Mirad Grammar/Vocabulary Formation

Vocabulary FormationEdit

In order to facilitate word-building and to maximize comprehension and decipherability of words, certain meanings and functions have been attached to consonants and vowels.
The vocabulary of Mirad is composed of base words and derived words.

Guiding Principles for Vocabulary FormationEdit

The vocabulary is built on base words, that is, indivisible, building-block words. The choice of the root of these words (formed generally from two or three letters) is determined by:
  • The meaning of each letter of the word.
  • The importance of the group of ideas that this word evokes in its proper sense and in the sense that is directly opposite it, eg.: fixed vs. variable.
  • How frequently the word and its derivations are used in the language.
  • The geometric system of vocabulary construction (see a later section on what this is all about).
  • The logic of its composition.
  • The mnemonic associations this word suggests.
The words derived from base words in turn follow very simple laws called vocabulary-building rules, which are spelled out below.

Base WordsEdit

Base words are elements of vocabulary that cannot be broken down any further and which serve as the basis for many derived words in the language. Base words are divided into two groups:
  • Group 1:  consisting of nouns
  • Group 2:  consisting of prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, determiners, and verbs.
Base words of the Group 1 (nouns) are composed of three letters:
  • The first, a consonant called the classifier
  • The second, a vowel1 called the ordinal
  • The third, a consonant called the generic
Examples:
Base Word Composition
CLASSIFIER ORDINAL GENERIC MEANING
t o b man
d o t society
p o t tree
Note 1: A bit of a misnomer. The vowel is really one in a range of cardinal numbers from 0 - 9 (a - yu) See Cardinal Numbers). For example, in Group 1 base words, the ordinal is often the vowel o, the zeroth number. Many of the ordinal vowels are just cardinal numbers 0-9 (o-yu).
Base words of Group 2 (everything but nouns) are composed of one or two letters, not including grammatical endings. If one letter, it is a consonant or sometimes a vowel(*). If two letters, they consist of a consonant + vowel combination or a vowel + consonant combination. Here are some examples (the hyphen at the end means that the base word does not stand alone, but is followed in usage by a grammaticatical ending such as -er (verb infinitive) or -a (adjective marker):
Some Examples of Group 2 Base Words
b-....put p-....go
s-....be x-....do
d-....say t-....know
ab....on ob....off
bu....to bi....from
if-....love uf-....hate
fi-....good fu-....bad
va....yes vo....no
vya*-....true vyo-....false
a....one o....zero
* As mentioned above, "vowel" in this case includes those preceded and/or followed by one of the glides y or w. So, for purposes here, ya, ye, yi, yo, yu, wa, and other pre- and post-glided vowels, are considered "vowels".


Consonants and Their MeaningsEdit

The classifier (initial letter) and generic (final letter) in group 1 base words (nouns) are consonants. Also, group 2 base words almost always have one consonant. So, you need to be familiar with the general meaning of the consonants in the Mirad alphabet, as shown in the following chart:
Consonants and Their Meanings
CONSONANT GROUP 1 CLASSIFIER GROUP 1 GENERIC GROUP 2 CLASSIFIER IN NUMBERS
b organ, health organism gesture, position
d society family communicating
f vegetation textile, clothing volition, attributes
g -- measurement quantity, attributes
j time time time
k -- health change, risk, attributes
l -- element, food, liquid -- ten
m nature place, building, furniture, metal temperature, light ml = million
mr = billion
n merchandise -- -- commerce
p animal, vehicle motion movement
r -- tool, machine -- thousand
s form, image, furniture thing being, form, thing hundred
t human, body person, animal intelligence, knowing
v plant, color linen truth, attributes
x -- -- action, doing, making
z -- precious, art spatial, attributes
The following consonants have semantic functions rather than, or in addition to semantic values:
  • l and r:   Liquids used after vowels to intensify the semantics of a word, eg.: baer....to lean, baler....to press, barer....to crush;
  • y:   Glide used 1) before a stem vowel to intensify the semantics of a word, eg. voa....negative -> vyoa....false, or 2) after a vowel to deintensify the semantics of a word, eg. ama....hot -> ayma....warm.
  • h:   Used functionally only in certain interjections like hoy....goodbye, conjunctions like ven....if, and determiners like his....this, and has no semantic value.
  • w:   Has no semantic value of its own, but is used only 1) to form the masculine gender of nouns and pronouns, eg. tob....person -> twob....man, or 2) to form the passive voice of verbs, eg. uber....to send -> ubwer....to be sent, or 3) to form a numerical unit marker, eg. awa....one, or 4) sometimes to substitute for y when this letter would cause ambiguity or difficulty in pronunciation with other consonants eg. jwo....late, instead of jyo.
  • n:   In addition to its semantic values, functions often 1) as a buffer letter, as in ana....only, or 2) as a suffix to derive a nominal abstraction from an adjective, such as fian....goodness from fia....good, or from a verb, such axnen....behaving from axner....to behave.

Vowels and Their MeaningsEdit

Vowels in Mirad have meanings or values of the following types:
  • numeric
  • geo-specific
  • oppositional
  • positional
  • vectorial
  • special
Numeric Vowel ValuesEdit
The numeric value of vowels is shown in the chart below. The vowels beginning with y are considered pre-y-glided vowels. These numeric values serve as the "ordinal vowel" in base words. See the section on Vowels.
Numeric Values of Vowels
ORDINAL VOWEL o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
ORDINAL NUMBER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
ORDINAL NUMERAL zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
EXAMPLE tob tab teb tib tub tyob
MEANING human body head trunk arm leg
Geo-specific Vowel ValuesEdit
Geo-specific Vowel Values
VOWEL MEANING EXAMPLE BASE WORD EXAMPLE BASE WORD EXAMPLE BASE WORD
o outer space, top level mop....orbit mom....outer space mol....nature
a air, gas, sky map....wind mam....sky mal....air
e ground, soil, solid mep....road mem....land mel....soil
i liquid, water, sea mip....river mim....sea mil....water
u underground, mineral, substance mup....tunnel mum....underground mul....mineral
Oppositional Vowel ValuesEdit
In Group 2 words:
Oppositional Vowel Values
a    ya intermediate i    yi
positive
negative
e    ye positive
negative
o    yo value u    yu
  • positive a constasts with negative o
  • positive ya contracts with negative yo
  • positive i contracts with negative u
  • positive yi contracts with negative yu
  • e and ye are in-between values
Directional and Positional Vowel ValuesEdit
Positional Vowel Values
a
u e i
o
a....on, above, north
e....center, middle, equator
o....off, below, south
i....right, east
u....left, west
Directional and Positional Vowel Values
A
U a

a

ya
ya
I
u e ye i
u e ye i
yu E yi
yu yi

o
o
yo

yo
O
Explanation of the above chart:
  • If the vowel is capitalized, it indicates a positional value. It is used in its lowercase spelling as a prefix in Group I words.
  • The non-capitalized vowels (including y-glides) indicate directional values.
  • If the vowel is underlined, it means that it is placed before the classifier consonant (prefixed) in verbs
  • Otherwise, a normal vowel means that it is placed after the classifier consonant (infixed) in Group 2 words.
Explanation of the Vowel Meanings Chart
A position on, above, north amer....north
a movement (free) on baer....lean
a movement (contact) onto aber....put on
ya movement (free) up, ascend byaer....lift
ya movement (contact) up, get up, set up yaber....raise
O position under, lower, south omer....south
o movement (free) off boer....hang
o movement (contact) on the bottom of, underneath oper....get off
yo movement (free) down pyoser....fall
yo movement (contact) fall yoper....rise
U position left, west umer....west
u movement (free) move toward the center, come uber....send
u movement (contact) reach the center, arrive pyuer....reach
yu movement (free) near, approach yuber....approach
yu movement (contact) near, reach byuser....touch
I position right, east imer....east
i movement (free) from the center out, go away pier....go away
i movement (contact) from the center out, leave iper....leave
yi movement (free) away, go far yiper....go far
yi movement (contact) from afar, originate pyiser....originate
E position center, equator emer....equator
e rest between eb....between
e rest at, stay, hold bexer....hold
ye movement in, into, enter yeper....enter
ye (contact) contain byeer....contain
Special value of certain vowels
The prefixes a- or an- meaning one, sole, singular contrast with
the prefixes ya- or yan- meaning collection, plural.
Also, the prefix yan- meaning together contrasts with yon-....apart.

The Meaning of Group 1 Base WordsEdit

The meaning of the base words of Group 1 comes from the combination of the values of the classifier and the generic consonants. The ordinal vowel of those Group 1 base words in the following chart is the letter o, which is also the cardinal number zero, thus, it's the zeroth element of a descending hierarchy or pseudo-hierarchy of terms. Therefore the middle vowel in the following words is called scalar:
Examples:
Group 1 Zeroth-level Scalar Base Words and Meanings of the Consonants
BASE WORD CLASSIFIER CONSONANT GENERIC CONSONANT
tob....person t = human b = organism
tod....family " " " d = society
tof....clothing " " " f = textile
tov....lingerie " " " v = linen
tol....nourishment " " " l = food
tom....building " " " m = place
dob....state d = society b = organism
dop....military " " " p = movement
dot....society " " " t = human
dom....city " " " m = place
nom....place n = commercial m = place
nog....degree " " " g = measurement
nof....cloth " " " f = cloth
nov....linen " " " v = linen
nod....point " " " d = communication
job....time j = time b....organism
fob....vegetation f = vegetable b = organism
vob....crop v = plant b = organism
xob....staff x = action " " "
vos....flower " " " s = thing
voz....color " " " z = art, precious
som....furniture s = thing m = place
mos....masonry " " " s = thing
mor....universe " " " r = machine
mol....nature " " " l = substance
pot....animal p = movement t = human, animal
bok....illness b = organ k = health, risk
Other Group 1 nouns, listed in the chart below, have an ordinal vowel which is not scalar or hierchical, but geo-physical, directional, or mnemonic in some way. The consonants, especially the classifier consonant, have meanings like those in the above chart.
Other Group 1 Base Words
d = communication
daz....dance
dez....theater
diz....comedy
duz....music
dyez....cinema
drez....poetry
din....story
dun....word
dyun....name
dyan....sentence
dyes....book
dar....language
dr = write
drof....board
draf....card
dref....paper
drov....cardboard
drav....notebook
drev....page
drar....pencil
drir....typewriter
drur....printer
m = universe
mop....orbit
map....wind
mep....road
mip....river
mup....tunnel
mag....fire
mog....ash
meg....stone
mug....metal
mez....crystal
mak....electricity
mek....powder
mav....flame
mov....smoke
maf....cloud
maj....daytime
moj....night
man....light
mon....dark
n = commerce
naz....value
nas....money
nax....price
nyaz....wealth
nyan....stack
nox....expense
nyox....waste
nex....saving
nyex....storing
nix....earning
nyix....order
nux....pay
nyux....supply
nun....merchandise
nyun....product
nuz....jewel
nem....location
nyem....place
nyeb....box
nab....row
nap....order
j = time
jag....age
s = thing
sag....number
saz....sculpture
san....form
son....thing (abstract)
sin....image
siz....painting
sun....thing (concrete)
syan....kind
syen....style
syin....subject
syun....object
sar....instrument
sir....machine
sor....engine
sor....motor
t = human / intelligence
taz....statue
tez....bust
tuz....art
toz....skin color
tyez....culture
tin....doctrine
tun....science
tyan....class
tyen....trade
tyun....idea
tos....sensation
tes....meaning
tot....god

The Meaning of Group 2 Base WordsEdit

The meaning of Group 2 base word stems comes from the combination of the values of the classifier consonant and the ordinal (stem) vowel. The stem does not include adjectival (-a), adverbial (-ay), and verbal inflections (-er, -ser, -xer, etc.), which are shown in a smaller typeface after the stem.
The ordinal (stem vowel) holds oppositional values like positive, intermediary, and negative.
Examples:
Stems of Group 2 Base Words
CLASSIFIER CONSONANT POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE
j = time ja....before je....during jo....after ji....since ju....until
" " " aj....past ej....present oj....future ij....beginning uj....end
(t = human)* taj....birth tej-....life toj-....death tij....awake state tuj....sleep
" " " jwa....early jwe....on time jwo....late yij....opening yuj....closing
g = measurement ga....more ge....equal go....less gin....point gu-n....angle
" " " aga....big eg....again oga....small iga....fast uga....slow
" " " yaga....long yega....normal yoga....short yiga....hard yuga....soft
" " " gyaa....thick gyea....enough gyo-....thin gyia....solid gyua....fragile
k kaxer....find kexer....seek koxer....hide kia....oblique kua....lateral
" " " aker....win eker....play oker....lose ika....full uka....empty
" " " yaker....expect yeker....try yoker....suprise yika....difficult yuka....easy
" " " kyaa....mobile kyea....haphazard kyoa....fixed kyia....heavy kyua....light
m = nature ama....hot -- oma....cold ima....wet uma....dry
fer....want fia....good fua....bad
" " " fyaa....holy -- fyoa....profane fyia....useful fyua....harmful
" " " yafer....be able yefer....must yofer....cannot yifer....dare yufer....fear
" " " afer....may efer....need ofer....be prohibited ifer....love ufer....hate
v = beauty, veracity va....yes ve....maybe vo....no via....beautiful vua....ugly
" " " av....for eva....neutral ov....against ivaa....happy uva....sad
" " " vyaa....true vyea....relative vyoa....false vyia....clean vyua....dirty
" " " yava....innocent yeva....fair yova....guilty yiva....free yuva....captive
z = (spatial) za....in front of ze....in the middle of zo....in back of zia....right zua....left
" " " zyaa....wide zye....through zyoa....narrow zyia....flat zyua....round
" " " aza....strong eza....moderate oza....weak iza....straight uza....curved
" " " yaza....convex yez....along yoza....concave yiz....beyond yuz....around
b-er....put baxer....agitate be(xer)....at, (hold) boxer....calm bi(er/xer)....from, (take/pull) bu(er/xer)....to, (give/push)
" " " ab(er)....on,(put on) eb(er)....between,(block) ob(er)....off,(take off) ib(er)....away,(receive) ub(er)....toward,(send)
" " " byaser....stand byexer....tap byoser....hang byi(ser)....since,(originate) byu(ser)....up to,(touch)
" " " yab(er)....up,(raise) yeb(er)....in,(enter)
oyeb(er)....out,(exit)
yob(er)....down,(lower) yib(er)....far,(remove) yub(er)....near,(bring)
per....go paser....move peser/xer....wait/trap poser....stop pier/xer....leave/catch puer/xer....arrive/throw
" " " pyaser/xer....jump up/launch pyeser/xer....encounter/strike pyoser/xer....fall/drop pyiser....emanate pyuser....reach
" " " yaper....rise yeper....enter yoper....descend yiper....go far yuper....approach
" " " aper....get on eper....stop oper....get off iper....go away uper....come
ser....be saxer....form sexer....build sin....image suer....provide
" " " aser....become eser....exist oser....cease to be
x-....do xaler....execute xeler....celebrate xoler....fail xiler....undertake xuler....provoke
" " " axer....act exer....function oxer....abstain ixer....effect uxer....cause
" " " yaxer....be busy yexer....work yoxer....be idle yixer....use yuxer....help
ter....know
trer....be familiar with
taxer....remember texer....think toxer....forget tixer....study tuxer....teach
der....say
drer....write
daler....talk deler....state
dyeer....read
doler....silence dier....ask duer....suggest
h- = (deictic) ha(a)....the hea....some hoa....which? hia....this hua....that
" " " hya(a)....all hyea....any hyoa....no hyia....same hyua....other
ay....and ey....or oy....but
yan....together yon....apart
(numbers) a....one e....two o....zero i....three u....four
" " " ya....six ye....seven yo....five yi....eight yu....nine
(prefix) lo-....dis-
lyo-....dis-
* Mixed root. taj/tej/toj instead of yaj/yej/yoj, because the human letter root t is more intuitive.
Note: The opposition (y)a-(y)e-(y)o is a three-way opposition with an intermediary sense, but (y)i-(y)u is two-way, without any intermediary sense.

Table of Arch-morphemic PatternsEdit

The table below lists most all the arch-morphemes that make up the vocabulary of Mirad represented as formulaic patterns. An arch-morpheme is the zeroth or most representative element of a set of words that share a sequence of ordinal vowels. A formulaic pattern describes that sequence as an arch-morphemic pattern. First, here is an explanation of the formulae use in the table:
  • An uppercase consonant is the classifier of the morpheme. If there are two consonants, then the second is the generic consonant.
  • A superscript lr means "either l or r" (semantic intensifiers).
  • A superscript sx means "either the intransitive verb formant s or the transitive verb formant x.
  • A pair of parentheses means that the letter or letters are included with the rest of the morpheme in only some realizations of that arch-morphemic pattern.
  • A pair of brackets ([ ]) means that the enclosed letters get realized one at a time in sequence.
  • ageo means the 5 geo-specific ordinal vowels (o, a, e, i, and u.
  • ohier means the ordinal vowels with zero at the base.
  • ahier means the ordinal vowels starting with one (a).
  • a3opp means the opposed vowels a, e, o.
  • a2opp means the opposed vowels a and o.
  • i2opp means the opposed vowels i and u.
  • ascal means the scalar vowels with no particular hierarchy.
  • atax means a complex taxonomy with a combination of consonants

and ordinal vowels.

  • y means the glide y.
  • The dash (-) at the end means that a verb infinitive ending -er or something must follow to make the morpheme an independent word. No hyphen means that the morpheme is a complete word as is.
Morpheme Patterns
ARCH-MORPHEME PATTERN MIRAD EXPANSIONS ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
A
-[aei]b -ab/-eb/-ib leadership stub suffixes
-a3opp -a/-e/-o tense suffixes: past/present/future
a3oppy ay/ey/oy and/or/but
-[aeou]- -ay-/-ey-/-oy-/-uy- aspect infixes: perfect/progressive/imminent/hypothetical
-a2oppy- -ay-/-oy- suffixes: full of/devoid infixes
-a -a adjective suffix
-ay -ay adverb suffix
B
aposdirB ab/eb/ob/ib/ub/yab/yeb/yob/yib/yub prepositions/adverbs: on/between/off/away/toward/up/down/in/far/near
(aposdir)Blr- b-/bl-/ab-/eb-/ob-/ib-/ub-/yab-/yeb-/yob-/yib-/yub-/yabl-/yebl-/yobl-/yibl-/yubl-/yebr- gesture verbs: put/carry/put on/take off/receive/send/raise/lower/take away/bring/haul/contain/down/banish/lock
B([lr)aposdir[lrsx]- bas-/bes-/bos-/bis-/bus-/bax-/bex-/box-/bix-/bux-/bal-/bel-/bol-/bar-/byas-/byes-/byos-/byis-/byus-/byax-/byex-/byox-/byix-/byux-/blax-/blix-/blux-/brax-/brex-/brix/brux- gesture verbs: stir/stay/be calm/retire/spring/budge/hold/quieten/pull/push/press/stand up/stick/stoop/emanate/contact/erect/beat/hang/derive/touch/rouse/drag/drive/shake/uproot/kick
B(lr)a5oppk- bak/bek-/bok/bik/buk/byak/byek/byok/blok-/brok health/treat/sick/care/wound/hygiene/cure/pain/suffer/agony
Ba5oppy bay/bey/boy/bi/be/bu 'prepositions: with/by/without/from/at/to
-yeB -yeb stub suffix for container
D
[D(y)i2opplr)- di-/du-/dil-/dul-/dir-/dur-/dyu- ask/suggest/beg/insist/require/urge/call
D([ry](e/o))- d-/dye-/dr-/dro- say/read/write/erase
D([ry])[aeiu]z daz/dez/diz/duz/dyez/drez dance/theater/comedy/music/cinema/poetry
D([yr])[aeui][ns] din/dyan/dyun/dyes/dras/dres/ word/name/sentence/story/document/note/book
Da3oppl- dal-/del-/dol- talk/declare/be silent
Dogeom dom/dam/dem/dim city/airfield/park/fountain
Dohierm doam/doem/doim township/village/hamlet
Dogeop dop/dap/dep/dip/diep military/air force/army/navy/marine
ahierDogeoplrat dapat/adapat/...edaplat/edaprat... ranks: airman/airman basic/first lieutenant/major general
Dohierb dob/dab/deb/dib/dub state/government/leader/administration/minister
ahierDeb adeb/edeb/ideb/udeb/yodeb/yadeb/yedeb/yideb/yudeb emperor/monarch/prince/duke/marquis/lord/viscount/baron
ahierDob adob/edob/idob/udob/yodob/yadob/yedob/yidob/yudob empire/kingdom/principality/duchy/marquisate/dominion/viscounty/barony
Doohierb doob/doab/doeb/doib/doub nation/homeland/state/county/municipality
Dohiert dot/dat/det/dit/dut society/friend/comrade/citizen/gentle-person
Do- do- stub prefix meaning public/official
Dra3opp[fv] draf/dref/drof/drav/dref/drov card/paper/board/notebook/page/cardboard
Dreux- dreux- pronounce
Dreuz- deuz- sing
-D -d alternate for person stub suffix in rare cases
F
(y)a5oppf- af-/ef-/of-/if-/uf-/yaf-/yef-/yof-/yif-/yuf- modal verbs: may/should/may not/like/hate/can/must/cannot/dare/fear
F(i2opp)- f-/fi-/fu- want/good/bad
Fohierb fob/fab/feb/fib/fub/fyob plant/tree/fruit/trunk/branch/root
Faohierb faob/faab/faib/fayeb/fayob wood/sap/frame/leaf/bark
ataxFab afab/efab/ifab/ufab... fruit and nut trees: apple tree/pear tree/cherry tree/prune tree/apricot tree/peach tree/quince tree...
ataxFab afeb/efeb/ifeb/ufeb/yofeb/yafeb.../alofeb/lafeb/lefeb/lifeb/lufeb/fefeb/fifeb... fruits and nuts: apple/pear/cherry/prune/apricot/peach.../quince/nut/hazlenut/blackberry/orange/mandarin/lemon/grapefruit/date/banana...
Fu[fv] fuf/fuv pipe/nail
Fya2opp- fya-/fyo- holy/profane
Fyi2opp- fyi-/fyu- useful/harmful
G
a3oppG- ag-/eg-/og- big/re-/little
Gi2opp- gi-/gu- point/angle
Ga3opp ga-/ge-/go- more/equal/less
Gla3opp gla-/gle-/glo- much/some/little
Gra3opp gra-/gre-/gro- too/enough/not enough
Gwa3opp gwa-/gwe-/gwo- most/just/least
Gya2opp- gya-/gyo- thick/thin
Gyi2opp- gyi-/gyu- solid/delicate
i2oppG- ig-/ug- fast/slow
ya3oppG- yag-/yeg-/yog- long/medium/short
yi2oppG- yig-/yug- hard/soft
H
Ho5opp ho-/ha-/he-/hi-/hu-/hya-/hye-/hyo-/hye-/hyi-/hyu- determiners: what/the/some/this/that/no/all/any/same/other
Hi2oppy hiy/huy expletives: voici/voila
Hwa3oppy hway/hwey/hwoy expletives: thanks/you're welcome/sorry
Hya3oppy hyay/hyey/hyoy expletives: bravo/what a/boo
Hu hu 'relative complementizer: that/which
I
-i2opp</sup- as in testier grasp vs. testuer explain subject/object-oriented verb formant infix
-i as in tami houses plural noun suffix
J
a5oppJ aj/ej/oj/ij/uj past/present/future/beginning/end
Johiern job/jab/jeb/jib/jub/jwob/jwab/jweb time/year/season/month/day/hour/minute/second
Ja5opp ja/je/jo/ji/ju before/during/after/since/until
JeahierB jeab/jeeb/jeib/jeub seasons: spring/summer/autumn/winter
JoahierB joab/joeb/joib/joub era/period/epoch/age
JiahierB jiab/jieb/jiib/jiub/jiyob/jiyab/jiyeb/jiyib/jiyub/jilob/jilab months: month/January/February/March/April/May/June/July/August/September/October/November/December
JuahierB juab/jueb/juib/juub/juyob/juyab/juyeb/ Days of the week: Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday/Friday/Saturday/Sunday
Jw[ae]P jwap/jwep moment/instant
Jwa3opp jwa/jwe/jwo early/on time/late
Jwa3oppf- jwaf-/jwef-/jwof- unripe/fresh/stale
Jwa2oppj jwaj/jwoj ancient times/latter days
ta5oppJ taj/tej/toj/tij/tuj birth/life/death/wake/sleep
yi2oppJ yij/yuj open/close
j[ou]d jod/jud occasion/date
ja2opp jag-/jog- old/young
-J -j stub suffix for time
K
[i2oppK- ik-/uk- full/empty
a3oppK- ak-/ek-/ok- win/play/lose
K(y)a3opp- kya-/kye-/kyo- change/haphazard/static
Ka3oppx- kax-/kex-/kox-/kas- find/seek/hide
Ki2opp- ki-/ku- oblique/lateral
Kyi2opp- kyi-/kyu- heavy/light
ya3oppK- yak-/yek-/yok- expect/attempt/surprise
yi2oppK- yik-/yuk- difficult/easy
L
-(y)[aeiu]L- -al/-el/-il/-ul/-yel gas/food/liquid/oil/substance stub suffix
-[fs[aeiu]L- fyel/syel wax/plastic
-L- -l- semantic intensifying infix
Lo- lo- semantic reverser prefix meaning -dis, de-, un-
-L- -l- tens infix
M
(ascal)Mez- mez/amez/emez/imez/umez/yomez/yamez/yemez crystal/diamond/topaz/ruby/emerald/lapis lazuli/amethyst/sapphire
-((y)[aeiu])M -m/-am/-em/-im/-um/-yem stub suffix for place/house/place/room/compartment/space
(y)a2oppM- am-/om-/yam/yom hot/cold/fire/ice
M(y)ageok mak/mek/meik/miek/myek/myeik/muk electricity/powder/paste/sand/putty/mineral
Mageof maf/mef/mif/miaf cloud/brick/fog/mist
Meascalv meav/meev ceramic/pottery
Ma2oppn man/mon light/dark
Ma3oppv mav/mev/mov flame/porcelain/smoke
Ma3oppz- maz-/mez/moz- white/crystal/black
Mogeog mag/meg/mog/mug/maeg fire/stone/ash/metal/coal
ahier(y)maeg amaeg/emaeg/imaeg/eymaeg charcoal/peat/lignite/coke
M(y)ogeol mol/mal/mel/mil/mul/meil/mial nature/air/soil/water/matter/mud/steam
Mogeom mom/mam/mem/mim/mum outer space/sky/land/sea/underground
Mogeop mop/map/mep/mip/mup orbit/wind/road/river/tunnel
Mogeor mor/mar/mer/mir/mur universe/star/planet/world/satellite
Mohiers mos/mas/mes/mis/mus masonry/wall/door/window/stairs
Ma(ahier)f maf/maaf/maef/maif/mauf/mayof/mayaf/mayef/mayif/mayuf/malof cloud/stratus/cumulus/stratocumulus/cumulonimbus/nimbostratus/altostratus/altocumulus/cirrus/cirrostratus/cirrocumulus
Ma(a)r mar/maar star/sun
Mu(a)r mur/muar satellite/moon
Maahierl maal/mael/mail/maul/mayol atmosphere/troposphere/stratosphere/ionosphere/exosphere
Maahierp maap/maep/maip/maup/mayop wind/puff/breeze/gust/gale/typhoon
Meahierr Mear/Meer/Meir/Meur/Meyor/Meyar/Meyer/Meyir planet/Mercury/Venus/Earth/Mars/Jupiter/Uranus/Pluto
Me(ahier)m meam/meem/meim/meom/meum country/region/territory/countryside/zone
Meahierg meag/meeg/meig/meug/meyog/meyag/meyeg/meyig/meyug stone/marble/slate/granite/clay/chalk/limestone/alabaster/china/gypsum
m2oppJ moj/maj day/night
megeo meb/mob/mub mountain/chasm/promontory
Me(y)(ahierb meab/meeb/meib/meub/meyob/meyab mountain/mound/hill/knob/ridge/bump
Me(y)(ahierb moab/moeb/moib/moub/moyob/moyab/moyeb gulf/ravine/cave/ditch/crevice/hole/dimple
Meahierz meaz/meiz/meyaz marble/granite/pastel
Me(ahier)p meap/meip/meup path/lane/trail
Mi(ahier)m miam/miem/miim/mium/miyom/miyam lake/lagoon/marsh/pond/pool/puddle
Mi(ahier)p miap/miep/miip/miup stream/brook/rivulet/tributary
Mo(ahier)v moav/moev smoke/haze
Mo[eu](y)f moef/mouf wrinkle/fold
Mu[fv] muf/muv pole/rod
Mu[gk] mug/muk metal/mineral
(y)i2oppM- im-/um-/yim/yum wet/dry/flood/draught
-Ml- -ml- millions infix
-Mr- -mr- billions infix
-M -m stub suffix for place
N
-(a)N -n/-an abstract quality ending, ex. ifan goodness
-eN -en present participle ending, ex. tyoyapen running
-iN -in stub ending for tin -ism, ex. totin deism
-oN -on abstract noun stub ending for son matter
-uN -un concrete noun stub ending for sun thing
Nohierf nof/naf/nef/nif/nuf/nyof/nyaf/nyef/nyif/nyuf cloth/fabric/knit/fiber/button/knot/mesh/rope/film/bag/package
Ne(ahier)f nef/neaf/neef/neif/neuf/neyof/neyaf/neyef/neyif/ knit/net/lace/braid/stitch/wicker/loop/wale/strip/plait
Noscalv nov/niv/nyov/nyev/nyiv linen/thread/ribbon/bag/string
Naohierf naaf/naef/naif/nauf/nayof/nayaf/nayef/nayif material/drape/canvas/velvet/denim/corduroy/nylon/rayon
N(y)[au][sz] naz/nas/nyaz/nuz value/money/jewel/wealth
Noscalg nog/nag/neg/nig degree/dimension/level/space
Noscald nod/nad/ned/nid point/line/plane/volume
Na5oppx- nax-/nex-/nox-/nix-/nux-/nyax-/nyex-/nyox-/nyix-/nyux- cost/save/spend/earn/pay/accumulate/stock/waste/order/deliver
Na[a](y)[bp] nab/naab/nayb/nap rank/order/file/turn
N(y)e[mbf] nem/nyem/nyeb/nyef place/box/container/bag
O
ohier o/a/e/i/u/yo/ya/ye/yi/yu numerals: 0-9
o- o- semantic reverser prefix: un-, non-, ex. oteatwa unseen
P
(aposdir)P(lr)- p-/ap-/ep-/op-/ip-/up-/yap-/yep-/yop-/yip-/yup-/yapl-/yepl-/yopl-/yipl-/yupl-/yapr-/yepr-/yopr- verbs of motion: go/get on/intervene/get off/leave/come/rise/descend/enter/get away/approach/climb/invade/escape/dive/flee/swoop in on/clamber up/break in/tumble
Plraposdirsx- pas-/pax-/pes-/pex-/pos-/'pox-/pix-/pus-/pux-/plas-/plax-/plex-/plos-/plox-/plix-/plus-/plux-/pras-/prex-/prox-/prix-/prus-/prux- action verbs: move (intr.)/move (tr.)/wait/trap/rest/calm down/catch/jump/throw/quake/shake/beat/dive/dunk/seize/lunge/thrust/tremble/crash/drown/rape/discharge/shoot
ataxP(y)ogeo(l)t pot/pat/pet/pit/pelt/pyot... animal/bird/land animal/fish/insect (and too many to name)
ataxP(y)ogeo(l)d pad-/ped-/pid-... animal noises
Pogeop- pop-/pap-/pep-/pip-/pup- travel/fly/ride/sail/tunnel
P[aiu]r par/pir/pur cart/cycle/vehicle
-P- -p- verb of motion formant
R
-eR -er infinitive suffix
-[aiu]R -ar/-ir/-ur instrument/machine/engine stub suffix
-R- -r- semantic intensifying infix
-R- -r- thousands infix
'S
(a5opp)S- as-/es-/os-/is-/us- intransitive verb formant: be/become/exist/disappear/result/act/operate/effect/cause
Soscaln son/san/sen/sin/sun/syan/syen/syin/syun matter/form/being/image/thing/kind/style/subject/object
-S- -s- hundreds infix
S[ae]sx- sax-/sex-/sas- make/build/evolve
S[aiu]z saz/siz/suz sculpture/painting/work of art
Sohierm furniture/dresser/table/chair/bed
-S -s thing stub suffix'
S[aiu]r sar/sir/sur instrument/machine/engine
T
Tlr(i2opp t-/tr-/ti-/tu- know/recognize/find out/inform/familiarize
T(y)[aeiu]n- tyan/tyen/tin/tun class/profession/doctrine/science
Tohierb tob/tab/teb/tib/tub/tyob human/body/head/trunk/arm/leg
Tohier[fv] tof/taf/tef/tif/tuf/tyof/tov/tav clothing/outfit/hat/jacket/pants
Tohierd tod/tad/ted/tid/tud/tyod/tyed family/spouse/parent/sibling/child/people/kin
Toscall tol/tel/til/tul/tyal nourishment/food/drink/dish/meal
Ta5oppx- tax-/tex-/tox-/tix-/tux- remember/think/forget/study/teach
T[ieo]s- tis-/tes-/tos- learn/mean/feel
Tohiert tot/tat/tet god/angel/priest
Tohierm tom/tam/tem/tim/tum building/house/hall/room/compartment
Tohierp top/tap/tep/tip/tup soul/physique/mind/emotion/member
Taohierb taob/taab/taeb/taib/taub/tayob/tayab/tayeb/tayib/tayub flesh/lymph/muscle/bone/nerve/skin/fat/hair/cartilage/gland
Teahierb teab/teeb/teib/teub/teyob eye/ear/nose/mouth/neck
Teahier[fv] teaf/teef/teif/teuf/teyof/teav/teev/teiv/teuv/teyov head/neck clothing/linen: blinder/earmuff/muffler/muzzle/tie/eye patch/handkerchief/mask/collar
Ti(k)ahierb tiab/tieb/tiib/tiub/tiyob/tiyab/tiyeb/tiyub/tikab/tikeb/tikib/tikub chest/lung/heart/belly/kidney/bladder/testicles/ovary/penis/esophagus/stomach/liver/pancreas/bowels/intestine/anus
Tiahier[fv] tiuf/tiyuf/tiav/tiuv/tiyuf trunk of body clothes: corset/train/shirt/underwear/train
tuahierb tuab/tueb/tuib/tuub/tuyob/tuyab/tuyeb/tuyib/tuyub shoulder/upper arm/elbow/forearm/wrist/hand/fist/palm/finger
Tuhier[fv] tuyaf/tuyov/tuyuf/tuyav glove/cuff/fingerstall, mitten, and other clothes for arms and downward
T(y)3oppz taz/tez/toz/tyez statue/culture/complexion/art/magic
Tyo(ahier)[fv] tyof/tyoif/tyouf/tyoyof/tyoyaf/tyoyef/tyoyif clothes for legs: pants/kneepad/puttee/shoe sole/shoe/knee sock/stocking/sock/thigh length sock/ankle sock
Tyoahierb tyoab/tyoeb/tyoib/tyoub/tyoyob/tyoyab/tyoyeb/tyoyib/tyoyub hip/thigh/knee/tibia/ankle/foot/heel/sole/toe
-T -t person stub suffix
-uT -ut agent suffix
(y)a5oppT at/et/it/ot/ut/yat/yet/yit/yot/yut personal pronouns
V
otaxVab ovob/avob/evob/ivob/uvob/yovob/yavob/yevob/yuvob... grasses, cereals, etc.: cereal/wheat/rye/barley/buckwheat/millet/hop/rape seed/oat...
otaxVeb oveb/aveb/eveb/iveb/uveb,yoveb/yeveb/yiveb/leveb.. legumes: legume/bean/lentil/pea/broad bean/peanut/chickpea/soybean/sugarcane...
otaxVab ovol/avol/bavol/bevol/bivol/buvol/byovol/byavol/favol... edible vegetables: bran/bread/tomato/eggplant/gourd/cucumber/gherkin/artichoke/leek...
ahierhierVos avos/evos/lavos/levos/livos/luvos/lyovos/lyovos/lyavos/lyevos/lyivos... flowers: lily/narcissus/lily of the valley/jonquil/geranium/daisy/luvos/hyacinth/tulip/dahlia/pansy...
(ascal)Voz- avoz-/evoz-/ivoz-/ovoz-/yovoz-/yevoz-/yivoz- colors: white/yellow/red/blank/blue/lilac/purple
a3oppV av/ev/ov for/neutral/against
i2oppV- iv-/uv- happy/sad
yi2oppV yiv-/yuv- free/captive
Va3opp(y) va/ve/vo/vay/vey/voy yes/maybe/no/really/possibly/not
Va3oppn van/ven/von 'complementizers: that/if/lest
Vi2opp- vi-/vu- beautiful/ugly
Vohierb vob/vab/veb/vib/vub crop/grass/tuft/stem/twig
Vya3opp- vya-/vye-/vyo- true/relative/false
Vyi2opp- vyi-/vyu- clean/dirty
ya3oppV- yav-/yev-/yov- innocent/just/guilty
vyab vyab rule
W
-Wa -wa unit numeral suffix
-W- -w- masculinizing infix
-W- -w- passive voice infix
X
Xa5opplr- xa-/xe-/xo-/xi-/xu-/xal-/xel-/xol-/xil-/xul- do/execute/exercise/undergo/result/cause/accomplish/practice/fail/undertake/provoke
(a5opp)Xlr- x-/ax-/ex-/ox-/ix-/ux-/yax-/yex-/yox-/yix-/xler-/yux-/axl-/ixl-/uxl-/yexl-yoxl-/yixl-/yuxl-/axr-/oxr-/yexr-/yixr-/yuxr- do/act/operate/abstain/effect/cause/be busy/work/be idle/use/help/create/proceed/react/influence/labor/resign/hire/serve/carry out/violate/toil/exploit/slave
Xohierb xob/xab/xeb/xib/xub organization/staff/division/subsidiary
X(ej/ag/em/us) xej/xag/xem/xus event/frequency/office/cross
Y
Ya2oppn yan/yon together/apart
-Yen -yen manner stub suffix
Yo- yo- strong semantic negative prefix
-Y- -y- intensifying semantic infix and prefix
-Y- -y- de-intensifying semantic infix and suffix
-Y- -y feminizing infix
Z
Za3opp(y) za/ze/zo/zay/zey/zoy front/middle/behind/ahead/across/back
Zi2opp>sup> zi/zu left/right
Zya3opp- zya-/zye/zyo- wide/through/narrow
a3oppZ- az-/ez-/oz- strong/moderate/weak
ya3oppZ yaz/yez/yoz convex/flush/concave
Zyi2opp- zyi-/zyu- flat/round
i2oppZ- iz/uz straight/curved
yi2oppZ- yiz/yuz beyond/around

Derived WordsEdit

Derived words are formed in accordance with certain simple rules of word-building:
These consist of the following twelve rules:
  1. Compounding
  2. Affixation
  3. Ordinal Vowel Scaling
  4. Overlapping
  5. Adding Ordinal Vowels
  6. Swapping Generic Consonants
  7. Coding scientific vocabulary
  8. Marking Words for Gender
  9. Deriving Words with Geo-specific Vowels
  10. Deriving Words with Directional and Positional Vowels
  11. Deriving Words with a Mnemonic Pattern
  12. Deriving Nuanced Words Phonetically


Rule #1: CompoundingEdit

Compound words are obtained through the combination of two or more whole words. In the combining process, the determining word is placed quite simply in front of the word it determines. Compounds consist mainly of noun + noun, but there can be other part-of-speech combinations.
Examples:
Compounding
COMPONENTS COMPOUND
mar....star + tun....science martun....astronomy
mag....fire + meb....mountian magmeb....volcano
dob....state + mem....land dobmem....territory
tul....dish + dras....something written tuldras....menu
sin....picture + dras....something written sindras....desription
tam....house + kyoxer....to fix (in place) tamkyoxer....settle

Rule #2: AffixationEdit

PrefixesEdit
All adverbs and prepositions can be used as prefixes:
Adverbs and Prepositions as Prefixes
PREFIX BASE COMPOUND
ja....before per....to go japer....to precede
jo....after per....to go joper....to follow
va....yes der....to say vader....to affirm
jo....after dras....something written jodras....postscript
za....ahead jub....day zajub....tomorrow
yon....apart mel....land yonmel....island
Prepositional prefixes ending in b with verbs per and ber (and their derivations) lose the b before verbal elements based on per (go) and ber (put), as shown in the following chart:
Assimilation of b and p
PREFIX BASE VERB NEW VERB
yab....up ber....put yaber....raise (NOT: yabber)
yab....up per....go yaper....rise (NOT: yabper)
ab....on ber....put aber....put on, apply
ab....on per....go aper....get on, mount
yob....down ber....put yober....take down
yob....down per....go yoper....descend
ob....off ber....put ober....take off, remove
ob....on per....go oper....get off, dismount
yeb....in bux....a push yebux....impulse
yeb....in pyoser....fall yepyoser....collapse
The two or three first letters of a word can serve as prefixes. The adjective ending a is often dropped1, as is the er or prefixes taken from verbs. Longish noun prefixes are sometimes clipped.
Prefixes Built on Words and Word Stubs
PREFIX BASE VERB COMPOUND VERB
oza....weak der....say ozder....whisper
yaga....long der....say yagder....ramble
aja....past der....say ajder....evoke
yoga....short der....say yogder....summarize
tyoyab....foot per....go tyoyaper....walk
dreer....write sar....tool dresar....pencil
tuyob....hand dren....writing tuyodren....manuscript
mam....sky mil....water mamil....rain
1: Sometimes, the adjective ending a is retained when an adjective is compounded with xer or ser. This device may be used to distinguished two differently nuanced verbs. For example, aga + xer can produce agaxer....to magnify or agxer....to grow. Usually, the compound where the adjective suffix has been eclipsed has the more idiomatic meaning.
Commonly used prefixes:
Common Prefixes
PREFIX MEANING BASE WORD PREFIXED WORD
o- un-, expresses negation, opposition, opposite meaning data....friendly odata....unfriendly
lo- un-, same as o but used where o is not clear
or, to express dis-, meaning to reverse an action.
gla....many
finuer...qualify
logla....rare
disqualify
yo- un-, same as o but more intense dat....friend yodat....enemy
av- pro- fyatin....religion avfyatina....pro-religious
ov- anti-, counter- dropek....war ovdropeka....anti-war
hyas- all-, pan-, omni- tea....aware hyastea....omniscient, all-knowing
ja- before, ante-, pre-, fore- taj....birth jataja....pre-natal
jo- after, post- judrer....to date jojudrer....post-date
yiz- beyond, meta- tapa....physical yiztapa....metaphysical
ey(n)- semi-, hemi-, half- seuz....tone
levelaya....sweet
eyseuz....demi-tone
eylevelaya....semi-sweet
e(n)- bi-, duo-, two- jaba....annual
teb....head
ejaba....biennial
enteba....two-headed
i(n)- tri-, three- voz....color
zyuk....wheel
invoza....tricolor
inzyun....tricycle
u(n)- quadri-, four- tyoyab....foot
kum....side
gon....part
untyoyoba....quadriped
unkuma....quadrilateral
ungona....quadripartite
a(n)- uni-, singular xer....make/do
san....form
anxer....unite
asana....special
ya(n)- multi-, together, plural ser....be/become
san....form
ut....person
yanser....assemble
yasana....general
yauta....common, public
yo(n)- dis-, se-, apart xer....make/do
il....liquid
ut....person
yonxer....separate
yoniler....unstick
youta....alone, isolate
eg- re-, again anxer....unite
vader....affirm
eganxer....reunite, egder....repeat
egvader....reaffirm
Comparison of Prefixes in English and Mirad
Here is a chart of the most productive prefixes in English of Latin, Greek, and Germanic origin and their most common counterparts in Mirad:
Comparison of Prefixes Used in English and Mirad
ENGLISH PREFIX MEANING ORIGIN ENGLISH EXAMPLE MIRAD EXAMPLE
a-, an- without, un-, -less GREEK atonal oseuza
ab- away LATIN absence ibsen
ab- not, un- LATIN abnormal olega, ozeta
ad- to, toward LATIN advent upen < ub-
after- after GERMANIC aftermath joxwas
anti- against GREEK antidote ovbokil
arch- chief, first GREEK archangel aatat
auto- self GREEK autocracy utdab
back- back GERMANIC backstairs zomus
bene- well LATIN benefactor fixut
bi- two GREEK bicameral entima
by- beyond GERMANIC bypass yizper
cent(i)- hundred LATIN century sojab
circ(um)- around LATIN circulate yuzper
co- together LATIN cooperate yanexer
con-, com-, cor-, col- with LATIN convene yanuper
counter-, contra- against LATIN contradict ovder
cross- across GERMANIC crosswind zeymep
de- un-, reverse LATIN desalinate omimolxer, mimolober
de- down LATIN descend yo(b)per < yob + per
deci- ten LATIN decimeter alonag
di- two GREEK diode enmep
dia- throughout GREEK diachronic zyajoba
dicho- double GREEK dichotomy engorbun
di(s)- apart, un- LATIN disappear oteaser
dys- bad GREEK dysfunction fuexen
ec(to)- out GREEK ectomorph oyebsan
en-, em- in GREEK endemic yebdita
endo- within GREEK endomorphic yebsana
equi- equal LATIN equilateral gekuma
eu- good, nice GREEK euphemism vidun
ex-, e- out LATIN extract oye(b)bixer
extra- outside LATIN extraordinary yizega
fellow- fellow LATIN fellow-traveler yanpoput, dat-
fore- front GERMANIC foreskin zatayob
gyro- round, wheel LATIN gyroscope zyunzebar
half- half GERMANIC half-dead eyntoja
hemi- half GREEK hemisphere eynzyunid
hect(o)- hundred GREEK hectometer asonak
hept(o)- seven GREEK heptogonal yeguna
hetero- different GREEK heterogeneous hyusauna
hexa- six GREEK hexagongal yaunguna
high- high GERMANIC high-flying yabpapea
homo- same GREEK homogeneous hyisauna
hyper- over, too much GREEK hyperactive graaxeya
hypo- under, too little GREEK hypothermia groaman
idio- peculiar GREEK idiopath asanbak
ill- poorly GERMANIC ill-mannered fubyena
in- in LATIN/GERMANIC incoming yebupea
in- not, un- LATIN inadequate ogrea
infra- below LATIN infrared oybivoza
inter- between LATIN international ebdooba
intra- amid LATIN intramural eybmasa
intro- into LATIN introduce yebber
iso- equal GREEK isometric genaga
kilo- thousand GREEK kilogram arokyik
macro- big GREEK macrometer agnagar
magn(i)- big LATIN magnify agaxer
mal- badly LATIN malformed fusana
many- many GERMANIC many-hued glavoza
maxi(m)- biggest LATIN maximize gyaxer
mega(lo)- big GREEK megacephalic agteba
meso- middle GREEK mesomorph zesanat
meta- beyond GREEK metaphysical yizmula
micro- little GREEK microcosm ogmir
mid- middle LATIN midday zejub
milli- thousand LATIN milligram arokyik
mini(m)- tiny LATIN miniskirt gyotyoyf
mis- wrongly LATIN misunderstand vyotider
multi- many LATIN multilateral glakuma
neo- new GREEK neophyte jogagsat
non- not LATIN nonentity oseas
nona- nine GREEK nonagon yuungun
oct(a)- eight GREEK octagon yigun
omni- all LATIN omniscient hyastea
ortho- correct GREEK orthodontist izteupibtut
out- better GERMANIC outplay gafieker
over- too much GERMANIC overeat grateler
pan- all GREEK pantheon hyastotyan
para- alongside GREEK paraphrase yeztesder
penta- five GREEK pentagon yoongun
per- through LATIN/GREEK perpendicular zyepyonada
poly- many GREEK polyandry glatadan
post- after LATIN postscript jodren
pre- before LATIN preview jateaxer, za-
pro for LATIN pro-life avtejina
pro- forward LATIN progress zaynogper
pseudo- falsely GREEK pseudonym vyodyun
quadri- four LATIN quadrilateral unkuma
quasi- resembling, nearly LATIN quasi-scientific yubtuna
quint- five LATIN quintet younatyan
re- again LATIN redo egxer
rect(i)- straight LATIN rectilinear iznada
retro- backwards LATIN retrogress zoynogser
semi- half LATIN semi-sweet eynlevelaya
sept- seven LATIN septempartite yegona
sext- six LATIN sextuplicate yaungeyxwas
sub-, sup-, sur- below LATIN submarine oybmimpar
super-, supra- above LATIN superscript aybdren
syn-, sym-, syl- with GREEK symphony yanduzutyan
tele- far GREEK telephone yibdalar
tetra- four GREEK tetragon ungun
trans- across LATIN transfer zeyber
tri- three GREEK/LATIN trigram indresin
ultra- beyond, extremely GREEK ultranationalist gwadoobina
un- not LATIN untie oyanxer
under- below LATIN underarm oybtub
under- not enough LATIN underactive groaxeya
uni- one LATIN unicycle anzyus
SuffixesEdit
Mirad has semantic stub suffixes, derivational suffixes, and normal semantic suffixes.


Semantic Stub Suffixes
Semantic stub suffixes are generally formed from the last letters of a base word minus the initial consonant. They serve to put a word into some category, such as liquid, place, person, or material.
Semantic Stub Suffixes
SEMANTIC SUFFIX BASE WORD ORIGIN SUFFIXED DERIVATIONS
-il....liquid, drink mil....water teabil....tear  <  teab....eye
teubil....saliva  <  teub....mouth
tayebil....sweat  <  tayeb....skin
mamil....rain  <  mam....sky
-al....gas mal....air tiebal....breath  <  tieb....lung
-(e)l....food tel....food yapel....pork  <  yapet....swine
taol  <  taob....flesh
fel  <  feb....fruit
-ul....stuff mul....substance vixul....cosmetic  <  vix-....to beautify
bekul....medecine  <  bek....treatment
-yel....oil, gel, wax, pulp yel....oil kafyel....olive oil  <  kaf-....olive
apelatyel....wax  <  apelat....bee
magyel....grease  <  mag....fire
bekyel....salve  <  bek....treatment
megyel....cement  <  meg....stone
yanyel....paste  <  yan....together
-am....house tam....house apatam....chicken coop  <  apat....chicken
apelatam....beehive  <  apelat....bee
melyexam....farmhouse  <  melyex....agriculture
datibam....hostel  <  datib....guest-reception
-(e)m....place nem....place vobyexem....plantation, farm  <  vob....plant + yex....work
vabem....field  <  vab....grass
abem....top, surface  <  ab....above, upper
zem....middle  <  ze(a)....middle
tim....room
-im....room tim....room tulim  <  tul....cuisine
tujim....bedroom  <  tuj....sleep
-um....cell, booth tum....compartment pexum....cage  <  pexer....catch
ilzyapixum....shower stall  <  ilzyapix....shower
-yem....space nyem....enclosure yomyem....icebox  <  yom....ice
-yeb....container nyeb....container zyeb....bottle  <  zye(f)....glass
vosyeb....vase  <  vos....flower
-of....material nof....cloth tof....clothes  <  t-....human
misof....curtain  <  mis....window
faof....wood  <  fa(b)-....tree
tayof....leather  <  tayo(b)....skin
-ov....linen nov....linen teyov....collar  <  teyob....neck
-ar....instrument sar....tool par....cart  <  p-....motion
zyupar....rotor  <  zyup....turn
gobrar....knife  <  gobrar....cut
jwobar....watch  <  jwob....hour
-ir....machine sir....machine drir....typewriter  <  dr-....write
gwobir....clock
-ur....large machine sur....engine purr....car
jwoburr....grandfather clock  <  jwob....hour
-(u)n....thing sun....thing dun....word  <  d-....utter, say
gofrun....piece, scrap  <  gofrer....rip, shread, tear
zyiun....plaque, plate  <  zyia....flat
vyun....spot  <  vyua....dirty
-on....abstract thing son....issue yovon....tort, wrong  <  yov....guilt
yen....manner, kind byen....manner texyen....opinion  <  tex....thought
hiyen....this way, thus  <  hi-....this
esyen....status  <  es-....exist
-in....-ism tin....doctrine totin....theism, religion  <  tot-....god
Kristin....Christianity  <  Krist....Christ
vyisatin....puritanism  <  vysiat....puritan, clean person
otofin....nudism  <  otofa....nude
-uf....cylinder object fuf....pipe manuf....candle  <  man....light
tiibuf....artery  <  tiib....heart
miluf....toilet  <  mil....water
movuf....cheminee  <  mov....smoke
-uv....cylinder object fuf....pipe suv....nail, peg, stud  <  s-....furniture
muv....rod  <  m-....masonry
-ab....government dab....government ditab....democracy  <  dit....citizen
-eb....leader deb....leader xeb....boss  <  x-....do
tameb....master of the house  <  tam....house
-ub....branch tub....arm patub....wing  <  pat....bird
-ad....language -a + d(ar)....language Fransad....French (language)
-uz....jewelry nuz....jewel teyobuz....necklace  <  teyob....neck
teebuz....earring  <  teeb....ear
-u(er)....give buer....give tiebaluer....exhale  <  tieb....lung + al....air
-i(er)....take bier....take tiebalier....inhale  <  tieb....lung + al....air
-ui(er)....exchange buier....exchange tiebaluier....breathe  <  tieb....lung + al....air


Derviational Suffixes
Mirad has only a few derivational suffixes, i.e. suffixes that change the part of speech.
Derivational Suffixes
DERIVATIONAL SUFFIX FUNCTION BASE WORD --> SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-er NOUN --> VERBAL INFINITIVE sag....count --> sager....to count
-n PRESENT TENSE VERB --> VERBAL NOUN (GERUND)
ADJECTIVE --> ABSTRACT NOUN
yexe....(he/she/...) works --> yexen....working
via....beautiful --> vian....beauty
yuba....near --> yuban....proximity, nearness
-a NOUN --> ADJECTIVE
ACTIVE VERB --> VERBAL ADJECTIVE (PRESENT PARTICIPLE)
PAST PASSIVE VERB --> PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE (ADJECTIVE)
mor....universe --> mora....universal
ake....wins --> akea....winning
teatwa....was seen -->teatwaa (or: teatwa....seen
-yea VERB STEM --> HABITUAL PRESENT PARTICIPLE (ADJECTIVE) zaypas-....progress --> zaypasyea....progressive
-y ADJECTIVE --> ADVERB iga....quick --> igay....quickly
tea-....knowing-->teay....knowingly
-ut VERB STEM --> AGENT NOUN one who Xes, -er ak-....win --> akut ....winner
*Derivational affixes change the part of speech of a base word, whereas inflexional affixes change the status of a word within a grammatical paradigm. Verb tense/mood/voice affixes and the plural marker -i fall under the latter category.
Normal Semantic Suffixes
  • Augmentative Suffixes
Augmentative Suffixes
AUGMENTATIVE SUFFIX BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-ag (augmentative) tam....house tamag....mansion
-ayg (affectionate augmentative) sem....chair semayg....big old chair
-yag (pejorative augmentative) apet....horse apetyag....nag
  • Diminutive Suffixes
Diminutive Suffixes
DIMINUTIVE SUFFIX BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-og (diminutive) tam....house tamog....hut
-oyg (affectionate diminutive) tam....house tamoyg....cottage
-yog (pejorative diminutive) tam....house tamyog....shack
-et (a smaller person) twob....man twobet....boy
-es (thing of lesser importance) nas....money nases....change, coin
-ud (child of, offspring) tob....man tobud....infant
  • Semantic Adjectival Suffixes
Semantic Adjectival Suffixes
ADJECTIVAL SUFFIX MEANING BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-a mor....universe related to, -al, -ic mora....universal
-aya miek....dust full of, -ous, -y miekaya....dusty
-oya vyun....spot empty of, -less, -free vyunoya....spotless
-ika miek....dust full of, -ous, -y miekika....dusty
-uka miek....dust empty of, -less, -free miekuka....dust-free
-yea vyod....lie given to doing X, -ive vyodyea....mendacious, given to lying
-yena tat....angel like, -ly, -ic tatyena....angelic
  • Other Semantic Suffixes
Other Semantic Suffixes
SUFFIX BASE WORD DERIVATION
-tun....science, ...ology tej....life tejtun....biology
-tut....-ologist, expert, -ist dar....language dartut....linquist
-tuin....theory tob....mar martuin....astrology
-yan....collection, aggregate fab....tree fabyan....forest
-tyen....trade, -ics sir....machine sirtyen....mechanics
-if....pet name twed....father twedif....papa
ifa....-philic, -loving dyes....book dyesifa....bibliophilic
ifwa....liked by tyod....people tyodifwa....popular
ufa....-phobic, -hating toyb....woman toybufa....misogynous
ufwa....hated by tyod....people tyodufwa....unpopular
yafa....able to tyoyap-....walk tyoyapyafa....ambulatory
yafwa....possible to teat-....see teatyafwa....visible
yofa....unable to teat-....see teatyofa....blind
yofwa....impossible to dye-....read dyeyofwa....illegible
yika....hard of...ing teet-....hear teetyika....hard of hearing
yikwa....hard to teet-....hear teetyikwa....hard to hear
yuka....easy at...ing vatex-....believe vatexyuka....gullible
yukwa....easily...ed test-....understand testyukwa....easily understood
yufa....fearful of, -phobic tot....god totyufa....god-fearing
yufwa....feared hyat....everybody hyatyufwa....feared by all
yiva....free to kebi-....choose kebiyiva....free to choose
efa....needful of tel....food telefa....hungry
efwa....necessary tej....life tejefa....vital
yefa....requiring, -worthy dud....answer dudyefa....responsible
yefwa....required, -worthy fid-....laud fidyefwa....praiseworthy
afa....authorized to dokebi-....vote dokebiafa....franchised
ofwa....prohibited to movi-....smoke moviofwagonem....no-smoking zone
yiva....free to kebi-....choose kebiyiva....free to choose
yivwa....free to be ...ed kebi-....choose kebiyivwa....optional
yuva....bound tam....house tamyuva....house-bound
ova....resistant, anti- aagdovyab....constitution aagdovyabova....anti-constitutional
ava....in favor of, pro- tyodab....democracy tyodabava....pro-democracy
eva....neutral toos....gender tooseva....gender-neutral

Rule #3: Ordinal Vowel ScalingEdit

Creating a hierarchy of scalar terms applies only to base words of the Group 1. The hierarchy of scalar terms is built by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel of the base word as the importance or relevance of the word decreases from the topmost, zeroth object. This process is called first-level ordinal scaling.
  • First-level Ordinal Scaling
First-level Ordinal Scaling
t...b m...r j...b m...s t...m d...b f...b s...m
tob....man mor....universe job....time mos....floor (1st,2nd,etc.) tom....building dob....state fob....plant som....furniture
tab....body mar....sun jab....year mas....wall tam....house dab....government fab....tree sam....armoire
teb....head mer....planet jeb....season mes....door tem....hall deb....leader feb....treetop sem....table
tib....trunk mir....earth jib....month mis....window tim....room dib....office fib....tree trunk sim....chair
tub....arm mur....moon jub....day mus....stairs tum....cell dub....minister fub....branch sum....bed
tyob....leg jwob*....hour fyob....root
    jwab*....minute
    jweb*....second
* These would normally be jyob, jyab, and jyeb, but the y-glide is replaced by a w-glide for ease of pronunciation.
  • Second-level Ordinal Scaling
A second-level hierarchy of scalar words can be creating by adding a vowel immediately after the ordinal vowel of the word stem.
Examples:
Second-level Ordinal Scaling
mi...p me...p tu...b tyo...b ma...f
mip....river mep....way tub....arm tyob....leg maf....cloud
miap....stream meap....road tuab....shoulder tyoab....hip maaf....stratus
miep....brook meep....path tueb....upper arm tyoeb....thigh maef....cumulus
miip....rivulet meip....trail tuib....elbow tyoib....knee maif....stratocumulus
miup....torrent meup....track tuub....forearm tyoub....shin mauf....cumulonimbus
miyop....trickle tuyob....wrist tyoyob....ankle mayof....nimbostatus
tuyab....hand tyoyab....foot mayaf....altostratus
tuyeb....fist tyoyeb....heel mayef....altocumulus
tuyib....palm tyoyib....sole mayif....cirrus
tuyub....finger tyoyub....toe mayuf....cirrostratus
tulob....fingernail tyolob....toenail malof....cirrocumulus
  • Third-level Ordinal Scaling
A third-level hierarchy can be created by adding a third ordinal number vowel to the front of the word.
Example:
Third-level Ordinal Scaling
...tuyub
tuyub....finger
atuyub....thumb
etuyub....index
ituyub....middle finger
utuyub....ring finger
yotuyub....pinky
So, to sum up, we have:
Summary of Scaling
t...b tob = human being
FIRST-LEVEL tub....arm
SECOND-LEVEL tuyub....finger
THIRD-LEVEL atuyub....thumb
  • Scaling with Prefixed Numbering
We can also obtain a very convenient classification for new words through prefixed numbering even though there is no first-level or second-level numbering.
Example:
Prefix Numbering
...dob ...pet ...mer
dob....state pet....animal deb....leader
adob....empire apet....horse adeb....emperor
edob....kingdom epet....bull edeb....king
idob....principality ipet....ass ideb....prince
udob....duchy upet....ram udeb....duke
yodob....marquisate yopet....goat yodeb....marquis
yadob....county yapet....pig yadeb....count
yedob....dominion yepet....dog yedeb....lord

Rule #4: OverlappingEdit

When combining two words, if the generic (final) consonant of the first word is the same as the classifier (first) consonant of the second word, the generic consonant of the determining word is dropped. This results in overlapping.
Examples:
Overlapping in Compounds
FIRST WORD SECOND WORD PORTMANTEAU
dom....city mep....road domep....boulevard
pat....bird teub....mouth pateub....beak
pat....bird tub....arm patub....wing
teypib....tooth byok....pain teypibyok....toothache

Rule #5: Adding Ordinal VowelsEdit

When forming a compound word with the words of a same family of terms, if the ordinal vowel is an o, replace it with the ordinal vowel of the determinant word.
Examples:
  • idob....kingdom -> deb....chief -> ideb....king
  • udob....principality -> deb....chief -> udeb....prince
By contrast, if the two words are already ordered, the vowel of the determinant (first word) is inserted between the ordinal vowel of the determined (second) wordd and the generic (final) consonant:
Examples:
mil....water + mal....air -> mial....vapor, steam


Rule #6: Swapping Generic ConsonantsEdit

When the generic (final) consonant of a base word is replaced by that of another base word, the entire family of the latter undergoes the transformation by the new generic consonant.
Example:

tob

 humantof....clothing

nof

 cloth

Swapping Generic Consonants
BASE WORD 1 BASE WORD 2 DERIVED WORD
tob....human nov....linen tov....lingerie
tab....body nof....cloth taf....suit
teb....head nof....cloth tef....hat
tib....trunk nof....cloth tif....vest
tyoyab....foot nof....cloth tyoyaf....shoe
tyoyab....foot nov....linen tyoyav....sock
tuyab....hand nof....cloth tuyaf....glove
doob*....nation nof....cloth doof....flag
taob*....flesh tol....food taol....meat
* This is a derived, not base, word, but the principle holds.

Rule #7: Coding Chemical ElementsEdit

When a group of elements has been classified by a cardinal enumeration following scientific rules, the indicated number replaces the classifier consonant and, with the generic consonant, forms the name of the chemical element.
Coding Chemical Elements
ENGLISH NAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS METAL = fom
GENERIC = m
MIRAD NAME
silver 47 = ulye m ulyem
aluminum 13 = ali m alim
iron 26 = elya m elyam
METALLOID = foms
GENERIC = ms
phosphorus 15 = alyo ms alyoms
arbon 6 = ya ms yams
GAS SUFFIX = al
hydrogen 1 = a ms al amsal
nitrogen 7 = ye ms al yemsal
oxygen 8 = yi ms al yimsal
LIQUID SUFFIX = il
mercury 80 = yilo m il yilomil

Rule #8: Marking Words for GenderEdit

Words in Mirad are neutral with respect to gender, but specifically masculine or feminine gender can be marked in animate nouns and pronouns with the use of the masculine infix w and the feminine infix y.
  • To make a neutral animate noun or pronoun specifically male, precede the ordinal (stem) vowel with w.
  • To make a neutral animate noun or pronoun specifically female, follow the ordinal (stem) vowel with y.
Examples:
Marking Words for Gender
GENDER NEUTRAL MALE FEMALE
tob....human being twob....man toyb....woman
tobet....young person twobet....boy toybet....girl
ted....parent twed....father teyd....mother
it....he/she/it wit....he iyt....she
apat....cock apwat....rooster apayt....hen
  • Inanimate objects, such as items of clothing, can be "femininized" in a similar way. In such a case, the feminized form refers to an object that is for woman, rather than men, eg.:
Feminizing Nouns
MALE-ORIENTED FEMALE-ORIENTED
taf....suit tayf....dress
tyoyav....sock tyoyayv....stockings
tiav....shirt tiav....blouse

Rule #9: Deriving Words with Geo-specific VowelsEdit

A series of related words can be derived from a Group 1 base word by replacing the ordinal vowel with one of the following vowels, which have certain specific meanings, usually geographical.
Geo-specific Vowels:
  • o  =  outer space, abstract object, initial stuff
  • a  =  sky, air, gas
  • e  =  land, soil, solid
  • i  =  sea, water, liquid
  • u  =  underground, mineral, concrete object
Examples:
Deriving Words with Geo-specific Vowels
m...p m...m d...p p...t m...l m...r
mop....orbit mom....space dop....military pot....animal mol....nature mor....universe
map....wind mam....sky dap....air force pat....bird mal....air mar....star
mep....road mem....land dep....army pet....land animal mel....soil mer....planet
mip....river mim....sea dip....marine force pit....fish mil....water mir....world
mup....tunnel mum....underground mul....mineral mur....moon
This vowel codification also allows generating other categories of words by infixing, just before the generic (final) consonant, a vowel having the value that is attributed to it in Rule #9. This creates "hybrid" nouns. See the chapter on Hybrids for more on this subject.
Examples:
Hybrid nouns
FIRST-LEVEL DERIVATION + SPECIAL VOWEL SECOND-LEVEL DERIVATION
pet....land animal i....water, sea peit....aquatic mammal
pelt....insect a....air, sky pelat....flying insect
mel....soil i....water, sea meil....mud
mal....air i....water, sea mial....vapor

Rule #10: Deriving Words with Directional and Positional VowelsEdit

The rule for deriving words with directional and positional vowels starts with the following schema:
Directional and Positional Vowel Values
A
U a

a

ya
ya
I
u e ye i
u e ye i
yu E yi
yu yi

o
o
yo

yo
O
Explanation of the above chart:
  • If the vowel is capitalized, it indicates a positional value. It is used in its lowercase spelling as a prefix in Group I words.
  • The non-capitalized vowels (including y-glides) indicate directional values.
  • If the vowel is underlined, it means that it is placed before the classifier consonant (prefixed) in verbs
  • Otherwise, a normal vowel means that it is placed after the classifier consonant (infixed) in Group 2 words.
Explanation of the Vowel Meanings Chart
A position on, above, north amer....north
a movement (free) on baer....lean
a movement (contact) onto aber....put on
ya movement (free) up, ascend byaer....lift
ya movement (contact) up, get up, set up yaber....raise
O position under, lower, south omer....south
o movement (free) off boer....hang
o movement (contact) on the bottom of, underneath oper....get off
yo movement (free) down pyoser....fall
yo movement (contact) fall yoper....rise
U position left, west umer....west
u movement (free) move toward the center, come uber....send
u movement (contact) reach the center, arrive pyuer....reach
yu movement (free) near, approach yuber....approach
yu movement (contact) near, reach byuser....touch
I position right, east imer....east
i movement (free) from the center out, go away pier....go away
i movement (contact) from the center out, leave iper....leave
yi movement (free) away, go far yiper....go far
yi movement (contact) from afar, originate pyiser....originate
E position center, equator emer....equator
e rest between eb....between
e rest at, stay, hold bexer....hold
ye movement in, into, enter yeper....enter
ye (contact) contain byeer....contain
Special value of certain vowels
The prefixes a- or an- meaning one, sole, singular contrast with
the prefixes ya- or yan- meaning collection, plural.
Also, the prefix yan- meaning together contrasts with yon-....apart.

Rule #11: Deriving Words with Mnemonic PatternsEdit

Sometimes part of a derived word can serve as a mnemonic pattern for forming other words having some relationship or parallelism in meaning.
For example, eu pattern in the word for mouth, teud can be used to form many other words having an oral, acoustic, vocal, or sound-related meaning:
Mnemonic Pattern Derivation
PATTERN WORD
teub....mouth
CLASSIFIER GENERIC
teud....shout t = human d = communication
teuz....voice t = human z = art
deuz....song d = communication z = art
seuz....tone s = thing z = art
seux....sound s = thing x = action
xeus....noise x = action s = thing
More Mnemonic Pattern Derivations
PATTERN WORD
teab....eye
(t)ea- = see GENERIC
teaper....visit " " " p = go
teader....testify " " " d = say
teaxer....look " " " x = do
teaser....seem " " " s = be
teater....see " " " t = know
keaxer....scan ke- = seek " " x = do
vyaleaxer....check vyal- = certain " " x = do
yoneater....distinguish yon- = apart " " t = know
beaxer....guard be- = hold " " x = do
A syllable of a long compound can be suppressed as long as it does not cause ambiguity or confusion.
Examples:
Shortening Long Compounds
WORD 1 WORD 2 LONG COMPOUND SHORTENED COMPOUND
apet....horse teuder....make a noise *apeteuder apeder....neigh
ipet....donkey teuder....make a noise *ipeteuder ipeder....bray
vafeb....grape il....liquid *vafebil....grape juice vafil....wine
Sometimes, the last syllable of a compound will give birth to a new words whose derivations, through the application of this rule, will not be long.
Examples:
Building on Shortened Compounds
COMPOUND NEW SHORTER WORD
tilabil....breast milk bil....milk
The shorter word bil now gives rise to other compounds:
  • bilyig....cheese
  • bilyigem....cheese factory
  • bilyug....butter
  • bilyugyena....butter-like

Rule #12: Deriving Nuanced Words PhoneticallyEdit

Words which follow Rule #12 are those that are connected by a similarity of meaning or quality. These words differ by nuances and it is phonetic nuances that govern their formation.
These nuances are obtained by:
  • Addition of a subordinal vowel of the same type as the ordinal vowel.
These vowels are:
a for a and ya
e for e and ye
i for i and yi
o for o and yo
u for u and yu
Examples:
Creating Nuances with a Doubled Vowel
WORD NUANCED DERIVATION
nad....line naad....rail
dob....state doob....nation
vyab....rule vyaab....system
vala....safe vaala....sure
  • Post-y-gliding the ordinal vowel or subordinal vowel, to produce a nuance of less' intensity:
Deintensification with Post-y-gliding
WORD MITIGATED DERIVATION
ifer....love iyfer....like
iva....happy iyva....glad
zyutom....tower zyutoym....turret
ama....hot ayma....warm
oma....cold oyma....cool
  • Pre-y-gliding the ordinal vowel or subordinal vowel, to produce a nuance of greater intensity:
Intensification with Pre-Y-Gliding
WORD ENHANCED DERIVATION
pot....wild animal pyot....predator animal
pat....bird pyat....bird of prey
tod....family tyod....people
oma....cold yoma....frozen
nuxer....pay nyuxer....deliver


  • Following the ordinal vowel or the generic consonant with the intensifying liquid l or the further intensifying liquid r:
Intensification with L and R
WORD L-INTENSIFIED R-INTENSIFIED
ifer....love ifler....be fond of ifrer....adore
iva....happy ivla....content ivra....enchanted
vaa....affirmative vala....sure vara....evident
aga....big agla....great agra....capital
ga....more gala....multiple gara....exponential
baer....lean on baler....press barer....crush
  • Adding consonants other than l or r as the generic consonant:
Creating Nuances with Other Consonants
WORD NUANCED DERIVATION
fua....bad futa....wicked
gea....equal geta....identical
  • Transforming the generic consonant from voiced to unvoiced or vice versa:
Voicing or Devoicing Consonants for Nuance
WORD NUANCED DERIVATION
nab....row nap....order
vyava....just vyafa....precise

Forming AdjectivesEdit

You can form an adjective by adding the suffix a to a substantive, adverb, or preposition. By substantive is meant a noun, pronoun, or gerund. Any of these can be adjectivized.
Examples:
Deriving Adjectives
NOUN ADJECTIVE
taam....home taama....domestic
doob....nation dooba....national
tej....life teja....vital
tyoyapyaf....ability to walk tyoyapyafa....ambulatory
martun....astronomy martuna....astronomical
PRONOUN ADJECTIVE
at....I, me ata....my
eut....yourself euta....your own
hiyen....this kind hiyena....this kind of
hot?....who? hota?....whose?
GERUND ADJECTIVE
ifeken....recreation ifekena....recreational
VERB FORM ADJECTIVE (= PARTICIPLE)
teje....(he) lives tejea....living
tojo....will die tojoa....moribund, about to die
tojbu....would kill tojbua....lethal
twe....is known twa....known

Adjectival SuffixesEdit

Various types of adjectives can be created with adjectival suffixes beyond just a.
Examples:
Deriving Other Adjectives
SUFFIX MEANING NOUN ADJECTIVE
-aya full of, having, -ous, -ful, -ly
voz....color vozaya....colorful
futax....resentment futaxaya....resentful
tiibil....blood tiibilaya....bloody
yilf....courage yilfaya....courageous
-oya bereft of, -less, un-
voz....color vozoya....colorless, pale
tajyaf....talent tajyafoya....untalented
-ika full of, -ous, -ful, -y (same as -aya)
map....wind mapika....windy
-uka bereft of, without, -less (same as -oya)
nas....money nasuka....broke, penniless
-yena -like, -ous, -ly, -y, -ish, -ic, -al, having the qualities of
tobot....child tobotyena....childish, infantile
tot....god totyena....divine, godly
pit....fish pityena....fish-like, fishy
-wa or -awa -ed, past passive participle (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
t-....know twa or tawa....known
dal-....speak dalwa or dalawa....spoken, oral
nisbu-....sell nisbuwa....sold
-ea -ing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
ot-....not know otea....ignorant
tej-....live tejea....living, alive
tuj-....die tujea....dying
-yea -ive, prone to Xing, given to X (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
tujb-....kill tujbyea....murderous
tex-....think texyea....pensive, thoughtful
tox-....forget toxyea....forgetful
ax-....act axyea....active
-uwa -able, apt to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
ex-....operate exuwa....operable
tos....feel tosuwa....palpable
tex-....think texuwa....conceivable
tel-....eat teluwa....edible
-yafa -able, capable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat-....see teatyafa....sightful, able to see
dyed-....read dyedyafa....literate
-yafwa -able, possible to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat-....see teatyafwa....visible
tax-....remember taxyafwa....memorable
teet-....hear teetyafwa....audible
tel-....eat telyafwa....edible
-yofa incapable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat-....see teatyofa....blind
tyoyap-....walk tyoyapyofa....lame
teet-....hear teetyofa....deaf
dal-....speak dalyofa....dumb, incapable of speaking
-yofwa un-X-able (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat-....see teatyofwa....invisible
teet-....hear teetyofa....inaudible
tox-....forget toxyofa....unforgetable
dal-....speak dalyofa....unspeakable
-ifa fond of, -phile ( NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE
pot....animal potifa....pet-friendly
hyitoob-....same-gender hyitoobifa....homophile
tobot....child tobotifa....pedophile
fitel....food fitelifa....gourmand
doob....nation doobifa....patriotic
-ufa adverse to, hating, miso- NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE
tob....human tobufa....misanthropic
hyut-....other person hyutufa....xenophobic
toyb-....woman toybufa....misogynist


Adjectival PrefixesEdit

Negating the Meaning of Adjectives
Examples:
  • vlea....probable ovlea....improbable
  • vyafa....perfect ovyafa....imperfect
  • twa....known otwa....unknown
  • bosa....calm obosa....worried
Note: Occasionally, the prefix lo- is used to avoid ambiguity, as in the following case:
  • fwa....wanted
  • ofwa....prohibited < ofer....to prohibit
  • yofwa....impossible < yofer....to be unable
  • lofwa....unwanted < fer....to want (disambiguated)
The prefix lyo- is more intense for reversing the meaning of an adjective:
  • data....friendly
  • odata....unfriendly
  • lyodata....inimical
  • dota....social
  • odota....unsocial
  • lyodota....savage
Table of Adjective Prefixes
As in English, where the sense of adjectives can be altered by a number of prefixes of Germanic, Latin, and Greek origin, the sense of adjectives in Mirad can also be altered with prefixes. Here are the principal ones:
Altering the Sense of Adjectives with Prefixes
MIRAD PREFIX ENGLISH PREFIX ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES
o- un-, a(n)-, in-, non- obaka....unhealthy
oyezyebeya....incontinent, oyelpea....non-invasive
ototina....atheist
ov- anti-, counter- ovzuina....anti-leftist
oviztida....counter-intuitive
kovyo- pseudo- kovyotepina....pseudo-intellectual
hyas- all-, pan-, omni- yadtea....all-knowing, omniscient
eg- re- egtajbwa....re-born
vyo- mis- vyoseudwa....mispronounced
eyn- semi-, half- eynlevelaya....semi-sweet
eyntija....half-awake
yiz-, gwa- ultra-, super- gwadoobina....ultra-nationalist
yizmola....supernatural
gro- under-, hypo- grojaga....under-aged
gra- over-, hyper-, uber- graagxwa....overgrown
gratoseya....hypersensitive
gla- multi-, many-, poly- glakuma....multilateral
glatadaya....polygamous
fu- mal-, ill- futeyenxwa....ill-conceived
fusanxwa....malformed
fi- well- fitofabwa....well-dressed
yuyb- quasi- yuybdaba....quasi-governmental
ja- pre-, (a)fore-, pro- jateyenxwa....pre-conceived
jaigdawa....aformentioned
jo- post- jodropeka....post-war

English and Mirad Adjectival Suffix ComparisonEdit

Here is a chart showing a comparison between English adjectival suffixes and their Mirad counterparts:
English and Mirad Adjectival Suffixes Compared
ENGLISH SUFFIX MEANING MIRAD SUFFIX ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES
-ful full of -aya, -ika vozaya....colorful, tuzika....skillful
-ous full of -aya, -ika nazika....precious, milaya....aqueous
-filled full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya....smoke-filled
-y full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya....smoky,
-ous of, like -a totina....religious, vyosa....erroneous
-ly like -yena totyena....godly, toybyena....womanly
-like like -yena patyena....bird-like
-ish like -yena tobotyena....childish
-y like -yena fyabyena....fruity
-ic like -yena tuzyena....artistic, silyena....acidic
-ic of, related to -a tuna....scientific, , beka....therapeutic
-ical of, related to -a zyunida....spherical, iztexa....logical
-ological pertaining to the study of -tuna tejtuna....biological
-ist(ic) pertaining to the doctrine of -ina doparina....militarist(ic), nasyanina....capitalist(ic)
-ophobic (and miso- prefix) hating, fearful of -ufa yudatufa....xenophonic, tobyanufa....misanthropic
-ophilic (and philo- prefix) loving -ifa tobotifa....pedophilic, tobifa....philanthropic
-al like -yena pyotyena....bestial
-al of, pertaining to -a teja....vital, amana....thermal
-less without, empty of -oya, -uka tejuka....lifeless, tobotoya....childless
-free without, empty of -oya, -uka yomuka....ice-free, vyosoya, error-free

Forming AdverbsEdit

Adjectives can be converted into adverbs by post-y-gliding the adjectival suffix a, in other words, by adding a y to the adjective. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
Examples:
Deriving Adverbs
ADJECTIVE ADVERB
fia....good fiay....well
vyaa....true vyaay....truly
gyua....easy gyuay....easily
iga....quick igay....quickly
auta....personal autay....personally
For brevity's sake, the stem of de-adjectival adverbs like those above can be used at the end of a clause or sentence. For example:
  • It tyoyape ig.....He walks fast.
  • Yit xa has fi.....They did it well.


Special AdverbsEdit

Mirad has special adverbs that are not derived from adjectives and may or may not end in -ay.
Here are the principal such adverbs:
Special Adverbs
SPECIAL ADVERB
vay....indeed, really, certainly, do (cf. va....yes)
vey....possibly, may, might (cf. ve....maybe)
voy....not (cf. vo....no)
ga....more (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
gay....also, moreover, further, still
ge....as, equally (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
gey....even
go....less (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
goy....no longer, no more
gla....very
glay....quite, rather, so
gle....so
glo....not very, not so
gra....too
gre....enough, sufficiently, over-
gro....not...enough, inadequately, under-
gwa....most, super-
gwe....average
gwo....least, sub-
The first three adverbs in the above chart are used to affirm or emphasize, cast doubt on, or negate verb predicates as in the examples that follow:
  • AFFIRMATIVE: Va, at vay se tadsa.....Yes, I am indeed married.
  • DUBITIVE: Iyta dud se vey vyosa.....Her response is possibly wrong.
  • NEGATIVE: At voy se eta yuxrut.....I am not your slave.
The adverbs above beginning with g are quantitative adverbs and modify an adjective, verb, or another adverb:
  • Et se gla via.....You are very beautiful [=ADJECTIVE].
  • Et peya gra ig.....You were going too fast [=ADVERB].
  • It gra dale.....He talks [=VERB] too much.
Other special adverbs, which do not end in -ay, include the following, which can all be used in multi-word prepositions:
Adverbs Used in Prepositional Phrases
SPECIAL ADVERB EXAMPLES
yab....up Ha pat papa yab bu ha mam.....The bird flew up to the sky.
yob....down Teaxu yob bu ha mel.....Look down to the ground.
yub....near Besu yub bi ha mas.....Stay near the wall.
yib....far Ha tobi igpia yib bi ha yovbyokam.....The people ran far from the prison.
ib....away Teaxu ib, diwe.....Look away, please.
ub....this way Tyoyapu ub him.....Walk toward this way.
yeb....in, inward, inside Kyedu hat hu ogja tyoyapa yeb!....Guess who just walked in!
oyeb....out, outside It tyoyapa oyeb zye ha zames.....He walked out through the front door.
yuz....around Yit daza yuz bi yat.....They danced around us.
yiz....beyond Et yefe teaxer yiz bi hia tistam av yux.....You must look beyond this school for help.
iz....directly, straight Pu iz bu hat.....Go right up to him.
zi....right Uzpu zi!....Turn right!
zu....left Hat uzpa zu.....He turned left.

Pro-adverbsEdit

There are also adverbial expressions that are formed with deitic prefixes and categorical stubs to produce what are known as pro-adverbs. These include interrogative pro-adverbs like hom? (where?), hoyen? (how?), hoj? (when?), hogla (to what extent?), and their answers, such as hum (there), heyen (somehow), and hyoj (never), hugla (so, to that extent). These words are discussed under the chapter on Deictic Determiners.

Forming VerbsEdit

Verbs can be formed from various parts of speech.


Forming Verbs from NounsEdit

Verbs can often be formed from nouns simply by adding the verb infinitive suffix er:
Denominal Verb Derivation
NOUN VERB
syag....count syager....to count
tof....clothes tofer....to dress
teud....cry, shout teuder....to cry, shout, exclaim
taj....birth tajer....to be born
tej....life tejer....to live
toj....death tojer....to die
ej....present ejer....to continue
ij....beginning ijer....to begin
uj....end ijer....to end
yuj....sleep tujer....to sleep

Verb FormantsEdit

More often, an auxiliary verb or verb stub is used to create various verbs from nouns. The most common such verb formants are in this chart:
  • -ser....to be/become usually intransitive and stative (unite = become one)
  • -xer....to do/make usually transitive and dynamic (unite = make one)
  • -per....to go usually intransitive and a verb of motion (mount = get onto)
  • -ber....to put usually transitive and a verb of gesture (apply = put onto)
  • -ier a stub from the verb to take, usually an action verb benefiting the agent (eat = take food)
  • -uer a stub from the verb to give, usually an action verb benefiting the patient (feed = give food)
  • -der....to say, a verb of communication (affirm = say yes)
  • -ter....to know, verbs of the perception and knowledge (teater = see)
Verb Derivation with Verb Formants
NOUN AUXILIARY VERB OR VERB STUB FORMANT VERB
yav....innocence der....to say yavder....to acquit
yov....shame, guilt aber....to apply, put on yovaber....to shame, accuse
yov....shame, guilt ober....to remove, take off yovober....to excuse, exculpate
tof....clothes aber....to apply, put on tofaber....to dress, don
tof....clothes ober....to remove, take off tofober....to undress, strip
det....associate ser....to be, become detser....to associate
dat....friend xer....to do, make datxer....to befriend
san....form ser....to be, become sanser....to form (intransitive)
san....form xer....to do, make sanxer....to form (transitive)
tel....food (b)ier....to take telier....to eat, consume
tel....food (b)uer....to give teluer....to feed, nourish
if....pleasure (b)ier....to take ifier....to enjoy
if....pleasure (b)uer....to give ifuer....to please
taj....birth (b)uer....to give tajuer....to give birth
tej....life (b)ier....to take tejier....to come alive
tej....life (b)uer....to give tejuer....to bring to life
toj....death (p)er....to go tojper....to drop dead
toj....death (b)er....to put tojber....to kill
tij....wakefulness (b)ier....to take tijier....to wake up
tij....wakefulness (b)uer....to give tijuer....to awaken
tuj....sleep (b)ier....to take tujier....to fall asleep
tuj....sleep (b)uer....to give tujuer....to put to sleep
tax....memory (b)ier....to take taxier....to recall
tax....memory (b)uer....to give taxuer....to remind
yev....justice der....to say, tell yevder....to judge
vyan....truth der....to say, tell vyander....to tell the truth
vyon....falsehood der....to say, tell vyonder....to tell a lie
il....liquid aker....to gain ilaker....to take on liquid
il....liquid oker....to lose iloker....to leak, lose liquid
il....liquid (b)ier....to take ilier....to soak up
il....liquid (b)uer....to give iluer....to pour, water
il....liquid ikser....to get full ilikser....to be soaked (intransitive)
il....liquid ikxer....to fill up ilikxer....to flood, soak (transitive)
il....liquid ukser....to become empty ilukser....to drain (intransitive)
il....liquid ukxer....to empty ilukxer....to flush (transitive)
il....liquid ser....to be, become ilser....to liquify, melt (intransitive)
il....liquid xer....to do, make ilxer....to liquify, melt (transitive)
il....liquid aber....to apply, put on ilaber....to wash (transitive)
il....liquid aper....to get on ilaper....to float (intransitive)
il....liquid per....to go ilper....to flow (intransitive)
il....liquid zyaber....to spread ilzyaber....to spray, shower (transitive)
il....liquid zyober....to squeeze ilzyober....to squirt (transitive)
il....liquid pyexer....to strike ilpyexer....to splash (with liquid)
il....liquid yujer....to close ilyujer....to plug
Note that verbs ending in -ser and -ier are intransitive (they take no object), while those ending in -xer and -uer are transitive. Also, -ier verbs are inchoative, while -uer verbs are benefactive or causative (making someone do something).

Forming Verbs from Adjectives With -xer and -serEdit

The verbs that are formed from adjectives fall mainly into two groups, the transitive group with -xer....to do, make, cause, and the intransitive group with -ser....to be, become.
The following chart shows how these verbs are formed:
Forming Verbs with Xer and Ser
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
aza....strong azaxer....fortify, strengthen, make strong azaser....get strong
oza....week ozaxer....weaken ozaser....grow weaker
kyia....heavy kyiaxer....weigh down kyiaser....grow heavy
kyua....light kyuaxer....lighten, make lighter kyiaser....get lighter
yana....together yanaxer....bring together yanaser....get together
The final adjective ending a is often dropped to form a verb with a slightly different meaning, usually somewhat more idiomatic. In some cases, dropping the a makes it clear that the verb is created from a noun rather than an adjective, as in the last example of the following chart:
Comparing Full and Stub Adjectives in Verb Formation
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
aga....big agaxer....magnify agaser....get big
agxer....grow agxer....grow up, mature
iga....fast igaxer....accelerate igaser....speed up
igxer....rush igser....hurry up
baka....healthy bakaxer....make healthy bakaser....get healthy
bakxer....heal bakser....heal
sana....formal sanaxer....formalize sanaser....become formal
sanxer....form, shape sanser....form, take shape

Forming Verbs of Gesture and Motion with -ber and -perEdit

Verbs of gesture are formed with the transitive auxiliary verb ber....to put, while parallel verbs of motion are formed with the intransitive auxiliary verb per....to go. These verbs are usually paired and are often built from a prepositional base. If the prepositional base ends in b, the b is dropped. Here are some examples:
Verb Derivation with Ber and Per
PREPOSITON
BASE
TRANSITIVE GESTURE VERB INTRANSITIVE MOTION VERB
ab....on aber....apply, put on aper....mount, get on
eb....between eber....block eper....intervene
ob....off ober....remove, take off oper....dismount, get off
ib....away iber....receive iper....leave
ub....toward uber....send uper....come
yab....up yaber....raise yaper....rise
yeb....in
oyeb....out
yeber....insert
oyeber....take out
yeper....enter
oyeper....exit
yob....down yober....lower yoper....descend
yib....far yiber....take away yiper....move away
yub....near yuber....bring yuper....approach
zay....forward zayber....advance zayper....advance, go forward
zey....across zeyber....take across, transfer zeyper....cross, go over, transit
zoy....back zoyber....set back, return zoyper....retreat, go back, return
iz....straight izber....guide izper....aim for
uz....crooked uzber....divert uzper....turn, diverge
yiz....beyond yizber....take beyond yizper....pass by
yuz....around yuzber....take around yuzper....go around
More elaborate verbs of gesture and motion can be formed by adding positional/directional ordinal vowels along with combinations of ser and xer, plus the intensifiers y, l and r. In this more complex world, the last letter of the stem determines the transitivity: s for intransitive and x for transitive. Prepositions can also be prefixed to change the direction of the gestures or motions.
Creating More Elaborate Verbs
GESTURE VERB GESTURE VERB MOTION VERB MOTION VERB
INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE
ber....put
beer....have
byeer....keep
beler....
carry
bexer....
hold
per....go
baer....lean on baler....press
yanbaler....compress
yobaler....depress, suppress
yuzbaler....hug
zoybaler....repress
barer....crush
baser....gesticulate baxer....make a gesture
abaxer....caress, pat
paser....move paxer....move
byaser....stand up byaxer....set up, erect pyaser....jump up pyaxer....shoot, launch
blaser....budge blaxer....rouse
ablaxer....massage
plaser....get excited plaxer....excite
aplaxer....sweep
braser....shake braxer....shake
abraxer....rub
apraxer....brush
beser....stay bexer....hold
zoybexer....restrain
yobexer....detain, hold down
peser....wait pexer....trap
byeser....behave byexer....hit pyeser....run into, bump into pyexer....strike, knock
yonpyexer....break
yopyexer....knock down
yanpyexer....fight
apyexer....attack
ovpyexer....offend
kunpyexer....sideswipe
tuyapyexer....slap
bleser....adhere blexer....retain plexer....pound, beat
aplexer....assault
yonplexer....shatter, burst
yanpreser....implode
yonpreser....explode
prexer....blast, bomb
boser....calm down
boyser....rest
boxer....quieten, quell poser....stop
poyser....pause
poxer....stop
byoser....hang byoxer....hang pyoser....fall
yonpyoser....decay
pyoxer....drop, throw down
yopyoxer....topple
biser....originate bixer....pull
yanbixer....contract
yonbixer....distract
yubixer....attract
yibixer....distract
oyebixer....extract
yebixer....push in
pixer....catch
bliser....spring blixer....yank plixer....snag, capture
yiplixer....abduct
buser....be destined buxer....push, drive
zyobuxer....squeeze
yebuxer....expel
abuxer....impose
apuser....assault puxer....throw, thrust
byuser....bump into byuxer....touch
yanbyuxer....contact
pyuser....run into pyuxer....crash
bluser....swoop bluxer....shove pluser....lunge, pounce pluxer....thrust
zyapluxer....splatter
Yet more complex verbs can be generated by adding directional and positional prefixes to the above verbs. Let's just take the one verb baxer (and its intransitive partner baser) as our base verb and generate many others through prefixation of prepositional and other words as shown in the following chart:
Baxer Verbs
PREFIX VERB
baxer....gesture, make a bodily motion
ab....on abaxer....caress, pat, pet, stroke, rub
iz....straight izbaxer....point
teb....head tebaxer....nod
va....yes vatebaxer....nod yes
vo....no votebaxer....nod no
ve....maybe vetebaxer....shrug
tuyab....hand tuyabaxer....wave
tub....arm tubaxer....flail, swing
teubab....tongue teubabaxer....lick
teab....eye teubaxer....wink
patub....wing patubaxer....flap
tiyub....tail tiyubaxer....wag
baser....gesticulate
ig-....fast igbaser....jerk
zay....forward igzaybaser....lurch
zoy....back zoybaser....recoil
yob....down yobaser....bow, bend down
ku-....side kubaser....slide
ig-....fast igkubaser....slip
iz....straight + uz....curved uizbaser....sway, swagger, swish
zi....right + zu....left zuibaser....wiggle, wobble, totter

Forming Frequentative VerbsEdit

A frequentative verb, that is, one that involves an action done quickly multiple times in succession, can be formed by prefixing the syllable eig-. The prefix eig is a hybrid of eg- (again) and ig- (fast). Here are some examples:
The Eig- Frequentative Prefix
REGULAR VERB FREQUENTATIVE VERB
paser....move eigpaser....shake, shudder
pyaser....jump eigpyaser....bounce
paper....fly eigpaper....flutter, flit
braser....shake eigbraser....shudder, quiver, vibrate
teupixer....bite eigteupixer....nibble
ilzyaber....spray eigilzyaber....sprinkle
pyexer....beat eigpyexer....batter, whip

Forming Hybrid Words with Alternating ComponentsEdit

Expressions with alternating components like back-and-forth, up-and-down, etc. are formed in a peculiar, hybrid way. The following table shows this formation and how such words can be used, especially as prefixes on verbs:
Hybrid Words
ALTERNATING COMPONENTS HYBRID EXPRESSION EXAMPLES
yab....up + yob....down yao(b)-....up-and-down yaoper....fluctuate, yaopuser....bounce
zay....forth + zoy....back zayo(b)-....back-and-forth zayobaser....swing
a-....up, north, skyward + o-....down, south ao-....vertical aonada....vertical, aomera....north-south
za....forth + zo....back zao(b)-....front-back/north-to-south zaobaser....rock
bu....to + bi....from bui-....to-and-from buipar....shuttle, buipop....round-trip
ab....on + ob....off ao(b)-....on-and-off aoper....get on and off
yuj-....closed + yij-....open yuij-....open-and-shut yuijbar....switch, igyuijer....blink
uj-....stop + ij-....start uij-....stop-and-start uijparpan....stop-and-go traffic
(a)yeb....in + oyeb....out aoye(b)-....in-and-out igaoyeper....run in-and-out
yub....near + yib....far yui(b)-....near-and-far yuipoper....travel near-and-far
ub....toward + ib....away ui(b)-....toward-and-away uipen....coming and going
hum....there + him....here huim....here-and-there huimkexer....search high-and-low (here-and-there)
hus....that + his....this huis....this-and-that huisyexer....do odd jobs, work at this-or-that
hyut....other person + hyit....same person hyuit....one another hyuitifer....love one another, hyuita....mutual, reciprocal
Here are some more examples:
More Hybrids
HYBRID WORD ENGLISH GLOSS ALTERNATING COMPONENTS
aogsen fluctuation (in size) ag- (big) + og- (little) + s- (become) + -en (-ing)
aonada vertical a- (up/north) + o- (down/south) + nad (line) + -a (adj.)
aopuys hop-on-hop-off a(p)- (on) + o(p)- (off) + puys- (hop)
buien trading, swapping bu- (give) + bi- (trake) + -en (-ing)
buip traffic bu- (to) + bi- (from) + p- (go)
buixar pump bux- (push) + bix (pull) + -ar (instrument)
buixek tug-o-war bux- (push) + bix- (pull) + ek (play)
buixnyem drawer bux- (push) + bix- (pull) + nyem (box)
byaosen teetering, stumbling byas- (stand) + byos- (fall) + -en (-ing)
diep marine force dip (sea force) + dep (land force)
duid q&a, interview dud (answer) + did (question)
eigpyexer batter, whip eg- (again) + ig- (fast) + pyexer (to hit)
gao more-or-less ga (more) + go (less)
glaojo sooner or later gla (very) + glo (slightly) + jo (after)
huimkexer search here and there hu- (that) + hi- (this) + -m (place) + kex (search) + -er (inf.)
huis this-and-that hu- (that) + hi- (this) + -s (thing)
hyuit one another hyu- (other) + hyi- (same) + -t (person)
kyaopen fluctuation kya- (mobile) + kyo (static) + -pen (going)
maluier breathe mal- (air) + u- (let out) + i- (take in) -er (inf.)
maojyex double-shift work maj (day) + moj (night) + yex (work)
maonig flicker man (light) + mon (dark) + ig- (fast)
maoza black&white/gray maza (white) + moza (black)
meil mud mel (soil) + mil (water)
memuiben import-exports mem (country) + ub- (send) + ib- (receive) + -en (-ing)
mial vapor mil (water) + mal (air)
mieg reef mi- (sea) + me- (land) + -g (stone)
miek sand mi- (sea) + me- (land) + -k (rocky substance)
miem swamp mim (sea) + mem (land)
mimpuin dock mim (sea) + pu- (arrive) + pi- (depart) + -m (place)
mimpyaos surf mim (sea) + pyas- (surge) + pyos- (sink)
mimuip tide mim (sea) + up- (come) + ip- (go)
peit amphibian pet (land animal) + pit (sea creature)
puim kiss-and-ride zone pu- (arrive) + pi- (depart) + -m (place)
puixek baseball pux- (pitch) + pix- (catch) + ek (play)
teabyuij blink teab (eye) + yuj- (close) + yij- (open)
tuijea nodding off tuj- (sleep) + tij (wake) -ea (-ing)
uijdal stutter uj- (finish) + ij- (start) + dal (speech)
uipeni comings & goings up- (come) + ip (go) + -en (-ing) + -i (pl.)
uiza serpentine, snaky uza (crooked) + iza (straight)
vao? yes or no? va (yes) + vo (no)
vaod decision va (yes) + vo (no) + d- (say)
yaobar elevator yab- (raise) + yob- (lower) + -ar (instrument)
yaobyuijar piston yab- (raise) + yob- (lower) + yuj- (close) + yij- (open ) + -ar (instrument)
yaoplas oscillation yap- (up) + yop- (down) + plas (shake)
yaopsim seesaw yap- (ascend) + yop- (descend) + sim (seat)
yaopus bounce ya(b)- (up) + yo(b)- (down) + pus (jump)
yaovdut juror yav- (innocent) + yov- (guilty) + d- (say) + -ut (agent)
yaoza uneven, bumpy, serrated yaza (convex) + yoza (concave)
yaozgoblar saw yaz (protrusion ) + yoz (indentation) + gobl- (cut) + -ar (instrument)
yaozil wave yaz (swell) + yoz (trough) + -il (liquid)
yuibteabar bifocals yub (near) + yib (far) + teab (eye) + -ar (instrument)
yuijar valve, switch yuj- (close) + yij- (open) + -ar (instrument)
zaobelur ferry za- (forth) + zo (back) + bel- (carry) + -ur (vehicle)
zaobyexar swatter, bat za (forth) + zo (back) + byex- (strike) + -ar (instrument)
zaodal dialog za- (forth) + zo (back) + dal (speech)
zaogoblar saw za (forth) + zo (back) + gobl (cut) + -ar (instrument)
zaokyax alternation za (forth) + zo (back) + kyax (change)
zaopasen swinging za- (forth) + zo- (back) + pasen (moving)
zaopsim swing or rocker zap- (go forth) + zap (go back) + sim (seat)
zuibasen wiggling zu- (left) + zi- (right) + bas- (move bodily) + -en (-ing)
zuibayx wag zu- (left) + zi- (right) + bayx- (slight body move)
zuibyoxea dangling zu (left) + zi (right) + byox- (hang down) + -ea (-ing)
zuiyafa ambidextrous zu- (left) + zi- (right) + yafa (capable)
zyaobas throb zya- (wide) + zyo- (narrow) + bas (bodily movement)