Wikijunior Europe: Ukraine

The Ukraine Flag.

Ukraine is the second-largest European country and the 44th largest country in the world. It's located in Eastern Europe and shares borders with Russia, Moldova, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland and Belarus. The name Ukraine means in our land in Ukrainian. The capital city is Kyiv. Other big cities are Lviv, Kharkiv and Odesa. Ukraine is not part of the European Union. The currency of Ukraine is the hryvnia.

Map showing the location of Ukraine in Europe with disputed Crimea shaded

Ukraine's History


Although people have lived in Ukraine since 32,000 BCE, the country Ukraine is a fairly recent country. In the centuries before the 20th century, Ukraine was controlled by the Polish, Prussians and other groups of people. Like the majority of nations in Eastern Europe, Ukraine used to be part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (between 1921 and 1991), or Soviet Union. Before that, Ukraine was part of the Russian Empire.


Soviet Union — This was a massive country consisting of Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and many other countries. It was a super power until it ended in 1991.

As many as 10 million people died in a famine in Ukraine and other parts of the USSR in the 1930s and over 1 million were killed during World War 2. In 1986 Ukraine (and Belarus) suffered the world's worst nuclear accident when a reactor at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station exploded. Since the disaster, over 4,000 people have developed cancer because of the radiation from the explosion.

Ukraine became an independent country in 1991. In 2004, after protests against corrupt elections there was a revolution, known as the Orange Revolution which brought in a democratically elected government. In 2012 Ukraine and Poland hosted the Euro 2012 football competition. Large protests against the government took place from November 2013 which resulted in another revolution in February 2014. This caused Russia to invade Crimea in the south of Ukraine and local people to vote (in what might have been an unfair vote) to leave Ukraine and join Russia. Russia now treats Crimea as part of Russia but the vast majority of countries continue to recognize it as part of Ukraine. Since the 2014 revolution parts of eastern Ukraine have been involved in a violent war against the government in Kyiv with more than 10,000 people killed. Parts of eastern Ukraine and the Crimean peninsula are no longer under the control of the Ukrainian government.

Russia invaded Ukraine on February 24, 2022. Since that time, Ukraine has been fighting a war with Russia, with many people killed and almost 4 million people have escaped to neighbouring countries.

Ukraine's Geography

Orthodox church in Lviv, Ukraine

Ukraine is the second-largest country in the European continent, after Russia, spanning a total area of 603,700 km2 (233,100 sq mi).

Most of Ukraine has 4 very distinct seasons with warm summers and cold winters. Rainfall occurs more often in the summer months. Ukraine has a very wide variety of animals that live throughout the country.

Most of the country is flat but there are mountains in the west. The highest mountain in Ukraine is Hora Hoverla at 2016 metres.

Ukraine's People

The Massandra Palace.

The population of Ukraine is around 42.4 million (excluding Crimea). Ukrainians make up 73 percent of the population and Russians make up 22 percent of the population. The official language of the country is Ukrainian. Russian is also used within the country, especially in cities and the east.

Most of the people in Ukraine are literate. Education is required for the ages 6 to 14. Most people in Ukraine are Christians - mainly Ukrainian Orthodox. There are small numbers of other Christians, Muslims and Jews living in the country.

Ukraine's Sights


Because of historical cities, a coastline on the Black Sea and its close location to Russia, Poland and Germany, Ukraine is a popular holiday destination. 20 million tourists visit Ukraine every year. It is the 8th most visited country in Europe and has become more popular in recent years because EU citizens, Canadians, Americans (USA), Japanese and South Korean tourists no longer require visas to enter the country.

The capital city of Kyiv is popular for its churches, landscapes and Soviet architecture. Lviv, in the west, is popular because of its architecture, its Polish and Jewish history and its nightlife. Odesa, on the Black Sea coast, is also popular because of its diverse culture and location.

There are 5 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Ukraine. These include Saint-Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv and the historic centre of Lviv.

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