Radiation Oncology/NHL/Anaplastic large cell

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Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL; CD30+)

Overview edit

  • T-cell or null-cell lymphoma, defined by membrane expression of CD30+
  • First identified in 1985, added to REAL classification in 1994
  • Represents ~5% of NHL in adults and ~15% of NHL in children
  • Clinical subtypes (see below)
    • Systemic
    • Primary cutaneous

Systemic ALCL Overview edit

  • Pathologic subtypes of systemic ALCL
    • ALK+
      • Predominately in young male patients
      • Aggressive presentation (75% systemic symptoms, 60% extranodal, 30% BM+)
      • Better prognosis (5-year OS 70-80%)
    • ALK-
      • Predominately in older patients
      • Less aggressive presentation
      • Worse prognosis (5-year OS 30-40%)
  • No specific RT information available as yet
  • Typically managed as Aggressive Lymphomas:
    • CHOP is first line of treatment, CHOP-R if CD20+
    • RT as per institutional preference
  • Overall better prognosis than other Aggressive Lymphomas

Cuteneous ALCL Overview edit

  • Accounts for 25-30% of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas
  • Spectrum of diseases including lymphomatoid papulosis and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma
  • Lymphomatoid papulosis
    • Indolent lymphoproliferative disorder
    • Typically multifocal
    • Frequently recurrent, but resolves spontaneously without treatment over weeks to months
  • Cutaneous CD30+ ALCL
    • Indolent lymphoma
    • Typically solitary or localized group of nodules and/or satellite papules. Localized is considered by the Dutch (see below) to be 1 anatomic area not exceeding 15 x 15 cm
    • Spontaneous regression sometimes occurs, but frequently relapse
    • Typically ALK- (unlike the systemic manifestation)
    • Favorable prognosis, with 10-year DFS >90%
    • Treatment is usually localized RT or surgical excision, but evidence is lacking

  • Yale; 2008 (2001-2006) PMID 18037577 -- "Treatment of primary cutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with radiation therapy." (Yu JB, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Apr 1;70(5):1542-5. Epub 2007 Nov 26.)
    • Retrospective. 8 patients. Localized C-ALCL, no other history, N0, treatment with RT alone. Median age 67, M=F. RT 40/20 (34 - 44 Gy), using 6-9 MeV with 0.5-2cm bolus. Median F/U 12 months
    • Outcome: 100% CR
    • Toxicity: Grade 1-2 dermatitis
    • Conclusion: RT alone for localized C-ALCL is well tolerated and clinical response is excellent. Longer follow-up necessary
  • Stanford; 2003 PMID 14639383 -- "CD30+ cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders: the Stanford experience in lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma." (Liu HL, J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Dec;49(6):1049-58.)
    • Retrospective. 56 patients with CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders (LyP n=31, PC-ALCL n=25). Treatment for PC-ALCL excision, RT, chemotherapy or combination. RT dose not specified
    • Outcome: 10-year DFS LyP 92%, PC-ALCL 85%; 5-year DFS localized PC-ALCL 91% vs generalized 50% (NS). Highly responsive to treatment, but relapse rate 42%. Progression to extracutaneous 3 patients
    • Conclusion: Overall excellent prognosis, but cases with poor outcome exist
  • Dutch Cutaneous Lymphoma Group; 2000 PMID 10845893 -- "Primary and secondary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders: a report from the Dutch Cutaneous Lymphoma Group on the long-term follow-up data of 219 patients and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment." (Bekkenk MW, Blood. 2000 Jun 15;95(12):3653-61.)
    • Retrospective. 219 patients, primary or secondary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders. Lymphomatoid papulosis (Group 1, n=118); primary C-ALCL (Group 2, n=79); C-ALCL with regional LN+ (Group 3, n=11); secondary (extensive cutaneous and extracutaneous) C-ALCL (Group 4, n=11). RT dose not specified
    • Treatment: LyP often no treatment. Skin limited Group 1-2 treated with RT or excision, and if treated with chemo, all had relapse.
    • Outcome: 10-year risk for systemic disease Group 1 4%, Group 2 16%, Group 3 20%. 5-year DFS 100%, 96%, 91%, 24%
    • Conclusion: Favorable prognosis. Chemotherapy only for developing/existing extracutaneous disease
  • EORTC; 1995 PMID 7751878 -- "CD30/Ki-1-positive lymphoproliferative disorders of the skin--clinicopathologic correlation and statistical analysis of 86 cases: a multicentric study from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Cutaneous Lymphoma Project Group." (Paulli M, J Clin Oncol. 1995 Jun;13(6):1343-54.)
    • Retrospective. 92 cases reviewed by expert panel.
    • Prognosis: favorable - age <60, spontaneous regression; unfavorable - age >60, extracutaneous disease
    • Conclusion: CD30+ cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders are a spectrum of closely related skin lesions
  • European Multicenter; 1993 PMID 8382999 -- "Primary cutaneous CD30-positive large cell lymphoma: definition of a new type of cutaneous lymphoma with a favorable prognosis. A European Multicenter Study of 47 patients." (Beljaards RC, Cancer. 1993 Mar 15;71(6):2097-104.)
    • Consensus report for definition. 47 patients from 5 center analyzed.
    • Features: solitary or localized skin lesions, partial/complete spontaneous remission of skin lesions (~25%), frequent cutaneous relapse (~30%). Extracutaneous disease developed in 25%
    • Outcome: favorable prognosis. DFS 77%, death from disease 9%
    • Conclusion: CD30+ cutaneous lymphoma can be considered a distinct type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

Links edit