Last modified on 12 May 2014, at 21:13

Punjabi/Gurmukhi/Neo-group

In the previous chapters we have learnt all the letters of original Penti, the velars, the palatals, the retroflexes, the dentals, the labials and the semi vowels in addition to the vowel carriers and ਸ and ਹ. Here we will learn the letters of the eighth row (ਨਵੀਨ ਵਰਗ) of Gurmukhi. This group of letters is called the Neo group because the letters have been added to Gurmukhi to represent sounds borrowed from Persian and other foreign languages.

Eighth row of GurmukhiEdit

The Neo group consists of the following letters

ਸ਼ ਖ਼ ਗ਼ ਜ਼ ਫ਼ ਲ਼

These are called ਸ਼ - susse pair bindi, ਖ਼ - khukhe pair bindi, ਗ਼ - gugge pair bindi, ਜ਼ - jujje pair bindi , ਫ਼ - phuphe pair bindi and ਲ਼ - lulle pair bindi. ਸ਼ is pronounced as /sh/, ਖ਼ as /khh/, ਗ਼ as /ghh/, ਜ਼ as /jhh/ , ਫ਼ as /phh/ and ਲ਼ as /lh/.

ਸ਼ - sasse pair bindi 
This is how words shark and shore are written in Gurmukhi
ਸ਼ਾ + ਰ + ਕ = ਸ਼ਾਰਕ = shark
ਸ਼ੋ + ਰ = ਸ਼ੋਰ = shore
ਖ਼ - khakke pair bindi 
This sound is not found in English. However here are some Punjabi examples
ਖ਼ + ਤ = ਖ਼ਤ = letter
ਤ + ਖ਼ + ਤ = ਤਖ਼ਤ = throne
ਖ਼ + ਰ + ਗੋ + ਸ਼ = ਖ਼ਰਗੋਸ਼ = rabbit
ਸ਼ਾ + ਖ਼ = ਸ਼ਾਖ਼ = branch
ਗ਼ - gagge pair bindi 
This sound is also not found in English. However here are some Punjabi examples
ਗ਼ + ਮ + ਲਾ = ਗ਼ਮਲਾ = flower pot
ਜ਼ - jajje pair bindi 
This sound is equivalent to /z/. Here are some examples
ਜ਼ਿ + ਪ = ਜ਼ਿਪ = zip
ਜੈ + ਬ + ਰਾ = ਜ਼ੈਬਰਾ = zebra
ਫ਼ - fufe pair bindi 
As in
ਫ਼ਾ + ਰ + ਸੀ = ਫ਼ਾਰਸੀ = faarsi(persian)
ਲ਼ - lulle pair bindi 

Some of these letters merely represent the sounds borrowed from foreign languages but the use of others is lexically significant for that changes the word meanings. For example

ਗਲ = talk and ਗਲ਼ = decompose
ਸੇਰ = a unit of measurement and ਸ਼ੇਰ = lion

ExercisesEdit

1. Read these English words written in Gurmukhi

  1. ਸ਼ੈੱਡ
  2. ਸ਼ਾਉਟ
  3. ਐਸ਼
  4. ਗੱਸ਼
Solutions
  1. Shed
  2. Shout
  3. Ash
  4. Gush

2. Write these English words in Gurmukhi

  1. Shop
  2. Shoe
  3. Rush
  4. Blush
  5. Push
Solutions
  1. ਸ਼ੌ + ਪ = ਸ਼ੌਪ
  2. ਸ਼ੂ
  3. ਰੱ + ਸ਼ = ਰੱਸ਼
  4. ਬ + ਲੱ + ਸ਼ = ਬਲੱਸ਼
  5. ਪੁ + ਸ਼ = ਪੁਸ਼

SummaryEdit

In this lesson we have learnt the five letters of the second row of Gurmukhi script. These letter are ਸ਼ susse pair bindi, ਖ਼ khukhe pair bindi, ਗ਼ gugge pair bindi, ਜ਼ jujje pair bindi , ਫ਼ phuphe pair bindi and ਲ਼ lulle pair bindi. We have now learnt the complete Gurmukhi alphabet:

ੳ ਅ ੲ ਸ ਹ
ਕ ਖ ਗ ਘ ਙ
ਚ ਛ ਜ ਝ ਞ
ਟ ਠ ਡ ਢ ਣ
ਤ ਥ ਦ ਧ ਨ
ਪ ਫ ਬ ਭ ਮ
ਯ ਰ ਲ ਵ ੜ
ਸ਼ ਖ਼ ਗ਼ ਜ਼ ਫ਼ ਲ਼