Radiation Oncology/Randomized

Meta-analysis and Systemic ReviewEdit


Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)]]

  • [[AIDS-Related Lymphoma (Lymphoma)

Primary CNS Lymphoma (Lymphoma)]]

  • Anal Cancer
  • [[Appendix Cancer - see Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

Astrocytomas, Childhood (Brain Cancer)]]



Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor, Childhood (Brain Cancer) Medulloblastoma and Other CNS Embryonal Tumors, Childhood (Brain Cancer) Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood (Brain Cancer)]] Primary CNS Lymphoma



Intraocular Melanoma Retinoblastoma]] F


Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors (Brain Cancer) Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Testicular Cancer]]











Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) Childhood Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer) Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) Osteosarcoma (Bone Cancer)]]

  • [[Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Uterine Sarcoma]]

  • [[Sézary Syndrome (Lymphoma)

Skin Cancer]]


Nasopharyngeal Cancer Oropharyngeal Cancer Hypopharyngeal Cancer]]





Randomized EvidenceEdit

(In the process of being crosslinked)

Literature ReviewEdit

  • Kentucky; 2009 PMID 19111269 -- "Randomized prospective trials of innovative radiotherapy technology are necessary." (Halperin EC, J Am Coll Radiol. 2009 Jan;6(1):33-7.)
    • "It is possible to identify innovations that should be required to meet the standard of proof of a benefit in a randomized prospective clinical trial before being introduced into widespread clinical practice."
  • NCI Canada; 2008 (1975–2004) PMID 18955452 -- "Evolution of the Randomized Controlled Trial in Oncology Over Three Decades." (Booth CM, J Clin Oncol. 2008 Oct 27. [Epub ahead of print])
    • 321 reports evaluating RCT in systemic therapy for breast, CRC, and NSCLC reviewed.
    • Outcome: Number and size of RCT increased substantially. For profit sponsorship increased substantially (4% to 57%, SS). Effect size remained stable, but authors have become more likely to strongly endorse experimental arm (SS). Endorsement of experimental arm strongly associated with industry sponsorship
  • Wisconsin; 2008 PMID 18237799 -- "Randomized controlled trials in health technology assessment: Overkill or overdue?" (Bentzen SM, Radiother Oncol. 2008 Jan 29 [Epub ahead of print])
  • Oxford; 2007 PMID 17303884 -- "When are randomised trials unnecessary? Picking signal from noise." (Glasziou P, BMJ. 2007 Feb 17;334(7589):349-51.)
  • RTOG; 2005 (1968–2002) PMID 15728168 -- "Evaluation of new treatments in radiation oncology: are they better than standard treatments?" (Soares HP, JAMA. 2005 Feb 23;293(8):970-8.)
    • Review of all completed Phase III RTOG trials. 57 trials, 12734 patients
    • Outcome: survival OR for intervention arm over standard arm 1.01 (NS). Only 10% significantly better, 88% inconclusive
    • Toxicity: treatment-related mortality intervention arm worse OR 1.76 over standard arm (SS)
    • Conclusion: Results of individual trials cannot be predicted in advance
  • COG; 2005 (1955–1997) PMID 16299015 -- "Are experimental treatments for cancer in children superior to established treatments? Observational study of randomised controlled trials by the Children's Oncology Group." (Kumar A, BMJ. 2005 Dec 3;331(7528):1295. Epub 2005 Nov 18.)
    • Review of completed Phase III trials. 126 trials, 36567 patients
    • Outcome: survival OR 0.96 (NS)
    • Conclusion: New treatments in childhood cancer are as likely to be inferior as they are to be superior to standard treatments