Prepositions are words that connect and show a relationship between a noun or noun phrase and the rest of the sentence. In Mirad, prepositions are simple monosyllables or phrases. Prepositions, as in English, are positioned before the noun or noun phrase they connect.

## Simple Prepositions

In Mirad, there are single-word and multi-word prepositions. Single-word prepositions are called simple propositions.
Here is a chart of simple prepositions. Most are spatial, but some are temporal, relational, or mathematical.
Simple Prepositions
POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE
SPATIAL
ab....on, upon eb....between ob....off, off of
ayb....over, above eyb....among, amid oyb....under, below
bu....to be....at bi....from, of
byu....as far as, up to bey....by, via byi....since, starting with
ub....toward   ib....away from
za....in front of ze....at the middle of zo....behind, in back of
zya....throughout zye....through
zu....(to the) left (of) zey....across zi....(to the) right (of)
TEMPORAL
ja....before je....during, while jo....after
lojo....no later than, by
ju....until   ji....since
RELATIONAL
bay....with bey....by, via, with boy....without
av....for vyel....than, as, compared to, about ov....against
ay....and ey....or
oey....nor
oy....but, except
MATHEMATICAL
ge....equal to oge....unequal to
gab....plus, + gaob....plus or minus gob....minus, -
gal....times, × gel....like
ogel....unlike
gol....divided by, ÷
gar....to the power of, ˆ gor....to the root of,
The most versatile and useful preposition is be, which means at as a general locative when used literally, but is used before many nouns and noun phrases when the meaning is idiomatic. Some examples follow:
• Yat se be tam.....We are at home. (literal, general locative)
• Yat se be dropek.....We are at war. (idiomatic)
• At teata et be yibsin.....I saw you on television. (idiomatic)
• Be Ejna York ese mamyabtomi.....In New York, there are skyscrapers. (general locative)
The preposition bi can mean of or from. Here are some examples:
• Hus se tam bi ifron.....That is a house of worship.
• At tyopa bi ha nam bu ata pur.....I walked from the store to my car.
• Bi him bu hyatob.....From here to eternity.
• Ha tajnem bi Tom se him.....Tom's birthplace is here.
• His sa ha gwaifwa tuzun bi eta teyd.....This was your mother's favorite piece of art.
As you can see above, bi is used to form the possessive form of nouns and names.
Examples showing how single-word prepositions are used:
• Ha dyes se ab ha sem.....The book is on the table.
• Von pyosu ob ha abtamas!....Don't fall off the roof!
• Ha pati papa ayb ata tam.....The birds flew over my house.
• It kosa oyb ha yagsim.....He hid under the bench.
• Simbiu eb hut ay at.....Take a seat between that person and me.
• Yat teje eyb fiati.....We live among good people.
• Duhos se nax bi pop bu ay bi Boston?....What is the cost of a trip to and from Boston?
• His se ifek bi kyen.....This is a game of luck.
• Duven et sa be hua duzun zomoj?....Were you at that concert last night?
• Yit se embwa be ha zenod bi ha mapil.....We are positioned at the hub of this storm.
• Iyt tyopa byu ha mis.....She walked up to/as far as the door.
• Ha twob tojbwa bey goblar.....The man was killed with/by a knife.
• Et xu ga fiay ser bay at vyel boy at.....You would do better to be with me than without me.
• Teaxu ib ha amar.....Look away from the sun.
• Von teaxu iz ub ha man.....Don't look directly toward the light.
• Iyt simpa za at. ....She sat in front of me.
• Et yeyfe simbier zo hua toyb.....You should sit in back of that woman.
• Embu has zu ha mis.....Put it to the left of the door.
• At simpo zi et.....I will sit to the right of you.
• Ha pat besa ze ha tim.....The bird stayed in the middle of the room.
• Mil upeye zye ha ijun.....Water is coming through the opening.
• Bikiu je pen zey ha domep......Take care when going across the street.
• Eso ivan zya ha mir.....There will be happiness throughout the world.
• His xwo ja zajub. ....This will happen before tomorrow.
• Esa mapil je ha moj.....There was a storm during the night.
• Ju zamaj.....Until tomorrow morning.
• At voy teataye et ji zoyejub.....I have not seen you since last week.
• Diwe xu hes av at.....Please do something for me.
• Hia dyes se ayv dalzeyntun.....This book is about linguistics.
• Hia dyen se din vyel ewa fiuti.....This book is a story about two lovers.
• Datan se ga fia vyel nas.....Friendship is better than money.
• Hos se ge fua vyel has hu yat xoa zojab.....Nothing is as bad as what we underwent last year.
• Yit yexeya ov yat.....They were working against us.
• Ha vakdibut dopoxa at oyv ata azovdeyni.....The police officer arrested me despite my protests.
• Et ay Bob yeyfe ser dati.....You and Bob should be friends.
• Duhot ako, et ey at?....Who will win, you or I?
• Hyat oy hwut ta ha dud.....Everyone but that guy knew the answer.
• Et voy se gel at.....You are not like me.
• Et se hyagla ogel at.....You are totally unlike me.
• E gab e gese u.....Two plus two equals four.
• U gob e gese e.....Four minus two equals two.
• E gal e gese u.....Two times two equals four.
• E gol e gese a.....Two divided by two equals one.
• U gar e gese asya.....Four squared (42) equals sixteen. (Lit: Four to the power of two...)
• Alya gor e gese u.....The square root (√16) of sixteen is four. (Lit: Sixteen to the minus power of two...)

## Phrasal Prepositions

Some prepositions involve multiple word expressions, that is, phrasal prepositions.

There are certain directional adverbs that can play a part in forming phrasal prepositions, but cannot act as prepositions in and of themselves:
 yub....near yib....far iz....directly, straight uz....indirectly, roundabout yab....up yeb....inoyeb....out yob....down yiz....beyond yez....along, flush yuz....around zay....forward, ahead zoy....back
The next chart lists some phrasal prepositions using the above adverbs:
PHRASAL PREPOSITION EXAMPLE
yub bu....near to, close to At fe tujer yub bu et.....I want to sleep close to you.
yib bi....far from Ha amar se yib bi ha imer.....The sun is far from the earth.
yab bu....up to It fu paper yab bu ha mam.....He would like to fly up to the sky.
yab bi....up from Su yab bi ha sim.....Get up from the bed.
yab bey....up (by way of) Yat tyoyapo yab bey ha meab.....We will walk up the hill.
yab be....up at Ha yipet kaxwa yab be ha tam.....The cat was found up at the house.
yob bu....down to Igpu yob bu ha obmos.....Run down to the cellar.
yob bi....down from Ha tat upa yob bi ha mam.....The angel came down from the sky.
yob bey....down (by way of) Iyt igtyoyapa yob bey ha meab.....She ran down the hill.
yob be....down at Ha dyes kaxwa yob be ha obem.....The book was found down at the bottom.
yob ab....down at Has kaxwa yob ab eta oybmos.....It was found down on your floor.
yeb be....in, inside Eta teyd se yeb be ha tam.....Your mother is in(side) the house.
yeb bu....into It pyasa yeb bu ha mip.....He jumped into the river.
yeb bi....in from Upu yeb bi ha oma oyebem.....Come in from the cold outdoors.
oyeb be....out in/at Ha tudi sa oyeb be ha zodeym.....The children were out in the backyard.
oyeb bi....out from Yepu oyeb bi ha om.....Come in out from the cold.
oyeb bu....out to Yat fu peper oyeb bu ha meim.....We'd like to ride out to the countryside.
iz bu....straight to Pu iz bu fyomir! ....Go straight to hell!
iz zoy bi....right back from It upu iz zoy bi ha yexim.....He came right back from the office.
zay bu....on to, forth to, ahead to Ha bixpur popa zay bu zona doym.....The train traveled on to the next town.
zoy bi....back from At se zoy bi ha yexim.....I am back from the office.
zoy bu....back to Pu zoy bu ha nam.....Go back to the store.
zoy be....back at Duven et se zoy be tam?....Are you back at home?
Some simple prepositions can also be combined into prepositional phrases:
• Ha yipet yapra ab bu ha abtamas.....The cat climbed onto the roof.
• He yepet pyosa ob bi ha sem.....The dog fell off (from) the chair.
• Pu zey bu ha hyua kum bi ha domep.....Go across to the other side of the street.

### Phrasal Prepositions Using Spatial Nouns

The following chart shows how prepositions and directional adverbs can be joined with the spatial ending -(e)m meaning place (or others) to be form spatial nouns, which, in turn, can be used in idiomatic prepositional phrases:
 ab....on abem....topabned....upper surfaceabmas....roof eb....between ebem....intersticeebjob....intervalebnod....intersectionebmas....partition ob....off obem....bottomobned....lower surfaceobmas....foundation ayb....above aybem....area aboveaybmas....ceiling oyb....below oybem....area belowoybmas....floor eyb....among eybem....midst yab....up yabem....upstairs, upper areayabneg....top level yob....down yobem....downstairs, lower areayobneg....bottom level yeb....in yebem....inside, interior, indoorsyebnig....inner space oyeb....out yobem....outside, exterior, outdoors za....in front of zam....front, foregroundzan....face ze....in the middle of zem....middlezenod....center, hubzen....centerzenad....median zo....behind zom....back, rear, background zi....right zim....right areazikum....left sideziizon....right directionimer....east zu....left zum....left areazukum....left sidezuizon....left directionumer....west iz....straight izmep....direct routeiznad....vectorizon....direction uz....indirectly uzmep....detouruznad....curveuzon....deviation yub....near yubem....vicinityyubkum....near sideyubaj....recent past yib....far yibem....distanceyibkum....far sideyibnod....poleyiboj....distant future yuz....around yuzem....periferyyuznad....perimeteryuznig....environment yiz....beyond yizem....area beyondyiznod....extremity
The following chart shows phrasal prepositions that can be created with the use of the spatial nouns in the previous section or other nouns. These phrases are considered idiomatic, because they are abbreviated by the omission of the definite article ha in front of the noun:
Idiomatic Phrasal Prepositions
AT SOMEWHERE TO SOMEWHERE FROM SOMEWHERE
be abem bi....at the top of bu abem bi....to the top of bi abem bi....from the top of
be obem bi....at the bottom of bu obem bi....to the bottom of bi obem bi....from the top of
be ebem bi....in the area between bu ebem bi....to the area between bi ebem bi....from the area between
be aybem bi....above, over bu aybem bi....to the area above bi aybem bi....from the area above
be oybem bi....below, under bu oybem bi....to the area below bi oybem bi....from the area below
be eybem bi....amid zye eybem bi....through the midst of bi eybem bi....from the midst of
be zam bi....at the front of bu zam bi....to the front of bi zam bi....from the front of
be zem bi....at the middle of bu zem bi....to the middle of bi zem bi....from the middle of
be zom bi....at the back of bu zom bi....to the back of bi zom bi....from the back of
be zim bi....at the right of bu zim bi....to the right of bi zim bi....from the right of
be zum bi....at the left of bu zum bi....to the left of bi zum bi....from the left of
be yubem bi....in the vicinity of bu yubem bi....to the vicinity of bi yubem bi....from the vicinity of
be yibem bi....at a distance from bey azon bi....by dint of be avon bi....in favor of
be ubem bi....in the direction of bay ux bi....with assistance from be byux bay....in touch with
be yabem bi....in the upper reaches of be vyen bu....in relation to doytaxwa bay....associated with
be yobem bi....in the bottom area of be ned bi....on the level of be mep bu....on the way to, en route
be yebem bi....on the inside of, inside be oyebem bi....on the outside of, outside bu oyebem bi....to the exterior of
bey mep bi....by way of, via be kum bi....beside, at the side of be ij bi....at the start of
be uj bi....at the end of bey uxun bi....by means of be kunad bi....at the edge of
be nod bi....at the point of be yebem bi....at the interior of, inside be oyebem bi....at the exterior of, outside
be nad bay....in line with be uznod bi....alongside be tes bi....in the sense of
be teas bi....in the guise of be san bi....in the form of be yanx bi....in conjunction with
be bol bi....in support of be gab bu....in addition to be dyun bi....in the name of
be avson bi....on behalf of be vyeson bi....on the subject of bay yux bi....with the aid of

## Separable Verb Prefixes

Verbal prefixes that formed from prepositions and adverbs can usually be "unpacked", that is, treated as separate words. This works like separable verbs in German. The following table demonstrates how that works:
Separable Verb Prefixes
VERB-BOUND UNPACKED ENGLISH
Zyulmap yuzpa yata tam. Zyulmap pa yuz bi yata tam. The tornado circled/went around our house. (= went around)
Ha yux bi yams yeyfe yobnogxwer. Ha yux bi cal yeyfe nogxwer yob. The use of carbon should be downscaled. (= scaled down)
Yat zaybuxo hia dovyabdren. Yat buxo hia dovyabdren zay. We shall advance this legislation. (= push forward)