Types of Numbers edit

Numbers are scalar words used to count and quantify things and people. They are words used to vocalize numerals, the symbols themselves. For example the number two is how the numeral 2 is read or spoken. Mirad used Roman numerals (0, 1, 2, 3...), as in Western World languages.
Numbers can be various parts of speech:
  • numeric nouns (The score was six to four.)
  • numeric pronouns (I want two. Give me the fifth one.)
  • numeric determiners (Five days ago. The fifth day. A double dose.)
  • prefixes (monochrome, bicentennial, triangle)
  • rootwords (anxer....to unite, onxer....to annihilate)
Number-based words include:
  • cardinal numbers (one, two, three... used in counting and arithmetic)
  • ordinal numbers (first, second... indicating ordered position)
  • multiplicative numbers (double, triple, foursome...)
  • fractional numbers (half, third, hundredth...)
  • frequency numbers (once, twice, thrice...)
  • miscellaneous number-based words (only, percentage, annihilate)

Cardinal Numbers edit

Note: Ordinal numeric determiners are not to be confused with ordinal vowels, which are used to derive scalar iterations of nouns. Cardinal numbers are used in the latter case, eg.:

The cardinal numbers are words used in counting and reciting numerals such as telephone numbers, social security numbers, and zip codes, and in arithmetic. They are also used as the so-called "ordinal" stem vowels of words that relate to one another in a scalar, hierarchical, or some other ontological relationship. See this in the chapter on Vocabulary Formation.

Units edit

  • The unit cardinal numbers are formed from the simple and pre-y-glided vowels.
Units
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
  • Ata yibdalar sag se 703-842-6190 (pronounced: ye-o-i-yi-u-e-ya-a-yu-o).....My telephone number is....
  • At tambese 114 (pronounced: a-a-u) Maple Street.
  • E gab e se u.....Two plus two is four.

Decades edit

  • The decade formant -l- is used to form the decades. Followed by -o....zero, we have the base decade numbers. These can be used for number recitation, arithmetic, and as numeric adjectives followed by plural nouns:
Decades with the -l- Formant
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety
By changing the o....zero in lo to other cardinal unit numerals, the numerals within decades can be generated as follows:
Decadal Counting
ala....11 ela....21 ila....31 ula....41 yola....51 yala....61 yela....71 yila....81 yula....91
ale....12 ele....22 ile....32 ule....42 yole....52 yale....62 yele....72 yile....82 yule....92
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
alyu....19 elyu....29 ilyu....39 ulyu....49 yolyu....59 yalyu....69 yelyu....79 yilyu....89 yulyu....99
  • At ayse alo dati.....I have ten friends.
  • It yafe sagder byu alyo.....He can count up to fifteen.
  • Yulyu gob alo gese yilyu.....Ninety-nine minus ten equals eighty-nine.

Hundreds edit

  • By adding the hundreds formant s, you get the hundreds:
Hundreds with the -s- Formant
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
aso eso iso uso yoso yaso yeso yiso yuso
All the numerals in-between the hundreds, can be generated by modifying the so ending with the units and decades:
  • asa....101
  • asale....112
  • usyulyu....599

Thousands edit

  • The thousands are generated with the formant r:
Note: The number categories starting with the thousands on up end in -o and are separated from the rest of a number by a space.
Thousands
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
aro ero iro uro yoro yaro yero yiro yuro
  • aro....1,000
  • aro a....1,001
  • ero isi....2,300
  • yoro yasula....5,641

Millions edit

  • The millions are generated with the formant ml:
Millions with the -ml- Formant
1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 8,000,000 9,000,000
amlo emlo imlo umlo yomlo yamlo yemlo yimlo yumlo
  • emlo yala....2,000,051
  • umlo esu....4,000,204
  • yumlo usyoro isyala....9,405,361

Billions edit

  • The billions are generated with the formant mr;
Billions
1,000,000,000 2,000,000,000 3,000,000,000 4,000,000,000 5,000,000,000 6,000,000,000 7,000,000,000 8,000,000,000 9,000,000,000
amro emro imro umro yomro yamro yemro yimro yumro
In numbers ending in -ro (thousand), -mlo (million), and -mro (billion), these numbers keep the -o and are separated by a space from the other elements of the number.
  • imro emlo yoro asyula....three billion, two million, five thousand, one hundred fifty one
  • iro asyulyo....3,195
  • yamlo asyulyo....6,000,195
  • alomro yelyomlo asyilyaro yusele....10,075,186,922

Trillions etc. edit

The trillions are generated with the word garale, which means 10 to the positive power of 12 or 1010.
The trillionths are generated with the word gorale, which means 10 to the negative power of 12 or 10-10.
These numbers do not combine with surrounding numbers.
  • iwa garale aoti....three trillion people
  • eso garale pati....two hundred trillion birds
Even higher numbers are shown in the Number Chart later in this chapter.

Numeric Determiners edit

Numeric Determiners are adjectives based on numbers that modify a following noun.

Integers edit

The unit numeric integer determiners, which are used to quantify nouns, consist of the cardinal units followed by the unit formant wa. The noun following the numeric determiner is plural if the number is greater than one. The wa formant is used on unit numerals when they are stand-alone, not when they are part of a larger number. In contrast with English usage, "zero" is followed by a singular noun (zero box vs. zero boxes. Think of it as not a single box).
Standalone Unit Numeric Determiners
owa tam awa tam ewa tami iwa tami uwa tami yowa tami yawa tami yewa tami yiwa tami yuwa tami
no/zero houses one house two houses three houses four houses five houses six houses seven houses eight houses nine houses
If a unit number is used in forming larger numbers like 13 or 204, no wa is used.
In a sequence of noun modifiers, the numerical determiner goes in the same place as in English, eg:
  • Ata iwa gajaga twidi bese bay at.....My three older brothers live with me.
  • Hia uwa tomi losexwo.....These four buildings will be destroyed.
  • At fu ewa ey iwa gouni.....I would like two or three pieces.
The numeric determiners beyond the units do NOT take the -wa suffix. For example, ala tami....eleven houses.
Numeric Determiners modifying a singular or plural noun
Mirad English Wa Behavior Pluralization Behavior
owa tam no houses, zero houses The numeral is a unit,
so wa is suffixed.
The numeral is less than 2,
so the noun is singular.
awa tam one house, a house " "
ewa tami two houses " The numeral is greater than 2,
so the noun is plural.
iwa tami three houses " "
uwa tami four houses " "
yowa tami five houses " "
yawa tami six houses " "
yewa tami seven houses " "
yiwa tami eight houses " "
yuwa tami nine houses " "
alo tami ten houses The numeral is not a unit
so no wa is suffixed.
"
ase tami a hundred two houses " "
ero iwa tami two thousand three houses The numeral i is a unit,
so wa is suffixed.
"
iro alo tami three thousand ten houses The numeral alo is not a unit,
so wa is not suffixed.
"
Numeric determiners can be pronominalized as things and persons by suffixing s or t, respectively. These can, in turn, be pluralized by suffixing i. Furthermore, person pronouns can be feminized with a y before the t. The s suffix is short for sun....thing or suni....things. The t ending is short for aot....person or aoti....persons. For example:
  • Et bayse awa tam. At gey bayse awas. (singular inanimate pronoun)....You have one house. I have one too.
  • At baysa alo dresari. Hij at bayse anay ewasi (plural inanimate pronoun).....I had ten pencils. Now I only have two.
  • Esa asoti yeb be ha duzam. (plural animate pronoun).... There were a hundred people in the concert hall.
  • Yat yefe kebier awoyt bi huti. (singular animate female pronoun)....We must choose one female person from those people.

Ordinals edit

Ordinal numeric determiners (= ordinals) like first, second, etc. are formed from the cardinal numerals by adding the adjectival ending a to the cardinal numeral. A variation of this is with the word nap (order) inserted:
Ordinal Numeric Determiners
Cardinal Numeral Ordinal Numeric Determiner Variation with nap (order)
o....zero oa....zeroth onapa....zeroth
a....one aa....first anapa....first
e....two ea....second enapa....second
i....three ia....third inapa....third
alo....ten aloa....tenth alonapa....tenth
asu....104 asua....104th asunapa....104th
garale....trillion garalea....trillionth garalenapa....trillionth
There are other ordinal adjectives that are not based on numbers:
  • ijna....initial, first, original
  • ujna....last, final
  • ajna....past, ex-, former, old, previous
  • ojna....future, upcoming
  • ejna....current, new, present
  • jana....previous, last, foregoing
  • jona....next, following
  • zana....next
  • zona....previous, last
Ordinal determiners and adjectives can be converted to adverbs by adding the suffix y to the adjectival counterparts:
Ordinal Adverbs
ADJECTIVE ADVERB
aa....first aay....firstly
anapa....first anapay....primarily
ea....second eay....secondly
ujna....last ujnay....finally
Ordinal determiners can be converted to animate pronouns (persons) with the suffix t and inanimate pronouns (things) with the suffix s. These, in turn, can be pluralized with the suffix i. Neutral-gender animate pronouns can be made specifically masculine or feminine by changing at to wat for the former, and to ayt for the latter:
  • ha aas....the first thing
  • ha aat....the first person
  • ha aati....the first people
  • hua aayt....that first female
  • ha enapas....the second thing
  • ewat....another guy
  • ha ujnati so ha ijnati....the last shall be first
Again, in the sequencing of stacked adjectival elements, the order is as in English, that is: <deictic or pronominal determiner> | <ordinal determiner> | <cardinal numerical determiner> | <adjective>
  • hua uwa aga tami....those four big houses
  • ha aa alo oga tami....the first ten little houses
  • ata anapa ewa oga tudi....my first two little children
  • dob....state (1st level)
  • dab....government (2nd level derivative)
  • deb....leader (3rd level derivative)
  • dib....administration (4th " " )
  • dub....minister (5th " " )

Fractions edit

Fractional numeric determiners ( = fractions) like half and quarter are formed by adding -yn for those functioning as nouns, -yna for adjectives, -ynay for adverbs, or -yn for prefixes, to the respective cardinal number.
Fractional Numeric Determiners
CARDINAL NUMERAL FRACTION AS NOUN AS ADJECTIVE AS ADVERB AS PREFIX AS VERB
o....zero oyn....a void, vacuum, null oyna....null, nil -- oyn-....devoid of oynxer....annihilate, nullify
a....one ayn....whole ayna....entire, whole aynay....entirely ayn-....holo-, whole-, all- aynxer....integrate
e....two eyn....a half eyna....half eynay....halfway eyn-....half-, semi-, hemi-, demi- eynxer....halve
i....three iyn....a third iyna....third iynay....by a third iyn-....terci- iynxer....cut in third
u....four uyn....a quarter uyna....quarter uynay....quarterly uyn-....quadri- uynxer....quarter
alo....ten aloyn....a tenth aloyna....tenth aloynay....by a tenth aloyn-....deci- aloynxer....decimate
aso....hundred asoyn....hundredth, percent asoyna....hundredth asoynay....by a hundredth asoyn-....centi- asoynxer....cut by a hundred
Here are some examples:
  • His uxo ha oynxen bi yata mir.....This will cause the anihilation of our world.
  • Ha ayna mir te ayv et.....The whole world knows about you.
  • Has se gas vyel ha ayn bi hasa goni.....It is more than the whole of its parts.
  • Ferad se ayndyana dalzeyn.....French is a holophrastic language.
  • Et yafe bier eyn bi has.....You can take half of it.
  • Yat yefo eynxer eta yexnix.....We will have to halve your salary.
  • Hus sa eynvyan.....That was a half-truth.
  • Eso eynzyunida dropek.....There is going to be a hemispheric war.
  • Duven his se eynutexea dopar?....Is this a semi-automatic weapon?
  • Iynxu hua ableyavol.....Cut that pie in thirds.
  • It yeyfe bixwer ay uynxwer.....He should be drawn and quartered.
  • Hia nas se aloyn bi hos yat aysa zojab.....This money is a tenth of what we had last year.
  • Ha dep aloynxwu.....The army would be decimated.
  • Ewa asoyni bi ha dityan baksa.....Two percent (=hundredths) of the citizenry got sick.
  • Hia tom se anay asoyn ge aga vyel hua tom.....This building is only a hundredth as big as that building.
  • Hwut se oyntofa.....That guy is naked.
The fractional adverbs can be used as in these examples:
  • Et so aynay dudyefa av eta xeyni.....You will be wholly accountable for your actions.
  • Iyt eynay tikabeloka.....She almost (= halfway) threw up.
Pronominalizations like half of it, a third of them:
  • Eynas sa fia.....Half of it was good.
  • Eynasi sa fua.....Half of them (things) were bad.
  • Esa uwa tobi se hua fukyes. Eynati toja.....There were four people in that accident. Half (of them) died.
  • Iynati bi yet se vyaka.....A third of you are right.
  • Uynati bi yat yantexe.....A quarter of us agree.
  • Alo asoyni bi hia dyesi fyunxwa.....Ten percent of these books were ruined.

Multiples edit

Multiplicative numeric determiners ( = multiples) like double, triple can be formed by adding -on to the respective cardinal numeral if the numeral is monosyllabic, otherwise just -n. These noun forms can be adjectivized with the suffix -a. They can also serve as prefixes on animate nouns, inanimate nouns, and prefixes, as the following chart shows. The prefix ending, -n is often dropped.
Multiplicative Numeric Determiners
CARDINAL NUMERAL MULTIPLE AS NOUN ...AS ADJECTIVE ...AS ADVERB ...AS PREFIX ...AS VERB-MAKER
o....zero oon....null oona....nil on-....zero- onxer....cancel, zero out
a....one aon....single aona....single aonay....singly an-....uni-/mono- anxer....unify
e....two eon....twosome, double eona....double eonay....doubly en-....di-/bi- enxer....double
i....three ion....threesome, triplet iona....triple ionay....triply in-....tri-- inxer....triple
u....four uon....quartet uona....quadruple uonay....quadruply un-....quadri-/tetra- unxer....quadruple
yo....five yoon....quintet yoona....quintuple yoonay....quintuply yoon-*....quinti-/penta- yoonxer*....quintuple
ya....six yaon....sextet yaona....sextuple yaonay....sextuply yaon-*....sexi-/hexa- yaonxer*....sextuple
alo....ten alon....decade alona....decadic alonay....by a multiple of ten alon-....deca- alonxer....multiply by ten
aso....hundred ason....hundredfold asona....hundredfold asonay....by a hundredfold ason-....hecato- asonxer....multiply by a hundred
* An extra o is added to these prefixes to avoid ambiguity with yan meaning together and yon meaning apart.
The multiplicative noun dozen is expressed by aleon.
  • Aleoni bi pati yizpapa.....Dozens of birds flew by.
By adding the suffix -at to the noun multiple, we get groupings of people. The -na- in some of these words can be omitted, thereby simplifying the words:
  • aonat or aot ....solo, single, person
  • aonatser of aotser....become single, become a person
  • aonawat....singleton
  • eonat or eot....duo, pair, twosome, couple
  • eotxer....to copulate
  • eontajat....twin
  • ionat or iot....trio, threesome, trinity
  • iotxer....to do a threesome
  • Ionatin....Trinitarianism
  • iontajati....triplets
  • uonat or uot ....quartet, foursome
  • uontajat....quadruplet
  • yoonat or yoot....quintet, group of five people
  • yoontajati....quintuplets
  • yoonati....quintets


By adding the suffix -un instead of -on, we get the following:
  • aun....unit
  • auna....unitary, individual
  • aunser....unite
  • aunyan....series
  • aunyana....serial
  • eun....pair
  • euna....even, paired, binary
  • oleuna....odd, non-binary, uneven, unpaired
  • oleunat....odd man out
  • eunxer....even out
Some examples where the above multiple determiners and derivatives are used:
  • Yat naptyopa be eo(na)ti yez bi ha mep.....We marched in twos (= pairs) down the street.
  • Asonati upo bay yat bu hia ovdal.....Hundreds (of people) will come with us to this protest.
  • Hia ivxel xwe enjabay.....This celebration happens biennially.
  • Iyt se untupokyat.....She is a quadriplegic. (Lit: x 4+limb+loss+person)
  • Diwe sagu ha auni.....Please count the units.
  • Yet gafisa aronay!....You all have improved a thousandfold!
  • Tob se entyoyaba sat.....Man is a bipedal creature.
Note: Sometimes the multiple prefix ending in -on in the numbers below ten is shortened to -n in common words:
  • anzyuk....monocycle
  • enzyuk....bicycle
  • ingun....triangle
  • ungun....quadrangle
  • yoongon....pentagon
  • yaongon....hexagon
Note: The prefixes for penta-/quinti- and hexa-/sext- must keep the -on so as to distinguish them from the prefixes yon....apart and yan....together. This rule does not apply to numbers inside chemical names and formulas (See Coding Chemical Elements).
  • yoongona....quintipartite  BUT: yonper....separate, go apart
  • yaongun....hexagon  BUT: yanuper....meet, come together

Number Chart edit

The following chart shows numbers in Mirad as symbols, adjectives, pronouns, prefixes, and verbs:
Number Chart
MULTIPLE FRACTION
SYMBOL ADJECTIVE NOUN PREFIX1 VERB SYMBOL NOUN PREFIX VERB
0 owa
zero
oon
nonentity, null
oot
nobody
on-
zero-
onxer
nullify
1/0 oyn
zeroth
oyn-
nihil-
oynxer
anihilate
1 awa
one
aa
first
ana
single, lone
aon
unit
aot
solo, individual
an-
uni-, mono-
anxer
unify
1/1 ayn
whole
ayn-
holo-
aynxer
integrate
2 ewa
two
ea
second
ena
dual
ensuana
binary
eon
double
eot
duo, pair, couple
eontajat
twin
en-
bi-, di-
enxer
double
eotxer
copulate
1/2 eyn
half
eyn-
semi-
eyxner
halve
3 iwa
three
ia
third
insuana
ternary
ion
triple
iot
trio, threesome
iontajat
triplet
in-
tri-
inxer
triple
1/3 iyn
third
iyn-
terci-
iynxer
split into three
4 uwa
four
ua
fourth
uon
quadruple
uot
quartet, foursome
uontajat
quadruplet
un-
tetra-
unxer
quadruple
1/4 uyn
fourth
uynjab
quarter
uyn-
quadri-
uynxer
quarter
5 yowa
five
yoa
fifth
yoon
quintuple
yoot
quintet
yoontajat
quintuplet
yoon-2
penta-
yoonxer
quintuple
1/5 yoyn
fifth
yoyn-
quint-
yoynxer
cut in fifths
6 yawa
six
yaa
sixth
yaon
sextuple
yaot
sextet
yaontajat
sextuplet
yaon-3
hecto-
yaonxer
sextuple
1/6 yayn
sixth
yayn-
hexi-
yaynxer
cut in sixths
7 yewa
seven
yea
seventh
yeon
septuple
yeot
septet
yeontajat
septuplet
yejub
week
yen-
hepto-
yenxer
mult
seven
1/7 yeyn
seventh
yeyn-
hepti-
yeyxner
cut in sevenths
8 yiwa
eight
yia
eighth
yion
octuple
yiot
octet
yiontajat
octuplet
yin-
octo-
yinxer
mult
eight
1/8 yiyn
eighth
yiyn-
octi-
yiynxer
cut in eighths
9 yuwa
nine
yua
ninth
yuon
nonuple
yuot
set of nine
yuontajat
nonuplet
yun-
nona-
yunxer
mult
nine
1/9 yuyn
nineth
yuyn-
novi-
yuynxer
cut in ninths
10 alo
ten
aloa
tenth
alosuana
decimal
alon
tenfold
alojab...decade
alon-
deca-
alonxer
increase by a
factor of ten
1/10 aloyn
tenth
aloyn-
deci-
aloynxer
decimate
100
104
aso
hundred
asoa
hundredth
ason
hundredfold
asojab
century
ason-
heca-
asonxer
increase a
hundredfold
1/100
10-2
asoyn
hundredth
percentage
cent
asoy-
centi-
asoynxer
divide
by a hundred
1,000
103
aro
thousand
aroa
thousanth
aron
thousandfold
arojab
millennium
aron-
kilo-
aronxer
divide by a
thousand
1/1000
10-3
aroyn
thousandth
aroy-
milli-
aroynxer
1,000,000
106
amlo
million
amloa
millionth
amlon
millionfold
amlon-
mega
amlonxer
multiply
by a million
10-6 amloyn
millionth
goryan
amloyn-
micro-
amloynxer
divide by a million
109 amro
billion
amroa
billionth
amron
billionfold
amron-
giga-
amronxer
multiply
by a billion
10-9 amroyn-
nano-
amroynxer
divide by a billion
1012 garale3
trillion
garalea
trillianth
garalen
trillionfold
garalen-
tera
10-12 goralen-
pico-
goralen
trillionth
1015 garalyo
quadrillion
garalyoa
quadrillionth
garalyon
quadrillionfold
garalyon-
peta-
10-15 garalyon-
femto-
goralyon
quadrillionth
1018 garalyi
quintillion
garlyia
quintillionth
garalyin
quintillionfold
garalyin-
exa-
10-18 goralyin-
atto-
goralyin
quintillianth
1021 garela
sextillion
garelaa
sextillionth
garelan
sextillionfold
garelan-
zetta-
10-21 gorelan-
zepto-
gorelan
sextillionth
1024 garele
septillion
garelea
septillionth
garelen
eptillionfold
garelen-
yotta-
10-24 gorelen-
yocto-
gorelen
septillionth
1027 garelye
octillion
garelyea
octillionth
garelyen
ctillionfold
garelyen-
ronna-
10-27 gorelyen-
ronto-
gorelyen
octillionth
1030 garilo
nonillion
gariloa
nonillionth
garilon
nonillionfold
garilon-
quetta-
10-30 gorilon-
quecto-
gorilon
nonillionth
  • Note 1: Sometimes the final -n on the numeric prefix is dropped, especially as an ordinal vowel in scalar words, eg. anapa
    first, atistam
    elementary school.
  • Note 2: An extra o is inserted into this prefix to distinguish it from yon-
    dis-, apart
  • Note 3: An extra o is inserted into this prefix to distinguish it from yan-
    con-, together
  • Note 4: Garale is short for alo gar ale
    ten to-the-power-of 12. By the same token, gorale is short for alo gor ale
    ten to-the-power-of-minus 12

Metric Units edit

Mirad uses the International System of Units (SI) for rendering measurement units. These symbols are pronounced as if you were spelling each letter out (see the alphabet. Bear in mind that majuscules (uppercase letters are prefaced with the word ag- (big). Similarly, Greek letters are rendered by their Greek names (ω = omega, Ω = Omega). The measurement unit names are followed by nak (measurement unit).
SI base units
ENGLISH
UNIT
NAME
SYMBOLIC
ABBREVIATION
QUANTITY
UNIT
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
second s time sonak
meter m length minak
kilogram kg mass kigenak
ampere A electric current aganak
kelvin K thermodynamic temperature agkinak
Mole mol amount of substance miolinak
candela cd luminous intensity cadanak
The hyphen in the above "spelled out" words ensure that each syllable gets even stress.
Here are SI derived units with special names and symbols:
 
 
SI derived units with special names and symbols
ENGLISH
NAME
SYMBOLIC
WRITTEN
ABBREVIATION
QUANTITY
UNIT
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
radian rad plane angle roadanak
steradian sr solid angle soronak
hertz Hz frequency aghezunak
newton N force, weight agninak
pascal Pa pressure, stress agpoanak
joule J energy agjinak
watt W power agwunak
coulomb C electric charge agcanak
volt V electrical potential difference agvunak
farad F capacitance agfenak
ohm Ω electrical resistance Omeganak
Siemens S electrical conductance agsonak
Weber Wb magnetic flux agwubanak
tesla T magnetic flux density agtonak
henry H inductance aghenak
degree Celsius °C temperature nogagcanak
lumen lm luminous flux liminak
lux lx illuminance lixuak
becquerel Bq radioactivity agbakonak
gray Gy absorbed dose (of ionizing radiation) aggeyunak
sievert Sv equivalent dose (of ionizing radiation) agsovunak
katal kat catalytic activity kiatonak
byte b 8 bits of information banak
Also, here are some non-SI units that are very convenient and acceptable:
Convenient non-SI units
ENGLISH
NAME
SYMBOLIC
WRITTEN
ABBREVIATION
QUANTITY
UNIT
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
litre L volume aglonak or litr(i)
hectare ha area heanak or hektar(i)
ton t area tonak or ton(i)
decibel dB loudness daagbanak or decibel(i)
The following chart shows how in Mirad to pronounce coherent derived unit formulae in terms of base units. Note that the backslash means per or divided by and is pronounced gol. The symbol x means times and is pronounced gal. The superscript number is a power and is pronounced gar plus the number (with -wa, if a unit number). The negative superscript number is pronounced gor plus the number (again, with -wa if a unit number). See Arithmetical Expressions for further information on these terms.
Examples of coherent derived units in terms of base units
NAME SYMBOLIC
FORMULA
DERIVED
QUANTITY
TYPICAL
SYMBOL
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
square meter m2 area A minak-gar-ewa
cubic meter m3 volume V minak-gar-iwa
meter per second m/s speed, velocity v minak-gol-sonak
meter per second squared m/s2 acceleration a minak-gol-sonak-gar-ewa
reciprocal meter m−1 wavenumber σ, minak-gor-awa
vergence (optics) V, 1/f
kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3 density ρ kigenak-gol-minak-gar-iwa
kilogram per square meter kg/m2 surface density ρA kigenak-gol-minak-gar-ewa
cubic meter per kilogram m3/kg specific volume v minak-gar-iwa-gol-kinak-ge
ampere per square meter A/m2 current density j aganak-gol-minak-gar-ewa
ampere per meter A/m magnetic field strength H aganak-gol-minak
mole per cubic meter mol/m3 concentration c minolinak-gol-minak-gar-iwa
kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3 mass concentration ρ, γ kinak-ge-gol-minak-gar-iwa
candela per square meter cd/m2 luminance Lv canak-da-gol-minak-gar-ewa
The SI has a whole list of prefixes that act as multipliers (macro) or dividers (micro) of the above and other measurement units. For example, a kilometer is a meter times a 1,000 (macro unit), whereas a millimeter is a meter divided by a 1,000 (micro unit). Sagon means byte, so garale-sagon is terabyte. This breaks down to 1012 bytes. Here is a table showing the Mirad macro and micro prefixes:
Scalar Metrics
MACRO MICRO
BASE
10
US/UK NAME MIRAD PREFIX....SI PREFIX SI SYMBOL BASE
10
(US/UK NAME) MIRAD PREFIX....SI PREFIX SI SYMBOL
1 one an- *... mono-, uni- 1/1 whole ayn-....holo-, uni-
2 two en-....bi- 1/2 half eyn-....demi-, di-
3 three in-....tri- 1/3 third iyn-....terci-
4 four un-....tetra- 1/4 fourth uyn-....quadri-
5 five yoon- *....penta- 1/5 fifth yoyn....quinti-
6 six yaon-....hexa- 1/6 sixth yayn....sexti-
7 seven yeon-....hepta- 1/7 seventh yeyn....septi-
8 eight yion....octo- 1/8 eighth yiyn....octi-
9 nine yuon....nona- 1/9 ninth yuyn....novi-
10 ten alon-....deca- da 1/10 tenth aloy-....deci- d
102 hundred aso-....hecto- ** h 10-2 hundredth asoy-....centi- c
103 thousand amso-....kilo- k 10-3 thousandth) amsoy-....milli- m
106 million amlo-....mega- M 10-6 millionth amloy-....micro- r
109 billion /milliard amro-....giga- G 10-9 billionth/ milliardth amroy-....nano- n
1012 trillion /billion garale-....tera- T 10-12 trillionth / billionth) gorale-....pico- p
1015 quadrillion)/ billiard garalyo-....peta- P 10-15 quadrillionth) / billiardth goralyo-....femto- f
1018 quintillion / trillion garalyu-....exa- E 10-18 quintillionth)/ trillionth goralyu....atto- a
1021 sextillion)/ trilliard garela-....zetta- Z 10-21 sextillionth / trilliardth gorela....zepto- z
1024 septillion)/ quadrillion garelu-....yotta- Y 10-27 septillionth / quadrillionth gorelu....yocto- y
*Note: The -n or -on can sometimes be omitted in macro-prefixation, especially where there is no ambiguity. The -n (but NOT the -yn) in the micro prefixes can also sometimes be omitted.
**Note: The gar (to a plus power) and gor (to a minus power) forms are alternatives for the numeric prefixes beyond 100. For example, billion (109) could be expressed as garyu-(ten) to the 9th power, while billionth could be expressed by goryu ((ten) to the minus 9th power). The prefix garya- is composed of the positive exponential operator gar (to the power of), followed by the number 6. The prefix gorale- is composed of the negative exponential operator gor (to the root of), followed by the number 12.

The macro and micro values can also be represented with abbreviated symbols, which can be pronounced in Mirad as spelled out alphabetics. Greek letter are rendered by their names in Greek. Upper case equivalents are preceded with ag-. Here is a table showing grams:

Kg Metrics With Abbreviated Symbols
MACRO MICRO
SYMBOL (EXPANSION) MIRAD PRONUNCIATION SYMBOL (EXPANSION) MIRAD PRONUNCIATION
dag (decagram) daagenak (decigram) dagenak
hg (hectogram) hegenak cg (centigram) cagenak
kg (kilogram) kogenak mg (milligram) migenak
Mg (macrogram) agmigenak μg (microgram) mugenak
Gg (gigagram) aggegenak ng (nanogram) nigenak
Tg (teragram) agtogenak pg (picagram) pogenak
Pg ( petagram) agpogenak fg (femtogram) fegenak
Eg (exagram) agegenak ag (attogram) agenak
Zg (zettagram) agzegenak zg (zeptogram) zegenak
Yg (yottagram) agyugenak yg (yoctogram) yugenak
The squared and cubed representations of the above are followed by gar e (squared) and gar i (cubed), respectively:
  • 10 kg2....(pronounced as:) alo kogenaki gar e
  • 12 mm3....(pronounced as:) ale miminaki gar i

Expressing Frequency edit

There are two ways to form determiners of frequency:
  • Using jod(i) meaning occasion(s), instance(s), time(s), or
  • Using xag meaning frequency
Here is a chart showing the most common frequency determiners:
Frequentative Determiners
"JOD" METHOD "XAG" METHOD MEANING
duhogla jodi? duhoxag? how often?, how many times?
hogla jodi hoxag how often, how frequently
hagla jodi haxag the frequency
hegla jodi hexag sometimes, on some occasions
higla jodi hixag this often, this many times
hugla jodi huxag that often, that many times, so many times
huugla jodi huuxag so often, so many times
hyogla jodi hyoxag never
hyagla jodi hyaxag always, at all times
hyegla jodi hyexag any number of times, however often
hyigla jodi hyixag as often, the same number of times
hyugla jodi hyuxag not as often, some other number of times
ga jodi gaxag (vyel) more often (than)
ge jodi gexag (vyel) as many times (as), as often (as)
go jodi goxag (vyel) less often (than)
gla jodi glaxag many times, often
gle jodi glexag quite a few times, quite often
glo jodi gloxag not so many times, seldom
gra jodi graxag too often
gre jodi grexag often enough
gro jodi groxag too seldom
gwa jodi gwaxag as often as possible, most often, most times
gwe jodi gwexag an average number of times
gwo jodi gwoxag least often, as seldom as possible
owa jod oxag never, at no time, zero times
awa jod axag once, one time
awa ga jod ga axag again, once more
ewa jodi exag twice, two times
iwa jodi ixag thrice, three times
alo jodi aloxag ten times
Examples:
  • Duhoxag et pe ha tayegoblam?....How often do you go to the barber shop?
  • Duhogla jodi et akaye hia ekun?....How many times have you won this game?
  • At teataye hua dyezun iwa ey uwa jodi.....I have seen that film three or four times.
  • At teataye is huugla jodi (or: huuxag) van at bokseye.....I have seen it so many times that I am getting sick.
  • Hus xwaye gaxag vyel et te.....That has happened more often than you know.

Mathematical Expressions edit

 
Mathematical vocabulary is based mostly on deriviatives of the degree word ga....more.

Chart of Mathmatical Components edit

The following chart shows mathematical operator verbs and derived terms:
Arthmetic Expressions
VERB OPERATION PATIENT SUBJECT OPERATOR SIGN RESULT
gaber
add
gaben
addition
gabwas
addend, summand
gabus
augend
gab
plus
+
gabsiyn
plus sign
gabix
sum
galer
multiply
galen
multiplication
galwas
multiplicand
galus
multiplier
factor
gal
times
x
galsiyn
times sign
galix
product
garer
raise to the power of
garen
exponentiation
garwas
base
garus
exponent
gar
raised to the power of
garsiyn
exponent sign
garix
power
gazer
logarithmize
gazen
logarithmization
gazwas
base
gazus
antilogarithm
gaz
log
gazix
logarithm
gober
subtract
goben
subtraction
gobwas
subtrahend
gobus
minuend
gob
minus
-
gobsiyn
minus sign
gobix
difference
goler
divide
golen
division
fraction
golwas
dividend
numerator
golus
divisor
denominator
gol
divided by
÷
golsiyn
division sign
golix
quotient
gorer
derive the nth root of
goren
root extraction
gorwas
radicand
gorus
degree
gor
the nth root of
gorsiyn
radical sign
gorix
root
gexer
equal
gexen
equation
gexwas
thing being equated
gexus
equator
ge
equal to
=
gesiyn
equal sign
gexix
equation solution

How to Verbalize Math Expressions edit

  • 1 + 1 = 2.....A gab a gese e.
  • 3 - 1 = 2.....I gob a gese e.
  • 2 x 4 = 8.....E gal u gese yi.
  • 10 % 2 = 5.....Alo gol e gese yu.
  • 52 = 25.....Yo gar e gese elyu.
  • 23 = 8.....E gar i gese yi.
  • 4 √2 = 2 = 2.....U gor e gese e.
  • log10 1000 = 3.....Aro gaz alo gese i.
Note 1: gese (equals) can be substituted with se (is), eg.:
  • E gab e se u.....Two plus two is four.
Note 2: If numbers are used as numeric adjectives, the units take the suffix -wa, eg.:
  • Ewa lafebi gab awa afeb gese vavol.....Two oranges plus one apple equals a salad.
Examples of mathematical expressions:
  • E gab e gese u.....Two plus two equals four.
  • E gal i gese ya.....Two times three equals six.
  • I gar e gese yu.....Three to the second power equals nine.
  • E gob e gese o.....Two minus two equals zero.
  • Yu gol i gese i.....Nine divided by three equals three.
  • Yu gor i gese i.....Nine cubed equals three.
  • Aso gor e gese alo.....One hundred squared equals ten.
  • Aro gaz alo gese i.....Log10(1000) = 3. (= Logarithm of a thousand to base ten equals three)

Decimal Expressions edit

Decimal expressions like 2.5 use the word nod....point as in English.
  • Hia bavol kyinse ga vyel 10.8 (alo nod yiwa) kigenaki.....This tomato weighs more than 10.8 (ten point eight) kilograms.

Calendar and Time Expressions edit

The word for calendar is judar. The sections below explain how calendar expressions are formed and used:

Basic Calendar Units edit

 
Time is divided using the following basic terms:
Calendar Units
MIRAD ENGLISH
job time
jab year
jeb season
jib month
jub day
jwob* hour
jwab* minute
jweb* second
  • Note: These would ordinarily be jyob, jyab, and jyeb respectively, but the w glide is much easier to pronounce after the letter j, and is therefore substituted.

Other Calendar Units edit

Other calendar units are formed through the agglutination of numerical stubs to some of the time units above:
Other Calendar Units
MIRAD ENGLISH NUMERICAL FORMULA
rojab millenium year x 1,000
sojab century year x 100
lojab decade year x 10
eynjab half year year x 1/2
uynjab quarter year x 1/4
yajib semester month x 6
yejub week day x 7
yejubuj weekend day x 7 end
eynjwob half hour hour x 1/2
This, next, last, etc. are expressed as follows:
Day Pointers
MIRAD ENGLISH
hijub
hia yejub
hijab
today
this week
this year
zojub
zoyejub
zajab
yesterday
last week
last year
zajub
zayejub
zajab
tomorrow
next week
next year
hujub
huyejub
hujab
that day
that week
that year
jazojub
ja ewa yejubi
jazojab
the day before yesterday
two weeks ago
the year before last
jozajub
jo ewa yejubi
jozajab
the day after tomorrow
two weeks from now
the year after next
Duhajub? Which day?
hyajub every day
hyejub any day
hejub someday
hejubi some days

Seasons of the Year edit

 
Seasons of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for season jeb:
Seasons of the Year
MIRAD ENGLISH
jeab spring
jeeb summer
jeib autumn, Fall
jeub winter
Examples of usage:
  • be jeab....in spring
  • ja jeeb....before summer
  • ju jeib....until autumn
  • ji jeub....since winter
  • je ha jeb....during the season
  • ub ha uj bi jeeb....toward the end of summer
  • eb jeab ay jeeb....between spring and summer
  • jeeba gemoj....vernal equinox
  • jeiba fayebi....autumn leaves
  • jeba til....seasonal drink
  • jeubyena jebmalyen....wintry climate
  • jeabyena malyen....spring-like weather
  • jeuben....hibernation
  • hijeab....this season
  • zajeab....next season
  • zojeab....last season
  • hyajeab....every season

Months of the Year edit

Months of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for month jib:
Months of the Year
MIRAD ENGLISH
jiab January
jieb February
jiib March
jiub April
jiyob May
jiyab June
jiyeb July
jiyib August
jiyub September
jilob October
jilab November
jileb December
Some expressions using the months:
  • be jilob....in October
  • ja jiyab....before June
  • lojo zajiyeb....by next July (lojo = not after)
  • hijib....this month
  • zojib....last month
  • zajib....next month
  • bi-jib-bu-jiba jobnis....month-to-month rent
  • jibay....monthly
  • jibi joy....months later
  • jiba sindryen....monthly magazine
  • hujiba jobnis....that month's rent
  • hya ionjib....every trimester
  • jiber....menstruate
  • byi zojilob....since last October
  • ub zejib....toward mid-month

Days of the Week edit

Days of the week are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for day jub:
Days of the Week
MIRAD ENGLISH
juab Monday
jueb Tuesday
juib Wednesday
juub Thursday
juyob Friday
juyab Saturday
juyeb Sunday
Here are some common terms relating to days of the week:
Day Expressions
MIRAD ENGLISH
Duhojub? Which day?
hojub hu... the day that...
hejub someday
hijub today
hujub that day
hyijub (on) the same day
hyajub every day
hyejub any day
zajub yesterday
zojub tomorrow
ha jajub
be ha jana jub
the day before, (on) the previous day
ha jojub
be ha jona jub
the day before, (on) the previous day
jazojub the day before yesterday
jozajub the day after tomorrow
hya ea jub every other/second day
hyajub boy juyeb every day except Sunday
yejub week
hiyejeb this week
yejubuj weekend
yexjub (or) zeyejub weekday
enyejuba(y) bi-weekly
zoyejub last week
Examples of Usage:
  • (be) juyob....on Friday
  • ju juib....until Wednesday
  • ji zojub....since yesterday
  • lojo jubuj....by [Lit: not after] day's end
  • jo zajub....after tomorrow
  • je ha jub....during the day
  • bi juab bu juub....from Monday to Friday
  • yejubuja ponpop....a weekend getaway

Parts of the Day edit

Here are the principal parts of a day:
Parts of the Day
DAYTIME NIGHTTIME
maj....daytime, day moj....nighttime, night
bi maj....A.M. bi moj....P.M.
jamajij....pre-dawn jamojij....pre-dusk
majij....daybreak, dawn mojij....dusk
amaryap....sunrise, sunup amaryop....sunset, sundown
jwamaj....morning
zajwamaj....tomorrow morning
hijwamaj....this morning
zojwamaj....yesterday morning
hujwamaj....that morning
hyajwamaj....every morning
jwamoj....evening
zajwamoj....tomorrow evening
hijwamoj....this evening
zojwamoj....yesterday evening
hujwamoj....that evening
hyajwamoj....every evening
zemaj....noon zemoj....midnight
jozemaj....afternoon jozemoj....after midnight
majuj....day's end jwomoj....late night
  • Examples of Usage:
  • At tijpa ja majij.....I woke up before dawn.
  • At iyfe tuyjer be ha jwoa jozemaj.....I like to nap in the late afternoon.
  • It yexe bi amaryap bu amaryop.....He works from sunup to sundown.
  • Be gwa jwamoji, at teaxe sinibar.....Most evenings, I watch television.

Expressing Dates edit

The following is a how a date (jud) is normally expressed:
  • be juab, 11 jieb 2018 joK.....on Monday, February 11th, 1918 A.D.
A date like 2018 can be expressed as twenty eighteen (elo alyi) or two thousand eighteen (ero alyi).
The day 11 in the above expression is pronounced ala.
The acronym for B.C. is jaK, short for ja Krist (before Christ).
The acronym for the de-Christianized "BCE", meaning Before the Common/Current Era is expressed in Mirad with jaEJ (ja ha Eja Joeb).
The acronym for A.D. is joK, short for jo Krist (after Christ).
The acronym for the de-Christianized C.E. is EJ, shoft for ha Eja Joeb (the Current Era).
Other date expressions follow:
  • be ha 1800 jabi (alyi aso jabi)....In the 1800's (eighteen hundreds)
  • ja ha 20a (eloa) asojab....before the 20th (twentieth) century
  • eb 1920 (yulo elo) ay 2001 (emso awa)....between 1920 (nineteen twenty) and (two thousand one)
  • hyaje hua alojab....throughout that decade
  • At yexa hum je gla jabi.....I worked there for [Lit: during] many years.
  • Ujbu his lojo jiyab.....Finish this by [Lit: not after] May.
  • Iyt so him ub ha uj bi 2 (ewa) jiab.....She will be here toward the end of January 2nd.
  • At taja je ha Tejika Eloni.....I was born in the Roaring Twenties.

Telling Time edit

 
Clock time expressions use mostly the word jwob (hour) or jwobi (hours).
Times of the day are expressed in the 24-hour European system, or what might be called by Americans "military clock time." So, 3PM in U.S. parlance should be expressed in Mirad as 15 hours (ulo jwobi), which is the same as 15:00 or 15 hundred hours.
The usual time-of-day question is Se duhojwob?....What time is it? [Lit: is what-hour?]
The typical answer is in the format Se alo (jwobi) yuwa. (Lit: (It) is ten hours five). The use of jwobi is optional, but if jwobi is modified by awa....one, then the singular form jwob is used.
Here are some typical answers:
  • Se awa jwob.....It is one o'clock AM [Lit: It is one hour.]
  • Se ewa jwobi.....It is two o'clock AM [Lit: It is two hours.]
  • Se ale jwobi.....It is twelve o'clock AM.
  • Se alyu jwobi elo.....It is 15:30 (3:30 PM).
  • Se eli jwobi ali.....It is 23:13 (11:13 PM).
  • Se elu jwobi.....It is 24:00 (12 PM).
The words jwob and jwobi can be abbreviated as j..
  • be elo j.....At 8:00 PM
The designation AM and PM can be used but are not necessary in the 24-hour clock system:
  • bi maj....(AM)
  • bi moj.... (PM)
  • Se vyavay 15:10 (= alu alo).....It is exactly 7:10 P.M..  [Lit: It is exactly fifteen ten.]
  • Et sa jwoa bey alo jwabi.....You were late by 10 minutes.  [Lit: You were late by ten minutes.]
  • Has ijo yuz 21:30 (= ela jwobi ilo).....It will begin around 10:30 PM.
  • Puu him lojo jwoa vyel 15:00 j.....Get here no later than 3 PM.
  • Ha yuzpar puo hum yeb 10 jwabi.....The bus will arrive there within 10 minutes.
  • Ha jwobar izeade1 17:00.....The clock says [Lit. indicates] 5 PM.
  • Yit pua be 3 j. be ha nod.....They arrived at 3 on the dot.
Note 1: izeade (indicates) can be substituted with de (says).
Note the following clock time idioms:
Clock Idioms
MIRAD ENGLISH
jwa early
jwe on time
jwo late
Se vyavay elo j. It is exactly 8 PM.
yub bi zemaj
or yuz bi zemaj.
around noon
ub zemoj toward midnight
yeb bi jwebi within seconds
alo jwabi ja hij ten minutes ago [= before now]
lojo 3 j. no later than / by 3 o'clock AM.
jwobay hourly / by the hour / on the hour
Hia pop efxe 2 1/2 (= ewa gab eyn) jwobi. This trip takes (Lit: necessitates) 2 1/2 hours.
ju awa jwob bi hij until one hour from now
ji zojub be 10a j. since yesterday at 10 o'clock.
je ha jana 12 jwabi for/during/over the last 12 minutes
ja ojo 10 j. before / by 10 AM.
lojo 10 jwobi. by / in / within 10 hours.
jo 10 j. after 10 o'clock AM.
At saye him ji ewa jwobi. I have been here for [= since] two hours.

Expressing Age edit

 
Many expressions relating to age are built on the Mirad word for age: jag.
The typical question is:
  • Et se duhojaga?....How old are you? (Lit. what-aged)
A typical answer is:
  • At se eli (jabi) (jaga).....I am twenty-three (years old).
The word jaga can be left understood, as well as the word jabi....years:
  • At se ilo.....I am thirty.
Here is a list of important age expressions and categories:


  • duhojaga?....how old?
  • hojoga....of which age
  • hajaga....of the age
  • hejaga....of some age
  • hijaga....this old
  • hujaga....that old
  • huujaga....so old
  • hyajaga....of every age
  • hyejaga....of any age
  • hyijaga / gejaga....of the same age, as old
  • hyujaga / ogejaga....of a different age
  • zejaga .... middle-aged
  • jaga....old
  • jayga....oldish
  • joga....young
  • joyga .... youngish
  • gle jaga....rather old, oldish
  • gla jaga....very old
  • gra jaga....too old, super-aged
  • gro jaga....under-aged, minor
  • ge jaga....as old, of the same age
  • awa (jab) jaga....one year old
  • ewa (jabi) jaga....two years old
  • alo (jabi) jaga....ten years old
  • ga jaga vyel et....older than you
  • ga joga vyel at....younger than me
  • ge joga vyel iyt....as young as her
  • ha gwa jagat bi ata tidetyan....the youngest of my siblings
  • gajagat .... an elder
  • grojagat....a minor
  • alojagat....a ten-year-old
  • aloynjagat....a teenager
  • jagat .... old person, elder, senior
  • jagwat .... old man
  • jagayt .... old woman
  • jogat....a youth
  • jogwat....a boy
  • jogayt....a girl
  • grejat....an adult, someone of age
  • jagseat....an adolescent
  • jagsyat/agsyat....a grownup
  • yilojagat....an octogenarian
  • asojagat....a centenarian
  • tud .... child, offspring
  • twud .... male child, son
  • tuyd .... female child, daughter
  • tudet .... baby, infant
  • tobet .... youth, young person
  • twobet .... boy, young man
  • toybet .... girl, young woman, maiden
Some other examples of usage:
  • Et jagseye fi.....You are aging well.
  • At voy jogseye hyegla.....I am not getting any younger.
  • His se taam av ha jagati.....This is a home for the ederly.
  • Gawaku eta jogan!....Regain your youth!
  • At se ga jaga vyel ha yazmeli.....I am older than the hills.
  • Teaxu ata gwa joga tud.....Look at my youngest child.
  • Yat ife yata awajagat.....We love our one-year-old.
  • Jagseatan se yika joob bi tej.....Adolescence is a difficult period of life.
  • Agsu!....Grow up!
Note the difference:
  • agaser....to get bigger
  • agser....to grow

Currency Nomenclature edit

 
The ISO abbreviation for the currency expressions from various countries of the world are used to form the Mirad equivalents. The lowercase ISO code abbreviation for a particular country's denomination is spelled out in Mirad alphabetics and then the letter n is suffixed (mnemonic for nas....money). Then, since a monetary unit can be considered a proper noun, the first letter is capitalized, eg.:
  • The ISO code abbreviation for "U.S. dollar" is "USD".
  • Lowercase is "usd"
  • Spelled out in Mirad alphabetics is u so da.
  • This, with n suffixed, results in usodan.
  • Finally, the first letter is capitalized, giving Usodan.
  • Pluralized, Usodan becomes Usodani (= U.S. dollars).
  • The Euro is therefore Euron.
  • The Thai baht is Toheban.
  • The Russian ruble is Rouban.
The ISO codes can be found at List of circulating currencies. A portion of that file is replicated here:
Currencies
English Currency Name Currency
symbol
ISO code Mirad Name
Jordanian dinar JD JOD Jiodan
Moroccan dirham DH MAD Miadan
Australian dollar $ AUD Audan
Bitcoin (BTK?) Batokin
Brunei dollar $ BND Banidan
Eastern Caribbean dollar $ XCD Xucadan
Hong Kong dollar $ HKD Hekidan
New Zealand dollar $ NZD Nizudan
Singapore dollar $ SGD Sogedan
United States dollar $ USD Usodan
Armenian dram ֏ AMD Amidan
Euro EUR Euron
Central African CFA franc Fr XAF Xuafen
CFP franc Fr XPF Xupofen
Swiss franc Fr CFN Cufenin
West African CFA franc Fr XOF Xuofen
Netherlands Antillean guilder ƒ ANG Anigen
Danish krone kr DKK Dakikin
Turkish lira TRY Toroyun
Mauritanian ouguiya UM MRU Miroun
Sterling £ GBP Gebapon
Saint Helena pound £ SHP Sohepon
South African rand R ZAR Zuaron
Russian rouble RUB Rouban
Indian rupee INR Iniron
Israeli new shekel ILS Ilison
The hundredth fractional unit for most currencies can be converted into Mirad by appending the word -asoyn to the end of the Mirad name of the currency.
For example:
  • The American cent is Usodan-asoyn.
  • The Euro cent is Euron-asoyn.
  • The British penny is Gebapon-asoyn.
In context, all of the above can be abbreviated to asoyn.
The symbol used for each currency can also be taken from the Wikipedia table referenced above. The symbol precedes the number and a comma is used for the thousand breaker and a period is used for the decimal breaker. For example:
  • Five point six Euros ==> Yowa nod yawa Euroni ==> €5.6
  • Two thousand nine dollars ==> Emro yuwa Usodani ==> $2,009
Note: : The bitcoin has no ISO code, so it is arbitrarily translated into Mirad as Batokin (for BTK). Its billionth fractional unit is called a satoshi and is translated into Mirad as Batokin-amroyn.
Other monetary vocabulary:
  • nas....money
  • nasa....monetary
  • nasyen....currency
  • nases....change
  • nasmug....coin
  • syagnas....cash
  • syagnasuer....to cash
  • ejnux....debit, cash
  • ojnux....credit
  • nasyef....debt
  • ojbier....to borrow
  • ojbuer....to lend
  • drefnas....paper money
  • nasdrev....bill, note, banknote
  • alo Usodan nasdrev....ten dollar bill
  • nax....price
  • nayx....cost
  • namper....to shop
  • nusbier....to buy
  • nisbuer....to sell
  • nun....merchandise, product
  • nuer....to supply
  • nuxer....to pay
  • nyuxer....to deliver
  • nier....to demand
  • nixer....to earn
  • nyixer....to order
  • nexer....to save
  • nyexer....to stock
  • noxer....to spend
  • nyoxer....to waste
  • kyaxler nas....convert money
  • nasokrer....go bankrupt
  • nasam....bank
  • nuien....trade
  • nuiem....market
  • nam....store