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A. Positivism as Method and IdeologyEdit

I. An International Legal History of PositivismEdit

1. Early Natural Law Thinkers and the Positivist TurnEdit

2. Lassa Oppenheim on the 'Science' of International LawEdit

3. Hans Kelsen and the Pure Theory of (International) LawEdit

4. HLA Hart and International LawEdit

2. Legal Positivism within Legal PhilosophyEdit

1. The Separation ThesisEdit

2. Legal Validity and the Sources of LawEdit

3. 'Conceptual' and 'Normative' PositivismEdit

4. State Consent and Legal PositivismEdit

B. Critiques of Positivism in International LawEdit

I. Natural Law TheoryEdit

1. Natural Law and the Nature of (International) LawEdit

2. Hersch Lauterpacht and the 'Grotian Tradition'Edit

2. 'Anti-Positivism'Edit

1. Anti-Positivism and the Grounds of LawEdit

2. Moral Reasons the 'Rational Reconstruction' of International LawEdit

3. Critical Approaches and Non-State LawEdit

1. Critical Legal Theory and Positivism as an Ideological ChoiceEdit

2. Legal Pluralism, Global Administrative Law, and Positivism's Statist AssumptionsEdit

Further ReadingsEdit

  • Source I
  • Source II


  • Summary I
  • Summary II

Table of ContentsEdit

Back to home page

Part I - History, Theory, and Methods

Part II - General International Law

Part III - Specialized Fields


  1. The first footnote. Please adhere to OSCOLA when formating citations. Whenever possible, provide a link with the citation, ideally to an open-access source.