# Control Systems/Introduction

## This Wikibook

editThis book was written at **Wikibooks**, a free online community where people write open-content textbooks. Any person with internet access is welcome to participate in the creation and improvement of this book. Because this book is continuously evolving, there are no finite "versions" or "editions" of this book. Permanent links to known good versions of the pages may be provided.

## What are Control Systems?

editThe study and design of automatic **Control Systems**, a field known as **control engineering,** has become important in modern technical society. From devices as simple as a toaster or a toilet, to complex machines like space shuttles and power steering, control engineering is a part of our everyday life. This book introduces the field of control engineering and explores some of the more advanced topics in the field. Note, however, that control engineering is a very large field and this book serves only as a foundation of control engineering and an introduction to selected advanced topics in the field. Topics in this book are added at the discretion of the authors and represent the available expertise of our contributors.

Control systems are components that are added to other components to increase functionality or meet a set of design criteria. For example:

We have a particular electric motor that is supposed to turn at a rate of 40 RPM. To achieve this speed, we must supply 10 Volts to the motor terminals. However, with 10 volts supplied to the motor at rest, it takes 30 seconds for our motor to get up to speed. This is valuable time lost.

This simple example can be complex to both users and designers of the motor system. It may seem obvious that the motor should start at a higher voltage so that it accelerates faster. Then we can reduce the supply back down to 10 volts once it reaches ideal speed.

This is clearly a simplistic example but it illustrates an important point: we can add special "Controller units" to preexisting systems to improve performance and meet new system specifications.

Here are some formal definitions of terms used throughout this book:

- Control System
- A Control System is a device, or a collection of devices that manage the behavior of other devices. Some devices are not controllable. A control system is an interconnection of components connected or related in such a manner as to command, direct, or regulate itself or another system.

**Control System is a conceptual framework for designing systems with capabilities of regulation and/or tracking to give a desired performance. For this there must be a set of signals measurable to know the performance, another set of signals measurable to influence the evolution of the system in time and a third set which is not measurable but disturb the evolution.**

- Controller
- A controller is a control system that manages the behavior of another device or system (using Actuators). The controller is usually fed with some input signal from outside the system which commands the system to provide desired output. In a closed loop system, the signal is preprocessed with the sensor's signal from inside the system.

- Actuator
- An actuator is a device that takes in a signal form the controller and carries some action to affect the system accordingly.

- Compensator
- A compensator is a control system that regulates another system, usually by conditioning the input or the output to that system. Compensators are typically employed to correct a single design flaw with the intention of minimizing effects on other aspects of the design.

There are essentially two methods to approach the problem of designing a new control system: the **Classical Approach** and the **Modern Approach**.

## Classical and Modern

edit**Classical** and **Modern** control methodologies are named in a misleading way, because the group of techniques called "Classical" were actually developed later than the techniques labeled "Modern". However, in terms of developing control systems, Modern methods have been used to great effect more recently, while the Classical methods have been gradually falling out of favor. Most recently, it has been shown that Classical and Modern methods can be combined to highlight their respective strengths and weaknesses.

Classical Methods, which this book will consider first, are methods involving the **Laplace Transform domain**. Physical systems are modeled in the so-called "time domain", where the response of a given system is a function of the various inputs, the previous system values, and time. As time progresses, the state of the system and its response change. However, time-domain models for systems are frequently modeled using high-order differential equations which can become impossibly difficult for humans to solve and some of which can even become impossible for modern computer systems to solve efficiently. To counteract this problem, integral transforms, such as the **Laplace Transform** and the **Fourier Transform**, can be employed to change an Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) in the time domain into a regular algebraic polynomial in the transform domain. Once a given system has been converted into the transform domain it can be manipulated with greater ease and analyzed quickly by humans and computers alike.

Modern Control Methods, instead of changing domains to avoid the complexities of time-domain ODE mathematics, converts the differential equations into a system of lower-order time domain equations called **State Equations**, which can then be manipulated using techniques from linear algebra. This book will consider Modern Methods second.

A third distinction that is frequently made in the realm of control systems is to divide analog methods (classical and modern, described above) from digital methods. Digital Control Methods were designed to try and incorporate the emerging power of computer systems into previous control methodologies. A special transform, known as the **Z-Transform**, was developed that can adequately describe digital systems, but at the same time can be converted (with some effort) into the Laplace domain. Once in the Laplace domain, the digital system can be manipulated and analyzed in a very similar manner to Classical analog systems. For this reason, this book will not make a hard and fast distinction between Analog and Digital systems, and instead will attempt to study both paradigms in parallel.

## Who is This Book For?

editThis book is intended to accompany a course of study in under-graduate and graduate engineering. As has been mentioned previously, this book is not focused on any particular discipline within engineering, however any person who wants to make use of this material should have some basic background in the Laplace transform (if not other transforms), calculus, etc. The material in this book may be used to accompany several semesters of study, depending on the program of your particular college or university. The study of control systems is generally a topic that is reserved for students in their 3rd or 4th year of a 4 year undergraduate program, because it requires so much previous information. Some of the more advanced topics may not be covered until later in a graduate program.

Many colleges and universities only offer one or two classes specifically about control systems at the undergraduate level. Some universities, however, do offer more than that, depending on how the material is broken up, and how much depth that is to be covered. Also, many institutions will offer a handful of graduate-level courses on the subject. This book will attempt to cover the topic of control systems from both a graduate and undergraduate level, with the advanced topics built on the basic topics in a way that is intuitive. As such, students should be able to begin reading this book in any place that seems an appropriate starting point, and should be able to finish reading where further information is no longer needed.

## What are the Prerequisites?

editUnderstanding of the material in this book will require a solid mathematical foundation. This book does not currently explain, nor will it ever try to fully explain most of the necessary mathematical tools used in this text. For that reason, the reader is expected to have read the following wikibooks, or have background knowledge comparable to them:

- Algebra
- Calculus
- The reader should have a good understanding of differentiation and integration. Partial differentiation, multiple integration, and functions of multiple variables will be used occasionally, but the students are not necessarily required to know those subjects well. These advanced calculus topics could better be treated as a co-requisite instead of a pre-requisite.
- Linear Algebra
- State-space system representation draws heavily on linear algebra techniques. Students should know how to operate on matrices. Students should understand basic matrix operations (addition, multiplication, determinant, inverse, transpose). Students would also benefit from a prior understanding of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, but those subjects are covered in this text.
- Ordinary Differential Equations
- All linear systems can be described by a linear ordinary differential equation. It is beneficial, therefore, for students to understand these equations. Much of this book describes methods to analyze these equations. Students should know what a differential equation is, and they should also know how to find the general solutions of first and second order ODEs.
- Engineering Analysis
- This book reinforces many of the advanced mathematical concepts used in the Engineering Analysis book, and we will refer to the relevant sections in the aforementioned text for further information on some subjects. This is essentially a math book, but with a focus on various engineering applications. It relies on a previous knowledge of the other math books in this list.
- Signals and Systems
- The Signals and Systems book will provide a basis in the field of
**systems theory**, of which control systems is a subset. Readers who have not read the Signals and Systems book will be at a severe disadvantage when reading this book.

## How is this Book Organized?

editThis book will be organized following a particular progression. First this book will discuss the basics of system theory, and it will offer a brief refresher on integral transforms. Section 2 will contain a brief primer on digital information, for students who are not necessarily familiar with them. This is done so that digital and analog signals can be considered in parallel throughout the rest of the book. Next, this book will introduce the state-space method of system description and control. After section 3, topics in the book will use state-space and transform methods interchangeably (and occasionally simultaneously). It is important, therefore, that these three chapters be well read and understood before venturing into the later parts of the book.

After the "basic" sections of the book, we will delve into specific methods of analyzing and designing control systems. First we will discuss Laplace-domain stability analysis techniques (Routh-Hurwitz, root-locus), and then frequency methods (Nyquist Criteria, Bode Plots). After the classical methods are discussed, this book will then discuss Modern methods of stability analysis. Finally, a number of advanced topics will be touched upon, depending on the knowledge level of the various contributors.

As the subject matter of this book expands, so too will the prerequisites. For instance, when this book is expanded to cover **nonlinear systems**, a basic background knowledge of nonlinear mathematics will be required.

### Versions

editThis wikibook has been expanded to include multiple versions of its text, differentiated by the material covered, and the order in which the material is presented. Each different version is composed of the chapters of this book, included in a different order. This book covers a wide range of information, so if you don't need all the information that this book has to offer, perhaps one of the other versions would be right for you and your educational needs.

Each separate version has a table of contents outlining the different chapters that are included in that version. Also, each separate version comes complete with a printable version, and some even come with PDF versions as well.

Take a look at the **All Versions Listing Page** to find the version of the book that is right for you and your needs.

## Differential Equations Review

editImplicit in the study of control systems is the underlying use of differential equations. Even if they aren't visible on the surface, all of the continuous-time systems that we will be looking at are described in the time domain by ordinary differential equations (ODE), some of which are relatively high-order.

Let's review some differential equation basics. Consider the topic of interest from a bank. The amount of interest accrued on a given principal balance (the amount of money you put into the bank) P, is given by:

Where is the interest (rate of change of the principal), and r is the interest rate. Notice in this case that P is a function of time (t), and can be rewritten to reflect that:

To solve this basic, first-order equation, we can use a technique called "separation of variables", where we move all instances of the letter P to one side, and all instances of t to the other:

And integrating both sides gives us:

This is all fine and good, but generally, we like to get rid of the logarithm, by raising both sides to a power of e:

Where we can separate out the constant as such:

D is a constant that represents the **initial conditions** of the system, in this case the starting principal.

Differential equations are particularly difficult to manipulate, especially once we get to higher-orders of equations. Luckily, several methods of abstraction have been created that allow us to work with ODEs, but at the same time, not have to worry about the complexities of them. The classical method, as described above, uses the Laplace, Fourier, and Z Transforms to convert ODEs in the time domain into polynomials in a complex domain. These complex polynomials are significantly easier to solve than the ODE counterparts. The Modern method instead breaks differential equations into systems of low-order equations, and expresses this system in terms of matrices. It is a common precept in ODE theory that an ODE of order N can be broken down into N equations of order 1.

Readers who are unfamiliar with differential equations might be able to read and understand the material in this book reasonably well. However, all readers are encouraged to read the related sections in **Calculus**.

## History

editThe field of control systems started essentially in the ancient world. Early civilizations, notably the Greeks and the Arabs were heavily preoccupied with the accurate measurement of time, the result of which were several "water clocks" that were designed and implemented.

However, there was very little in the way of actual progress made in the field of engineering until the beginning of the renaissance in Europe. Leonhard Euler (for whom **Euler's Formula** is named) discovered a powerful integral transform, but Pierre-Simon Laplace used the transform (later called the **Laplace Transform**) to solve complex problems in probability theory.

Joseph Fourier was a court mathematician in France under Napoleon I. He created a special function decomposition called the **Fourier Series**, that was later generalized into an integral transform, and named in his honor (the **Fourier Transform**).

Pierre-Simon Laplace 1749-1827 |
Joseph Fourier 1768-1840 |

The "golden age" of control engineering occurred between 1910-1945, where mass communication methods were being created and two world wars were being fought. During this period, some of the most famous names in controls engineering were doing their work: Nyquist and Bode.

**Hendrik Wade Bode** and **Harry Nyquist**, especially in the 1930's while working with Bell Laboratories, created the bulk of what we now call "Classical Control Methods". These methods were based off the results of the Laplace and Fourier Transforms, which had been previously known, but were made popular by **Oliver Heaviside** around the turn of the century. Previous to Heaviside, the transforms were not widely used, nor respected mathematical tools.

Bode is credited with the "discovery" of the closed-loop feedback system, and the logarithmic plotting technique that still bears his name (**bode plots**). Harry Nyquist did extensive research in the field of system stability and information theory. He created a powerful stability criteria that has been named for him (**The Nyquist Criteria**).

Modern control methods were introduced in the early 1950's, as a way to bypass some of the shortcomings of the classical methods. **Rudolf Kalman** is famous for his work in modern control theory, and an adaptive controller called the **Kalman Filter** was named in his honor. Modern control methods became increasingly popular after 1957 with the invention of the computer, and the start of the space program. Computers created the need for digital control methodologies, and the space program required the creation of some "advanced" control techniques, such as "optimal control", "robust control", and "nonlinear control". These last subjects, and several more, are still active areas of study among research engineers.

## Branches of Control Engineering

editHere we are going to give a brief listing of the various different methodologies within the sphere of control engineering. Oftentimes, the lines between these methodologies are blurred, or even erased completely.

- Classical Controls
- Control methodologies where the ODEs that describe a system are transformed using the Laplace, Fourier, or Z Transforms, and manipulated in the transform domain.
- Modern Controls
- Methods where high-order differential equations are broken into a system of first-order equations. The input, output, and internal states of the system are described by vectors called "state variables".
- Robust Control
- Control methodologies where arbitrary outside noise/disturbances are accounted for, as well as internal inaccuracies caused by the heat of the system itself, and the environment.
- Optimal Control
- In a system, performance metrics are identified, and arranged into a "cost function". The cost function is minimized to create an operational system with the lowest cost.
- Adaptive Control
- In adaptive control, the control changes its response characteristics over time to better control the system.
- Nonlinear Control
- The youngest branch of control engineering, nonlinear control encompasses systems that cannot be described by linear equations or ODEs, and for which there is often very little supporting theory available.
- Game Theory
- Game Theory is a close relative of control theory, and especially robust control and optimal control theories. In game theory, the external disturbances are not considered to be random noise processes, but instead are considered to be "opponents". Each player has a cost function that they attempt to minimize, and that their opponents attempt to maximize.

This book will definitely cover the first two branches, and will hopefully be expanded to cover some of the later branches, if time allows.

## MATLAB

edit**the Appendix**

**MATLAB** ® is a programming tool that is commonly used in the field of control engineering. We will discuss MATLAB in specific sections of this book devoted to that purpose. MATLAB will not appear in discussions outside these specific sections, although MATLAB may be used in some example problems. An overview of the use of MATLAB in control engineering can be found in the **appendix** at: Control Systems/MATLAB.

For more information on MATLAB in general, see: MATLAB Programming.

Resources

Nearly all textbooks on the subject of control systems, linear systems, and system analysis will use MATLAB as an integral part of the text. Students who are learning this subject at an accredited university will certainly have seen this material in their textbooks, and are likely to have had MATLAB work as part of their classes. It is from this perspective that the MATLAB appendix is written.

In the future, this book may be expanded to include information on **Simulink** ®, as well as MATLAB.

There are a number of other software tools that are useful in the analysis and design of control systems. Additional information can be added in the appendix of this book, depending on the experience and prior knowledge of contributors.

## About Formatting

editThis book will use some simple conventions throughout.

### Mathematical Conventions

editMathematical equations will be labeled with the {{eqn}} template, to give them names. Equations that are labeled in such a manner are important, and should be taken special note of. For instance, notice the label to the right of this equation:

[Inverse Laplace Transform]

Equations that are named in this manner will also be copied into the List of Equations Glossary in the end of the book, for an easy reference.

Italics will be used for English variables, functions, and equations that appear in the main text. For example *e*, *j*, *f(t)* and *X(s)* are all italicized. Wikibooks contains a LaTeX mathematics formatting engine, although an attempt will be made not to employ formatted mathematical equations inline with other text because of the difference in size and font. Greek letters, and other non-English characters will not be italicized in the text unless they appear in the midst of multiple variables which are italicized (as a convenience to the editor).

Scalar time-domain functions and variables will be denoted with lower-case letters, along with a *t* in parenthesis, such as: *x(t)*, *y(t)*, and *h(t)*. Discrete-time functions will be written in a similar manner, except with an *[n]* instead of a *(t)*.

Fourier, Laplace, Z, and Star transformed functions will be denoted with capital letters followed by the appropriate variable in parenthesis. For example: *F(s)*, *X(jω)*, *Y(z)*, and *F*(s)*.

Matrices will be denoted with capital letters. Matrices which are functions of time will be denoted with a capital letter followed by a *t* in parenthesis. For example: *A(t)* is a matrix, *a(t)* is a scalar function of time.

Transforms of time-variant matrices will be displayed in uppercase bold letters, such as **H***(s)*.

Math equations rendered using LaTeX will appear on separate lines, and will be indented from the rest of the text.

### Text Conventions

editExamples will appear in TextBox templates, which show up as large grey boxes filled with text and equations.

- Important Definitions
- Will appear in TextBox templates as well, except we will use this formatting to show that it is a definition.

Notes of interest will appear in "infobox" templates. These notes will often be used to explain some nuances of a mathematical derivation or proof. |

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