- Pronouns are words that substitute for explicit nouns. For example, the pronoun I stands for the person standing at this place. The pronoun this stands for the thing or person nearest. The pronoun 'big one stands for a person or thing of some stature.
- In Mirad, pronouns can be:
- Personal pronouns in Mirad are by nature animate and refer to people and other animate, sentient, or "pretend" creatures, such as dogs, angels, gods, puppets, babies, gods, and monsters.
- This chapter deals specifically with personal pronouns and not so much with deictic (demonstrative and indefinite) pronouns like who, those, any, and whatever, treated in detail in the chapter on Determiners.
- Personal animate pronouns can be of the following types:
- specific....Referring to a specific person or group of persons, such as he, you, or me.
- generic....Referring to "one" in general or "they", people in general
- reflexive....Referring back to the same person, such as myself, yourself, or themselves.
- emphatic....Particularizing a person or persons, such as I, myself, or she, herself.
- There is a minimal set of personal pronouns that are used very commonly and do not express gender or other complex distinctions. Then there is an optional extended set that makes finer distinction of gender, exclusivity, and duality. The set of distinctions expressed in these two variants are show in the following chart:
"Animate Personal Pronouns" CATEGORY MINIMAL DISTINCTIONS EXTENDED DISTINCTIONS PERSON LEVEL 1st
GENDER gender-neutral gender-neutral
INCLUSIVENESS neutral neutral
- Notice that personal pronouns, and indeed all pronouns, are devoid of distinctions of CASE, such as nominative, objective, dative, etc. as in many languages (including English, in the distinction between I and me, for example). The words for we and us are the same in Mirad. Pronouns do, however, have adjectival (or possessive) forms, such as my or his.
: The chart below shows the minimal personal pronouns, which are gender-neutral. The distinction of gender, if needed, can be expressed with extended personal pronouns.
"Minimal Personal Pronouns" PERSON TYPE SINGULAR PLURAL 1st SPECIFIC at....I, me yat....we, us 2nd et....you yet....you, you all 3rd it....he, she, him, her yit....they, them 3rd GENERIC ot....one, they yot....people 3rd REFLEXIVE ut....self yut....selves
- The so-called extended personal pronouns are shown in the next chart. In this chart, gender, i.e., whether the pronoun refers to a male, female, or neither, is expressable in the singular forms only. The charts also shows forms that are dual, that is, referring only to two people, a distinction expressable on in the 1st person plural. It also shows whether the the 1st person dual/plural forms are inclusive or exclusive, that is, whether they include or don't include the 1st person. Keep in mind that these pronouns are for maximal expression and typically are not used. The most common distinction is between wit....he/him and iyt....she/her, just as in English and many European languages.
- Masculine personal pronouns are distinguished by a prepended w.
- Feminine personal pronouns are distinguished by a y just before the final t.
- Gender is not expressed in the plural forms nor in any of the generic or reflexive types.
- There are no dual forms except in the 1st person plural (we/us).
Extended Personal Pronouns PERSON TYPE SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL 1st SPECIFIC at....I/me
aet....we/us (you [s.] and I/me) [INCLUSIVE]
ait....we/us (I and one other person [not you]) [EXCLUSIVE]
ayet....we/us (you [pl.] and I/me [INCLUSIVE]
ayit....we/us (I/me and whoever else) [EXCLUSIVE]
yet....you, you all 3rd it....he/him/she/her
yit....they, them 3rd GENERIC ot....one yot....they, them, people 3rd REFLEXIVE ut....self, oneself yut.......selves
- The Mirad third person specific pronoun it can refer to any animate or pseudo-animate creatures such as animals, babies, dolls, angels, gods, monsters". However, Mirad it cannot refer to non-animate things such as tables, ideas, abstractions, etc. A deictic (demonstrative) pronoun is used in such cases, as discussed in the chapter on Determiners.
- The generic pronouns ot, yot and the reflexive pronouns ut, yut do not express gender. The third person generic pronouns ot and yot are used as English one and they, people (meaning unspecifed persons), as in the following examples:
- Ot yefe xer ha yakwas.....One must do what is expected.
- Yot de van et vyode hoj.....They/People say you never lie.
- The gender-neutral third person pronouns it and yit can refer to any sex, but are masculine by default or out of context. In practice iyt (she/her) is the only gendered pronoun used commonly. The others are rarely used. The first person plural pronoun yat can be either inclusive or exclusive, i.e. it can mean "you and I" or "you and the others." There is no distinction of case in Mirad, so at can mean I or me. For example:
- Xu at fibun.....Do me a favor.
- At so dat.....I will be a friend.
- Von tojbu it.....Don't kill him/her.
- At ta van iyt upo.....I knew she would come.
- Fyadilu av ayti.....Pray for us (women).
- NOTE: The English inanimate pronoun it, when referring to a thing or abstraction, is not included in the above set of animate personal pronouns. This inanimate pronoun is discussed in the chapter on Determiners.
Reflexive Personal PronounsEdit
- Reflexive personal pronouns like English myself, yourself, etc. are formed by postfixing a u just before the final t. Reflexive personal pronouns are invariable for gender. Translating iut as herself depends on the context.
Reflexive Personal Pronouns PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL FIRST PERSON aut....myself yaut....ourselves SECOND PERSON eut....yourself yeut....yourselves THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC iut....himself/herself yiut....themselves THIRD PERSON GENERIC out....oneself yout....people themselves
- Examples of personal pronoun usage:
- Wat yafe teater aut be ha sinzyef.....I (a male) can see myself in the mirror.
- Iyt yubteaxa iut.....She examined herself.
- Treu eut!....Know thyself.
- Aet yeyfe tadser.....You and I should get married.
- Iyt vey tojboiut.....She may kill herself.
- Ot yefe ifer out.....One must love oneself.
- Yot glaxag voy ife yout.....People often don't love themselves.
- Yet ufe yeut.....You (people) hate yourselves.
- Yet yeyfe yovser yeut.....You people should be ashamed of yourselves.
- Ayit ufe yet.....We (exclusive of you) hate you.
- Upu eker bay yat.....Come play with us.
- The reflexive pronoun ut....self can sometimes be prefixed (with no variation in gender or number) to a verb to form a reflexive version of that verb, or it can be prefixed to other parts of speech to mean auto-, or self-, eg.:
- tojber....kill → uttojber....commit suicide
- vyixer....clean → utvyixer....wash up, clean oneself, self-clean
- exer....function → utexer....function automatically, self-run
- izber....pilot → utizber....auto-pilot, self-drive
- exut....operator → utexut....automaton
- deber....rule → utdebea....autocratic, self-ruling
- tejdin....biography → uttejdin....autobiography
- fider....praise → utfider....boast (= self-praise)
Emphatic Personal PronounsEdit
- Emphatic personal pronouns can be formed by following the personal pronoun with the singular determiner hyit (the very one)or the plural determiner hyiti (the very ones), eg.:
Emphatic Personal Pronouns PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL FIRST PERSON at aut....I myself, me myself yat yaut....we ourselves, us ourselves SECOND PERSON et eut....you yourself yet yeut....you yourselves THIRD PERSON it iut....the person him or herself
wit iut....he himself
iyt iut....she herself
yit yiut....they themselves
Note: Gender is not express in personal reflexive pronouns. Only the personal specific pronouns express gender, and then only optionally.
- At aut voy vyatexe Tot.....I myself don't believe in God.
- At jateate yet yeut be hua dezzamos.....I foresee you yourselves on that stage.
- Iyt iut voy sa hum.....She herself was not here.
Reciprocal Personal PronounsEdit
- The reciprocal pronoun....one another, each other is translated with hyuit, which is a melding of hyut (the other person) and hyit (the same person). This is an invariable pronoun and does not express gender or number.
- Yat yefe ifer hyuit.....We must love one another.
- This reciprocal pronoun can be converted to a pronominal determiner by suffixing a, as in hyuita....one another's, mutual, reciprocal:
- Yat tobweti yefe fiyzaxer hyuita fwasi.....We guys must respect one another's wishes.
- Note the following:
- hyuita....mutual, reciprocal
- hyuitif....Mutual love
- huitan....mutuality, reciprocity
- ha at....the ego
- ha it....the id
- ha ut....the self
- ha aybat....the superego
- ha hyut....the other
- Pronominal determiners, which can also be referred to as possessive adjectives, are derived from pronouns by adding the adjectival ending a to the end of the pronoun, as follows:
- at....I, me → ata....my
- aut....myself → auta....my own
- yat....we, us → yata....our
- yaut....ourselves → yauta....our own
- iut....himself/herself → iuta....his/her own
Basic Pronominal Determiners PERSON TYPE SINGULAR PLURAL 1st SPECIFIC ata....my yata....our 2nd eta....your yeta....your 3rd ita....his/her yita....their 3rd GENERIC ota....one's yota....people's
- The above forms are gender-neutral and are the most commonly used pronominal determiners. Here are some examples:
- Ata tej se fia.....My life is good.
- Yata twed.......Our father...
- Ota fyadili yeyfe ser dola.....One's prayers should be silent.
- At voy teata ita dyes.....I did not see his/her book.
- Pronominal Determines like "my own, your own...":
Pronominal Determiners Like my own PERSON TYPE SINGULAR PLURAL 1st SPECIFIC auta....my own yauta....our own 2nd euta....your own yeuta....your own 3rd iuta....his/her own yiuta....their own 3rd GENERIC outa....one\'s own youta....people\'s own
- More complex pronominal determiners:
Extended Pronominal Determiners PERSON TYPE SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL 1st SPECIFIC ata....my
aeta....our (your and mine) [INCLUSIVE]
aita....our (my and one other person's ) [EXCLUSIVE]
ayeta....our (your [pl.] and mine [INCLUSIVE]
ayita....our (my and whoever else's) [EXCLUSIVE]
yeuta....your (pl.) own
3rd GENERIC ota....one\'s yota....people\'s 3rd REFLEXIVE uta....one's own yuta....people's own
- In practice, the only gendered pronominal determiners used in common speech or wita his and iyta her.
- The above pronominal determiners an be substantivized as pronouns by adding the suffix s....thing possessed, or si....things possessed, as follows:
Sample Substantivized Pronominal Determiners ATTRIBUTE SINGULAR SUBSTANTIVE PLURAL SUBSTANTIVE ata....my atas....mine atasi....mine, my things auta....my own autas....my own autasi....my own (things) iyta....her iytas....her own iytasi....hers, her things aeta....our aetas....ours aetasi....ours, our things wita....his witas....his witasi....his, his things outa....one's outas....one's own outasi....one's own (things)
- All of the above substantivized pronominal determiners can be pluralized by appending the plural suffix -i.
- Yat yefe ovmasber yatasi.....We must protect our own [pl. things].
- Etasi naze ga vyel atasi.....Yours are worth more than mine.
- Wet, biku yetasi soni.....You guys, mind your own business.
- Yat toybeti fe ayser yauta nig.....We gals want to have our own space.
Translating various uses of it in EnglishEdit
- When translating English it referring to animate creatures such as babies, animals, dolls, angels, ghosts, and monsters, the Mirad third person animate personal pronouns it he/she/it, iyt she, or wit he is used, eg:
- At eke bay ha epet avhas hu at iyfe it / iyt / wit.....I play with the dog because I like it / her / him.
- When translating English it referring to an inanimate object or abstraction, a Mirad deictic "thing" determiner like has (the thing), his (this), or hus (that) is used, eg:
- At teasa ha dyezun ay at iyfa has gla.....I saw the movie and I liked it (= the thing) a lot.
- Ha mes sa yija oy at voy ta hus.....The door was open but I didn't know it (= that).
- The possessive forms of has is hasa....its, for example:
- At iyfe ha dyes ay at ife hasa abdyun.....I like the book and I love it's (= the thing's) title.
- If the pronoun they/them is just a plural of it referring to an object or abstraction, then the pronoun hasi is used.
- Ha sini se via ay at ife hasi.....The pictures are beautiful and I love them.
- The possessive form of hasi....they/them is hasia....their, eg.:
- Ha tefi se via oy hasia naxi se otwa.....The hats are beautiful, but their prices are unknown.
- If it introduces a non-previously-mentioned abstraction in English or has no antecedent, then the it is left unexpressed in the Mirad equivalent sentence. For example:
- Mamilo.....It will rain. ( = Will rain.)
- Se fia van et upa.....It is good that you came. ( = Is good that you came.)
- Sa via jub bay et.....It was a beautiful day with you. ( = Was a beautiful day...)
- Voy se yuka yaprer hia meb.....It is not easy to climb this mountain. ( = Is not easy...)
Referring to Third PersonsEdit
- The definite, proximal, distal deictic determiners can be used for third person pronouns. These forms can be animate or inanimate, masculine or feminine, singular or plural, definite, proximal (near to the speaker) or distal (remote from the speaker). The general forms of these specifiers are given in a previous section, but they are elaborated here for their use as third person pronouns:
Deictic Determiners Used to Express Third Persons THING PERSON FEMALE MALE'.... DEFINITE SINGULAR
hwat....he/him/the male person
hwit....he/him/this male person
- Mirad does not force you to indicate gender in animate pronouns. The gender-neutral forms in the PERSON column are ordinarily sufficient. The forms in the MALE and FEMALE column are optional and used only when a distinction is needed.
- Here are some examples using the above pronouns:
- Huyt voy se tadxwa.....She (that woman) is not married.
- At hoj teataye hiti.....I have never seen them (these people).
- Huytiasi se ga aga vyel atasi.....Theirs (= the things of those females) are bigger than mine.
- Hom et koxa has?....Where did you hide it (the thing)?
- Hoyen et ijtra it (or: hat)?....How did you meet him (or: the person)?
- At traye huyt yagjob.....I've known her (=that female) for a long time.
- The above pronouns answer the questions hos?....what?, hosi?....what things?, hot?....who(m)?, or hoti?....what persons?, but there is another set of deictic selective pronouns that answer the questions hoat?....which one?, hoayti?....which ones (of the females mentioned)?, hoas?....which one/thing?, and hoasi?....which ones/things?
Selective Deictic Pronouns SELECTIVES THING THINGS PERSON PERSONS DEFINITE haas....the one haasi....the ones haat....the one haati....the ones PROXIMAL hias....this one hiasi....these hiat....this one hiati....these DISTAL huas....that one huasi....those huat....that one huati....those
- Here are some examples using these deictic selective pronouns:
- Duven et fu hias ey huas?....Would you like this one or that one?
- Huayt se haat.....She (that female person) is the one.
- At iyfe hiasi ga vyel huasi.....I like these more than those.
- Compare the following two examples:
- Hoas et fu? Hias.....Which one would you like? This one. (SELECTIVE)
- Hos et fu? His.....What would you like? This. (SPECIFIC)
- Relative Pronouns
- Relative pronouns are presented in the chapter on Free Relative Clauses.