00%.svg Lessons
00%.svg Introductory
00%.svg 0.01 Introduction
00%.svg 0.02 Learning Indonesian
00%.svg 0.03 The Alphabet
00%.svg 0.04 Pronunciation
00%.svg 0.05 Greetings
00%.svg 0.06 Formal Speech
00%.svg 0.07 How are you?
00%.svg 0.08 Numbers
00%.svg 0.09 Dates
00%.svg 0.10 Telling Time
00%.svg Review00%.svg Test
Talk : pagelessons
v  d  e ) Indonesian Language Course (discussion)
Learning the Indonesian Language  •  Downloadable and Print Versions

Introductory  •  Level One  •  Level Two  •  Level Three  •  Level Four


Three ways to pronounce e:

  1. bel ( = bell )
  2. lebih ( = more )
  3. beda ( = different )

Two ways to pronounce o:

  1. toko ( = shop )
  2. bongkah ( = lump )

Catatan (Note)Edit

The Indonesian language lacks the letters q, v, x, and z. These letters were incorporated to accommodate foreign words. Even f is due to the influence of the Arabic alphabet.

A pair of the same vowel in succession are pronounced differently than just prolonging the vowel sound; rather, there is a slight pause between the vowels. For example: The word maaf, which means sorry, is pronounced as ma (slight pause) af.

There are four compound consonants (diphthongs): ng, ny, kh, and sy. Although they do not constitute new letters, they are pronounced differently:

Compound PronunciationIPA Sound
ngeng[ŋ] (not[ŋɡ])Like the soft ng in English, e.g. banging, singing. It is incorrect to pronounce it like bingo or mango (i.e. the hard ng). To pronounce the hard ng, we would use ngg instead (which are not considered as compound by itself).
nynye[ɲ]Like the ny in canyon. Much like the ñ sound in Spanish.
khkha[x]Like the ch in Lochness, or soft g in Spanish: gente
sysya[ʃ]Like the sh in shoe or ship

As is the case with the standalone letters, only ng and ny are native to Indonesian. Both kh and sy only appear in words with Arabic origin.


Sungai (= River) → Soft ng
Bangga (= Proud) → Hard ng, note the ngg
Banyak (= A lot)
Akhir (= End)
Khalik (= The Creator/God, mainly used in poems or Islamic texts)

Go to Exercise: Indonesian Rhymes

Tahu (to know) & tahu (tofu)Edit

Tahu meaning to know: the h is silent, and the word is pronounced to rhyme with bau (smell) (i.e. similarly to the English word Tao (Chinese philosophy) or Greek alphabet Tau.)

Tahu meaning tofu is pronounced "tah-who"

You can practice saying "Saya tidak tahu. Saya bukan tahu." ("I don't know. I am not tofu.") The pronunciation should be different in the two cases.

Final aiEdit

In everyday Indonesian, the "ai" at the end of a root word is pronounced as e or ek (the k being a glottal stop, not an aspirated k). In informal writing (e.g. email) Indonesians sometimes spell this way as well, e.g. capek instead of capai.

Teacher's notesEdit

It is advisable to distribute this material through other lessons, rather than learning all these exceptions at once.

Introductory Lessons  

0.01 Introduction  0.02 Learning Indonesian  0.03 The Alphabet  0.04 Pronunciation  0.05 Greetings  0.06 Formal Speech  0.07 How are you?  0.08 Numbers  0.09 Dates  0.10 Telling Time  Review  Test  

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