French › Level two lessons › Transportation · Le transport

Dialogue edit

Culture · France's transportation system edit

Grammar · -uire verbs edit

-uire verbs are conjugated irregularly.

Formation edit

conduire   /kɔ̃.dɥiʁ/ (koh(n)-deweer) to drive
je conduis /kɔ̃.dɥi/ (koh(n)-dewee) I drive
tu conduis /kɔ̃.dɥi/ (koh(n)-dewee) you drive
il conduit /kɔ̃.dɥi/ (koh(n)-dewee) he drives
nous conduisons /kɔ̃.dɥi.zɔ̃/ (koh(n)-dewee-zoh(n)) we drive
vous conduisez /kɔ̃.dɥi.ze/ (koh(n)-dewee-zay) you drive
ils conduisent /kɔ̃.dɥiz/ (koh(n)-deweez) they drive
conduit /kɔ̃.dɥi/ (koh(n)-dewee) driven

Supplementary vocabulary · Other -uire verbs edit

produire   /pʁɔ.dɥiʁ/ to produce Il a produit tant. He produced so much.
traduire   /tʁa.dɥiʁ/ to translate Il traduit le français en russe. He translates french to russian.
réduire   /ʁedɥiʁ/ to reduce Il réduit les faits en opinions. He reduces facts to opinions.
réduire à /ɾedɥiɾ a/ to reduce (someone) to Je l'ai réduit à l'obéissance. I reduced him to slavery.
réduire en /ɾedɥiɾ ɑ̃/ to reduce (something) to Il l'a réduit en cendres. He reduced it to ashes.

Examples edit

Il conduit la voiture. He is driving the car.

Vocabulary · Driving edit

la voiture the car le camion the truck
le trajet the journey accident de la route road accident
la station d'essence the petrol/gas station la route the road
loin far près near

Grammar · Passé composé with être edit

Most verbs form the passé composé with avoir, however there are a small number of verbs that are always conjugated with être. In a general case, these verbs indicate a change in state or position.

List of verbs edit

aller go Je suis allé au cinéma. I went to the cinema.
venir come Je suis venu en France. I came to France.
arriver arrive Le train est arrivé. The train has arrived.
partir leave Elle est partie travailler. She left to go to work.
rester stay Je suis resté à la maison. I stayed (at) home.
retourner return Il est retourné au restaurant. He returned to the restaurant.
tomber fall Je suis tombé dans la piscine. I fell into the pool.
naître be born Je suis né en octobre. I was born in October.
mourir die Il est mort en 1917. He died in 1917.
passer pass Il est passé devant la maison. He went past in front of the house.
monter climb, go up Je suis monté au sommet. I climbed to the top.
descendre go down Il est descendu du train. He got out of the train.
sortir go out Je suis sorti avec mes amies. I went out with my friends.
entrer enter Je suis entré dans ma chambre. I entered my room.
rentrer come back Il est rentré tôt de l'école. He came back early from school.

The verbs that take être can be easily remembered by the acronym MRS. DR VANDERTRAMP:

monté resté sorti devenu revenu
venu arrivé descendu entré rentré tombé retourné allé mort parti

Direct objects edit

These verbs take their conjugated avoir when they are immediately followed by a direct object

For Example,

Je suis descendu.

with the direct object mes bagages becomes

J'ai descendu mes bagages.

As another example,

Je suis monté.

with the direct object mes bagages becomes

J'ai monté mes bagages.

As another example, but with ils instead of je,

Ils sont sortis.

with direct object leur passeport becomes

Ils ont sorti leur passeport.

Subject-past participle agreement edit

When conjugating with être, the past participles of the above verbs must agree with the subject of a sentence in gender and number. Note that there is no agreement if these verbs are conjugated with avoir.

  • If the subject is masculine singular, there is no change in the past participle.
  • If the subject is feminine singular, an -e is added to the past participle.
  • If the subject is masculine plural, an -s is added to the past participle.
  • If the subject is feminine plural, an -es is added to the past participle.
Je suis allé(e). Nous sommes allé(e)s.
Tu es allé(e). Vous êtes allé(e)(s).
Il est allé. Ils sont allés.
Elle est allée. Elles sont allées.

Vocabulary · Trains and stations edit

la gare the train station
le train the train
conducteur de train the train driver
le trajet the journey
le quai the platform

Grammar · The pronoun y edit

Indirect object pronoun - to it, to them edit

The French pronoun y is used to replace an object of a prepositional phrase introduced by à.

  • Je réponds aux (à les) questions. - J'y réponds.
  • I respond to the questions. - I respond to them.

Note that lui and leur, and not y, are used when the object refers to a person or people.

Replacement of places - there edit

The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preposition except de (for which en is used).

  • Les hommes vont en France. - Les hommes y vont.
  • The men go to France - The men go there.

Note that en, and not y is used when the preposition of the object is de.

Idioms edit

  • Ça y est! - There we go!, There you have it.
  • J'y suis! - I get it!

Vocabulary · Taking a taxi · Prendre un taxi edit

Supplementary grammar · -rir verbs edit

These verbs are conjugated irregularly, and normally follow the -er conjugation scheme. In past participle form, -ir is replaced with -ert for these verbs.

Formation edit

A common -rir verb is ouvrir:

ouvrir   /u.vʁiʁ/ to open
j'ouvre /uvʁ/ I open
tu ouvres /uvʁ/ you open
il ouvre /uvʁ/ he opens
nous ouvrons /u.vʁɔ̃/ we open
vous ouvrez /u.vʁe/ you open
ils ouvrent /uvʁ/ they open
ouvert   /u.vɛʁ/ opened

The noun ouvertureopening /u.vɛʁ.tyʁ/ is derived from ouvrir, and the adjective ouvertopen /u.vɛʁ/ is derived from its past participle.

Other standard -rir verbs edit

couvrir   /kuvʁiʁ/ to cover, to cover up
découvrir   /de.ku.vʁiʁ/ to discover
offrir   /ɔ.fʁiʁ/ to offer
recouvrir   Fr-recouvrir.ogg to cover again
rouvrir   Fr-rouvrir.ogg to reopen, to open again
souffrir   /sufʀiʀ/ to suffer, to endure

-rir verb exceptions edit

To run · Courir edit

courir   /ku.ʁiʁ/ to run
je cours   /kuʁ/ I run
tu cours   /kuʁ/ you run
il court   /kuʁ/ he runs
nous courons /ku.ʁɔ̃/ we run
vous courez /ku.ʁe/ you run
ils courent /kuʁ/ they run
couru /ku.ʁy/ run

To die · Mourir edit

mourir   /mu.ʁiʁ/ to die
je meurs /kuʁ/ I die
tu meurs /kuʁ/ you die
il meurt /kuʁ/ he dies
nous mourons /ku.ʁɔ̃/ we die
vous mourez /ku.ʁe/ you die
ils meurent /kuʁ/ they die
mort   /mɔʁ/ died

1Mourir is the only -ir verb that takes être as its helping verb in perfect tenses (and therefore agrees with the subject as a past participle in a perfect tense).

The word mort /mɔʁ/ is also used as a noun, meaning death or dead person, or as an adjective, meaning dead:

Le roi est mort. - The king is dead.

The derived word mourant /mu.ʁɑ̃/ means dying or person who is dying.

To acquire · Acquérir edit

acquérir   /ʁiʁ/ to acquire
j'acquiers /a.kjɛʁ/ I acquire
tu acquiers /a.kjɛʁ/ you acquire
il acquiert /a.kjɛʁ/ he acquires
nous acquérons /ʁɔ̃/ we acquire
vous acquérez /ʁe/ you acquire
ils acquièrent /a.kjɛʁ/ they acquire
acquis   / acquired

Acquis is also a noun, meaning asset.

Examples edit

Text edit

Exercises edit