Last modified on 12 May 2014, at 21:07

Punjabi/Gurmukhi/Palatals

Dropdown Menu
Home Punjabi LanguagePunjabi LiteraturePunjabi CulturePunjabi WikibookUsing Punjabi WikibookContributors
Gurmukhi Row 1VowelsDiacriticsRow 2Row 3Row 4Row 5Row 6Row 7Row 8ConjunctsPractice
Muharni First rowSecond rowThird rowFourth rowFifth rowSixth rowSeventh rowFull muharni
Vocabulary ColorsWeekdaysMonthsBirdsAnimalsRelationsBody partsFlowersPlantTreesVegetablesFruitsFoodTransportSportsHealthMetalsFurnitureNumbersMiscellaneous
Conversation Lesson 1Lesson 2Lesson 3Lesson 4Lesson 5Lesson 6Lesson 7Lesson 8Lesson 9Lesson 10
Grammar Parts of speechNounPronounAdjectiveVerbParticipleAdverbPostpositionConjunctionInterjection

Let us recall that besides vowels and diacritics you have already learnt the first ten letters of Gurmukhi viz. ੳ, ਅ, ੲ, ਸ, ਹ, ਕ, ਖ, ਗ, ਘ and ਙ. We now move on to the third row (ਚ ਵਰਗ). These letters are called palatals for they are articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate, the middle part of the roof of the mouth.

Third row of GurmukhiEdit

The third row of Gurmukhi consists of

ਚ ਛ ਜ ਝ ਞ

These are called ਚ - chucha, ਛ - chhuchha, ਜ - jujja, ਝ - jhujja and ਞ -neya. Their pronunciation is ਚ -/ch/, ਛ - /chh/, ਜ - /j/, ਝ - /jh/ and ਞ - /ny/.
We now briefly explain each of these

Chucha 
The eleventh letter of Gurmukhi is equivalent to /ch/ of English. Now, how do you write catch in Gurmukhi? I write it for you below
ਕੈ + ਚ = ਕੈਚ = catch
This example illustrates the use of ਚ as well as ਕ which you learnt in the last chapter. Here are some more examples illustrating the use of ਚ.
ਚੈੱ + ਕ = ਚੈੱਕ = cheque
ਸੱ + ਚ = ਸੱਚ = such
Chhuchha 
There is no English equivalent of ਛ, the twelfth letter of Gurmukhi. It is the aspirated form of ਚ and is articulated the same way as ਚ with lots of breath being ejected from mouth. Have a look at the following Punjabi example
ਛਾਂ /chhan/ = shade
Jujja 
The thirteenth letter of Gurmukhi is equivalent to English /j/. Writting judge in Gurmukhi will illustrate its use.
ਜੱ + ਜ = ਜੱਜ = judge
Here are some more illustrations
ਜੱ + ਗ = ਜੱਗ = jug
ਜੈ + ਕ = ਜੈਕ = jack
Jhujja 
The fourteenth letter of Gurmukhi is not spoken in English. ਝ sound is produced by combining ਜ sound with a high tone. A tone is produced with a rush of air out of mouth. Its use in Punjabi is not infrequent.
ਝੱ + ਟ = ਝੱਟ /jhatt/ = instantly
ਝੁ + ਗੀ = ਝੁਗੀ /jhuggii/ = cottage
ਝੰ + ਡਾ = ਝੰਡਾ /jhandhaa/ = flag
Neya 
The twentieth letter of Gurmukhi is also not spoken in English. It is the nasalised version of /y/ sound in English and will be represented with /ny/. Its use in Punjabi is also becoming scarce. A marriage party in Punjabi is called
ਜੰ + ਞ = ਜੰਞ = marriage party

ExercisesEdit

1. Use Practice module to write the letters of the third row many times in your note book. You can click one of the letters below to go to relevant page of the practice module.

2. Read these English words written in Gurmukhi

  1. ਚਾਕ
  2. ਐੱਜ
  3. ਹੈਚ
  4. ਚੈੱਸ
  5. ਸਕੈੱਚ
  6. ਜੌਗ
Solutions
  1. Chalk
  2. Edge
  3. Hatch
  4. Chess
  5. Sketch
  6. Jog

3. Write the above listed words in Gurmukhi and English side by side.

4. Write these English words in Gurmukhi

  1. Jaw
  2. Jockey
  3. Inch
  4. Eschew
  5. Chick
  6. Each
  7. Junk
Solutions
  1. ਜਾ
  2. ਜੌ + ਕਿ = ਜੌਕਿ
  3. ਇੰ + ਚ = ਇੰਚ
  4. ਇ + ਸ + ਚੂ = ਇਸਚੂ
  5. ਚਿ + ਕ = ਚਿਕ
  6. ਈ + ਚ = ਈਚ
  7. ਜੰ + ਕ = ਜੰਕ

SummaryEdit

In this chapter we have learnt the alphabets of the third row (ਚ ਵਰਗ) of Gurmukhi. The letters are ਚ called chucha, ਛ called chhuchha, ਜ called jujja, ਝ called jhujja and ਞ called neya. In the next lesson we will learn the alphabets of the fourth row.

Velars · Retroflexes