving words with vectorial ( = directional and positional) vowels starts with the following schema:
Vectorial Vowel Values
A
U a

a

ya
ya
I
u e ye i
u e ye i
yu E yi
yu yi

o
o
yo

yo
O
Explanation of the above chart:
  • If the vowel is capitalized, it indicates a positional value. It is used in its lowercase spelling as a prefix in Group I words.
  • The non-capitalized vowels (including y-glides) indicate directional values.
  • If the vowel is underlined, it means that it is placed before the classifier consonant (prefixed) in verbs and involves contact.
  • Otherwise, a normal vowel means that it is placed after the classifier consonant (infixed) in Group 2 words and involves free movement.
Explanation of the Vectorial Vowels Chart
A position on, above, north amer....north
a movement (free) on baer....lean
a movement (contact) onto aber....put on
ya movement (free) up, ascend byaer....lift
ya movement (contact) up, get up, set up yaber....raise
O position under, lower, south omer....south
o movement (free) off boer....hang
o movement (contact) on the bottom of, underneath oper....get off
yo movement (free) down pyoser....fall
yo movement (contact) fall yoper....rise
U position left, west umer....west
u movement (free) move toward the center, come uber....send
u movement (contact) reach the center, arrive pyuer....reach
yu movement (free) near, approach yuber....approach
yu movement (contact) near, reach byuser....touch
I position right, east imer....east
i movement (free) from the center out, go away pier....go away
i movement (contact) from the center out, leave iper....leave
yi movement (free) away, go far yiper....go far
yi movement (contact) from afar, originate pyiser....originate
E position center, equator emer....equator
e rest between eb....between
e rest at, stay, hold bexer....hold
ye movement in, into, enter yeper....enter
ye (contact) up against, strike pyexer....strike

Special value of certain vowels edit

The prefixes a- or an- meaning one, sole, singular:
  • aot....person, individual
  • anota....alone, solitary
  • anay....only
  • aun....unit
The prefixes ya- or yan- meaning collection, plural:
  • yat....we, us
  • yanot....constituent
  • yanota....communal
  • yanotyan....community
  • yan....together
Also, the prefix yan- meaning together contrasts with yon-....apart.
  • yon....apart
  • yanota....communal vs. yonota....private
  • yanxer....to combine vs. yonxer....to separate

Rule #10: Deriving Words with Mnemonic Patterns edit

Sometimes part of a derived word can serve as a mnemonic pattern for forming other words having some relationship or parallelism in meaning.
For example, the mnemonic eu pattern from the word for mouth, teud can be used to form many other words having an oral, acoustic, vocal, or sound-related meaning:
Mnemonic Pattern Derivation
PATTERN WORD
teub....mouth
CLASSIFIER GENERIC
teud....shout t = human d = communication
teuz....voice t = human z = art
deuz....song d = communication z = art
seuz....tone s = thing z = art
seux....sound s = thing x = action
xeus....noise x = action s = thing
teuf....muzzle t = human f = apparel
teuv....mask t = human v = linen
teus....taste t = human s = thing
More Mnemonic Pattern Derivations
PATTERN WORD
teab....eye
(t)ea- = see GENERIC
teaper....visit " " " p = go
teader....witness " " " d = say
teaxer....look " " " x = do
teaser....seem " " " s = be
teater....see " " " t = know
keaxer....scan ke- = seek x = do
vyaleaxer....check vyal- = certain x = do
yoneater....distinguish yon- = apart t = know
beaxer....guard be- = hold x = do
teatier....perceive -i- = subject-directed
teatuer....show -u- = object-directed
PATTERN WORD
teeb....ear
(t)ee- = hear GENERIC
teeper....attend " " " p = go
teeder....testify " " " d = say
teexer....listen " " " x = do
teeser....sound (like) " " " s = be
teeter....hear " " " t = know
keexer....scan (acoustically) ke- = seek x = do
koteexer....snoop on ko- = hide x = do
vyaleexer....sound out vyal- = certain x = do
teetier....get wind of -i- = subject-directed
teetuer....make heard -u- = object-directed
zyateetuer....rumor zya- = all around -u- = objected-directed
A syllable of a long compound can be suppressed as long as it does not cause ambiguity or confusion.
Examples:
Shortening Long Compounds
WORD 1 WORD 2 LONG COMPOUND SHORTENED COMPOUND
apet....horse teuder....make a noise *apeteuder apeder....neigh
ipet....donkey teuder....make a noise *ipeteuder ipeder....bray
vafeb....grape il....liquid *vafebil....grape juice vafil....wine
yavob....hop il....liquid *yavobil....hop juice yavil....beer
Sometimes, the last syllable of a compound or last letters of a word will give birth to a new stubs whose derivations, through the application of this rule, will not be long.
Examples:
From Full Words to Stubs
COMPOUND NEW STUB DERIVATION
tilabil....breast milk bil....milk bilyug....butter
fauf....log -uf....(stub suffix for types of) cylinder muf....stick
zyeg....hole -yeg....(stub suffix for types of) hole, hollow thing mufyeg....pipe
levafil....alcohol fil....alcohol vafil....wine
The clipped word bil now gives rise to other compounds:
  • bilyig....cheese
  • bilyigem....cheese factory
  • bilyug....butter
  • bilyugyena....butter-like
The word mufyeg (Lit: hollow stick) means pipe, reed, cylinder

Rule #11: Deriving Nuanced Words Phonetically edit

Words which follow Rule #12 are those that are connected by a similarity of meaning or quality. These words differ by nuances and it is phonetic nuances that govern their formation.
These nuances are obtained by:
  • Addition of a subordinal vowel of the same type as the ordinal vowel.
These vowels are:
a for a and ya
e for e and ye
i for i and yi
o for o and yo
u for u and yu
Examples:
Creating Nuances with a Doubled Vowel
WORD NUANCED DERIVATION
nad....line naad....rail
dob....state doob....nation
vyab....rule vyaab....system
boka....sick booka....tired
  • Post-y-gliding the ordinal vowel or subordinal vowel, to produce a nuance of less intensity:
Deintensification with Post-y-gliding
WORD MITIGATED DERIVATION
ifer....love iyfer....like
iva....happy iyva....glad
zyutom....tower zyutoym....turret
ama....hot ayma....warm
oma....cold oyma....cool
  • Pre-y-gliding the ordinal vowel or subordinal vowel, to produce a nuance of greater intensity:
Intensification with Pre-y-Gliding
WORD ENHANCED DERIVATION
pot....wild animal pyot....predator animal
pat....bird pyat....bird of prey
tod....family tyod....people
oma....cold yoma....frozen
nuxer....pay nyuxer....deliver
nexer....save nyexer....store


  • Following the ordinal vowel or the consonant with the intensifying liquid l or the further intensifying liquid r:
Intensification with L and R
WORD L-INTENSIFIED R-INTENSIFIED
ifer....love ifler....be fond of ifrer....adore
iva....happy ivla....content ivra....delighted
vaa....affirmative vlaa....sure vraa....indubitable
aga....big agla....huge agra....immense
ga....more gala....multiple gara....exponential
baer....lean on baler....press barer....crush
yexer....work yexler....labor yexrer....toil, slave
yixer....use yixler....hire yixrer....exploit
  • Adding consonants other than l or r as the generic consonant:
Some words have so many nuanced varieties that other letters like t, f, s, k, and z are used, eg.:
Creating Nuances with Other Consonants
WORD NUANCED DERIVATION
fia....good fika....perfect
fira....excellent
fua....bad futa....wicked
fura....rotten
gea....equal geta....identical
gela....alike
vyaa....true vyaka....correct
vyama....real
vyoa....false vyoka....incorrect
vyoma....fake
yiga....hard yigza....sour
yigla....brusk
yigra....brutal
yuga....soft yugfa....smooth
yugla....tender
yugra....mild
  • Transforming the generic consonant from voiced to unvoiced or vice versa:
Voicing or Devoicing Consonants for Nuance
WORD NUANCED DERIVATION
nab....row nap....order
vyava....just vyafa....precise
jwab....minute jwap....moment
jweb....second jwep....instant
tab....body tap....physique
tob....person top....soul, animus
nov....linen nof....cloth
naz....value nas....money
nag....dimension nak...unit of measurement

Technical Nomenclature edit

The sections below describe how techical vocabulary is developed in Mirad. In most cases, there are common, ordinary words, but these are supplemented with less common, technical terms that are usually somehow based on an international nomenclature standard. Typically, the common words share a stem, which is prefixed with ordinal syllables that group words of the basis of some like features.

Zoological Nomenclature edit

 
The names of animals are formed in a systematic way.

Base Names edit

First of all, the base stem of all animal names (except human) begin with p (mobile) and end with t (sentient), the idea being that animals are moving, sentient creatures.
The vowels in the stem are geo-specific and indicate whether the animal inhabits the air (a), water (i), land (e), or a hybrid of these; whether it is wild (o), tame, or predatory (y); and a few other features, as shown in the chart below:
Animal Base Names in Geo-specific Terms
TYPE AIR = a WATER = i LAND = e ANYWHERE = o
Ordinary pat....bird pit....fish pet....domestic land animal pot....wild animal
Predatory pyat....raptor pyit....predatory fish pyet....reptile pyot....predatory animal
Hybrid piat....waterfowl
pelat....flying insect
opat....flightless bird
piit....crustacean
pilt....marine invertebrate
peit....mammalian fish
pyeit....mollusk
payet....flying reptile
piyet....batracian
peyet....worm
pelt....insect
piot....aquatic mammal

Derived Names edit

The names of different species of animals are derived by prefixing syllables to the base names that are obtained from the Latin names in the Linnaean taxonomy. In that taxonomy, all of the dog or dog-like animal species are ranked under the family name Canidae (canids). The family prefix is derived by taking the first syllable and spelling it in Mirad as it is pronounced in Latin. Ca in Latin is pronounced ka. See the table below in which Latin spellings are given in Mirad. In this family, one dog species is domestic, Canis familiaris, while all the others are wild or predatory. So, to derive the word for the common domesticated dog, we would affix the family taxonomic prefix ka to the base name for domestic land animal pet, yielding kapet (dog). All other members of the dog family end in pot (feral animal) or pyot (predatory animal). The taxonomic prefix must contain at least one consonant and one vowel. If not, the prefix derived from the Latin taxon is extended until that rule is met. The taxonomic syllables are prefixed to the base animal type name in reverse order of the Linnaean; for example, prairie dog (which is not a dog, but a rodent) is rendered by ci3xi2ro1pot from Ro1dentia Sci2uridae Cy3nomys, where pot is the basic animal type wild animal. All rodents have the taxonomic syllable ro from the Latin "order" taxon Rodentia, while all squirrel names will have the syllable xi from a pronunciation spelling of the Latin "family" taxon Sciuridae (xiuriday). The following shows the system as it is applied to the dog family:
Canidae dog family>
kapet...the common domestic dog (only one species, Canis familiaris)
kapot...wild dog
kapyot...predatory dog
Species under kapyot are derived by taking the first syllables of the respective Latin binomial (and sometimes trinomial) species names:
Canis lupus > lukapyot...gray wolf (or just wolf)
Canis latrans > lakapyot...coyote, prairie wolf
Canis latrans lestes > leslakapyot...mountain coyote
Canis aurus > awkapyot > jackal, golden jackal
Canis aurus curensis > kurawkapyot....Indochinese jackal
Canis vulpus > vulkapyot...fox, red fox
If the taxonomic syllable ends in a vowel and precedes another syllable beginning with a vowel, the first taxonomic syllable is extended until it ends in a consonant. In the case of the Indochinese jackal, the base is awkapyot and the taxonomic syllable to be prefixed from curensis would normally be ku, but it has to be extended to kur because the base begins in a vowel.
The conversion of Latin/Greek spellings to Mirad is governed by the following chart:
Latin/Greek - Mirad correspondences
Latin/Greek Spelling Latin Sound Mirad Spelling Example
au aw aw aurus....aw-
eu ew ew europa....ew-
ai
ae
ay ay aegyptus....ay-
ei
ey
ey ey Rheidae....ey
oe oy oy Foeniculum....oy
ua wa wa suavis....swa
ca/co/cu ka/ko/ku ka/ko/ku canis....ka
ce/ci/cy' che/chi/chi ce/ci/ci cypris....ci
y i i cypris....i
g' g g Geococcyx/Gastropoda....g
ch k k Chiroptera....ki
ph f f Sphyrapicus....f
rh r r Rheidae....ey
x ks ks Loxodonta....ks
qu kw kw Quercus....kw
j y j julianus....ju
sci ski ski Sciuridae....xi
th t ti Thunnus....t
cci ksi ksi Vaccinus....ksi
Note that double consonants are counted as being two consonants in different syllables. So, for example, the taxonomic syllable for Cinnamomum would be cin.
The Latin letter j is represented in Mirad with j even though it is pronounced like a y. This is for better recognizability.

Genderized and Other Forms edit

Form the female of an animal by inserting a y before the t of the base adult name:
  • kapet....dog ====> kapeyt....bitch
  • vulkapyot....fox ====> vulkapyoyt....vixen
Form the specific male of an animal by inserting a w right after the p of the base adult name, unless the base name begins with py in which case the w is inserted just before the t of the base name:
  • ekpet....horse ====> ekpwet....stallion
  • ovbopet....sheep ====> ovbopwet....ram
  • vulkapyot....fox ====> vulkpyowt....dog fox
Form the gelded version of an animal by inserting an o after the ordinal vowel of the base male adult name:
  • bopet....bovine ====> bopweot....ox
  • gafapat....cock ====> gafapweot....capon
The offspring of an animal is formed by suffixing -ud, the stub for tud....child:
  • ekpet....horse ====> ekpetud....colt
  • kapet....dog ====> kapetud....pup
  • ovbopet....sheep ====> ovbopetud....lamb
The pet name of an animal is derived by suffixing -if:
  • kapet....dog ====> kapetif....puppy
  • fepet....cat ====> fepetif....kitty
The diminutive of an animal is formed by suffixing -og:
  • supet....pig ====> supetog....piggy
  • ekpet....horse ====> ekpetog....pony
Sometimes, the above derivations can be combined. The animal apet....horse can serve as an example:
Derivations of Horse
VARIATION MIRAD NAME ENGLISH NAME
Adult ekpet horse
Male ekpwet stallion
Female ekpeyt mare
Offspring ekpetud colt
Female Offspring ekpetuyd filly
Small adult ekpetog pony
Gelded ekpweot gelding

Names for Less Common Animals edit

Rarer animals take the Latin species nomenclature found in the Linnaean Taxonomy. See w:Linnaean_taxonomy. For example, the saola is a rare animal with the Linnaean species name "Pseudoryx nghetinhensis".

Animal Sounds edit

The sound that an animal makes can be derived by substituting the t of the base name with d, the letter associated with communication. The verb form ends in -der:
  • ekpet....horse ====> ekpeder....to neigh
  • kapet....dog ====> kapeder....to bark
  • pat....bird ====> pader....to tweet, chirp
  • serpyet....snake ====> serpyeder....to hiss
A collection of animals can be derived by suffixing -yan or -nyan:
  • lepanfepyot....lion ====> lepanfepyotyan....a pride of lions
  • ovbopet....sheep ====> ovbopetyan....a herd of sheep
  • pit....fish ====> pityan....a school of fish
Motions that animals make can be derived by replacing the final t of the base name with -per....to go:
  • serpyet....snake ====> serpeper....to slither
  • lapet....rabbit ====> lapeper....to hop
  • ekpet....horse ====> ekpeper....to gallop
The food name associated with an animal can be derived by ending the animal or animal part name in l (a stub for tel, meaning food):
  • supet....pig ====> supel....pork
  • supetyob....hog leg ====> supetyol....ham
  • bopet....steer ====> bopel....beef
  • ovbopet....sheep ====> ovbopel....mutton
  • bopetud....calf ====> bopetul....veal
  • appelat....bee ====> appelatil....honey
The habitats of animals are formed by suffixing -am....house, -um....cage, etc. to the base name:
  • supet....pig ====> supetam....pigsty
  • gafapayt....chicken ====> gafapaytam....chicken coop
  • lepanfepyot....lion ====> lepanfepyotam....lion's den
  • kapet....dog ====> kapetam....doghouse
  • forpelt....ant ====> forpeltam....anthill
  • appelat....bee ====> appelatam....bee hive
  • pat....bird ====> patum....birdcage, patsum....nest, patyanam...aviary
  • pot....wild animal ====> potam....lair

Dog Breeds edit

 
Dog breeds are created by prefixing elements to kapet....dog that are based on the official World Canine Organization dog breed site [[1]]. This site organizes dog breeds by groups, sections, subsections, and country ownership.
The base of the dog breed name is kapet....dog. The group number is converted to the lowercase alphabetic consonants (b, c, d, etc.). The top or zeroth group is assigned the the ordinal vowel o, so bokepet is a group category for sheepdogs and cattledogs. The sections underneath this group change the o....zero to a....one, e....two, etc. The subsections below are enumerated with an initial ordinal vowel starting with a....one, e....two, etc. A particular breed is written as the country adjective representing the breed country of origin, followed a space, and the lowest section name preceded by the number of the country entry alphabetized. If there is only one entry of that country, no ordinal number is prefixed.
As an example:
To get the name for basset hound:
  • Start with the word for dog: kapet.
This animal is in Group 6 for scent hounds and related breeds, so the 6th consonant in the Mirad alphabet is h. This is prefixed to kapet, with an ordinal vowel representing the section the breed is in, starting with a for one. The basset hound is in Section 1 for "scent hounds", so the prefix becomes ha-.
  • hakapet is a "scent hound" (not to be confused with ha kapet....the dog.).

A basset hound is classified in subsection 1.3 as a "small-sized scent hound", so the ordinal vowel i.... three is prefixed:

  • ihakapet is a "small-sized scent hound"
A basset hound is the 1st small-sized scent hound entry under the country Great Britain, so the Mirad word a.... one is prefixed (with a w buffer vowel when prefixed to a vowel) and the adjectival word for Great Britain, Gebaroma is placed in front, separated by a space:
  • Gebaroma awahikapet is a basset hound, a dog breed name owned by Great Britain.
Here is a partial representation of the hiararchy as obtained by the World Canine Organization (FCI) site. Other Mirad dog breed names can be created by consulting the site.

Group 1 = bokapet....sheepdogs/cattledogs

  • Section 1 = bakapet....sheepdogs
  • Belgian only entry = Belima bakapet....Belgian shepherd dog
  • German only entry = Deuma bakapet....German shepherd
  • Section 2 = bekapet....cattledogs except Swiss cattledogs
  • Great Britain 2nd entry = Gebaroma ebekapet....Welsh corgi (Cardigan)

Group 2 = cokapet....pinscher/schnauzer/Molossoid/Swiss Mountain-/Cattle Dogs

  • Section 1 = cakapet....pinscher/schnauzer type
  • Section 2 = cekapet....Molossian type
  • Section 3 = cikapet....Swiss mountain/cattledogs

Group 3 = dokapet....terriers

  • Section 1 = dakapet....large and medium-sized terriers
  • Great Britain 9th entry = Gebaroma yudakapet....Welsh terrier
  • Section 2 = dakapet....small-sized terriers
  • Section 3 = dekapet....bull type terriers
  • Great Britain 3rd entry = Gebaroma idekapet....Staffordshire bull terrier
  • Section 4 = dakapet....toy terriers

Group 4 = fokapet....dachshunds

  • Germany only entry = fakapet....dachshund

Group 5 = gokapet....spitz and primitive types

  • Section 1 = gakapet....nordic sledge dogs
USA 1st entry = agakapet....Siberian husky
  • Section 2 = gekapet....nordic hunting dogs
  • Section 3 = gikapet....nordic watchdogs/herders
  • Section 4 = gukapet....European spits
  • Section 5 = gyokapet....Asian spitz and related breeds
  • Section 6 = gyakapet....primitive types
  • Section 7 = gyekapet....hunting dogs

Group 6 = hokapet....scent hounds and related breeds

  • Section 1 = hakapet....scent hounds
  • Subsection 1.1 = ahakapet....large-sized hounds
  • USA 1st entry = Usoma awahakapet....American foxhound
  • Subsection 1.2 = ehakapet....medium-sized hounds
  • Great Britain only entry = Gebaroma ehakapet....harrier
  • Subsection 1.3 = ihakapet....small-sized hounds
  • Great Britain 1st entry = Gebaroma awihakapet....basset hound
  • Great Britain 2nd entry = Gebaroma ewihakapet....beagle

Group 7 = jokapet....pointing dogs

  • Section 1 = jakapet....continental pointing dogs
  • Section 2 = jekapet....British and Irish pointers and setters

Group 8 = kakapet....retrievers/flushing dogs/water dogs

  • Section 1 = kakapet....retrievers
  • Section 2 = kekapet....flushing dogs
  • Section 3 = kikapet....water dogs

Group 9 = lokapet....companion and toy dogs

  • Section 1 = lakapet....bichons
  • Section 2 = lekapet....poodles
  • France only entry = Ferama lekapet....poodle
  • Section 3 = likapet....small Belgian dogs
  • Section 4 = lukapet....hairless dogs
  • Section 5 = lyokapet....Tibetan breeds
  • Tibet 2nd entry = Ferama elekapet....shih tzu
  • Section 6 = lyakapet....Chihuahueno
  • Mexico only entry = Ferama lyakapet....chihuahua
  • Section 7 = lyekapet....English toy spaniels
  • Section 8 = lyikapet....Japan Chin and Pekingese
  • Section 9 = lyukapet....continental toy spaniel and others
  • Section 10 = lalokapet....Kromforhländer
  • Section 10 = lalekapet....small Molossian type dogs

Group 10 = mokapet....sight hounds

  • Section 1 = makapet....long-haired sighthounds
  • Great Britain 1st entry = Gebaroma amakapet....greyhound
  • Great Britain 2nd entry = Gebaroma emakapet....whippet
  • Section 2 = mekapet....rough-haired sighthounds
  • Section 3 = mikapet....short-haired sighthounds

Cat Breeds edit

The names for cat breeds are generated from the CFA organization's alphabetical list of cat breeds (See [2]. You take the first letters of the CFA name up to the first non-initial consonant, and convert them to lowercase. If the next breed on the list has the same letters, add a Mirad number (1=a, 2=e, 3=i, ...) to distinguish them. Now, end the word with the Mirad word for cat fepet.
This chart shows the process for the first few cat breeds in the CFA list:
Creating Cat Breed Names
CFA NAME FIRST LETTERS
LOWERCASED
NUMBER
IF ANY + fepet
MIRAD NAME
American Shorthair am a + fepet amafepet
American Wirehair am e + fepet amefepet
Balinese bal bal + fepet balfepet
Bengal ben ben + fepet benfepet

Color Nomenclature edit

The word for color in Mirad is volz, which is mnemonically related to the word for flower (vos). The diminutive of color is voylz, meaning tint, shade, hue.
The names of common color adjectives in Mirad are based on a scale relating to the natural spectrum, with the first part of the word being the a number representing the spectrum order and the last half being the color stub -lza. The last historically-defined divisions of the spectrum are called indigo and violet, but even scientists themselves admit that the human eye does not distinguish these shades very well, and so Mirad divides the last two as purple and pink for convenience.
Basic Color Words
1 - red 2 - orange 3 - yellow 4 - green 5 - blue 6 - purple 7 - pink



alza elza ilza ulza yolza yalza yelza
There are four other basic colors:
Other Basic Color Words
      malza....white (Associated with man (light)
      melza....brown (Associated with mel (soil)
      molza....black (Associated with mon (dark)
      maolza....gray (A blend of malza and molza)
Plus:
  • olza....of no color, blank, clear
All other colors are formed by prefixing a word or mnemonic word stub (usually flowers or fruits) to the basic color with hyphenation. For example:
  • mecirufeb-ulza....lime green from mecirufeb....lime fruit + ulza....green
  • mim-yalza....aquamarine from mim....sea + yalza....blue
  • licirufeb-ilza....lemon yellow from licirufeb....lemon + ilza....yellow
  • salpyit-alza....salmon red
  • magmef-alza....firebrick red
  • mim-yalza....sea blue, aquamarine
Shaded variants of color terms can be achieved in the following manner:
  1. A "light" shade by changing lza to ylza: uylza....light green
  2. A "-ish" shade by changing lza to lzyena: ulzyena....greenish
  3. A "bright" shade by changing lza to lzayna: ulzayna....bright green
  4. A "dark" shade by changing lza to lzoyna: ulzoyna....dark green
Some in-between colors can be created by mixing the ordinal vowel:
  • maolza....gray from malza....white and molza....black
  • yaulza....blue-green, cyan from yalza....blue and ulza....green
  • maelza....beige from malza....white and melza....brown
Colors can be made into nouns by dropping the adjectival suffix -a:
  • Ulz se via volz.....Green is a beautiful color.
  • At gafe yalzayn.....I prefer dark blue.
Colors can also be used to form verbs:
  • Iyta teobi alzasa.....Her cheeks turned red (= blushed).
  • His se fia teubip malzaxus.....This is a good teeth whitener.
  • Eta teupibi ilzaseye.....Your teeth are yellowing.

Rarely Used Colors edit

The more exotic or rare colors can be expressed by the RAL number / 10 in the Wikipedia Chart of RAL Colors expressed in Mirad + -lz. For example, the color golden yellow has the RAL number 1004. Divided by 10 yields the number 104 (ase, in Mirad), thus, the color is named aselz. The adjectival form of this color is aselza. One advantage of this system is that the colors are grouped by nine classic colors represented by the thousands unit, then subdivided by up to 999 shades of those classic colors, although in practice, the number of shades belonging to each classic color is under 40. For that reason, the thousands unit is reduced to a hundreds unit in the formation of Mirad color names.
Skin colors edit
 
When a color refers specifically to skin tone, the prefix tayo(b)- is used. The final -b of tayob is dropped before a consonant or glide. The word for skin-color itself is tayovolz. Thus:
  • (tayo-)molzat....black(-skinned) person
  • (tayo-)malzat....white(-skinned) person
  • (tayo-)melzat....brown(-skinned) person
  • (tayob)omalzat....non-white(-skinned) person
  • (tayob)omolzat....non-black(-skinned) person
  • (tayob)omelzat....non-brown(-skinned) person
  • (tayob)eymolzat....half-black(skinned) person
  • (tayob)eymalzat....half-white(-skinned) person
  • (tayo-)maolzat....mulatto, mixed-skinned person
  • (tayob)olzat....albino
  • hyetayovolza....of any skin-tone
  • hyatayovolzati....people of all colors
  • Iyt se duhotayovolza?....What skin color is she?

Hair Colors edit

Hair colors are produced by suffixing the color to the word for hair, tayeb. The final -b of tayeb is dropped before a consonant or y. The word for hair color is tayevolz.
  • tayebalza....red-headed, auburn
    • tayebalzayt....an auburn female
  • tayemolza....brunette
  • tayemelza....brown-haired
  • tayebiylza....blond
  • tayemaolza....gray, gray-haired
  • It gwa tayemaolzaso.....He will go gray early.
  • Duhotayevolza iyt se?....What color hair is she?

Eye Colors edit

Eye colors are expressed by the prefix tea(b) followed by the color. The word for eye color is teavolz. In the following examples, teab (eye) becomes tea before any consonants or glides:
  • teayolza....blue-eyed
  • teabulza....green-eyed
  • teamelza....brown-eyed
  • teamelzat....brown-eyed person
  • teamolz....a black eye
  • teamalz....the white of the eye
  • Duhoteavolza et se?....What color eyes do you have?

Chemical Nomenclature edit

 
The names of chemical elements are formed by converting the abbreviation for the element into Mirad lowercase alphabetic equivalents, then adding lk, a suffix stub for chemicals. For example, the abbreviation for hydrogen is H. So we replace that with the word for lowercase h in Mirad: he. By adding the stub suffix lk, we get helk.
Use the the names of the small letters of the alphabet as shown below. The letter name ca is pronounced cha as in English cha-cha.
Lowercase Alphabet with Letter Names
Lowercase a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Mirad Name a ba ca da e fe ge he i ji ki li mi ni o po ko ro so to u vu wu xu yu zu

Coding Chemical Elements edit

The following chart shows some examples of how words for chemical elements are formed:
Coding Chemical Elements
ENGLISH ELEMENT NAME ABBREVIATION MIRAD NAME
silver Ar arolk
iron Fe feelk
hydrogen H helk
nitrogen N nilk
mercury Hg hegelk
darmstadtium Ds dasolk
In chemical compounds, the lk is used only on the last element of the compound.
Chemical compounds such as H2O (hydrogen dioxide) are coded in the following manner.
  1. The H for hydrogen is rendered as he (without the -lk).
  2. The number 2 refers to two hydrogen atoms, so the Mirad prefix for two, bi-, en- is prefixed to the h, giving enhe.
  3. The word for oxygen, ol is added, and, since it is the last element in the compound, the lk is suffixed.
  4. The English word ends in -ide, which is rendered in Mirad as -iyd, giving enheolkiyd
Such chemical suffix equivalents are given below:
Given the chemical element sulfur, which has the abbreviation S, the Mirad equivalent for this solid is solk. Possible variants of this chemical, plus others, are:

Chemical Compound Suffixes edit

Chemical Suffix Equivalents
ENGLISH SUFFIX MIRAD EQUIVALENT ENGLISH EXAMPLE MIRAD EQUIVALENT
-ide -iyd sulfide solkiyd
-ite -iyt sulfite solkiyt
-ate -ayt sulfate solkayt
-ine -iyn iodine ilkiyn
-ane -ayn methane ahelkayn
-ene -eyn benzene ehelkeyn
-one -oyn ketone ketoyn
-ine --iyn alanine alaniyn
-ic -a ferric feelka
-ous aya ferrous feelkaya
Note that the numeral prefixes in chemical formulae end in -n.  : The numeral prefixes 5 and 6 end in -on instead of -n so as to distinguish them from the words yan....together and yon....apart.
The chart below shows some of the numeric prefixes:
Numeric Prefixes
NUMBER PREFIX EXAMPLE
a....mono- an anolkiyd....monoxide (O)
e....bi-/di- en encalkayt....bicarbonate (C2)
i....tri- in inolkiyd-....trioxide (O3)
u....tetr(a)- un unolkiyd-....tetroxide (O4)
yo....pent(a)- yoon yoonolkiyd-....pentoxide (O5)
ya....hex(a)- yaon yaonolkiyd....hexoxide (O6)
ye....hept(a)- yen yenolkiyd....heptoxide (O7)
yi....oct(o)- yin yinolkiyd-....octoxide (O8)
yu....non(a)- yun yunolkiyd-....nonoxide (O9)
alo....dec(a)- alon alonolkayt-....decoxidate (O10)
Examples:
  • carbon dioxide (C2O)....calk enolkiyd
  • sodium bicarbonate (Na2C)....nialk encalkayt
  • calcium dihydrogen phosphate....caalk enhelk polkayt
  • glucose (C6H12O6)....yaoncaalanheyaonolk (or: levelos)
  • methanol (C3HOH)....cainheohelk
Note: the -lk is added only at the end of a compound and before the endings -iyd, -iyt, and -ayt, etc.

Names of Atomic Parts edit

The word for atom in Mirad is gwomulk, which literally is least particle.
The main particles in an atom are:
  • vamulk....proton
  • vemulk....neutron
  • vomulk....electron
Every atom contains mulki (subatomic particles).
 
The Standard Model classification of particles
The principle elementary atomic particles (quarks, leptons, bosons) are named from the alphabetic spellings of the letter abbreviations in the Standard Abbreviations chart to the right, some of which are Greek letters, both upper and lower case. (See wikipedia:Subatomic_particle ).
  • hamulk....hadron
  • mi-hamulk....meson
  • pimi-hamulk....pion
  • kami-hamulk....kaon
  • ba-hamulk....baryon
  • lambda-ba-hamulk....lambda baryon
  • vomulk....proton
  • vemulk....neutron
  • zemulk....nucleon
  • alfamulk'....alpha particle
  • fermimulk....fermion
  • goryumulk....nanoparticle
  • kyiazon mulk....graviton
  • bamulk....boson particle
  • agha-bamulk....higgs particle
  • agwu-bamulk....W boson
  • agzu-bamulk....Z boson
  • gamma-bamulk....photon
  • ge-bamulk....gluon
  • qomulk....quark
  • ba-qomulk....bottom quark
  • ca-qomulk....charm quark
  • da-qomulk....down quark
  • ov-qomulk....antiparticle, antiquark
  • penta-qomulk....penta quark
  • tetra-qomulk....tetra quark
  • to-qomulk....top quark
  • u-qomulk....up quark
  • so-qomulk....strange quark
  • limulk....lepton
  • gamma-limulk....photon (also: manmulk)
  • mu-limulk....muon
  • pi-limulk....pion
  • tau-limulk....tau
  • vu-e-limulk....electron neutrino
  • vu-mu-limulk....muon neutrino
  • vu-tau-limulk....tau neutrino
  • e-limulk....electron (also: vamulk)
  • vamulk....electron
The nucleus of an atom is called zemulk. Therefore, zemulka means nuclear.

Musical Nomenclature edit

Musical Instruments edit

The musical instruments are encoded as follows, where all instruments contain the word for musical instrument (duzar < duz (music) + -ar (instrument). The system is based on a five-way classification system that relates to the way the instrument is played.
 
Madras_musical_instruments_and_snake_charmer's_music
Musical Instruments
MIRAD ENGLISH
BOWED-STRING
aduzar violin
eduzar violin alto
iduzar cello
uduzar bass
yoduzar viola
yaduzar fiddle
yeduzar viol
WOODWIND
faduzar flute
feduzar oboe
fiduzar clarinet
fuduzar bassoon
fyoduzar French harp, harmonica
fyaduzar recorder
fyeduzar bagpipe
fyiduzar didgeridoo
fyuduzar piccolo
faloduzar fife, hornpipe
faladuzar ocarina, ocarine
BRASS
voduzar horn
vaduzar trumpet
veduzar trombone
vuduzar
-- avuduzar
-- evuduzar
--ivuduzar
saxophone
-- tenor saxophone
-- alto saxophone
-- bass saxophone
vyoduzar tuba
vyaduzar bugle
vyeduzar French horn
vyiduzar cornet
vyuduzar euphonium
valoduzar flugelhorn
valaduzar sousaphone
valeduzar clarion
validuzar mellophone
PERCUSSION
kaduzar
-- akaduzar
-- ekaduzar
-- ikaduzar
-- ukaduzar
-- yokaduzar
-- yakaduzar
-- yekaduzar
drum
-- snare drum
-- bass drum
-- tenor drum
-- steel drum
-- bongo drum
-- timbrel
-- kettledrum
keduzar glockenspiel
kiduzar vibraphone
kuduzar marimba
kyoduzar tubular bell
gaduzar triangle
geduzar gong
giduzar castanet
guduzar rattle
gyoduzar xylophone
gyaduzar maraca
gyeduzar cajón
gyiduzar cymbal
gyuduzar tambourine
galoduzar steelpan
galaduzar wind chime
galeduzar chime bar
galiduzar celeste
galuduzar clapper
galyoduzar Jew's harp
galyaduzar bazooka
KEYBOARD
raduzar
-- utekea raduzar
-- agala raduzar
-- sem raduzar
piano
-- player piano
-- grand piano
-- keyboard
reduzar clavichord
riduzar harpsichord
ruduzar
-- mufyeg ruduzar
-- maka ruduzar
organ
-- pipe organ
-- electric organ
ryoduzar accordion
ryaduzar dulcimer
ryeduzar calliope
ryiduzar melodica
ryuduzar concertina
GUITAR
baduzar
-- seuxa baduzar
-- maka baduzar
-- yoba baduzar
guitar
-- accoustic guitar
-- electric guitar
-- bass guitar
beduzar banjo
biduzar lute
buduzar harp
byoduzar mandolin
byaduzar ukelele
byeduzar zither
byiduzar lyre
byuduzar cithara, kithara
baloduzar sitar

Voice Ranges edit

Voice Ranges (Deuz nabyani)
MIRAD ENGLISH MEANING
WOMEN
yabdeuzuyt soprano "high-voice-female"
yaybdeuzuyt mezzo-soprano "high-ish-voice-female"
yobdeuzuyt alto, contralto "low-voice-female"
MEN
yabdeuzwut tenor "high-voice-male"
yoybdeuzwut baritone "high-ish-voice-male"
yobdeuzwut bass "low-voice-male"
vyoyabdeuzwut falsetto "false-high-voice-male"
BOYS
twobet yabdeuzwut treble "boy high-voice-male"
Suffix these nouns with -a to make them adjectives, eg.:
  • His se yabdeuzwuta duznod.....This is a tenor note.

Solmization Syllables edit

The syllables used in Mirad to spell out musical notes is like the system used in the English-speaking world:
Solmization Syllables
do re mi fa sol la ti do

Musical Score Elements edit

 
The semitone or accidental symbols are:
Accidentals
ENGLISH NAME SYMBOL MIRAD NAME ENGLISH EXAMPLE MIRAD EXAMPLE MIRAD PRONUNCIATION
flat 𝄬 yobwa (=lowered) B flat B yobwa ba YOBwa
sharp 𝄰 yabwa (=raised) C sharp C yabwa ca YABwa
natural 𝄮 egxwa (=normalized) F natural F egxwa fe EGxwa
Some staff notation:
Staff Notation
ENGLISH NAME SYMBOL MIRAD NAME
staff 𝄙 nuidyan
treble clef, G clef 𝄞 G yijar
C clef 𝄡 C yijar
base clef, F clef 𝄢 F yijar
note nod
half note 𝅗𝅥 eyna nod
quarter note 𝅘𝅥 uyna nod
whole note 𝅝 ayna nod
quarter rest 𝄽 uyna poys
eighth note 𝅘𝅥𝅮 yiyna nod
bar, measure 𝄀 nodzyan
ligature yanxus

Characteristic Features of Music edit

Characteristic Features of Music
MIRAD ENGLISH
deup beat
seupan cadence
jes duration
zoyteuz echo
yanseuz harmony
duzneg pitch
ijduzneg key
druz lyric
agala duzmus major scale
duznag measure
duznad melody
duzjob tempo
nak meter
ogala duzmus minor scale
duz music
yinig octave
byexes pulse
zoyseuzen resonance
deupyan rhythm
duzmus scale
duzdreyn score
seux sound
duzigan tempo
seuzvolz timbre
seuz tone
yanseuz chord, harmonic
aybseuz overtone
deuzunog tune
deuz voice
seuxnid volume

Dynamics edit

Notations having to do with musical dynamic accents are usually in Italian and are recognized the world over. For this reason, they are left as is in Mirad.
These include:
a tempo, accelerando, accelerando, crescendo, decrescendo, diminuendo, fermata, forte, fortissimo, glissando, legato, lento, marcato, mezzo forte, mezzo piano, pianissimo, piano, poco a poco, portamento, rallentando, ritardanto, rubato, sforzando, staccatissimo, staccato, subito piano, tenuto, tremolo, and others.

Types of Arrangements edit

Musical Arrangements
ENGLISH MIRAD
a capella song a kapella deuzun, deuzun boy duzari
anthem fizdeuzun, tezdeuzun
antiphon duiddeuzun
aria arya, awat deuzun
arrangement napbeyn
art song tuz deuz
ballad daz deuz, ifonkex deuzun
battle hymn dropek deuzun
bird song pat deuzun
broadway song Broadway deuzun
campfire song tamoftem deuzun
cantata kantata
canticle efyadeuzun
carol ivdeuzun
chant yagdeuzun
choral arrangement deuzutyan napxeyn
Christmas carol Kristtaj ivdeuzun
classical song visauna deuzun
composition duzdrun
concerto koncerto
country song odom deuzun, meimtyoda deuzun
dance song daz deuzun
dirge uvdeuzun
ditty deuzog
doggerel verse dizdeuzun
drinking song tilien deuzun
duet ewat (deuzun)
folksong tyoyd deuzun
glee Gebama deuzun
gospel song fyadin deuzun
hip hop song hip hop deuzun
hit song agakus deuzun
hymn fyadeuzun
instrumental duzarun
jingle nundeuzunog
karaoke song karaoke deuzun
love song ifon deuzun
lullaby tudet deuzun
lute song riduzar deuzun
madrigal duzuka deuzun
marching song doptyopen deuzun
medley ebmulxwa deuzyan
metal song mug deuzun
musical number duzun
old standard ajdeuzun
opera dyuz, dyuzun
oratorio oratoryo
paean akrun deuzun
partsong gon deuzun
patter song deuzig
pop song tyoda deuzun
psalm afyadeuzun
rock song rok deuzun
round zoydea deuzun
sea shanty mim deuz
show tune duez deuzun
signature song ujak deuzun
slow jam bluz deuzun
soliloquy awat, awat deuzun
solo awat (duzun), awat (deuzun)
song deuzun
spiritual, negro spiritual topa deuzun
sporting song tapifek deuzun
symphony viduzunyag
theme song texzena deuz
torch song ifonok uvdeuzun
vaudeville song Vaudeville deuzun
Wienerlied Viena deuzun

Musicians edit

Musicians
ENGLISH MIRAD
musician duzut, duzuyt, duzwut
instrumentalist duzarut
violinist aduzarut
conductor duzdeb, duzutyaneb
soloist anduzut
singer, vocalist deuzut
danseur dyazwut
ballerina dyazuyt
dancer dazut, dazuyt, dazwut
opera singer dyuzut, dyuzuyt, dyuzwut
operatist, librettist dyuzdrut
composer duzdrut
lyricist, songwriter deuzdrut
dance conductor dazeb
(symphony) orchestra duzarutyan
philharmonic orchestra duzarutyanag
chorus, chorale deuzutyan
dance troupe dazutyan

Song Parts edit

Song Parts
MIRAD ENGLISH
ujgon coda
ijgon intro
ebek interlude
ijek finale
galijun reprise
galdwas refrain
agalduznad theme
nadyan verse
zeymep bridge
galdwas chorus
ujnadyan outro

Music Genres edit

Some genres and styles of music:
Genres of Music
MIRAD ENGLISH
a kapella, boy duzari a capella
yugtaxea duz ambiant
Usoma tyoyduz American folk
Usoma egona duz American standard
yizejna avant garde
Baroka Baroque
yolza vab bluegrass
bluz blues
Bolliwud Bollywood
bossa nova bossa nova
kalipso calypso
Kelta yagdeuz Celtic chant
Canima tyoyduz Chinese folk
Canima ajutbyena dyuz Chinese traditional opera
jejoba deupyan ay bluz contemporary R&B
maima bluz country blues
maima duz country music
maima pop country pop
maima rap country rap
maima rok country rock
dazam pop dancehall pop
disko disco
du-wop doo-wop
maka dauz electronic dance music (EDM)
yugtaxea duz elevator music
Euma disko Euro-disco
jwayeka experimental
flamenko flamenco
funk funk
Gregoria yagdeuz Gregorian chant
hip-hop hip-hop
honki-tonk honky-tonk
hyusuna rok Indie rock
jaz jazz
makjaz jazztronica
juju juju
fyaxela duz liturgical music
majika majika
mamo mambo
merengwe merengue
mesitzo mesitzo
mug metal
Mixuma duz Mexican
seuz bi Naxvil Nashville sound
Ejna Orleans bluz New Orleans blues
dyuz opera
rancera ranchera
rap rap
rege reggae
deupyan ay blus, ro-ay-ba rhythm & blues
rok-ay-rol rock & roll
salsa salsa
samba samba
ska ska
galoduzaruta duz steel band music
swing swing
Tehano Tejano
eyntuj duz trance music
Umera visauna Western classical
Umeryena Western
zideko zydeco

Geographic Placenames edit

As in English, Geograpic placenames are capitalized, including the languages and inhabitants.

Countries of the World edit

 

Below is a complete list of the current officially assigned ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes, with country names being English short country names officially used by the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency (ISO 3166/MA). The Mirad equivalents are formed by replacing the letters of the ISO code with the lowercase Mirad alphabetic spells, except if the letter is followed by a vowel, in which case the ISO letter is kept as is, but lower-cased. The letter m is suffixed as a stub for "place" and then the word-initial letter is capitalized, eg.:

Example 1:
Burundi is translated as follows:
  • The ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 code is BDI.
  • BDI is lowercased to bdi
  • b is convered to the Mirad alphabetic spell ba.
  • Since d is followed by a vowel, it is left as is: d.
  • The vowel i is left as is: i
  • m is appended for place: badim
  • The initial letter of the country name is capitalized: Badim
  • BDI (Burundi) = Badim.
Example 2:
Uzbekistan is translated as follows:
  • The ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 code is UZB.
  • UZB is lowercased to uzb
  • u is left as is: u.
  • z is converted to the Mirad alphabetic spell: zu
  • b is converted to the Mirad alphabetic spell: ba
  • m is appended for place: uzubam
  • The initial letter of the country name is capitalized: Uzubam
  • UZB (Uzbekistan) = Uzubam.
Country Names (click on arrows to sort a column)
ISO English Mirad
ABW Aruba Abawum
AFG Afghanistan Afegem
AGO Angola Agom
AIA Anguilla Aiam
ALA Åland Islands Alam
ALB Albania Alibam
AND Andorra Anidam
ANT Netherlands Antilles Anitom
ARE United Arab Emirates Arem
ARG Argentina Arogem
ARM Armenia Aromim
ASM American Samoa Asomim
ATA Antarctica Atam
ATF French Southern Territories Atofem
ATG Antigua and Barbuda Atogem
AUS Australia Ausom
AUT Austria Autom
AZE Azerbaijan Azem
BDI Burundi Badim
BEL Belgium Belim
BEN Benin Benim
BFA Burkina Faso Bafam
BGD Bangladesh Bagedam
BGR Bulgaria Bagerom
BHR Bahrain Baherom
BHS The Bahamas|Bahamas Bahesom
BIH Bosnia and Herzegovina Bihem
BLM Saint Barthélemy Balimim
BLR Belarus Balirom
BLZ Belize Balizum
BMU Bermuda Bamum
BOL Bolivia Bolim
BRA Brazil Baram
BRB Barbados Barobam
BRN Brunei Darussalam Baronim
BTN Bhutan Batonim
BVT Bouvet Island Bavutom
BWA Botswana Bawam
CAF Central African Republic Cafem
CAN Canada Canim
CCK Cocos Islands Cacakim
CHE Switzerland Cahem
CHL Chile Cahelim
CHN China Cahenim
CIV Côte d'Ivoire Civum
CMR Cameroon Camirom
COD Democratic Republic of the Congo Codam
COG Republic of the Congo Cogem
COK Cook Islands Cokim
COL Colombia Colim
COM Comoros Comim
CPV Cape Verde Capovum
CRI Costa Rica Carim
CUB Cuba Cubam
CXR Christmas Island Caxurom
CYM Cayman Islands Cayumim
CYP Cyprus Cayupom
CZE Czechia Cazem
DEU Germany Deum
DJI Djibouti Dajim
DMA Dominica Damam
DNK Denmark Danikim
DOM Dominican Republic Domim
DZA Algeria Dazam
ECU Ecuador Ecum
EGY Egypt Egeyum
ERI Eritrea Erim
ESH Western Sahara Esohem
ESP Spain Esopom
EST Estonia Esotom
ETH Ethiopia Etohem
FIN Finland Finim
FJI Fiji Fejim
FLK Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Felikim
FRA France Feram
FRO Faroe Islands Ferom
FSM Federated States of Micronesia Fesomim
GAB Gabon Gabam
GBR United Kingdom Gebarom
GEO Georgia Geom
GGY Guernsey Gegeyum
GHA Ghana Geham
GIB Gibraltar Gibam
GLP Guadeloupe Gelipom
GMB Gambia Gemibam
GNB Guinea-Bissau Genibam
GNQ Equatorial Guinea Geniqom
GRC Greece Gerocam
GRD Grenada Gerodam
GRL Greenland Gedolim
GTM Guatemala Getomim
GUF French Guiana Gufem
GUM Guam Gumim
GUY Guyana Guyum
HKG Hong Kong Hekigem
HMD Heard Island and McDonald Islands Hemidam
HND Honduras Henidam
HRV Croatia Herovum
HTI Haiti Hetim
HUN Hungary Hunim
IDN Indonesia Idanim
IMN Isle of Man Iminim
IND India Inidam
IOT British Indian Ocean Territory Iotom
IRL Republic of Ireland Irolim
IRN Iran Ironim
IRQ Iraq Iroqom
ISL Iceland Isolim
ISR Israel Isorom
ITA Italy Itam
JAM Jamaica Jamim
JEY Jersey Jeyum
JOR Jordan Jorom
JPN Japan Jiponim
KAZ Kazakhstan Kazum
KEN Kenya Kenim
KGZ Kyrgyzstan Kigezum
KHM Cambodia Kihemim
KIR Kiribati Kirom
KNA Saint Kitts and Nevis Kinam
KOR Korea, Republic of Korom
KWT Kuwait Kiwutom
LAO Laos Laom
LBN Lebanon Libanim
LBR Liberia Libarom
LBY Libya Libayum
LCA Saint Lucia Licam
LIE Liechtenstein Liem
LKA Sri Lanka Likam
LSO Lesotho Lisom
LTU Lithuania Litum
LUX Luxembourg Luxum
LVA Latvia Livam
MAC Macao Macam
MAF Saint Martin Mafem
MAR Morocco Marom
MCO Monaco Micom
MDA Moldova Midam
MDG Madagascar Midagem
MDV Maldives Midavum
MEX Mexico Mexum
MHL Marshall Islands Mihelim
MKD Republic of Macedonia Mikidam
MLI Mali Milim
MLT Malta Militom
MMR Myanmar Mimirom
MNE Montenegro Minem
MNG Mongolia Minigem
MNP Northern Mariana Islands Minipom
MOZ Mozambique Mozum
MRT Mauritania Mirotom
MSR Montserrat Misorom
MTQ Martinique Mitoqom
MUS Mauritius Musom
MWI Malawi Miwim
MYS Malaysia Miyusom
MYT Mayotte Miyutom
NAM Namibia Namim
NCL New Caledonia Nicalim
NER Niger Nerom
NFK Norfolk Island Nifekim
NGA Nigeria Nigam
NIC Nicaragua Nicam
NOR Norway Norom
NIU Niue Nium
NLD Netherlands Nilidam
NPL Nepal Nipolim
NRU Nauru Nirum
NZL New Zealand Nizulim
OMN Oman Ominim
PAK Pakistan Pakim
PAN Panama Panim
PCN Pitcairn Islands Pocanim
PER Peru Perom
PHL Philippines Pohelim
PLW Palau Poliwum
PNG Papua New Guinea Ponigem
POL Poland Polim
PRI Puerto Rico Porim
PRK North Korea Porikim
PRT Portugal Porotom
PRY Paraguay Poroyum
PSE Palestinian territories Posem
PYF French Polynesia Poyufem
QAT Qatar Qatom
REU Réunion Reum
ROU Romania Roum
RUS Russia Rusom
RWA Rwanda Rowam
SAU Saudi Arabia Saum
SDN Sudan Sodanim
SEN Senegal Senim
SGP Singapore Sogepom
SGS South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Sogesom
SHN Saint Helena Sohenim
SJM Svalbard and Jan Mayen Sojimim
SLB Solomon Islands Solibam
SLE Sierra Leone Solem
SLV El Salvador Solivum
SMR San Marino Somirom
SOM Somalia Somim
SPM Saint Pierre and Miquelon Sopomim
SRB Serbia Sorobam
STP São Tomé and Príncipe Sotopom
SUR Suriname Surom
SVK Slovakia Sovukim
SVN Slovenia Sovunim
SWE Sweden Sowem
SWZ Swaziland Sowuzum
SYC Seychelles Soyucam
SYR Syria Soyurom
TCA Turks and Caicos Islands Tocam
TCD Chad Tocadam
TGO Togo Togom
THA Thailand Toham
TJK Tajikistan Tojikim
TKL Tokelau Tokilim
TKM Turkmenistan Tokimim
TLS East Timor Tolisom
TON Tonga Tonim
TTO Trinidad and Tobago Totom
TUN Tunisia Tunim
TUR Turkey Turim
TUV Tuvalu Tuvum
TWN Taiwan Towunim
TZA Tanzania Tozam
UGA Uganda Ugam
UKR Ukraine Ukirom
UMI United States Minor Outlying Islands Umim
URY Uruguay Uroyum
USA United States Usam
UZB Uzbekistan Uzubam
VAT Vatican City Vatom
VCT Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Vucatom
VEN Venezuela Venim
VGB British Virgin Islands Vugebam
VIR United States Virgin Islands Virom
VNM Vietnam Vunimim
VUT Vanuatu Vutom
WLF Wallis and Futuna Wulifem
WSM Samoa Wusomim
YEM Yemen Yemim
ZAF South Africa Zafem
ZMB Zambia Zumibam
ZWE Zimbabwe Zuwem
The adjective for these Mirad country names can be formed by suffixing the adjective marker a, eg:
  • Feram....France ==> Ferama....French
  • Usom....United States ==> Usoma....American
  • Deum....Germany ==> Deuma....German
The inhabitant of a country is formed by changing the final m of the placename to t (meaning person), eg:
  • Feram....French ==> Ferat....a French person, a Frenchman
The names of country inhabitants can be pluralized and genderized, as other animate nouns, eg:
  • Ferat....a French person ==> ha Ferati....the French
  • Etohet....an Ethiopian ==> Etohwat....an Ethiopian male
  • Finit....a Finn ==> Finiyt....a Finnish woman
Do not confuse the adjectival name of a country with the language: Ferama refers to the country of France, not the language French. French the language is Ferad.

Continents edit

 
The word for continent in Mirad is yanmel (= "together-soil"). The names of the continents in Mirad are formed from the word yanmel with vectorial prefixes.
Continent Names
MIRAD ENGLISH
Ayanmal North America
Oyanmel South America
Iyanmel Asia
Uyanmel Europe
Eyanmel Africa
Yoyanmel Oceania
The adjective counterparts of these placenames are derived by suffixing -a:
  • Iyanmela....Asian
  • Uyanmela....European
By appending -t(i) to the adjectival names, we get the inhabitants:
  • Eyanmelat....an African
  • Ayanmelati....North Americans
Note:
  • The Americas is expressed in Mirad with the hybrid word Aoyanmel (a combination of North and South America).
  • Central America is expressed in Mirad by Ebaoyanmel (Inter-America)
  • The word Usom means United States or USA. The word America by itself is not used in Mirad; only North America or South America. United States of America is expressed by Usom bi Ayanmel (United States of North America), abbreviated as UA.
  • The word Usomati is used for Americans when referring to inhabitants of the U.S.
  • The word Eyanmel-Usomat, or more briefly, Eusomat is used for African American.
  • Latin America is expressed as Liada Oyanmel.
  • A Latino is Liadut.
  • A latinx in the U.S. is called Usoma Liadut.
  • In some geographic systems, Ausom....Australia is considered a continent.
The word for island is yonmel (= separate land).

Oceans edit

The Mirad word for ocean is mimag. The ocean names are formed by prefixing a vectorial ordinal to the word mimag:
Ocean Names
MIRAD ENGLISH
Amimag Arctic Ocean
Omimag Southern Ocean
Imimag Pacific Ocean
Umimag Atlantic Ocean
Emimag Indian Ocean

Compass Directions and Poles edit

The compass directions (merizoni) and poles (mernodi) are as follows:
  • zamer....north / zamera....northern / zamernod....north pole
  • zomer....south / zomera....southern / zomernod....south pole
  • zimer....east / zimera....eastern
  • zumer....west / zumera....western
The words Yibzamer....Arctic and Yibzomer...Antarctic(a) both use the prefix yib....far.
Prefixing the directions with iz-....due- yields:
  • iz zamer....due north
  • iz zomer....due south, etc.
Directional words can be hybridized, eg:
  • zaomera....north-south
  • zuimera....east-west
  • zaumera....north-west
  • zaimera....north-east

Earth Grid Lines edit

The earth grid lines (mernadi) are as follows:
  • zamernad....Arctic Circle
  • zomernad....Antarctic Circle
  • zaomernad....longitude
  • zuimernad....latitude
  • zemernad....equator
  • abzemernad....Tropic of Capricorn
  • obzemernad....tropic, Tropic of Cancer
  • yizobzemernad....subtropic
  • eymernad....meridian
  • mamnad....horizon
  • aonada....vertical
  • uinada....horizontal
  • zyenada....perpendicular

Languages of the World edit

 
Mirad names of languages are based on either:
  • the name of the country most associated with the language (English < England, French < France), or:
  • the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 three-letter code. (See [of Congress ISO639-2 Codes].
If formed from the country name, the language name is acquired by replacing the final m or the country name with d. For example, Enigem (England), becomes Eniged (English). See Countries of the World.
If formed from the ISO 639-2 code, because their is no particular country associated with the language, the letters of the code are replaced with the Mirad lowercase alphabetic spells. The initial letter is capitalized and d is suffixed to the word. A Mirad alphabetic spell in the shape of consonant+vowel loses its vowel before a spell consisting of just a vowel. For example, ba + e becomes be.


Mirad Language Names
ISO LANGUAGE NAME COUNTRY or ISO CODE MIRAD LANGUAGE NAME
Abkhazian abk Abakid
Afar aar Aarod
Afrikaans Zafem....South Africa Zafed
Akan aka Akad (< a + ki + a +d, where ki + a = ka)
Albanian Alibam....Albania Alibad
Amharic amh Amihed
Arabic ara Arad
Aragonese arg Aroged
Armenian Aromim Heyud
Assamese asm Asomid
Avaric ava Avad
Avestan ave Aved
Aymara aym Ayumid
Azerbaijani Azem....Azerbaijan Azed
Bambara bam Bamid
Bashkir bak Bakirod
Basque baq Baqod
Belarusian Balirom....Belarusia Balirod
Bengali Bagedim....Bangladesh Bagedid
Bislama bis Bisod
Bosnian Bihem....Bosnia Bihed
Breton bre Bared
Bulgarian Bagerom....Bulgaria Bagerod
Burmese Mimirom....Miyanmar Mimirod

...and so on...


The language names can be adjectivized by suffixing -a, eg:
  • Eniged....(the) English (language) ==> Enigeda....(in the) English (language)
  • Hia Enigeda dreun se testiyofwa.....This English language document is incomprehensible.
The language names can be verbalized with the addition of -der....to say, -daler....to speak, and -xer....to translate into, eg:
  • Ferad....French ==> Ferader....to say in French
  • Esopod....Spanish ==> Esopodaler....to speak Spanish
  • Arad....Arabic ==> Aradxer....to Arabicize/translate into Arabic
  • Ferad bayse gla Enigedxwasi.....French has many Anglicizations.
The speaker of a language is created by adding -ut or -alut, eg:
  • Eniged....English ==> Enigedut (or) Enigedalut....English speaker
  • Duven et Enigedale?....Do you speak English?
  • Aradu hia dun.....Say this word in Arabic.
  • At se Itadut/Itadalut.....I am a speaker of Italian.
Specialized forms, dialects, levels, and regional variants of languages are expressed as follows:
Language Variants
VARIATION CATEGORY EXAMPLE
Ajna....Old/Ancient Ajna Eniged....Old English, Anglo-Saxon
Ejoba....Modern Ejoba Perod....Modern Persian, Farsi
Visauna....Classical Visauna Gerocad....Classical Greek
Vyirina....Puristic Vyirina Gerocad....Katharevousa (Puristic Greek)
Tyoda....Vulgar/Popular/Demotic Tyoda Latod....Vulgar Latin
Tyoda Gerocad....Demotic Greek
Fyaxela....Liturgical Fyaxela Hebad....Liturgical Hebrew
Fyadyesa....Biblical Fyadyesa Hebad....Biblical Hebrew
Egona....Standard Ejoba Egona Arad....Modern Standard Arabic
Egema....Egyptian Egema Arad....Egyptian Arabic
Usoma....American Usoma Eniged....American English
There are some languages with no ISO code that have to be formed in another way, in particular, Mirad itself.
  • Mirad....Mirad (Mir....world)
  • Meurad....Martian (Meur...Mars)
  • Celtic, which is the name of a family of languages, is represented by the ISO code "cel" and is therefore called Celid in Mirad.
  • Indo-European, with the code "ine", translates to Inied in Mirad.

Cities and Their Residents edit

Here are some key cities, their adjectival forms, and inhabitants. The adjective can end in -a or -yena.
Cities and Their Residents
CITY ADJECTIVE INHABITANT
Paris....Paris Parisyena....Parisian Parisat....Parisian
Ejna York....New York Ejna Yorka....of New York Ejna Yorkat....New Yorker
Rom....Rome Roma....Roman Romat....Roman
Beijing....Beijing Beijinga....of Beijing Beijingat....resident of Beijing
Berlin....Berlin Berlina....from Berlin Berlinat....Berliner
Examples:
  • Berlina diti dyunwe Berlinati.....Berlin citizens are called Berliners.
  • Bostonati bayse Bostonyena deus.....Bostonians have a Bostonian accent.

Playing Cards Notation edit

The playing card suits and prime denominations are:
Playing Card Suits
MIRAD ENGLISH IMAGE
tiib heart
melukar spade
amez diamond
infayeb club
High Cards plus the Joker
MIRAD ENGLISH IMAGE
Az bi tiibi ace of hearts
 
Edweb bi melukari king of spades
 
Edeyb bi amezi queen of diamonds
 
Yuxtwobet bi infayebi jack of clubs
 
hihiduut joker
 
Some useful terms:
  • eker drafi....to play cards
  • zyabuer ha drafi....to deal the card
  • ebnapxer ha drafi....to shuffle the cards
  • goler ha nyan....to cut the deck
  • ujber....to fold
  • durer....to bid
  • lokoxer draf....to turn over a card
  • lokoxer ota tuyab....to show one's hand
  • abnabxer....to trump
  • ekdrafnyan....deck of cards
  • nab....suit
  • joper nab...to follow suit
  • kyesdraft....wild card
  • abnaba draf....trump card
  • ha yannas....the pot
  • ha nax....the ante
  • yaber ha nax....to up/raise the ante

Chess Piece Nomenclature edit

a b c d e f g h
8        8
7        7
6        6
5        5
4        4
3        3
2        2
1        1
a b c d e f g h
The King's Gambit
The game of chess is called xahifek in Mirad.
The chess pieces (xahifek gouni) are as follows:
Chess Piece Names
MIRAD ENGLISH IMAGE
edweb king
 
edeyb queen
 
efyaxeb bishop
 
apetaput knight
 
tamaz rook
 
melyexut pawn
 
Some chess terms:
  • to checkmate....xahtojber
  • Check!....Xah!
  • Checkmate!....xahtoj!
  • chess board....xahifek seym, xahifek drof
  • to move a piece....paxer goun
  • to capture a piece....pixler goun
  • chess clock....xahifek jwobar
  • chess set....xahifek gounyan
  • chess tournament....xahifekanyan
  • chess player....xehifekut
  • my turn....ata nayb
  • score....aoksag
  • world champion....miraklut

Botanical Nomenclature edit

The plant world is a mighty big place and the names of all those flowers, fruits, vegetables, plants, etc. are very difficult to put into a rational naming scheme any better that the existing one using Latin appelations classified into phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species. This botanical world in Mirad, much like the system for coding the zoological world, is coded by a system of syllables that relate to the Linnaean taxonomy.

Base Names edit

So, in Mirad, botanical organism names have at their base the following words:
  • fab....trees
  • feb....fruits and nuts
  • fayb....vines and shrubs
  • feyb....berries
  • vob....crops
  • vol....vegetables
  • veel....legumes and beans
  • vos....flowers

Specific Names edit

To create more specific names, syllables derived from the Greco-Latin Linnaean Taxonomy, spelled to conform to Mirad pronuncation, are prefixed left-to-right onto one of the above base categories, with the left-most syllable representing the most specific taxon. So, for example, pine tree is rendered as pifab. The pi prefix is the first syllable of the family of pine trees Pinaceae. To specify other trees in this family, other syllables are prepended, eg. cedar tree is cepifab from Pianaceae Cedrus. A cedar of Lebanon is licepifab from the more specific Pinaceae Cedrus libani.
 
Basic Botanical Terms
fob....plant vob....crop vol....vegetable vos....flower
fab....tree
fayeb....leaf
faob....wood
fayob....bark
vab....grass
vayob....peel
feb....fruit/nut veb....ear/tuft
veeb....seed
veeyb....grain
veel....legume
fib....trunk vib....stem
fub....branch vub....blade
vulob....thorn
fyob....root vyob....tuber
Product Names edit
Products derived from plants are formed with the following words:
  • -fel....juice
  • -feel....-ade
  • -feyl....juice
  • -fil....alcoholic drink
  • -fyel....oil/jam/syrup
  • -fyeyl....jelly
  • -fol....grounds/powder
  • -fayel....leaf juice
Individual derivations of these base words are formed exactly as the names of animals in the section Zoological Nomenclature. For example, an apple is from the Rosaceae family of trees, the genus being Malus. So the word for apple becomes marofeb. Apple tree is marofab and apple juice is marofel.
Crops edit
Crops are grassy plants that humans cultivate for clothing, food, medicine, or other social needs. Individual crop names are formed by prefixing the base vob with taxonomic syllables.
 
The base words of this group are:
  • -vob....crop
  • -vab....grass
  • -vayeb....leaf
  • -veb....ear, cob, head, spike, tuft
  • -veeb....seed, germ
  • -veel....bean, legume
  • -veeyb....grain, kernel, pip
  • -vib....stem
  • -vub....blade, sprig, twig
  • -vyob....tuber
  • -vel....edible product
  • -vil....drinkable product, beer
  • -vyel....syrup
  • -vol....vegetable
From the above base words are derived these products, among others:
  • sakol....sugar < sakvob....sugarcane
  • povel....bread < povob....cereal
  • zepovyel....corn syrup, corn oil < zepovob....corn
  • zepovil....whiskey, bourbon
  • sepovil....rye whiskey < zepovob....rye
  • povil....beer
  • epovil....ale
  • avpovob mekil....oatmeal < avpovob....oat
  • orpovob zyiglal....rice cake < orpovob....rice
  • mekuvol....melon
Vegetables and Legumes edit
Vegetables are crops grown by human for food. Individual vegetable names are formed by prefixing the base vol (vegetable) or veel (legume, bean) with classifier syllables derived from the international Linnean Taxonomy. Vegetables can consist of bulbs, flowers, fruits, fungi, leaves, roots, seeds, legumes, beans, or stalks.
 
Vegetables
EDIBLE CROP TAXONOMY
LEGUMES: EDIBLE SEEDS
faveel....bean Fabaceae Phaseolus vulgaris
lensfaveel....lentil Fabaceae Lens culinaris
glifaveel....soybeen Fabaceae Glycine max
vigfaveel....black-eyed pea Fabaceae Faseolus vigna unguiculata
VEGETABLES: BERRIES/FRUITS
lisovol....tomato Solanaceae Solanum lycopersicum
mesovol....eggplant Solanaceae Solanum melongena
perlawvol....avocado Lauraceae Persea americana
sakuvol....cucumber Cucurbitaceae Cucumis sativus
cinasvol....artichoke Asteraceae Cynara cardunculus
akapsovol....chili pepper Solanaceae Capsicum annuum
abmalvol....okra Malvaceae Abelmoschus esculentus
BULBS
amalvol....leek Allium ampeloprasum
cepalvol....onion Allium cepa
alsalvol....shallot Alium ascalonicum
satalvol....garlic Allium sativum
zinvol....ginger Zingiberaceae Zingiber officinale
skoynalvol....chive Allium Schoenoprasum
foynapvol....fennel Apiaceae Phoenix dactylifera
MELONS/GOURDS
kuvol....squash Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita
makuvol....pumpkin Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita maxima
mekuvol....melon, honeydew, cantaloupe Cucurbitaceae Cucumis melon
cikuvol....watermelon Cucurbitaceae Citrullus lanatus
pokuvol....zucchini Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita pepo
TUBERS/ROOT VEGETABLES
tusovol....potato Solanaceae Solanum tuberosum
betamvol....beet, beetroot Amaranthaceae Beta vulgaris
rafbravol....radish Brassicaceae Raphanus raphanistrum sativus
kadawapvol....carrot Apiaceae Daucus carota
nabravol....turnip Brassica napus
cinasvol....artichoke Asteraceae Cynara cardunculus
pasavol....parsnip Apiaceae Pastinaca sativa
kolaravol....taro Araceae Colocasia esculenta
divol....yam Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea
LEAFY/FLOWERING VEGETABLES
bravol....cabbage Brassicaceae
botrolbravol'....cauliflower Brassica oleracea botrytis
gemolbravol....Brussels sprouts Brassica oleracea gemmifera
valkavol....corn salad, lamb's lettuce Caprifocilaceae Valerianella locusta
lakasvol....lettuce Asteraceae Lactuta sative
spinamvol....spinach Amaranthaceae Spinancia oleracea
rupolivol....sorrel Polygonaceae Rumex acetosa
tarasvol....mustard greens Asteraceae Taraxacum officinale
itolbravol....broccoli Brassica Oleracea italica
abmalvol....okra Malvaceae Abelmoschus esculentus
petapvol....parsley Apiaceae Petroselinum crispum
basoclamvol....basil Lamiaceae Ocimum basilicum
orlamvol....thyme Lamiaceae Origanum vulgare
encivol....chicory, endive Cichorium endivia
nasbravol....watercress Brassicaceae Nasturtium officinale
korapvol....coriander Apiaceae Coridandrum sativum
STALKS
aspavol....asparagus Asparagaceae Asparagus officinalis
gravapvol....celery Apiaceae Apium graveolens
rewmpolivol....rhubarb Polygonaceae Rheum hybridum
kurzinvol....turmeric Zingiberaceae Curcuma longa
kokarvol....heart of palm, swamp cabbage Arecaceae Cocos
cimpovol....lemongrass Poaceae Cymbopogon

Common Flower Names edit

 
Flower Parts edit
Flower names are built on the base name vos, meaning flower. First, here is a list of flower parts:
Flower Parts
Flower Parts
vos....flower
vosayob....sepal
vosayeb....petal
vosib....receptacle
veeybpexus....stigma
vosij....bud, flower bud
tooygon....pistil
veeybyan....pollen
twoogon....stamen
twoogonyif....filament
veeybyem....anther
vosyob....peduncle
Flower Names edit
 
Common flower names are generated by prefixing classifying syllables to the base vos that reflect the Linnaean taxonomic specification. Here are some examples:
sompavos....opium poppy (Papaver somniferum)
magvos....magnolia (Magnoliaceae Magnolia)
orvos....orchid (Orchidaceae Orchis)
krokirvos....crocus (Iridaceae Crocus)
For a fuller list, see the section Flower Words.

Computer Terminology edit

 
This section will be ever-changing as new technology emerges.
Computerese
MIRAD ENGLISH
agna saibyan syaagir mainframe computer
absem syaagir desktop computer
agbanak byte
ajnexer to archive
amloagbanak megabyte
anay dyewa tax read-only memory, ROM
aota syaagir personal computer
aottuunyan profile
aoyebmeyp port
apaxler to swipe
aroagbanak kilobyte
baler buxnuf to press/hit a key
banak bit
agdresin kyoxea buxnuf caps lock key
buxnuf key
buxnufsemes keyboard
buxnufseym keypad
izeaxus cursor
byuxseym touchpad
datier to friend
dodrer ebdras to post a message
dota zeyn social medium
ebdrer to text
dreun document
dreuzyufer to scroll, pan
droer naab to delete a file
drou buxnuf delete key
drur printer
drurer naab to print out a file
drurer to print out
druru buxnuf print screen key
drurun a printout
dunexlar word processor
dyezier to take a movie
ebdayler to chat
ebdaylim chatroom
emojin emoji
ex buxnuf function key
exen vyaab operating system
extuundras program, application
extuundrasog app
extuundrasyan software
extuundrer to program
fuk bug
fukaya buggy
fukoyxer to debug
garalyoagbanak petabyte
gelxer naab to copy a file
googler to google
gyia kyos yebiar solid state drive, SSD
gyia zyiun yebiar cd drive
haydren dyun login name
haydrer bay tuyubbal to log in with one's fingerprint
haydrer to log in
hoydrer to log out
huisteaxar browser
kyeteaxer to browse
hyux buxnuf alt key
iber naab to receive a file
ila mez sinuar, IMS liquid crystal display, LDC
izbex buxnuf control key
izbexdrof motherboard
kliker ab click on
kodun password
gawdyunxer naab to rename a file
kyax buxnuf shift key
kyea yempuen tax random access memory, RAM
kyisier naab to download a file
kyisuer naab to upload a file
kyiunxar charger
kyiunxer to charge
lodatier to unfriend
makebdren email
makedrer to email
man-oyebubea enmep sinuar, MOES LED
mansin dyes photo album
mis window
naab file
naedzyun trackball
nagonxar modem
neaf mansiniar web camera
nexer naab to save a file
num yibdalir cellphone
belyafwa syaagir laptop computer
oglagos microchip
gwoteexar microphone
omijber to boot up
gawomijber to reboot
paxer naab to move a file
paxyafwa yibdalir mobile phone
poxu zyumuf buxnuf scroll lock key
sagbexu buxnuf numlock key
sagseym number pad
sam console
saunapxer naab to sort a file
semes syaagir tablet computer
sindren semes graphics tablet
sindrenyan exlen aun graphics processing unit, GPU
sines icon
sinuar screen, display, monitor
syaager to compute
syaagir computer
syaagirdal computerese
syaagirtun computer science
syaagnyed spreadsheet
taam mays home screen
tampu buxnuf home key
sirmul hardware, physical matter
taxdrer to record
taxmuf memory stick
teataxdrer to video
teataxdrun video
tuunnabyan database
tuyab izdar mouse
uber naab to send a file
uinig buxnuf tab key
utmansin selfie
yaybdreniv sindren dalzeyn (YSD) HTML
yeber to enter, insert
yebu buxnuf enter key, return key, insert key
yiga zyiun yebiar hard disk drive, HDD
yijber naab to open a file
yujber naab to close a file
makmepdrof circuitboard
zea exlen aun central processing unit, CPU
zoynigxu buxnuf backspace key
zyiun yebiar disk drive

Medical and Pharmaceutical Terminology edit

This is a vast field where the limited morpheme aggregate of Mirad cannot serve to translate all the technical vocabulary. It will, therefore, translate only very common words and leave the rest in Greco-Latin as do many natural languages.

Medical Diseases edit

Some common medical conditions can be readily be translated in Mirad using its existing set of morphemes, eg.
  • balyoganbok....asthma (lit: shortness of breath illness)
  • tiebbok....pneumonia (lit: lung illness)
  • teibbok....rhinitis (lit: nose illness)
  • tayibblok....neuropathy (lit: nerve suffering)
  • tebbyoyk....headache (lit: head ache)
  • teibzyegikanbok....osteoporosis (lit: bone porosity illness)

Pharmaceuticals edit

Medicines can be referred to by their trade names, some of which have been genericized.
  • aspirin....aspirin
  • Ibupropen....Ibupropen
Others can be translated by words indicating the purpose:
  • bukpoyxol, bukkyuxlol....analgesic, painkiller (Lit: pain reliever)
  • tikebilokxol....emetic (Lit: vomit-inducing-substance)
Less common drugs, and any drugs for that matter, can be referred to by the official International Nonproprietary Name (INN) (see Nonproprietary Names). For example, phenobarbital. In case a Greco-Roman name is used, the following pronunciation guide applies to Mirad:
INN names pronunciation
GRECO-ROMAN
SPELLING
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
ch k
ph f
x ks
y i
qu kw
rh r
th t
ae ay
oe oy
c before i, e, or y c
c otherwise k
final e silent
double consonant single consonant
Examples:
  • acetaminophen....a-ce-ta-mi-no-FEN
  • amphetamine....am-fe-ta-MIN
  • trimethroprim....tri-me-tro-PRIM
  • sulfamethoxazole....sul-fa-me-to-ksa-ZOL
  • oxacillin....o-ksa-si-LIN

Mineral Nomenclature edit

Common Crystals edit

The common crystals end in -mez and are listed here:
 
 
Names of Common Crystals
MIRAD ENGLISH
mez crystal
amez diamond
emez topaz
imez ruby
umez emerald
yomez sapphire
yamez lapis lazuli
yemez amethyst
yimez amber
yumez topaz
alomez opal
alamez tourmaline
alemez garnet
alimez zirconia
alumez jasper
alyomez jade
alyamez marganite
alyemez quartz

Other Minerals edit

All other minerals end in -muk with a prefix related to the 3-letter IMA symbol name (see Wikipedia:List_of_minerals_recognized_by_the_International_Mineralogical_Association). The IMA name is substituted with lower-case Mirad alphabetic spellings. A list of IMA symbols can be found at Warr, L.N. (2021). "IMA–CNMNC approved mineral symbols". Mineralogical Magazine. 85 (3): 291–320. Bibcode:2021MinM...85..291W. doi:10.1180/mgm.2021.43. S2CID 235729616.. For example:
Some Mineral Names
ENGLISH IMA SYMBOL MIRAD SPELLINGS MIRAD NAME
argyrodyte Agy a-ge-yu ageyumuk
brochantyte Bct ba-ca-to bacatomuk
chromite Chr ca-he-ro caheromuk
There are some minerals having an IMA with a hyphenated suffix of one or two letters. In that case, the extra letters are added to the name (without the hyphen), eg.:
  • Lemmleinite-K (Lem-k) is liemikomuk in Mirad.

Rock Classification edit

The naming of individual rock types is based on the [BGS Rock Classification Scheme ].
All rocks end in one of the following suffixes, depending on the main type:
  • ameg....sedimentary rock
  • emeg....igneous rock
  • imag....metamorphic rock
The names for obscure rocks are taken from the BGS Rock Classification Scheme. The final e is dropped from names that end in yte or ite. For example, trachydacite in the scheme becomes trachydacit in Mirad. This word is then followed by one of the rock types above (emeg igneous rock). So trachydacite becomes trachydacitemeg in Mirad. For obvious reason, all the thousands of rock names cannot be listed here or included in the Mirad dictionary.
The word meg rock has some common subordinal elements:
  • meag....marble
  • meeg....slate
  • meig....granite
  • meug....clay, dough
  • meyog....china
  • meyag....chalk
  • meyeg....limestone
  • meyig....alabaster
  • meyug....gypsum
  • mealog....sandstone, stoneware
There is also:
  • megag....boulder
  • megog....stone
  • yanmeg....cement
  • megyog....gravel
  • mameg....coal
  • maameg....anthracite
  • eymameg....coke
  • maemeg....peat
  • maimeg....lignite
  • mieg....pebble
Related are:
  • mek....dust
  • miek....sand
  • myek....powder
  • muk....mineral
  • meil....mud
  • mez....gem, crystal
  • muz....ore

Measurements edit

 
Mirad uses the International System of Units (SI)) for rendering measurement units. These symbols are pronounced as if you were spelling each letter out (see Mirad_Grammar/Alphabet. Bear in mind that majuscules (uppercase letters are prefaced with the word ag- (big). Similarly, Greek letters are spelled with the Greek names (alpha, gamma, etc.) preceded with the word ag- if majuscule (aggamma for γ) The Mirad equivalent of the SI symbol for ohm (Ω) is agomega. All metric units end in the word nak.

SI Base Units edit

SI base units
ENGLISH
UNIT
NAME
SYMBOLIC
ABBREVIATION
QUANTITY
UNIT
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
second s time sonak
meter m length minak
kilogram kg mass kigenak
ampere A electric current aganak
kelvin K thermodynamic temperature agkinak
Mole mol amount of substance miolinak
candela cd luminous intensity cadanak

SI Derived Units edit

Here are SI derived units with special names and symbols:
SI derived units with special names and symbols
ENGLISH
NAME
SYMBOLIC
WRITTEN
ABBREVIATION
QUANTITY
UNIT
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
radian rad plane angle roadanak
steradian sr solid angle soronak
hertz Hz frequency aghezunak
newton N force, weight agninak
pascal Pa pressure, stress agpoanak
joule J energy agjinak
watt W power agwunak
coulomb C electric charge agcanak
volt V electrical potential difference agvunak
farad F capacitance agfenak
ohm Ω electrical resistance agomeganak
Siemens S electrical conductance agsonak
Weber Wb magnetic flux agwubanak
tesla T magnetic flux density agtonak
henry H inductance aghenak
degree Celsius °C temperature nogagcanak
lumen lm luminous flux liminak
lux lx illuminance lixunak
becquerel Bq radioactivity agbakonak
gray Gy absorbed dose (of ionizing radiation) aggeyunak
sievert Sv equivalent dose (of ionizing radiation) agsovunak
katal kat catalytic activity kiatonak
byte B 8 bits of information agbanak
bit b one bit of information banak
Also, here are some non-SI units that are very convenient and acceptable:

Convenient Non-SI Units edit

Convenient non-SI units
ENGLISH
NAME
SYMBOLIC
WRITTEN
ABBREVIATION
QUANTITY
UNIT
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
litre L volume aglinak
hectare ha area heabak
ton t area tonak
decibel dB loudness daagbanak

Metrical Formulae edit

The following chart shows how in Mirad to pronounce coherent derived unit formulae in terms of base units. Note that the backslash means per or divided by and is pronounced gol. The symbol x means times and is pronounced gal. The superscript number is a power and is pronounced gar plus the number (with -wa, if a unit number). The negative superscript number is pronounced gor plus the number (again, with -wa if a unit number). See Arithmetical Expressions for further information on these terms.
Examples of coherent derived units in terms of base units
NAME SYMBOLIC
FORMULA
DERIVED
QUANTITY
TYPICAL
SYMBOL
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
square meter m2 area A mi-gar-ewa
cubic meter m3 volume V mi-gar-iwa
meter per second m/s speed, velocity v mi-gol-so
meter per second squared m/s2 acceleration a mi-gol-so-gar-ewa
reciprocal meter m−1 wavenumber σ, mi-gor-awa
vergence (optics) V, 1/f
kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3 density ρ kige-gol-mi-gar-iwa
kilogram per square meter kg/m2 surface density ρA kige-gol-mi-gar-ewa
cubic meter per kilogram m3/kg specific volume v mi-gar-iwa-gol-kige
ampere per square meter A/m2 current density j aga-gol-mi-gar-ewa
ampere per meter A/m magnetic field strength H aga-gol-mi
mole per cubic meter mol/m3 concentration c mioli-gol-mi-gar-iwa
kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3 mass concentration ρ, γ kige-gol-mi-gar-iwa
candela per square meter cd/m2 luminance Lv cada-gol-mi-gar-ewa

Metric Micro and Macro Prefixes edit

The SI has a whole list of prefixes that act as multipliers (macro) or dividers (micro) of the above and other measurement units. For example, a kilometer is a meter times a 1,000 (macro unit), whereas a millimeter is a meter divided by a 1,000 (micro unit). The SI symbol for b (byte) is pronounced ba in Mirad. A terabyte ( Tb) is therefore pronounced ag-to-ba, which This amounts 1012 bytes. Here is a table showing the Mirad macro and micro prefixes:
Scalar Metrics
MACRO MICRO
BASE
10
US/UK NAME MIRAD PREFIX
SI PREFIX

MIRAD PRON.
SI SYMBOL BASE
10
(US/UK NAME) MIRAD PREFIX
SI PREFIX
SI SYMBOL

MIRAD PRON.
1 one an- ... mono-, uni- 1/1 whole ayn-
holo-, uni-
2 two en-
bi-
1/2 half eyn-
demi-, di-
3 three in-
tri-
1/3 third iyn-
terci-
4 four un-
tetra-
1/4 fourth uyn-
quadri-
5 five yoon-
penta-
1/5 fifth yoyn
quinti-
6 six yaon-
hexa-
1/6 sixth yayn
sexti-
7 seven yeon-
hepta-
1/7 seventh yeyn
septi-
8 eight yion
octo-
1/8 eighth yiyn
octi-
9 nine yuon
nona-
1/9 ninth yuyn
novi-
10 ten alo-
deca-
da
da-a-
1/10 tenth aloy-
deci-
d
da-
102 hundred aso-
hexa-
h
hi-
10-2 hundredth asoy-
centi-
c
ca-
103 thousand amso-
kilo-
k
ki-
10-3 thousandth) amsoy-
milli-
m
mi-
106 million amlo-
mega-
M
agmi-
10-6 millionth amloy-
micro-
r
ro-
109 billion /milliard amro-
giga-
G
agge-
10-9 billionth/ milliardth amroy-
nano-
n
ni-
1012 trillion /billion garale-
tera-
T
agto-
10-12 trillionth / billionth) gorale-
pico-
p
po-
1015 quadrillion)/ billiard garalyo-
peta-
P
agpo-
10-15 quadrillionth) / billiardth goralyo-
femto-
f
fe-
1018 quintillion / trillion garalyu-
exa-
E
age-
10-18 quintillionth)/ trillionth goralyu
atto-
a
a-
1021 sextillion)/ trilliard garela-
zetta-
Z
agzu-
10-21 sextillionth / trilliardth gorela
zepto-
z
zu-
1024 septillion)/ quadrillion garelu-
yotta-
Y
agyu
10-27 septillionth / quadrillionth gorelu
yocto-
y
yu-
*Note: The gar (to a plus power) and gor (to a minus power) forms are alternatives for the numeric prefixes beyond 100. For example, billion (109) could be expressed as garyu-(ten) to the 9th power, while billionth could be expressed by goryu ((ten) to the minus 9th power). The prefix garya- is composed of the positive exponential operator gar (to the power of), followed by the number 6. The prefix gorale- is composed of the negative exponential operator gor (to the root of), followed by the number 12.

Abbreviated Symbols edit

The macro and micro values can also be represented with abbreviated symbols, which can be pronounced in Mirad as spelled out alphabetics. Upper case equivalents are preceded with ag-. Here is a table showing grams:
Kg Metrics With Abbreviated Symbols
MACRO MICRO
SYMBOL (EXPANSION) MIRAD PRONUNCIATION SYMBOL (EXPANSION) MIRAD PRONUNCIATION
dag (decagram) daage (decigram) dage
hg (hexagram) hege cg (centigram) cage
kg (kilogram) koge mg (milligram) mige
Mg (megagram) agmige rg or μg (microgram) roge or helmuge
Gg (gigagram) aggege ng (nanogram) nige
Tg (teragram) agtoge pg (picagram) poge
Pg ( petagram) agpoge fg (femtogram) fege
Eg (exagram) agege ag (attogram) age
Zg (zettagram) agzege zg (zeptogram) zege
Yg (yottagram) agyuge yg (yoctogram) yuge
The squared and cubed representations of the above are followed by gar ewa (squared) and gar iwa (cubed), respectively:
  • 10 kg2....(pronounced as:) alo koge gar ewa
  • 12 mm3....(pronounced as:) ale mimi gar iwa

Trigonometric Nomenclature edit

This table shows trigonometry functions and their equivalents in Mirad. The function symbols are translated into Mirad by a succession of the pronounced Mirad values of the function abbreviation followed by -naz (value).
Trigonometry Functions
Function (Symbol) Mirad Technical Name Mirad Ordinary Name
sine (sin) soini-naz uznaz
cosine (cos) caoso-naz yanuznaz
arccosine (arccos, cos-1
anticosine
inverse cosine
arocacaoso-naz ovuznaz
hyperbolic sine (sinh) soinihe-naz enuza uznaz
hyperbolic cosine (cosh) caosohe-naz enuza yanuznaz
secant (sec) soeca-naz golus naz
cosecant (csc) casoca-naz yangolus naz
arccosecant (arccsc) arocacasoca-naz enuza yangolus naz

Forming Adjectives edit

You can form an adjective by adding the suffix a to a substantive, adverb, or preposition. By substantive is meant a noun, pronoun, or gerund. Any of these can be adjectivized.
Examples:
Deriving Adjectives
NOUN ADJECTIVE
taam....home taama....domestic
doob....nation dooba....national
tej....life teja....vital
tyoyapyaf....ability to walk tyoyapyafa....ambulatory
martun....astronomy martuna....astronomical
PRONOUN ADJECTIVE
at....I, me ata....my
eut....yourself euta....your own
hiyen....this kind hiyena....this kind of
duhot?....who? duhota?....whose?
GERUND ADJECTIVE
ifeken....recreation ifekena....recreational
VERB FORM ADJECTIVE (= PARTICIPLE)
teje....(he) lives tejea....living
tojo....will die tojoa....moribund, about to die
tojbu....would kill tojbua....lethal
twa....was known twaa....known (usu. shortened to twa)

Adjectival Suffixes edit

Various types of adjectives can be created with adjectival suffixes beyond just a.
Examples:
Deriving Other Adjectives
SUFFIX MEANING NOUN ADJECTIVE
-ava pro-, for
Usom
U.S.
Usomava
pro-U.S.
yuvrin
slavery
yuvrinava
pro-slavery
-ova anti-, against
dobvyabyan
constitution
dovyabyanova
anti-constitutional
dota
social
dotova
anti-social
-aya full of, having, -ous, -ful, -ly
volz
color
volzaya
colorful
futax
resentment
futaxaya
resentful
tiibil
blood
tiibilaya
bloody
yiflan
courage
yiflanaya
courageous
-oya bereft of, -less, un-
volz
color
volzoya
colorless, pale
tajyaf
talent
tajyafoya
untalented
-ika full of, -ous, -ful, -y
map
wind
mapika
windy
-uka bereft of, without, -less
nas
money
nasuka
broke, penniless
-yena -like, -ous, -ly, -y, -ish, -ic, -al
tudet
child
tudetyena
childish, infantile
tot
god
totyena
divine, godly
pit
fish
pityena
fish-like, fishy
-wa or -awa -ed, past passive participle
(added to verb stem)
VERB STEM PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
t-
know
twa
known
dal-
speak
dalwa
spoken, oral
nixbu-
sell
nixbuwa
sold
dr-
write
drawa
written
-ea -ing
(added to verb stem)
VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
ot-
not know
otea
ignorant
tej-
live
tejea
living, alive
tuj-
die
tujea
dying
-yea -ive, prone to Xing, given to X
(added to verb stem)
VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
tujb-
kill
tujbyea
murderous
tex-
think
texyea
pensive, thoughtful
tox-
forget
toxyea
forgetful
axl-
act
axlyea
active
-uwa -able, apt to be Xed
(added to verb stem)
VERB STEM POTENTIAL PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
ex-
operate
exuwa
operable
tos
feel
tosuwa
palpable
tex-
think
texuwa
conceivable
tel-
eat
teluwa
edible
-yafa -able, capable of Xing
(added to verb stem)
VERB STEM POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat-
see
teatyafa
sightful, able to see
dyed-
read
dyedyafa
literate
-yafwa -able, possible to be Xed
(added to verb stem)
VERB STEM POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat-
see
teatyafwa
visible
tax-
remember
taxyafwa
memorable
teet-
hear
teetyafwa
audible
tel-
eat
telyafwa
edible
-yofa incapable of Xing
(added to verb stem)
VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat-
see
teatyofa
blind
tyoyap-
walk
tyoyapyofa
lame
teet-
hear
teetyofa
deaf
dal-
speak
dalyofa
dumb, incapable of speaking
-yofwa un-X-able
(added to verb stem)
VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat-
see
teatyofwa
invisible
teet-
hear
teetyofa
inaudible
tox-
forget
toxyofa
unforgetable
dal-
speak
dalyofa
unspeakable
-ifa fond of, -phile NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE
pot
animal
potifa
pet-friendly
hyitoob-
same-gender
hyitoobifa
homophile
tobot
child
tobotifa
pedophile
fitel
food
fitelifa
gourmand
doob
nation
doobifa
patriotic
-ufa adverse to, hating, miso-, -phobic NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE
tob
human
tobufa
misanthropic
hyut-
other person
hyutufa
xenophobic
toyb-
woman
toybufa
misogynist
-ef(w)a needful of,
(necessary to be X-ed)
NOUN OR VERB STEM ADJECTIVE
til
drink
tilefa
thirsty
tel
food
telefa
hungry
nas
money
nasefa
poor, needy
yelb-
to oil
yelbefwa
squeaky, in need of oil
-yef(w)a worthy of,
due to be (deserving of being X-ed)
NOUN OR VERB STEM ADJECTIVE
fid
praise
fidyefa
praiseworthy
dud
answer
dudyefa
responsible
tax-
remember
taxyefwa
memorable
-yuk(w)a easy to, (easily X-ed) VERB STEM ADJECTIVE
vatex-
believe
vatexyuka
gullible
vatex-
believe
vatexyukwa
incredible, hard to believe
-yik(w)a hard to,
(hard of X-ing)
VERB STEM ADJECTIVE
teat-
see
teatyikwa
opaque
teet-
hear
teetyika
hard of hearing

Adjectival Prefixes edit

Negating the Meaning of Adjectives edit

The semantics of an adjective can be reversed with the prefix o-.
Examples:
  • vlea....probable ovlea....improbable
  • fika....perfect ofika....imperfect
  • twa....known otwa....unknown
  • bosa....quiet obosa....upset, unquiet
Note: Occasionally, the prefix lo- is used to avoid ambiguity, as in the following case:
  • fwa....wanted
  • ofwa....prohibited < ofer....to prohibit
  • yofwa....impossible < yofer....to be unable
  • lofwa....unwanted < fer....to want (disambiguated)
The prefixes lyo- and ov are more intense for reversing the meaning of an adjective:
  • data....friendly
  • odata....unfriendly
  • ovdata....hostile
  • lyodata....inimical
  • dota....social
  • odota....unsocial
  • ovdota....antisocial
  • lyodota....savage

Table of Adjective Prefixes edit

As in English, where the sense of adjectives can be altered by a number of prefixes of Germanic, Latin, and Greek origin, the sense of adjectives in Mirad can also be altered with prefixes. Here are the principal ones:
Altering the Sense of Adjectives with Prefixes
Click on double arrow to alphabetize the column
MIRAD PREFIX ENGLISH PREFIX ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES
o- un-, a(n)-, in-, non- obaka....unhealthy
oyezyebeya....incontinent, oyelpea....non-invasive
ototina....atheist
ov- anti-, counter- ovzuina....anti-leftist
oviztida....counter-intuitive
av- pro- avhyitoosifa....pro-gay
kovyo- pseudo- kovyotepina....pseudo-intellectual
hya(s)- all-, pan-, omni- hyastea....all-knowing, omniscient
voy-, gal- re- voyupya....returned
galabwa....reapplied
vyo- mis- vyoseudxwa....mispronounced
eyn- semi-, half- eynlevelaya....semi-sweet
eyntija....half-awake
yiz- ultra-, super- yizdoobina....ultra-nationalist
yizmola....supernatural
gro- under-, hypo- grojaga....under-aged
gra- over-, hyper-, uber- graagxwa....overgrown
gratoseya....hypersensitive
gla- multi-, many-, poly- glakuma....multilateral
glatadaya....polygamous
fu- mal-, ill- futeyenxwa....ill-conceived
fusanxwa....malformed
fi- well- fitofabwa....well-dressed
yuyb- quasi-, almost yuybdaba....quasi-governmental
ja- pre-, (a)fore-, pro- jateyenxwa....pre-conceived
jaigdawa....aformentioned
jo- post- jodropeka....post-war
oyeb- extra-, exo-, oyebtada....extra-marital
yeb- endo- yebtayoba....endo-dermal
agl(a)- macro- aglamora....macrocosmic
ogl(a)- micro- oglamora....microcosmic
ut- auto-, self-, sui- utpana....automatic
uttojbua....suicidal
hyaewa- ambi- hyaewatesea....ambivalent
en- bi- entoobifa....bisexual
yuz- circum- yuzteaxea....circumspect
gel- homo- gelsauna....homogeneous
ogel- hetero- ogelsauna....heterogeneous
oyb- infra-, sub- oybivoza....infrared
ge- iso-, equi- gevoza....isochromatic
agr(a)- mega- agratipa....megamaniacal
ku- para- kuega....paranormal
yuyb- quasi-, almost, pen- yuybdobyena....quasi-official
yib- tele-, far- yibpyuxea....far-reaching
zey- trans-, cross- zeymimaga....transoceanic
aaj- paleo- aajtoba....paleoloanthropic
eej- neo- eejvisauna....neoclassical
yibaj- arch(a)eo-, ancient yibajtuna....archaeological
yeb- endo-, inner, intro- yebzena....endocentric
yebuzbwa....introverted
oyeb- exo-, outer, ex-, extr(a/o)- oyebzena....exocentric
oyebuzbwa....extroverted
yab(an)- high-, up yabnoga....upscale
yabnayxa....high-priced
yaban- acro- yabanyufa....acrophobic
yob- low-, down- yobnoga....low-grade, down-scale


English and Mirad Adjectival Suffix Comparison edit

Here is a chart showing a comparison between English adjectival suffixes and their Mirad counterparts:
English and Mirad Adjectival Suffixes Compared
ENGLISH SUFFIX MEANING MIRAD SUFFIX ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES
-ful full of -aya
-ika
vozaya....colorful
tuzika....skillful
-ous full of -aya
-ika
nazika....precious
milaya....aqueous
-filled full of -aya
-ika
movika / movaya....smoke-filled
-y full of -aya
-ika
movika / movaya....smoky
-ous of
like
-a totina....religious
vyosa....erroneous
-ly like -yena totyena....godly
toybyena....womanly
-like like -yena patyena....bird-like
-ish like -yena tobotyena....childish
-y like -yena fyabyena....fruity
-ic like -yena tuzyena....artistic
silyena....acidic
-ic of
related to
-a tuna....scientific
beka....therapeutic
-ical of
related to
-a zyunida....spherical
iztexa....logical
-ological pertaining to the study of -tuna tejtuna....biological
-ist(ic) pertaining to the doctrine of -ina doparina....militarist(ic)
nasyanina....capitalist(ic)
-ophobic (and miso- prefix) hating
fearful of
-ufa yudatufa....xenophonic
tobyanufa....misanthropic
-ophilic (and philo- prefix) loving -ifa tobotifa....pedophilic
tobifa....philanthropic
-al like -yena pyotyena....bestial
-al of
pertaining to
-a teja....vital
amana....thermal
-less without
empty of
-oya
-uka
tejuka....lifeless
tobotoya....childless
-free without
empty of
-oya
-uka
yomuka....ice-free
vyosoya....error-free
-safe
-proof
free
not subject to
-vaka milvaka....waterproof

Forming Adverbs edit

Adjectives can be converted into adverbs by post-y-gliding the adjectival suffix a, in other words, by adding a y to the adjective. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
Examples:
Deriving Adverbs
ADJECTIVE ADVERB
fia....good fiay....well
vyaa....true vyaay....truly
gyua....easy gyuay....easily
iga....quick igay....quickly
auta....personal autay....personally
For brevity's sake, the stem of monosyllabic de-adjectival adverbs can be used at the end of a clause or sentence. For example:
  • It tyoyape ig.....He walks fast.
  • Yit xa has fi.....They did it well.

Special Adverbs edit

Mirad has special adverbs that are not derived from adjectives and may or may not end in -ay.
Here are the principal such adverbs:
Special Adverbs
MIRAD ENGLISH
vay indeed, really, certainly, do (cf. va....yes)
vey possibly, may, might (cf. ve....maybe)
voy not (cf. vo....no)
ga more (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
gay also, moreover, further, still
ge as, equally (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
gey even
go less (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
goy no longer, no more
gla very
glay quite, rather, so
gle so
glo not very, not so
gra too
gre enough, sufficiently, over-
gro not...enough, inadequately, under-
gwa most, super-
gwe average
gwo least, sub-
zay ahead, forward
zey across
zoy back
zye through
zya throughout
The first three adverbs in the above chart are used to affirm or emphasize, cast doubt on, or negate verb predicates as in the examples that follow:
  • AFFIRMATIVE: Va, at vay se taduwa.....Yes, I am indeed married.
  • DUBITIVE: Iyta dud se vey vyosa.....Her response is possibly wrong.
  • NEGATIVE: At voy se eta yuxrut.....I am not your slave.
The adverbs above beginning with g are quantitative adverbs and modify an adjective, verb, or another adverb:
  • Et se gla via.....You are very beautiful [=ADJECTIVE].
  • Et peya gra ig.....You were going too fast [=ADVERB].
  • It gra dale.....He talks [=VERB] too much.
Other special adverbs, which do not end in -ay, include the following, which can all be used in multi-word prepositions:
Adverbs Used in Prepositional Phrases
SPECIAL ADVERB EXAMPLES
yab....up Ha pat papa yab bu ha mam.....The bird flew up to the sky.
yob....down Teaxu yob bu ha mel.....Look down to the ground.
yub....near Besu yub bi ha mas.....Stay near the wall.
yib....far Ha tobi igpia yib bi ha yovbyokam.....The people ran far from the prison.
yeb....in, inward, inside Kyedu hat hu ogja tyoyapa yeb buha tam!....Guess who just walked into the house!
oyeb....out, outside It tyoyapa oyeb zye bi ha zames.....He walked out through the front door.
yuz....around Yit daza yuz bi yat.....They danced around us.
yiz....beyond Et yefe teaxer yiz bi hia tistam av yux.....You must look beyond this school for help.
iz....directly, straight Pu iz bu hat.....Go right up to him.
zi....right Uzpu zi ub yat!....Turn right toward us!
zu....left Hat uzpa zu ib at.....He turned left away from me.
zay....forward Pu zay bu ha uj.....Go on to the end.
zoy....back Upu zoy bi hua nem.....Come back from that place.
zye....through Yat buxo ha muyv zye bi ha dref.....We will push the pin through the paper.
yan....together Van yat tyopu yan.....Let's walk together.
yon....apart Ha meri kyapeye yon.....The planets are drifting apart.

Pro-adverbs edit

There are also adverbial expressions that are formed with deictic prefixes and categorical stubs to produce what are known as pro-adverbs. These include interrogative pro-adverbs like duhom? (where?), duhoyen? (how?), duhoj? (when?), duhogla (to what extent?), and their answers, such as hum (there), heyen (somehow), and hyoj (never), hugla (so, to that extent). These words are discussed under the chapter on Deictic Determiners.

Forming Verbs edit

 
Verbs can be formed from various parts of speech:
  • Noun stems
  • Adjective stems
  • Verb stems

Forming Verbs from Nouns edit

Verbs can often be formed from nouns simply by adding the verb infinitive suffix er:
Denominal Verb Derivation
NOUN VERB
syag....count syager....to count
af....permission afer....may, be allowed
teud....cry, shout teuder....to cry, shout, exclaim
taj....birth tajer....to be born
tej....life tejer....to live
toj....death tojer....to die
ej....present ejer....to continue
ij....beginning ijer....to begin
uj....end ijer....to end
yuj....sleep tujer....to sleep

Verb Formants edit

More often, an auxiliary verb or verb stub is used to create various verbs from nouns. The most common such verb formants are in this chart:
  • -ser....to be/become usually intransitive and stative (unite = become one)
  • -xer....to do/make usually transitive and dynamic (unite = make one)
  • -per....to go usually intransitive and a dynamic verb of motion (mount = get onto)
  • -ber....to put usually transitive and a verb of gesture (apply = put onto)
  • -ier a stub from the verb to take, usually an action verb benefiting the agent (eat = take food)
  • -uer a stub from the verb to give, usually an action verb benefiting the patient (feed = give food)
  • -der....to say, a verb of communication (affirm = say yes)
  • -ter....to know, verbs of the perception and knowledge (teater = see)
Some of the above formants can be intensified with the liquids l or r, eg.sler, -xler, -xrer, -bler, -prer.
Verb Derivation with Verb Formants
NOUN AUXILIARY VERB OR VERB STUB FORMANT VERB
yav....innocence der....to say yavder....to acquit
yov....shame, guilt aber....to apply, put on yovaber....to shame, accuse
yov....shame, guilt ober....to remove, take off yovober....to excuse, exculpate
tof....clothes aber....to apply, put on tofaber....to dress, don
tof....clothes ober....to remove, take off tofober....to undress, strip
det....associate ser....to be, become detser....to associate
dat....friend xer....to do, make datxer....to befriend
san....form ser....to be, become sanser....to form (intransitive)
san....form xer....to do, make sanxer....to form (transitive)
tel....food (b)ier....to take telier....to eat, consume
tel....food (b)uer....to give teluer....to feed, nourish
if....pleasure (b)ier....to take ifier....to enjoy
if....pleasure (b)uer....to give ifuer....to please
taj....birth ber....to put tajber....to give birth
tej....life per....to go tejper....to come alive
tej....life ber....to put tejber....to bring to life
toj....death per....to go tojper....to drop dead
toj....death ber....to put tojber....to kill
tij....wakefulness per....to go tijper....to wake up
tij....wakefulness ber....to put tijber....to awaken
tuj....sleep per....to go tujper....to fall asleep
tuj....sleep ber....to put tujber....to put to sleep
tax....memory (b)ier....to take taxier....to recall
tax....memory (b)uer....to give taxuer....to remind
yev....justice der....to say, tell yevder....to judge
vyan....truth der....to say, tell vyander....to tell the truth
vyon....falsehood der....to say, tell vyonder....to tell a lie
il....liquid aker....to gain ilaker....to take on liquid
il....liquid oker....to lose iloker....to leak, lose liquid
il....liquid (b)ier....to take ilier....to soak up
il....liquid (b)uer....to give iluer....to pour, water
il....liquid ikser....to get full ilikser....to be soaked (intransitive)
il....liquid ikxer....to fill up ilikxer....to flood, soak (transitive)
il....liquid ukser....to become empty ilukser....to drain (intransitive)
il....liquid ukxer....to empty ilukxer....to flush (transitive)
il....liquid ser....to be, become ilser....to liquify, melt (intransitive)
il....liquid xer....to do, make ilxer....to liquify, melt (transitive)
il....liquid aber....to apply, put on ilaber....to wash (transitive)
il....liquid aper....to get on ilaper....to float (intransitive)
il....liquid per....to go ilper....to flow (intransitive)
il....liquid zyaber....to spread ilzyaber....to spray, shower (transitive)
il....liquid zyober....to squeeze ilzyober....to squirt (transitive)
il....liquid pyexer....to strike ilpyexer....to splash (with liquid)
il....liquid yujer....to close ilyujer....to plug
Note that verbs ending in -ser and -ier are intransitive (they take no object), while those ending in -xer and -uer are transitive. Also, -ier verbs are inchoative, while -uer verbs are benefactive or causative (making someone do something).

Forming Verbs from Adjectives With -xer and -ser edit

The verbs that are formed from adjectives fall mainly into two groups, the transitive group with -xer....to do, make, cause, and the intransitive group with -ser....to be, become.
The following chart shows how these verbs are formed:
Forming Verbs with Xer and Ser
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
aza....strong azaxer....fortify, strengthen, make strong azaser....get strong
oza....week ozaxer....weaken ozaser....grow weaker
kyia....heavy kyiaxer....weigh down kyiaser....grow heavy
kyua....light kyuaxer....lighten, make lighter kyuaser....get lighter
yana....together yanaxer....bring together yanaser....get together
The final adjective ending a is often dropped to form a verb with a slightly different meaning, usually somewhat more idiomatic. In some cases, dropping the a makes it clear that the verb is created from a noun rather than an adjective, as in the last example of the following chart:
Comparing Full and Stub Adjectives in Verb Formation
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
aga....big agaxer....magnify agaser....get big
agxer....grow agxer....grow up, mature
iga....fast igaxer....accelerate igaser....speed up
igxer....rush igser....hurry up
baka....healthy bakaxer....make healthy bakaser....get healthy
bakxer....heal bakser....heal
sana....formal sanaxer....formalize sanaser....become formal
sanxer....form, shape sanser....form, take shape

Forming Verbs of Gesture and Motion with -ber and -per edit

Verbs of gesture are formed with the transitive auxiliary verb ber....to put, while parallel verbs of motion are formed with the intransitive auxiliary verb per....to go. These verbs are usually paired and are often built from a prepositional base. If the prepositional base ends in b, the b is dropped. Here are some examples:
Verb Derivation with Ber and Per
PREPOSITON
BASE
TRANSITIVE GESTURE VERB INTRANSITIVE MOTION VERB
ab....on aber....apply, put on aper....mount, get on
eb....between eber....block eper....intervene
ob....off ober....remove, take off oper....dismount, get off
ib....away iber....receive iper....leave
ub....toward uber....send uper....come
yab....up yaber....raise yaper....rise
yeb....in
oyeb....out
yeber....insert
oyeber....take out
yeper....enter
oyeper....exit
yob....down yober....lower yoper....descend
yib....far yiber....take away yiper....move away
yub....near yuber....bring yuper....approach
za....front zaber....put up front zaper....take the lead
zay....forward zayber....advance zayper....advance, go forward
ze....middle zeber....balance zeper....balance
zey....across zeyber....take across, transfer zeyper....cross, go over, transit
zo....behind zober....hinder zoper....trail, lag
zoy....back zoyber....set back, return zoyper....retreat, go back, return
iz....straight izber....guide izper....aim for
uz....crooked uzber....divert uzper....turn, diverge
zu....left zuber....set to the left zuper.... go left
yiz....beyond yizber....take beyond yizper....pass by
yuz....around yuzber....take around yuzper....go around
More elaborate verbs of gesture and motion can be formed by adding positional/directional ordinal vowels along with combinations of ser and xer, plus the intensifiers y, l and r. In this more complex scheme, the stem-initial p is a more semantically intense version of b. Also the verb endings -sler and -srer and more intense versions of the intransitive ending -ser, while -xler and -xrer and more intense version of the transitve ending -xer. Verbs ending in -ler and -rer are transitive voice by nature, -rer being more semantically intense. Prepositions can be prefixed to change the direction of the gestures or motions.
Creating More Elaborate Verbs
GESTURE VERB MOTION VERB
INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE
-- ber....put


beer....have
beler....carry
bexer....hold
bexler....keep

per....go --
baer....lean on baler....press
yanbaler....compress
yobaler....depress, suppress
yuzbaler....hug
zoybaler....repress
barer....crush
paer....hover
baser....gesticulate baxer....make a gesture
abaxer....caress, pat
paser....move paxer....move
byaser....stand up byaxer....set up, erect pyaser....jump up pyaxer....shoot, launch
basler....budge baxler....rouse
abaxler....stroke
paaser....get excited paaxer....excite
apaxler....sweep
basrer....shake baxrer....shake
abaxrer....rub
apaxrer....scrub
beser....stay bexer....hold
zoybexer....restrain
yobexer....detain, hold down
peser....wait pexer....trap
pexler....capture
pexrer....abduct
byeser....behave byexer....hit pyeser....run into, bump into pyexer....strike, knock
yonpyexer....break
yopyexer....knock down
epyexer....fight
apyexer....attack
ovpyexer....offend
kunpyexer....sideswipe
tuyapyexer....slap
besler....adhere bexler....retain pyexler....pound, beat
apyexler....assault
yonpexler....shatter, burst
yanpyesrer....implode
yonpyesler....explode
pyexler....blast, bomb
boser....calm down
boyser....rest
boxer....quieten, quell poser....stop
poyser....pause
poxer....stop
byoser....hang byoxer....hang pyoser....fall
yonpyoser....decay
pyoxer....drop, throw down
yopyoxer....topple
biser....originate bixer....pull
yanbixer....contract
yonbixer....distract
yubixer....attract
yibixer....distract
oyebixer....extract
yebixer....push in
pixer....catch
bisler....spring bixler....yank
bixrer....ravage
pixler....snatch
pixrer....rape
buser....be destined buxer....push, drive
zyobuxer....squeeze
yebuxer....expel
abuxer....impose
apuser....assault puxer....throw, thrust
byuser....bump into byuxer....touch
yanbyuxer....contact
pyuser....run into pyuxer....crash
busler....swoop buxler....shove pusler....lunge, pounce puxler....thrust
zyapuxler....splatter
Yet more complex verbs can be generated by adding directional and positional prefixes to the above verbs. Let's just take the one verb baxer (and its intransitive partner baser) as our base verb and generate many others through prefixation of prepositional and other words as shown in the following chart:
Baxer Verbs
PREFIX VERB
baxer....gesture, make a bodily motion
ab....on abaxer....caress, pat, pet, stroke, rub
iz....straight izbaxer....point
teb....head tebaxer....nod
va....yes vatebaxer....nod yes
vo....no votebaxer....nod no
ve....maybe vetebaxer....shrug
tuyab....hand tuyabaxer....wave
tub....arm tubaxer....flail, swing
teubab....tongue teubabaxer....lick
teab....eye teubaxer....wink
patub....wing patubaxer....flap
tiyub....tail tiyubaxer....wag
baser....gesticulate
ig-....fast igbaser....jerk
zay....forward igzaybaser....lurch
zoy....back zoybaser....recoil
yob....down yobaser....bow, bend down
ku-....side kubaser....slide
ig-....fast igkubaser....slip
iz....straight + uz....curved uizbaser....sway, swagger, swish
zi....right + zu....left zuibaser....wiggle, wobble, totter

Forming Frequentative Verbs edit

A frequentative verb, that is, one that involves an action done quickly multiple times in succession, can be formed by infixing the syllable eg- between the verb stem and verb ending. Here are some examples:
The -eg- Frequentative Infix
REGULAR VERB FREQUENTATIVE VERB
paser....move paseger....shake, shudder
pyaser....jump pyaseger....bounce
paper....fly papeger....flutter, flit
braser....shake braseger....shudder, quiver, vibrate
teupixer....bite teupixeger....nibble
ilzyaber....spray ilzyabeger....sprinkle
pyexer....beat pyexeger....batter, whip

Forming Hybrid Words edit

Expressions with alternating components like back-and-forth, up-and-down, etc. are formed in a peculiar, hybrid way. The following table shows this formation and how such words can be used, especially as prefixes on verbs:
Hybrid Words
ALTERNATING COMPONENTS HYBRID EXPRESSION EXAMPLES
yab....up +
yob....down
yao(b)-....up-and-down yaoper....fluctuate, yaopuser....bounce
a-....up, north, skyward +
o-....down, south
ao-....vertical aonada....vertical, aomera....north-south
za(y)....forth +
zo(y)....back
zao(b)-....front-back/north-to-south zaobaser....rock
bu....to +
bi....from
bui-....to-and-from buipar....shuttle, buipop....round-trip
ab....on +
ob....off
ao(b)-....on-and-off aoper....get on and off
yuj-....closed +
yij-....open
yuij-....open-and-shut yuijbar....switch, igyuijer....blink
uj-....stop +
ij-....start
uij-....stop-and-start uijparpan....stop-and-go traffic
(a)yeb....in +
oyeb....out
aoye(b)-....in-and-out igaoyeper....run in-and-out
yub....near +
yib....far
yui(b)-....near-and-far yuipoper....travel near-and-far
ub....toward +
ib....away
ui(b)-....toward-and-away uipen....coming and going
hum....there +
him....here
huim....here-and-there huimkexer....search high-and-low (here-and-there)
hus....that +
his....this
huis....this-and-that huisyexer....do odd jobs, work at this-or-that
hyut....other person +
hyit....same person
hyuit....one another hyuitifer....love one another, hyuita....mutual, reciprocal
Here are some more examples:
More Hybrids
HYBRID WORD ENGLISH GLOSS ALTERNATING COMPONENTS
aogsen fluctuation (in size) ag- (big) + og- (little) + s- (become) + -en (-ing)
aonada vertical a- (up/north) + o- (down/south) + nad (line) + -a (adj.)
aopuys hop-on-hop-off a(p)- (on) + o(p)- (off) + puys- (hop)
buien trading, swapping bu- (give) + bi- (trake) + -en (-ing)
buip traffic bu- (to) + bi- (from) + p- (go)
buixar spring bux- (push) + bix (pull) + -ar (instrument)
buixek tug-o-war bux- (push) + bix- (pull) + ek (play)
buixnyem drawer bux- (push) + bix- (pull) + nyem (box)
byaosen teetering, stumbling byas- (stand) + byos- (fall) + -en (-ing)
diep marine force dip (sea force) + dep (land force)
duid q&a, interview dud (answer) + did (question)
eigpyexer batter, whip eg- (again) + ig- (fast) + pyexer (to hit)
gao more-or-less ga (more) + go (less)
glaojo sooner or later gla (very) + glo (slightly) + jo (after)
huimkexer search here and there hu- (that) + hi- (this) + -m (place) + kex (search) + -er (inf.)
huis this-and-that hu- (that) + hi- (this) + -s (thing)
hyuit one another hyu- (other) + hyi- (same) + -t (person)
kyaopen fluctuation kya- (mobile) + kyo (static) + -pen (going)
maluier breathe mal- (air) + u- (let out) + i- (take in) -er (inf.)
maojyex double-shift work maj (day) + moj (night) + yex (work)
maonig flicker man (light) + mon (dark) + ig- (fast)
maolza black&white/gray malza (white) + molza (black)
meil mud mel (soil) + mil (water)
memuiben import-exports mem (country) + ub- (send) + ib- (receive) + -en (-ing)
mial vapor mil (water) + mal (air)
mieg reef mi- (sea) + me- (land) + -g (stone)
miek sand mi- (sea) + me- (land) + -k (rocky substance)
miem swamp mim (sea) + mem (land)
mimpuin dock mim (sea) + pu- (arrive) + pi- (depart) + -m (place)
mimpyaos surf mim (sea) + pyas- (surge) + pyos- (sink)
mimuip tide mim (sea) + up- (come) + ip- (go)
peit amphibian pet (land animal) + pit (sea creature)
puim kiss-and-ride zone pu- (arrive) + pi- (depart) + -m (place)
puixek baseball pux- (pitch) + pix- (catch) + ek (play)
pyaos wave pyas- (surge) + pyos- (crest)
teabyuij blink teab (eye) + yuj- (close) + yij- (open)
tuijea nodding off tuj- (sleep) + tij (wake) -ea (-ing)
uijdal stutter uj- (finish) + ij- (start) + dal (speech)
uipeni comings & goings up- (come) + ip (go) + -en (-ing) + -i (pl.)
uiza serpentine, snaky uza (crooked) + iza (straight)
vao? yes or no? va (yes) + vo (no)
vaod decision va (yes) + vo (no) + d- (say)
yaobar elevator yab- (raise) + yob- (lower) + -ar (instrument)
yaobyuijar piston yab- (raise) + yob- (lower) + yuj- (close) + yij- (open ) + -ar (instrument)
yaoplas oscillation yap- (up) + yop- (down) + plas (shake)
yaopsim seesaw yap- (ascend) + yop- (descend) + sim (seat)
yaopus bounce ya(b)- (up) + yo(b)- (down) + pus (jump)
yaovdut juror yav- (innocent) + yov- (guilty) + d- (say) + -ut (agent)
yaoza uneven, bumpy, serrated yaza (convex) + yoza (concave)
yaozgoblar saw yaz (protrusion ) + yoz (indentation) + gobl- (cut) + -ar (instrument)
yaozil wave yaz (swell) + yoz (trough) + -il (liquid)
yuibteabar bifocals yub (near) + yib (far) + teab (eye) + -ar (instrument)
yuijar valve, switch yuj- (close) + yij- (open) + -ar (instrument)
zaobelur ferry za- (forth) + zo (back) + bel- (carry) + -ur (vehicle)
zaobyexar swatter, bat za (forth) + zo (back) + byex- (strike) + -ar (instrument)
zaodal dialog za- (forth) + zo (back) + dal (speech)
zaogoblar saw za (forth) + zo (back) + gobl (cut) + -ar (instrument)
zaokyax alternation za (forth) + zo (back) + kyax (change)
zaopasen swinging za- (forth) + zo- (back) + pasen (moving)
zaopsim swing or rocker zap- (go forth) + zap (go back) + sim (seat)
zuibasen wiggling zu- (left) + zi- (right) + bas- (move bodily) + -en (-ing)
zuibayx wag zu- (left) + zi- (right) + bayx- (slight body move)
zuibyoxea dangling zu (left) + zi (right) + byox- (hang down) + -ea (-ing)
zuiyafa ambidextrous zu- (left) + zi- (right) + yafa (capable)
zyaobas throb zya- (wide) + zyo- (narrow) + bas (bodily movement)