Last modified on 12 May 2014, at 21:13


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Three consonants are used in Punjabi as conjuncts. These are half haha - ਹ੍ as in ਨ੍ਹ = ਨ+ਹ੍; half rara - ਰ੍ as in ਪ੍ਰ = ਪ+ਰ੍; and half vava - ਵ੍ as in ਸ੍ਵ = ਸ+ਵ੍. They are used only as inferior conjugates in the conjugal pair of consonants. The principal use of such conjuncts is in the words borrowed from other languages like Sanskrit, English etc. Here are some examples of the use of conjugate haha

ਜਿੰਨ੍ਹਾ /jinnaa/ = whom
ਯਗ੍ਹਾ /yaggaa/ = place
ਵਜ੍ਹਾ /vajjaa/ = reason

In the above examples the conjugate haha is not spoken as normal haha but a low tone following the conjugate full consonant. Let us now see some illustrations of the use of conjugate rara.

ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ /amrit/ = nectar
ਪ੍ਰਿੰਟਰ /printar/ = printer
ਪ੍ਰੋਫੈਸਰ /profesar/ = professor

Here are some illustrations of conjugate vava

ਸ੍ਵੈਮਾਨ /svemaan/ = self-respect
ਸ੍ਵੈਜੀਵਨੀ /svejiivanii/ = auto-biography
ਸ੍ਵੀਕਾਰ /sviikaar/ = accept

Among these conjugate consonants half vava i.e. ਵ੍ is used only with ਸ (ਸ੍ਵ).

In the above examples where ever a lag matra is added to a conjunct the matra actually combines with the conjugate diacritic which is invariantly spoken after the full consonant.


Write three examples each of conjugate haha, rara and vava.

  1. ਜਿੰਨ੍ਹਾ
  2. ਯਗ੍ਹਾ
  3. ਵਜ੍ਹਾ
  4. ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ
  5. ਪ੍ਰਿੰਟਰ
  6. ਪ੍ਰੋਫੈਸਰ
  7. ਸ੍ਵੈਮਾਨ
  8. ਸ੍ਵੈਜੀਵਨੀ
  9. ਸ੍ਵੀਕਾਰ
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