Mirad Grammar/Prepositions

PrepositionsEdit

Prepositions are words that connect and show a relationship between a noun or noun phrase and the rest of the sentence. In Mirad, prepositions are simple monosyllables or phrases. Prepositions, as in English, are positioned before the noun or noun phrase they connect.


Simple PrepositionsEdit

In Mirad, there are single-word and multi-word prepositions. Single-word prepositions are called simple propositions.
Here is a chart of simple prepositions. Most are spatial, but some are temporal, relational, or mathematical.
Simple Prepositions
POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE
SPATIAL
ab....on, upon eb....between ob....off, off of
ayb....over, above eyb....among, amid oyb....under, below
bu....to be....at bi....from, of
byu....as far as, up to   byi....since, starting with
ub....toward   ib....away from
za....in front of ze....at the middle of zo....behind, in back of
zu....(to the) left (of)   zi....(to the) right (of)
zya....throughout zye....through  
TEMPORAL
ja....before je....during, while jo....after
ju....until   ji....since
RELATIONAL
bay....with bey....by boy....without
av....for vyel....than, as, compared to, about ov....against
ay....and ey....or oy....but, except
MATHEMATICAL
gab....plus, +   gob....minus, -
gal....times, × gel....like
ogel....unlike
gol, ÷....divided by
gar....to the power of, ˆ gor....to the minus power of,
Examples showing how these single-word prepositions are used:
  • Ha dyes se ab ha sem.....The book is on the table.
  • Von pyosu ob ha abtamas!....Don't fall off the roof!
  • Ha pati papa ayb ata tam.....The birds flew over my house.
  • It kosa oyb ha yagsim.....He hid under the bench.
  • Simbiu eb hut ay at.....Take a seat between that person and me.
  • Yat teje eyb fiati.....We live among good people.
  • Hos se nax bi pop bu ay bi Boston?....What is the cost of a trip to and from Boston?
  • His se ifek bi kyen.....This is a game of luck.
  • Duven et sa be hua duzun zomoj?....Were you at that concert last night?
  • Yit se embwa be ha zenod bi ha mapil.....We are positioned at the hub of this storm.
  • Iyt tyoyapa byu ha mis.....She walked up to/as far as the door.
  • Ha twob tojbwa bey goblar.....The man was killed with/by a knife.
  • Et xu ga fiay ser bay at vyel boy at.....You would do better to be with me than without me.
  • Teaxu ib ha amar.....Look away from the sun.
  • Von teaxu iz ub ha man.....Don't look directly toward the light.
  • Iyt simpa za at. ....She sat in front of me.
  • Et yeyfe simbier zo hua toyb.....You should sit in back of that woman.
  • Embu has zu ha mis.....Put it to the left of the door.
  • At simpo zi et.....I will sit to the right of you.
  • Ha pat besa ze ha tim.....The bird stayed in the middle of the room.
  • Mil upeye zye ha mes.....Water is coming through the door.
  • His xwo ja zajub. ....This will happen before tomorrow.
  • Esa mapil je ha moj.....There was a storm during the night.
  • Ju zamaj.....Until tomorrow morning.
  • At voy teataye et ji zoyejub.....I have not seen you since last week.
  • Diwe xu hes av at.....Please do something for me.
  • Hia dyen se din vyel ewa fiuti.....This book is a story about two lovers.
  • Datan se ga fia vyel nas.....Friendship is better than money.
  • Hos se ge fua vyel has hu yat soa zojab.....Nothing is as bad as what we underwent last year.
  • Yit yexeya ov yat.....They were working against us.
  • Et ay Bob yeyfe ser dati.....You and Bob should be friends.
  • Hot ako, et ey at?....Who will win, you or I?
  • Hyat oy hwut ta ha dud.....Everyone but that guy knew the answer.
  • Et voy se gel at.....You are not like me.
  • Et se hyagla ogel at.....You are totally unlike me.
  • E gab e gese u.....Two plus two equals four.
  • U gob e gese e.....Four minus two equals two.
  • E gal e gese u.....Two times two equals four.
  • E gol e gese a.....Two divided by two equals one.
  • U gar e gese asya.....Four squared (42) equals sixteen. (Lit: Four to the power of two...)
  • Alya gor e gese u.....The square root (√16) of sixteen is four. (Lit: Sixteen to the minus power of two...)

Phrasal PrepositionsEdit

Phrasal Prepositions Using AdverbsEdit

There are certain directional adverbs that can play a part in forming phrasal prepositions, but cannot act as prepositions in and of themselves:
Adverbs Used in Phrasal Prepositions
yub....near yib....far
yuz....around yiz....beyond
iz....directly, straight uz....indirectly, roundabout
yab....up yeb....in
oyeb....out
yob....down
yaz....along yez....flush (with) yoz....perpendicular (to)
zay....forward, ahead zey....across zoy....back
The next chart lists some phrasal prepositions using the above adverbs:
Phrasal Prepositions Using Adverbs
PHRASAL PREPOSITION EXAMPLE
yub bi....near to, close to At fe tujer yub bi et.....I want to sleep close to you.
yib bi....far from Ha amar se yib bi ha imer.....The sun is far from the earth.
yab bu....up to It fu paper yab bu ha mam.....He would like to fly up to the sky.
yab bi....up from Su yab bi ha sim.....Get up from the bed.
yab bey....up (by way of) Aat tyoyapo yab bey ha meab.....We will walk up the hill.
yab be....up on Ha yipet kaxwa yab be ha abtammmas.....The cat was found up on the roof.
yob bu....down to Igpu yob bu ha obmos.....Run down to the cellar.
yob bi....down from Ha tat upa yob bi ha mam.....The angel came down from the sky.
yob bey....down (by way of) Iyt igtyoyapa yob bey ha meab.....She ran down the hill.
yob be....down on Ha dyes kase yob be ha oybmas.....The book is down on the floor.
yob ab....down on Has kaxwa yob ab eta oybmos.....It was found down on your floor.
yeb be....in, inside Eta teyd se yeb be ha tam.....Your mother is in(side) the house.
yeb bu....into It pyasa yeb bu ha mip.....He jumped into the river.
yeb bi....in from Upu yeb bi ha oma oyebem.....Come in from the cold outdoors.
oyeb be....out in/at Ha toboti sa oyeb be ha zodeym.....The children were out in the backyard.
oyeb bi....out from Yepu oyeb bi ha om.....Come in out from the cold.
oyeb bu....out to Aat fu peper oyeb bu ha meim.....We'd like to ride out to the countryside.
yaz bi....along Ha twob tyoyapa yaz bi ha mip.....The man walked along the river.
yez bi....flush with Ha simi se yez bi ha mas.....The chairs are flush with the wall.
yoz bi....perpendicular to Ha mampar pyosa yoz bi ha mel.....The plane fell perpendicular to the ground.
yuz bi....around Ha pati papa yuz bi yata tam.....The birds flew around our house.
yiz bi....beyond, past Et paye yiz bi ha yuznad.....You have gone beyond the perimeter.
iz bu....straight to Pu iz bu fyomir! ....Go straight to hell!
iz zoy bi....right back from It upu iz zoy bi ha yexim.....He came right back from the office.
zay bu....on to, forth to, ahead to Ha naadpar popa zay bu zona doym.....The train traveled on to the next town.
zey bi....across from Iyt simbia zey bi yat.....She sat across from us.
zoy bi....back from At se zoy bi ha yexim.....I am back from the office.

Phrasal Prepositions Using NounsEdit

The following chart shows how prepositions and directional adverbs can be joined with the spatial ending -(e)m meaning place (or others) to be form spatial nouns, which, in turn, can be used in idiomatic prepositional phrases:
Spatial Nouns Built on Prepositions or Adverbs
PREPOSITION OR ADVERB SPATIAL NOUN
ab....on abem....top
abned....upper surface
abmas....roof
eb....between ebem....interstice
ebjob....interval
ebnod....intersection
ebmas....partition
ob....off obem....bottom
obned....lower surface
obmas....foundation
ayb....above aybem....area above
aybmas....ceiling
oyb....below oybem....area below
oybmas....floor
yab....up yabem....upstairs, upper area
yabneg....top level
yob....down yobem....downstairs, lower area
yobneg....bottom level
yeb....in yebem....inside, interior, indoors
yebnig....inner space
oyeb....out yobem....outside, exterior, outdoors
za....in front of zam....front, foreground
zan....face
ze....in the middle of zem....middle
zenod....center, hub
zen....center
zenad....median
zo....behind zom....back, rear, background
zi....right zim....right area
zikum....left side
ziizon....right direction
imer....east
zu....left zum....left area
zukum....left side
zuizon....left direction
umer....west
iz....straight izmep....direct route
iznad....vector
izon....direction
uz....indirectly uzmep....detour
uznad....curve
uzon....deviation
yub....near yubem....vicinity
yubkum....near side
yubaj....recent past
yib....far yibem....distance
yibkum....far side
yibnod....pole
yiboj....distant future
yuz....around yuzem....perifery
yuznad....perimeter
yuznig....environment
yiz....beyond yizem....area beyond
yiznod....extremity
The following chart shows phrasal prepositions that can be created with the use of the spatial nouns in the previous section or other nouns. These phrases are considered idiomatic, because they are abbreviated by the omission of the definite article ha in front of the noun:
Idiomatic Phrasal Prepositions
be abem bi....at the top of bu abem bi....to the top of bi abem bi....from the top of
be obem bi....at the bottom of bu obem bi....to the bottom of bi obem bi....from the top of
be ebem bi....in the area between bu ebem bi....to the area between bi ebem bi....from the area between
be aybem bi....above, over bu aybem bi....to the area above bi aybem bi....from the area above
be oybem bi....below, under bu oybem bi....to the area below bi oybem bi....from the area below
be eybem bi....amid zye eybem bi....through the midst of bi eybem bi....from the midst of
be zam bi....at the front of bu zam bi....to the front of bi zam bi....from the front of
be zem bi....at the middle of bu zem bi....to the middle of bi zem bi....from the middle of
be zom bi....at the back of bu zom bi....to the back of bi zom bi....from the back of
be zim bi....at the right of bu zim bi....to the right of bi zim bi....from the right of
be zum bi....at the left of bu zum bi....to the left of bi zum bi....from the left of
be yubem bi....in the vicinity of bu yubem bi....to the vicinity of bi yubem bi....from the vicinity of
be yibem bi....at a distance from bey azon bi....by dint of be avon bi....in favor of
be ubem bi....in the direction of bay ux bi....with assistance from be byux bay....in touch with
be yabem bi....in the upper reaches of be vyen bu....in relation to doytaxwa bay....associated with
be yobem bi....in the bottom area of be ned bi....on the level of be mep bu....on the way to, en route
be yebem bi....on the inside of, inside be oyebem bi....on the outside of, outside bu oyebem bi....to the exterior of
bey mep bi....by way of, via be kum bi....beside, at the side of be ij bi....at the start of
be uj bi....at the end of bey uxun bi....by means of be kunad bi....at the edge of
be nod bi....at the point of be yebem bi....at the interior of, inside be oyebem bi....at the exterior of, outside
be nad bay....in line with be uznod bi....alongside be tes bi....in the sense of
be teas bi....in the guise of be san bi....in the form of be yanx bi....in conjunction with
be bol bi....in support of be gab bu....in addition to be dyun bi....in the name of
be avson bi....on behalf of be vyeson bi....on the subject of bay yux bi....with the aid of

Separable Verb PrefixesEdit

Verbal prefixes that formed from prepositions and adverbs can usually be "unpacked", that is, treated as separate words. The following table demonstrates how that works:
Separable Verb Prefixes
yuzper = per yuz....go around, circle Zyulmap yuzpa yata tam. = Zyulmap pa yuz bi yata tam.....The tornado circled/went around our house.
yobnoger = noger yob....scale down Ha yux bi yams yeyfe yobnogwer. = Ha yux bi yams yeyfe nogwer yob.....The use of carbon should be downscaled.
zaybuxer = buxer zay....advance, push forward Aat zaybuxo hia dovyabdren. = Yat buxo hia dovyabdren zay.....We shall advance this legislation.