History of video games/Print version/Specialty topics

Special topics

Early History edit

First game tournament edit

The first video game tournament occurred at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California on October 19th, 1972 with the Spacewar! as the game being played.[1]

Other early events edit

A world championship was held in 1981.[2]

1990's edit

Nintendo World Championship edit

The 1990 Nintendo World Championships was a major event.[3][4]

Age of Fighting Games edit

A number of StreetFighter II versions were made.[5] Over the course of development, ideas from fan modifications were integrated with the official product to create a superior experience.[6]

Rise of competitive FPS edit

Many notable events like Quakecon first saw a start during the 1990's.[7]

Dennis Fong, known as the ace Quake and Doom player Thresh, helps popularize the control scheme WASD.[8][9]

2000's edit

StarCraft edit

StarCraft becomes a hit in South Korea as an esport, with it's popularity lasting over a decade.[10] In 2000 World Cyber Games (WCG) is established.[11] StarCraft also gains popularity in China, especially in internet cafes.[11] Following Chinese players winning several gold medals at WGC Seoul 2003, the Ministry of Sports of the Chinese government recognizes esports as an official sport in November 2003,[12][11] becoming one of the first major governments to do so.

Important Developments edit

In 2001 Russia becomes the first nation to recognize Esports as a sport, though the government later retracts this recognition in 2006.[13]

In 2000 the first complete version of Counter Strike is released after Valve cooperation hires modders Jess Cliffe and Minh Le to turn their betas into a full experience.[11][14]

In 2003 the first version of Defense of the Ancients is released as a Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne mod.[15]

2010's edit

Major Competitions edit

The first DOTA 2 international was held in 2011.[16] Also in 2011 the first League of Legends championship hosted a $100,000 prize and attracted 1.69 million viewers.[17]

American Esports edit

In 2013 the United States government recognizes Esports as a sport.[18][19] This allowed foreign players to obtain professional P-1 visas visit the United States of America to attend competitions.[20][21] In 2019 Pennsylvania lawmakers declare February to be Esports month,[22] The "PA Cup" statewide eSports tournament is announced shortly afterwords.[23] In November 2018 the US Army Esports team is created.[24][25]

2020's edit

Collegiate Esports edit

The Esports Arena at Arcadia University in May 2020.

On June 10th, 2020 the Mid-American Conference for Collegiate Athletics creates the independent Esports Collegiate Conference.[26]

Esports during COVID-19 edit

The initial closure of in person sporting events drew many people to esports during the COVID-19 pandemic.[27] Despite this, the cancelation of in person events affected many esports organizations, which then accepted out PPP relief loans.[28]

On November 19th, 2020 The Big House 10 Super Smash Brothers tournament was canceled after Nintendo sent the tournament organizers a cease and disist notice for using netcode needed to make the tournament an online, socially distanced experience.[29] An official Splatoon 2 tournament was canceled following many gamers using tags which supported the Smash Bros community, with an unofficial event The Squid House taking it's place.[30][31]

2020 Olympics edit

Beginning on May 13th, 2021 the International Olympic Committee hosted their first esports event, the Olympic Virtual Series, focusing on games based on real life sports.[32][33][34]

The first virtual motorsport event was won by Valerio Gallo who represented Italy, with Mikail Hizal of German taking second, and Baptiste Beauvois of France taking third.[35]

References edit

  1. Farokhmanesh, Megan (20 October 2012). "First game tournament, ‘Intergalactic Spacewar Olympics,’ held 40 years ago" (in en). Polygon. https://www.polygon.com/2012/10/20/3529662/first-game-tournament-intergalactic-spacewar-olympics-held-40-years. Retrieved 10 November 2020. 
  2. "VIDEO GAMES STAR WAR (Published 1981)". The New York Times. 25 October 1981. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  3. Fern, Ricky; Conceição, es da (16 May 2015). "Looking back at the 1990 Nintendo World Championships". Goomba Stomp. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  4. Pitcher, Jenna (5 February 2014). "Nintendo World Championships cartridge sells for $100K on eBay". Polygon. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  5. Leone, Matt (23 November 2020). "Street Fighter Alpha: An oral history". Polygon.
  6. February 2008, David Houghton 14. "Why Street Fighter is still the most important fighting game series around". gamesradar.
  7. Statt, Nick (31 March 2020). "QuakeCon canceled for the first time in 25-year-history over coronavirus". The Verge.
  8. Wilde, Tyler (24 June 2016). "How WASD became the standard PC control scheme". PC Gamer.
  9. Edwards, Phil (18 October 2018). "Why gamers use WASD to move". Vox. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  10. "StarCraft: Remastered hasn't changed how Korea feels about StarCraft".
  11. a b c d Yu, Haiqing (2018). "Game On: The Rise of the eSports Middle Kingdom[1]". Media Industries Journal. doi:10.3998/mij.15031809.0005.106. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  12. Zhang, Chenglu (13 February 2019). "The Chinese government recognizes esports as a profession". Esports Insider. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  13. "Gamma Law Why Isn't Russia an Esports Superpower?". Gamma Law. 30 November 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  14. "The history of Counter-Strike". Red Bull. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  15. "Gamasutra - Features - Postmortem: Defense of the Ancients". web.archive.org. 7 December 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  16. "Announcing "The International"} Dota 2". Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  17. "League of Legends championship draws nearly 1.7 million viewers". Engadget. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  18. Tassi, Paul. "The U.S. Now Recognizes eSports Players As Professional Athletes". Forbes. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  19. Ligman, Kris. "U.S. recognizes eSports players as professional athletes". www.gamasutra.com. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  20. "US Government Recognizes League of Legends' LSC as Sport - IGN". Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  21. "Score! Professional video gamers awarded athletic visas". NBC News. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  22. Fogel, Stefanie (5 February 2019). "PA Lawmakers Debate Video Game 'Sin Tax' During State's Esports Month". Variety. Retrieved 9 December 2020. {{cite web}}: Missing |author1= (help)
  23. "Harrisburg University announces statewide esports tournament on Pa.'s first annual Esports Day". pennlive. 6 February 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  24. "The U.S. Army Turns to Esports as It Fails to Meet Its Recruitment Targets - IGN" (in en). https://www.ign.com/articles/2018/11/15/the-us-army-turns-to-esports-as-it-fails-to-meet-its-recruitment-targets. 
  25. "US Army launching esports team as recruiting effort" (in en). GamesIndustry.biz. https://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/2018-11-14-us-army-launching-esports-team-as-recruiting-effort. 
  26. "MAC Membership Unveils Esports Venture". getsomemaction.com. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  27. "COVID-19 and the Rise of Esports". University of Nevada, Las Vegas.
  28. "Why Professional Gamers Are Getting Loans From the Government". www.vice.com. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  29. Good, Owen S. (19 November 2020). "Smash Bros. tournament The Big House 10 canceled over netcode". Polygon.
  30. Hernandez, Patricia (7 December 2020). "Fans say Nintendo canceled tourney over Smash Bros. protest". Polygon. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  31. "Smash Bros, Splatoon and Other Fan Communities Clash With Nintendo - IGN" (in en). https://www.ign.com/articles/nintendo-smash-bros-splatoon-etika-joy-cons-communities-freemelee-freesplatoon. 
  32. Horiuchi, Junko (28 June 2021). "IOC weighs addition of pandemic-boosted virtual sports to Olympics". The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/sports/2021/06/28/olympics/ioc-esports-future-games/. 
  33. Peters, Jay (2 June 2021). "The Olympics’ vision of gaming looks very different from the biggest esports" (in en). The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2021/6/2/22464255/olympic-virtual-series-esports-most-popular-games. 
  34. Note: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 Olympic games were held in 2021.
  35. Evans, Andrew (23 June 2021). "Valerio Gallo Wins Gran Turismo Olympic Virtual Series". GTPlanet. https://www.gtplanet.net/valerio-gallo-wins-olympic-20210623/. 

Cloud · Preservation

Timeline edit

Gaming Etiquette has evolved over time, often in response to emerging technology and game trends.

1980's edit

United States Arcades edit

I got next.
—Common arcade phrase indicating one wants a turn.[1] Good etiquette sometimes, bad etiquette others.

1980's arcade etiquette in the United States of America encouraged modesty, good sportsmanship, and respect of skill.[2][3]

During the 1980's the practice of leaving a quarter on a machine emerged, a polite non-intrusive way to let a gamer know that someone wanted to have a go at the game they were playing was to put quarters on the machine deck.[4] The number of quarters either indicated the desired play time for a solo gamer waiting, or in the case of Coin Lining the number of people waiting in line if multiple people were waiting, typically only putting down one coin each in that case.[4][5]

1990's edit

United States Arcades edit

In 1995 some American arcades had for etiquette surrounding fighting games, including the quarters on cabinet signal morphing into a way to challenge a player to a match on a fighting game.[6][7]

Networked Computer Gaming edit

By 1994 the term gg ("Good Game") stated to be used online to genuinely and efficiently congratulate players at the end of a game, with the release of StarCraft popularizing the term.[8][9] By 1999 and in increasing frequency as time went on GG would start to be used as an insult, often in at the beginning or the middle of a match, and this has lead to the development of variations such as GGWP ("Good Game Well Played").[8][9] In general, l337 speak finds its way into online gaming communities.[10]

Fragging and rage-quitting are practices that predate video games, though Quake II's ability to call out any player that rage-quits mid-match likely helped popularize the term among gamers.[11][12]

2000's edit

A LAN party in 2003. The influx of gamers new to networked gaming created new questions and issues in gaming etiquette.

The proliferation of portable electronics and online communications during the 2000's created new etiquette questions.[13][14] One example is the proliferation of griefing, with many players having experienced this breach of etiquette by the late 2000's.[15]

2010's edit

Arcades edit

Common Arcade rules in the 2010's included not being overly drunk (Particularly for barcades), and good sportsmanship.[16]

For barcades with free play it is expected that gamers buy a drink to support the establishment, whether the drink is alcohol or a non-alcoholic does not matter.[1]

2020's edit

Animal Crossing etiquette edit

During the COVID-19 pandemic etiquette in 2020 Animal Crossing: New Horizons was covered by a number of media sources, and recommendations were generally made not to make major changes without asking the host.[17][18]

References edit

  1. a b "Arcade Etiquette". CityBeat Cincinnati. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  2. "80s Arcade Gaming Rules of Etiquette - What NOT To Do - Communal News". Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  3. Grundhauser, Eric (4 May 2016). "How to be Cool (According to a Video Game Magazine From 1982)". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  4. a b "Arcade etiquette in the 80's?". Museum of the Game® Forums. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  5. "Urban Dictionary: coin line". Urban Dictionary. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  6. "Play Games! Get Paid!". Wired. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  7. "26 Ridiculous Things Everyone Forgets About Arcade Gaming". TheGamer. 25 October 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  8. a b Paez, Danny. "How friendly gamer slang became the most sarcastic insult on the internet". Inverse. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  9. a b Vicente, Vann. "What Does "GG" Mean, and How Do You Use It?". How-To Geek. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  10. "A Leet Primer" (in en). www.ecommercetimes.com. https://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/47607.html. 
  11. Paez, Danny. "How "rage quit" became the most relatable gamer emotion". Inverse. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  12. December 2013, Zach Betka 02. "Lol noob, do you even know where video game terms come from?". gamesradar. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  13. "Manners For A High-Tech Society - ExtremeTech". www.extremetech.com. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  14. "My xbox LIVE etiquette manifesto thingy • Gaming • Xbox 360 • Eurogamer.net". Eurogamer.net. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  15. Rubin, Victoria L.; Camm, Sarah C. (1 January 2013). "Deception in video games: examining varieties of griefing". Online Information Review. 37 (3): 369–387. doi:10.1108/OIR-10-2011-0181. ISSN 1468-4527. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  16. "The Written Rules Of The Arcade". Arcade Heroes. 29 September 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  17. Farokhmanesh, Megan (20 March 2020). "A guide to Animal Crossing: New Horizons etiquette, or how not to be "a total tool"". The Verge. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  18. Favis, Elise. "Animal Crossing etiquette guide: The dos and don'ts of online multiplayer". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 November 2020.

Preservation · List of Abbreviations

"Indie games" (short for "independent games") are independently-produced games that are created by a single person or very small team.

1999 edit

In 1999 the first version of the GameMaker engine is released, and later gains popularity among indie game developers.[1][2]

Read more about GameMaker on Wikipedia.

2000 edit

A pirated English translation of RPG Maker is released by Don Miguel, introducing many to game development.[3]

2002 edit

RPG maker 2003 was a continuation of the RPG maker engine, and had surprising longevity, with commercial indie games still being released that were made the engine as of 2018.[4]

Read more about RPG Maker 2003 on Wikipedia.

2004 edit

2004 was a seminal year in Indie gaming history, with several high profile releases attracting attention.

N was released as a browser game, and would see a number of notable followup games.[5] Alien Hominid was a browser game that was ported to PlayStation 2 and Gamecube in 2004,[6] making it an early indie game to see a port from web to console.

2004 also saw the release of one notable game engines used by a number of games, including Source.

Read more about N and Alien Hominid.

Yume Nikki edit

A Japanese horror surreal 2D RPG.

Read more about Yume Nikki on Wikipedia.

Cave Story edit

A Japanese 2D platformer and shooter popular on PC at the time.

Read more about * Cave Story on Wikipedia.

2005 edit

  • First release of the Unity game engine.

2006 edit

Line Rider edit

A unique flash platformer game of sorts that allowed players to draw lines which would then be traversed by a character using a physics engine. Players would often leverage Line Rider to create their own artwork,[7] some of which was enormously complex.[8]

Read more about Line Rider on Wikipedia.


A real time simulation of Nuclear War. This game is known for it's simple yet deep mechanics, as well as it's retro vector graphics reminiscent of depictions of nuclear commands in Cold War era popular culture.

Read more about DEFCON on Wikipedia.

Dwarf Fortress edit

A map in Dwarf Fortress.
Loosing is Fun!
—Common phrase among Dwarf Fortress players, The New York Times Magazine[9]

A text based open world game known for it's extensive systems which lead to emergent gameplay.

Read more about Dwarf Fortress on Wikipedia.

2007 edit

I Wanna Be the Guy edit

A freeware 2D Retro-styled Platformer known for it's notorious difficulty. This game artfully used level design to both increase the difficulty of the game, as well as to parody techniques commonly used by 2D platformer games in the 1980's and early 1990's.

Read more about I Wanna Be the Guy on Wikipedia.

Jazzuo & B-Games edit

In 2007 Polish developer "Jazzuo" creates several so called "B-Games", influencing a number of notable indie developers.[10]

2008 edit

You Have to Burn the Rope edit

The title screen of You Have to Burn the Rope.

A flash 2D platformer known for it's exceptional simplicity and briefness.

Read more about You Have to Burn the Rope on Wikipedia.

2009 edit

AaAaAA!!! – A Reckless Disregard for Gravity edit

A base jumping game between high rise buildings.

Read more about AaAaAA!!! – A Reckless Disregard for Gravity on Wikipedia.

Canabalt edit

Among the first popular endless runner games. It's aesthetic qualities were well received, leading to the game being featured at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

Read more about Canabalt on Wikipedia.

Angry Birds edit

Angry Birds characters became popular figures. Seen here is Astronaut Donald Pettit demonstrating microgravity aboard the International Space Station in 2012 using Angry Birds characters.

An touchscreen physics puzzler hit on early iOS and Android mobile devices, which lead to an extended franchise.

Read more about Angry Birds on Wikipedia.

Bit.Trip Beat edit

A Wii-ware arcade style music game that found widespread popularity, launching ports to other platforms and a series of successor games.

Read more about Bit.Trip Beat on Wikipedia.


An action shooter that proved to be among the most popular indie games available on the Xbox Live Arcade.

Read more about I MAED A GAM3 W1TH Z0MBIES 1N IT!!!1 on Wikipedia.

2010 edit

Unity Asset Store edit

In 2010 Unity launches their asset store, making it easier for indie developers to find assets for use in their games.[11] As the decade progresses, other engines follow suit, such as the release of the Unreal Engine Marketplace in 2018.[12]

Amnesia: The Dark Descent edit

A popular melding of adventure and survival horror game genres, and commonly considered among the best horror games of the era.

Read more about Amnesia: The Dark Descent on Wikipedia.

Fruit Ninja edit

A mobile game focused on using a touch screen to cut fruit and build combos, while avoiding slicing bombs.

Read more about Fruit Ninja on Wikipedia.

Octodad edit

A freeware physics game focused on maneuvering an octopus man character through a 3D environment with unconventional controls.

Read more about Octodad on Wikipedia.

Super Meat Boy edit

A 2D platformer known for both its difficulty, and its ability to quickly retry levels.

Read more about Super Meat Boy on Wikipedia.


A 2D platformer hallmarked by replacing jumping with inverting gravity and it's Atari 2600 style aesthetics.

Read more about VVVVVV on Wikipedia.

Cart Life edit

A simulation game focused on the challenges of being a street vendor.

Read more about Cart Life on Wikipedia.

2011 edit

Kerbal Space Program edit

A 3D space action game featuring the green aliens.

To the Moon edit

A 2D RPG without battle mechanics known for it's plot revolving around the concept of memory.

2012 edit

The 2012 Global Game Jam
The FEZ dev team at GDC 2012.

Mari0 edit

A notable fanmade mashup of Super Mario Bros and Portal.

Read more about Mari0 on Wikipedia.

2013 edit

Subset Games, creators of FTL, at IGF 2013

Bubsy 3D: Bubsy Visits the James Turrell Retrospective edit

An unofficial fangame of Bubsy 3D, posted online when the domain name for the original game expired.

The game was set in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art during an exhibition of the postmodern work of James Turrell. The game itself delves into strange scenes, perhaps in a postmodern exploration of its own.

Read more about Bubsy 3D: Bubsy Visits the James Turrell Retrospective on Wikipedia.

2014 edit

Lucas Pope, creator of Papers, Please, at IGF 2014.

Lethal League edit

A 2D fighting game centered around successfully passing a ball back and forth between players.

Read more about Lethal League on Wikipedia.

Freedom Planet edit

A 2D platformer made in the style of 2D Sonic the Hedgehog games.

Read more about Freedom Planet on Wikipedia.

Nidhogg edit

A 2D sword fighting game known for it's balance and 1980's inspired visuals.

Read more about Nidhogg on Wikipedia.

Transistor edit

Released in 2014, the game Transistor is known for many of its qualities, particularly its unique art direction. While working on Transistor, game artist Jen Zee took inspiration from the Art Nouveau style, as well as the work of 19th century Austrian artist Gustav Klimt.[13][14] The game is also well known for its less direct storytelling methods, as well as it's unique hybrid real time and turn based action system which leads to interesting strategic choices for the player.[15]

Read more about Transistor on Wikipedia.

Game Engines edit

Unreal Engine 4 is released in 2014, offering a number of improvements.

The Godot and Xenko (now Stride) game engines are open sourced.

2015 edit

Unreal Engine 4 goes gratis edit

  • Unreal Engine 4 eliminates subscription fees,[16] making it more accessible to indie developers.

Games edit

Nuclear Throne edit

A screenshot of Nuclear Throne, showing bullet hell, or danmaku, style gameplay.

A top down 2D shooter known for it's difficult bullet-hell style gameplay.

Read more about Nuclear Throne on Wikipedia.

2016 edit

VA-11 Hall-A edit

Christoper Ortiz, one of the developers of VA-11 Hall-A, showcases the game at a talk at the Universidad Simón Bolívar in Caracas, Venezuela.

A mix of bartender simulation and visual novel created by a team in Venezuela.

Read more about VA-11 Hall-A on Wikipedia.

2017 edit

2018 edit

2019 edit

2020 edit

Friday Night Funkin' edit

Friday Night Funkin' was developed for the Ludum Dare game jam.[17] Some news outlets noted the similarities of Friday Night Funkin' to the sorts of games which were based on Adobe Flash.[18] It's important to note that there was an increased interest in Adobe Flash games,[19] as the time of this game's launch corresponded with the discontinuation of Flash. Notably the game was open source[20] which attracted modders to the game.[18] At the time of release, it was somewhat unusual for original indie titles to launch under an open source license.

2021 edit

Poppy Playtime edit

is a horror game developed and published by american independent developer MOB Games. The player takes the role of a former employee of toy-making company Playtime Co., who revisits its abandoned toy factory 10 years after its staff's disappearance. The player navigates through a first-person perspective and must solve puzzles, some requiring a gadget named the GrabPack, to progress while avoiding various enemies. first game chapter is released on October 13, 2021, The second chapter is released on May 5, 2022 and the third chapter is released on January 30, 2024.

2022 edit

Cult of the Lamb edit

is a single-player construction and management simulation, rogue-like action-adventure game developed by indie developer Massive Monster and published by Devolver Digital. The game was released on 11 August 2022 for macOS, Nintendo Switch, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 5, Windows, Xbox One, and Xbox Series X/S. The game follows a possessed lamb who is saved from death by a god-like stranger named "The One Who Waits", and must repay their debt by creating a loyal following in its name.

2023 edit

Pizza Tower edit

Pizza Tower is a 2023 platform game created by the indie developer Tour De Pizza. It follows a pizza chef, Peppino Spaghetti, who must scale a tower to prevent the destruction of his pizzeria. Across 20 side-scrolling levels, the player increases their score by gathering collectibles and defeating enemies to build combos. At the end of each level, they activate an escape sequence and must return to the beginning within a time limit. Pizza Tower does not feature health or lives, and its difficulty depends on what the player chooses to achieve.

References edit

  1. "Ten Years of Game Maker 1999-2009". 14 November 2009. https://gamemakerblog.com/2009/11/15/ten-years-of-game-maker-1999-2009/. 
  2. "GameMaker Studio creators look back at 17 years of development". VentureBeat. 4 September 2017. https://venturebeat.com/2017/09/03/gamemaker-studio-creators-look-back-at-17-years-of-development/. 
  3. Zavarise, Giada (11 October 2017). "The secret history of underdog game engine RPG Maker and how it got its bad reputation". PC Gamer. https://www.pcgamer.com/the-secret-history-of-underdog-game-engine-rpg-maker-and-how-it-got-its-bad-reputation/. 
  4. Zavarise, Giada (1 September 2018). "Are RPG Maker games as bad as people think?" (in en). Eurogamer. https://www.eurogamer.net/articles/2018-09-01-are-rpg-maker-games-as-bad-as-people-think. 
  5. "Toronto developers create 2,360-level video game they hope will last a lifetime CBC News". CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/n-the-perfect-video-game-that-took-10-years-to-complete-1.3179232. 
  6. "``Alien Hominid Invades Retail Stores; Critics Are Raving About This Bigger, Badder Console Version of the Cult Game Now Available from O-3 Entertainment and The Behemoth" (in en). www.businesswire.com. 18 November 2004. https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20041118005596/en/Alien-Hominid-Invades-Retail-Stores-Critics-Are-Raving-About-This-Bigger-Badder-Console-Version-of-the-Cult-Game-Now-Available-from-O-3-Entertainment-and-The-Behemoth. 
  7. "Crazy for Line Rider". Pogue’s Posts Blog. 2006-11-22. https://pogue.blogs.nytimes.com/2006/11/22/22pogues-posts-2/. 
  8. "11 years later, this gobsmacking Line Rider track is finally complete" (in en). Rock Paper Shotgun. 2020-11-28. https://www.rockpapershotgun.com/11-years-later-this-gobsmacking-line-rider-track-is-finally-complete. 
  9. Weiner, Jonah (2011-07-21). "Where Do Dwarf-Eating Carp Come From?". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/24/magazine/the-brilliance-of-dwarf-fortress.html. 
  10. Macgregor, Jody (11 April 2018). "The creators of Spelunky and Getting Over It talk about Sexy Hiking and 'B-games'". PC Gamer. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  11. "Unity: "Games wouldn't see the light of day" without asset stores" (in en). GamesIndustry.biz. https://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/2018-07-19-well-88-percent-of-what-asks-unitys-global-head-of-asset-store. 
  12. "Epic Announces Unreal Engine Marketplace 88% / 12% Revenue Share". Unreal Engine. https://www.unrealengine.com/en-US/blog/epic-announces-unreal-engine-marketplace-88-12-revenue-share. 
  13. "The Cyberpunk Art Nouveau Style of Transistor - The Phoenix". 6 April 2016. https://swarthmorephoenix.com/2016/04/06/the-cyberpunk-art-nouveau-style-of-transistor/. 
  14. "The diverse artistic influences behind two of 2014’s prettiest games" (in en-us). AV Club Games. https://games.avclub.com/the-diverse-artistic-influences-behind-two-of-2014-s-pr-1798277930. 
  15. "Hardcore Gamer’s Best Games of the Decade (2010-2019)". Hardcore Gamer. https://hardcoregamer.com/2020/01/10/hardcore-gamers-best-games-of-the-decade-2010-2019/364857/. 
  16. "Unreal Engine is Now Free!". Unreal Engine. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  17. "South Cariboo game designer reaps success". 100 Mile House Free Press. 21 November 2020. https://www.100milefreepress.net/entertainment/south-cariboo-game-designer-reaps-success/. 
  18. a b "Friday Night Funkin' Fondly Recalls Flash Games" (in en). TechRaptor. https://techraptor.net/gaming/features/friday-night-funkin-flash-games. 
  19. "If You Missed the Golden Age of Flash, You Should Try THESE Games". CBR. 1 February 2021. https://www.cbr.com/flash-games/. 
  20. "Twitter @ninja_muffin99". https://twitter.com/ninja_muffin99/status/1320215862578606080. 

Microconsoles · Open consoles

Intro edit

Open Source games are interesting from a historical point of view, because they allow the examination of a codebase and development cycle over time.

Nethack edit

Battle for Wesnoth edit

Neverball edit

StepMania edit

0 A.D. edit

Read more about 0 A.D. in its Wikibook.

BZ Flag edit

Super TuxKart edit

Cube edit

Minetest edit

In 2011 the first early release (0.2.20110731_3) of Minetest was posted to Github.[1]

Nexuiz & Xonotic edit

Other Open Source and Free Software Games edit

References edit

  1. "Release 0.2.20110731_3 · minetest/minetest". GitHub. Retrieved 12 December 2020.

Open consoles · Cloud

Museums, Libraries, and Archives edit

Game specific edit

Europe edit

The Computerspiel Museum in Berlin, Germany.
  • Museum of Soviet Arcade Machines in Moscow, Russia.
  • Computerspielemuseum Berlin in Berlin, Germany.
  • Finnish Museum of Games in Tampere, Finland.
  • National Videogame Museum in Sheffield, United Kingdom.
  • Video Game Museum of Rome in Italy.
  • Muzeum her Cibien's Corner in Prague, Czech Republic.
  • Retro Gaming Museum with branches in Iceland and Norway.[1]

North America edit

  • The Strong Museum of Play in Rochester, New York.
  • National Videogame Museum in Frisco, Texas.
  • The University of Texas Video Game Archive in Austin, Texas.
  • The Computer and Video Game Archive (CVGA) at the University of Michigan Library in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
  • Star Worlds Arcade in De Kalb, Illinois.
  • International Video Game Hall of Fame in Ottumwa, Iowa (Under development)
  • Montreal Video Game Museum in Montreal, Canada.

Other edit

  • The Nostalgia Box in Perth, Australia.
  • The Retro Video Game Museum in Sydney, Australia.[2]

Related Collections edit

Museums or collections of other subjects that include Computer Game or Video Game history.

Popular Culture edit

The Museum of Pop Culture (MoPOP) in Seattle, Washington.
  • The MADE (Museum of Art and Digital Entertainment) in Oakland, California.
  • Australian Centre for the Moving Image in Melbourne, Australia.
  • Museum of Pop Culture in Seattle, Washington.
  • Ray & Pat Browne Library for Popular Culture Studies in Bowling Green, Ohio - Has media related to games such as movies based on game IP, rather than games themselves.

Computing edit

General computing museums often include game hardware, or early computer models that were sometimes used for gaming.

  • The National Museum of Computing in Bletchley Park, United Kingdom.
  • The Micro Museum in Ramsgate, United Kingdom.[3]
  • Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California.
  • Living Computers: Museum + Labs in Seattle, Washington.
  • Nexon Computer Museum in Jeju, South Korea.

Other edit

  • The Henry Ford in Dearborn, Michigan.[4]
  • Slovak Design Museum in Bratislava.[5][6]

Threats edit

Minor edit

Battery backed RAM edit

Many early game cartridges use RAM to store save data.[7] This requires a a battery to deliver power to the RAM at all times to avoid save game loss.[7] These batteries will inevitably run out of juice, loosing the save games contained on the cartridge, and potentially causing other problems should they fail in other ways.

Ventilation edit

Ensuring proper ventilation to an air cooled device, and keeping it clean of dust can extend it's operative life.[8][9]

Material degradation edit

Many computers and consoles use white ABS plastic with flame retardants that yellow over time.[10][11]

Forgery edit

As with any work of art, or commodity, the existence of forgeries of historical video game materials makes authenticating certain materials more difficult.[12]

Major edit

Defective Design edit

Some consoles have inherent flaws in their designs that will eventually cause them to fail, such as the power supply used by the Amstrad GX4000[13] or the Red Ring of Death on the original Xbox 360.

As with any modern computer, many consoles and gaming hardware and software are likely to be susceptible to time issues, and may fail or encounter unexpected behavior once certain dates are reached.[14] Notably, many devices have software which will encounter issues on January 19, 2038.[14][15]

Displays edit

Some consoles with early built in displays, such as the Microvision or the Game Boy, have poorly made displays that rely on ample light to work, and either rot over time or become sunburnt and become unusable.[16][17]

Some display technologies, such as early OLED panels, are highly likely to burn in images over time, though this typically does not render the device unusable.[18][19]

CRT displays are no longer manufactured in mass quantities, leading to shortages of replacements for arcade machines that use them.[20] This is complicated by CRT technology having many desirable qualities for gaming not replicated in current display technologies.[21][22] Some early light gun games rely on CRT technology to operate.[23]

Arcade Batteries edit

Some Arcade games, such as some made by Sega or those using the Z80 based Capcom Kabuki chip, would intentionally destroy critical data should an included battery fail.[24][25]

Capacitor Plauge/Failure edit

Older capacitors may degrade out of spec, leak fluid, or otherwise become destructive with time, though this is highly dependent on capacitor chemistry, typically affecting small electrolytic capacitors the worst and on if the device has had proper storage conditions.[26][27]

Server shutdowns edit

Some games rely on server functions or always online DRM to run, resulting in an unplayable game once servers are decommissioned.[28] Obtaining legal access to game server software is much more difficult then it is to acquire legal access to the end user copy of the game.[29]

MMO games are particularly difficult to archive.[30]

As software and games move to exclusively be distributed over the internet, preservation becomes trickier due to a lack of physical media.[31][32]

Sometimes online storefronts may remove older media, despite many old games being "finished".[33][34]

Deliberate removal edit

Sometimes a game developer will decide to pull digital games from a storefront, making downloading new copies impossible, even if the digital storefront still operates and the game date is not technically lost.[35][36]

Other removal is less overt. Bulky obsolete arcade hardware is sometimes stored outside where it is degraded by the elements,[37] though sometimes salvage of previously unpreserved materials from these units is possible.[38]

Data loss edit

Often source code, development materials, and the final game product itself are not properly preserved by developers or publishers.[39] Additionally original audio recordings of in game samples are of interest to preservationists, and are also useful for remastering projects.[40]

Bit rot, or degradation of game media, can also cause information to become lost if no backups exists. [41] Even when studios keep backups, it is still possible for source material to be lost through corruption.[42]

Solutions edit

There are two primary approaches to video game preservation, maintaining the physical objects themselves, and maintaining the digital contents of games.[43] Both of these approaches require different skillsets, and an individualized approach to specific items.[43]

There have been a number of successful attempts to mend copyright law to make preservation of gaming easier without harming the ongoing industry.[44]

Some preservationists seek out dev kits, looking for lost data, though some companies have retaliated against those who do so.[45][46]

Open source projects on GitHub, including a number of games and related technologies, are preserved on digital PiqlFilm in their Arctic Code Vault located under permafrost in a former coal mine in Svalbard.[47][48][49] This film is said to be readable until the year 3020.[48] The film also includes instructions on how to build a reader, should it be needed.[50] Of course this project only protects open source software that was on GitHub on the archive date. This follows the precedent of another Svalbard based archive, the Global Seed Vault, which seeks to preserve agricultural biodiversity in case of destructive events.[51]

Preservation History edit

An early encyclopedia of video game history was known to exist on the French Minitel system.[52]

Gallery edit

Threats edit

Solutions edit

References edit

  1. "Contact". Retro Gaming Museum. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  2. ""Retro Video Game Museum"". https://www.gamesmen.com.au/retro-video-game-museum. 
  3. "The Micro Museum UK|History|Vintage Computers|Games". the-micro-museum. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
  4. "Digital Collections". www.thehenryford.org. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  5. Castello, Jay (15 January 2022). "How a design museum unearthed a treasure trove of classic Slovak games" (in en). The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/22882705/slovak-design-museum-classic-game-preservation-1980s. 
  6. "Slovak Design Center | Places". Visit Bratislava. https://www.visitbratislava.com/places/slovak-design-center/. 
  7. a b "Miscellaneous Attributes : Battery Backed RAM". MobyGames. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  8. Techs, Armor (17 November 2020). "Built for Failure: The Unfortunate Truth about Consoles". Armor. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  9. "Xbox Support". support.xbox.com. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  10. "Plastic Cleanup Via Retrobrighting". Hackaday. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  11. "This guy makes badly aged Apple computers sparkle again". Cult of Mac. 22 July 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  12. Orland, Kyle (7 June 2022). "Inside the $100K+ forgery scandal that’s roiling PC game collecting" (in en-us). Ars Technica. https://arstechnica.com/gaming/2022/06/inside-the-100k-forgery-scandal-thats-roiling-pc-game-collecting/. 
  13. "Feature: Your Beloved Games Console Is Slowly But Surely Dying". Nintendo Life. 25 December 2019. https://www.nintendolife.com/news/2019/12/feature_your_beloved_games_console_is_slowly_but_surely_dying. 
  14. a b "Is the Year 2038 problem the new Y2K bug?" (in en). the Guardian. 17 December 2014. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/dec/17/is-the-year-2038-problem-the-new-y2k-bug. 
  15. Francisco, Neil McAllister in San. "Linux clockpocalypse in 2038 is looming and there's no 'serious plan'" (in en). www.theregister.com. https://www.theregister.com/2015/02/20/linux_year_2038_problem/. 
  16. "Milton Bradley Microvision". Pop Culture Maven. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  17. "Repairing A Sunburned Game Boy Screen". Hackaday. 27 January 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  18. Brookes, Tim. "OLED Screen Burn-In: How Worried Should You Be?". How-To Geek. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  19. Muddle, Ty (17 September 2017). "Five Reasons the PlayStation Vita Might Suck". Medium. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  20. "History of the CRT TV". BT.com. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  21. Leadbetter, Richard (17 September 2019). "We played modern games on a CRT monitor - and the results are phenomenal". Eurogamer. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  22. "CRTs And The "Retro Look"". GameTyrant. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  23. Robertson, Adi (6 February 2018). "Inside the desperate fight to keep old TVs alive". The Verge. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  24. "Reverse Engineering Capcom's Crypto CPU". Hackaday. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  25. Life, Nintendo (4 June 2016). "Ninterview: Preserving Gaming History With Arcade Collector ShouTime". Nintendo Life. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  26. "Ask Hackaday: Experiences With Capacitor Failure". Hackaday. 12 April 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  27. "Vaccinate yourself against CAPACITOR PLAGUE!". Wirebiters. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  28. Brown, Ryan (9 May 2016). "Why video game preservation matters and games like Battleborn are anti-consumer". mirror. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  29. Orland, Kyle (29 October 2018). "Researchers can now legally restore "abandoned" online game servers". Ars Technica. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  30. Robertson, Adi (24 February 2014). "EVE, offline: how do you archive a universe?". The Verge. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  31. "Current Game Preservation is Not Enough How They Got Game". web.stanford.edu. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  32. "Nintendo Makes It Clear that Piracy Is the Only Way to Preserve Video Game History". www.vice.com. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  33. Clark, Mitchell (29 April 2022). "Apple to developers: if we deleted your old app, it deserved it" (in en). The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2022/4/29/23049576/apple-outdated-apps-removal-extension-90-days. 
  34. "As Apple Threatens Pulling Games, Devs Explain Why Forced Updates Are A Preservation Nightmare" (in en-us). Kotaku. https://kotaku.com/apple-iphone-ipad-games-app-store-removed-delisted-upda-1848837569. 
  35. "Demise of Silent Hills Proves Gaming Has a Preservation Crisis". PCMAG. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  36. "Saving 'P.T.'". www.vice.com. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  37. "Incredibly Rare Sega Arcade Game Found Rotting In A Field" (in en-AU). Kotaku Australia. 23 February 2021. https://www.kotaku.com.au/2021/02/incredibly-rare-sega-arcade-game-found-rotting-in-a-field/. 
  38. "24-Year-Old Neo Geo 64 Prototype Latest Game To Be Found In A Field" (in en-AU). Kotaku Australia. 18 March 2021. https://www.kotaku.com.au/2021/03/24-year-old-neo-geo-64-prototype-latest-game-to-be-found-in-a-field/. 
  39. "The Uncertain Future of Video Game History". EGM. 12 August 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  40. Orland, Kyle (5 February 2021). "Super High-Fidelity Mario: The quest to find original gaming audio samples" (in en-us). Ars Technica. https://arstechnica.com/gaming/2021/02/super-high-fidelity-mario-the-quest-to-find-original-gaming-audio-samples/. 
  41. Wahba, Michael (9 November 2018). "The Bits and Bytes of Video Game Preservation". Scholarly Gamers. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  42. Farokhmanesh, Megan (3 February 2021). "Mass Effect’s Pinnacle Station DLC is forever lost due to data corruption" (in en). The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2021/2/3/22264321/mass-effects-pinnacle-station-dlc-data-corruption-lost. 
  43. a b "A Laboratory for Video Game Preservation" (in en). www.museumofplay.org. 11 October 2019. https://www.museumofplay.org/blog/2019/10/a-laboratory-for-video-game-preservation. 
  44. "Copyright Law Just Got Better for Video Game History" (in en). www.vice.com. https://www.vice.com/en/article/zm9az5/copyright-law-just-got-better-for-video-game-history. 
  45. "The Questionably Legal Hunt For Abandoned AAA Games" (in en). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gtvQiVeaLqw. 
  46. "I dumped a one of a kind Nintendo 64 Turok 3 Development ROM | MVG" (in en). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T2Mk-d6QLio. 
  47. "GitHub launches Arctic Code Vault to preserve open source software for 1,000 years". VentureBeat. 13 November 2019. https://venturebeat.com/2019/11/13/github-launches-arctic-code-vault-to-preserve-open-source-software-for-1000-years/. 
  48. a b "GitHub is done depositing its open source codes in the Arctic" (in en). Engadget. https://www.engadget.com/github-arctic-vault-success-020240808.html. 
  49. "GitHub Archive Program". GitHub Archive Program. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  50. "How we’re stopping global memory loss". Piql. 19 August 2020. https://www.piql.com/blog/how-were-stopping-global-memory-loss/. 
  51. "The ‘Doomsday’ Vault Where the World’s Seeds Are Kept Safe". TIME.com. https://time.com/doomsday-vault/. 
  52. "www.jeuxvideo.com" (in fr). Le Monde.fr. 21 January 1999. https://www.lemonde.fr/archives/article/1999/01/21/www-jeuxvideo-com_3533196_1819218.html. 

Esports · Etiquette

Official Retro Consoles edit

The early 2000's saw the first releases of consoles that emulated older systems with officially licensed games. The late 2010's and 2020 saw many more companies release all in one systems.

FPGA Consoles edit

FPGA based consoles use reprogrammable chips to mimic other hardware, potentially allowing for more efficient or accurate emulation than pure software emulation can.[1]

RetroUSB AVS edit

An FPGA based NES compatible system.[2]

Clone Consoles edit

Retro Bit Retro Duo Portable edit

A clone system that supports SNES games out of the box, and NES, Sega Genesis, and Game Boy through adapters.[3]

Retro Bit Retro Duo

Yobo FC Twin edit

Combination NES and SNES compatible console.[4]

Hyperkin RetroN edit

NES compatible system.

Hyperkin RetroN 5 edit

The RetroN 5 was shown off at E3 2013.[5]

The Hyperkin RetroN 5 is a console launched on December 10th, 2013 that runs Linux and open source emulators to play cartridges for the Famicom, NES, SNES, Genesis, Game Boy Advance systems.[6][7]

Hyperkin RetroN 77 edit

Released by 2018[8], the RetroN 77 plays Atari 2600 at an upscaled 720p resolution over HDMI.[9]

GB Boy Color edit

Game Boy Color clone.

Omega MVS edit

Rather different from other consoles listed here, in that it's simply a Neo Geo MVS placed in a console formfactor.[10]

Emulation Consoles edit

Famicom Classic/ NES Classic edit

Super Famicom Classic/ SNES Classic edit

Video Converters edit

OSSC edit

The Open Source Scan Converter is an low latency upscaler to convert old signals to work on modern displays.[11]

Framemeister edit

An early upscaler for retro gaming.[12]

References edit

  1. "MiSTer FPGA: The Future of Retro Game Emulation and Preservation?". RetroGaming with Racketboy. 20 February 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  2. "The RetroUSB AVS just replaced my childhood Nintendo". Engadget. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  3. Wilber, Jennifer. "Retro Duo NES and SNES Clone Console Review". LevelSkip - Video Games. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  4. "Thoughts of Thoughtfulness: A Review of The FC-Twin". Thoughts of Thoughtfulness. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  5. "Hyperkin Retron 5 Uses Android To Emulate 9 Classic Consoles For Under $100 (No, You Can't Buy It Yet)". Android Police. 11 June 2013. https://www.androidpolice.com/2013/06/11/hyperkin-retron-5-uses-android-to-emulate-9-classic-consoles-for-under-100-no-you-cant-buy-it-yet/. 
  6. "Hyperkin RetroN 5 Review". PCMAG. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  7. "Hyperkin Retron 5 combines ten consoles into one on December 10 for $99 (updated)". Engadget. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  8. "RetroN 77 REVIEW – Pros & Cons + Gameplay". MetalJesusRocks. 22 June 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  9. "Things We Love: Hyperkin RetroN 77". B&H Explora. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  10. "Omega Entertainment Machine - Consolized Neo Geo MVS Game Console". Arcade Works. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  11. "Open Source Scan Converter (OSSC)". RetroRGB. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  12. "Upscalers". RetroRGB. Retrieved 28 November 2020.

Ninth generation of video game consoles · Microconsoles

# edit

  • 1v1 - One versus one. For one player to fight another player.
  • 1337 - Leet or Elite. Shorthand speak in common use by gamers during the 2000's.

A edit

  • AAA - Triple A. A game made with a large studio with a large budget.
  • ACG - Refers to the subculture Anime, Comic, and Games.
  • AI - Artificial Intelligence. Often shorthand to refer to a computer player.
  • API - Application Programming Interface
  • APM - Actions per minute. Used by competitive gamers.
  • APU - AMD processors known as Accelerated Processor Units. Combines CPU and GPU on a die.
  • AV - Audio Visual. Typically used to refer to signal cables or display equipment.

B edit

  • BBC - British Broadcasting Cooperation.
  • BD - Short for Blu-ray Disc. A standard for optical disks mainly used for films and console video games.

C edit

  • C128 - Short for Commodore 128.
    • C128D - Short for Commodore 128D, a North America-only version of the computer.
  • C16 - Short for Commodore 16.
  • C64 - Short for Commodore 64.
    • C64C - Short for Commodore 64C.
    • C64GS - Short for Commodore 64 Games System.
  • CBM - Commodore Business Machines, now known as "Commodore International".
  • CIB - Complete in Box, term used by collectors.
  • CD - Short for CD-ROM optical disk technology.
  • CISC - Complex Instruction Set Computer.
  • Co-op - Cooperative elements, typically in multiplayer games. Used in terms like Couch Co-op to refer to local multiplayer.
  • CPU - Central Processing Unit
  • CRT - Cathode-ray tube. Common display used before the 2000's for TV sets, computer displays and arcade machines.
  • CV - ColecoVision

D edit

  • DPS - Damage per Second. Also refers to a player role where attacking with a high damage per second is desired (To the point of letting other players handle healing, and taking damage to focus on increasing DPS).
  • DVD - An optical disk. Abbreviation is disputed, but usually identified as "Digital Versatile Disc".

E edit

  • EEPROM - Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory - Storage technology used by some early game cartridges.
  • EXP - Experience Points

F edit

  • FDD - Floppy disk drive.
  • FLOPS - Floating Point Operations Per Second, a common benchmark of processing speed.
  • FMV - Full Motion Video. Often used in the 1990's when a game featured prerecorded video. FMV game refers to a game that primarily or exclusively uses prerecorded videos for graphics.
  • FPGA - Field Programmable Gate Array. A popular technology used by some clone consoles for accurate replication of original hardware.
  • FPS - Multiple meanings. Short for Frames per Second. Also may refer to the First Person Shooter game genre.

G edit

  • GB - Multiple meanings. Short for Game Boy when discussing consoles. Short for Great Britain when discussing releases.
    • GBP - Short for Game Boy Pocket.
    • GBC - Short for Game Boy Color.
    • GBA - Short for Game Boy Advance.
  • GD-ROM - Short for Gigabyte Disc Read only memory - a disk format used by Sega in the late 1990's and early 2000's.
  • GG - Multiple meanings. Short for Game Gear when discussing consoles. Short for Good Game in casual chat.
  • GPU - Graphics Processing Unit
  • GPGPU - General Purpose GPU
  • G&W - Game and Watch

H edit

  • HDD - Hard Disk Drive
  • HP - Multiple meanings. Short for Health Points. May also refer to Hewlett Packard, a computer and calculator manufacturer.

I edit

  • IBM - International Business Machines. One of the most notable computer manufacturers since the 1930s, inventor of the PC standard in the early 1980s.
  • III - Indie games with scope or funding comparable to AAA games.
  • IV - Multiple meanings. Short for Intellivision. Also the roman numeral for 4.

J edit

  • JP - Short for Japan when discussing releases.

K edit

  • K - Kilo. Metric unit for thousand. Often seen as Kilobyte, Kilobit, etc.
  • KB - Keyboard.
  • KD - Kill Death ratio, especially in competitive multiplayer games. Generally a high KD is seen as the sign of a skilled player.

L edit

  • Lag - Slang for latency, especially in online gaming.
  • LCD - Liquid Crystal Display - A common display type since the inception of handheld game consoles. Became nearly universal in general displays after the 2000's.
  • LED - Light Emitting Diode - Commonly used as indicator lights on consoles, and rarely as discrete parts of a large console display.
  • LIN - Short for Linux, an operating system kernel.
  • LOL - Multiple meanings. Often refers to laugh out loud. May also refer to the game League of Legends.
  • LoZ - Short for the Legend of Zelda, either the first game or the series in general.
  • LP - Let's Play. A genre of writing or video which discusses a playthrough of a game.

M edit

  • Mac - Short for Macintosh, a computer line launched by Apple in 1984.
  • MAC - Short for "media access control", a type of unique address for computer networks.
  • MIPS - Two separate meanings. Short for either Millions of Instructions per Second, or the MIPS processor architecture.
  • MMORPG - Massively Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Game
  • MOBA - Multiplayer Online Battle Arena
  • Mobo - Motherboard
  • MS - Informal acronym for Microsoft.
  • MUD - Multi User Dungeon. The smaller precursor to MMORPG.
  • MV - Microvision

N edit

  • N3DS - Short for Nintendo 3DS.
    • N2DS - Short for Nintendo 2DS.
  • N64 - Short for Nintendo 64.
  • NA - Short for North America when discussing releases.
  • NDS - Short for Nintendo DS.
    • NDSi, Short for Nintendo DSi.
  • NES - Short for Nintendo Entertainment System
  • NIN - Short for Nintendo.
  • NG - Short for NEO•GEO.
  • NPC - Non Player Character
  • NS - Short for Nintendo Switch.
  • NSO - Nintendo Switch Online
  • NX - Early codename for Nintendo Switch.

O edit

  • OLED - Organic Light Emitting Diode. A common display type in the 2010's and on.
  • OS - Multiple meanings. Can refer to Operating System or Open Source.
  • OOT - Short for The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time

P edit

  • PC - Multiple meanings. Personal computer, especially a computer compatible with the IBM Personal Computer (model 5150) or a computer running Microsoft Windows. Also can be used to refer to a Player Character.
  • PC-88 - Short for NEC PC-8800 series computers.
  • PCB - Printed Circuit Board
  • PPE - Multiple meanings. Refers to a computational unit in the PS3 Cell Processor or the Xbox 360 Xenon Processor. Refers to Personal Protective Equipment, which some gaming brands sold during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • PPU - Picture Processing Unit, A GPU of sorts used on some early Nintendo consoles.
  • PS - Short for PlayStation in general, may refer to PS1 specifically.
    • PS1 - Short for PlayStation 1
    • PS2 - Short for PlayStation 2
    • PS3 - Short for PlayStation 3
    • PS4 - Short for PlayStation 4
    • PS5 - Short for PlayStation 5
    • PSN - Short for PlayStation Network.
    • PSP - Short for PlayStation Portable.
    • PSX - Codename for PlayStation 1. Also a Japan-only model of PlayStation 2.
  • PUBG - Short for PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds.

Q edit

  • QPU - Quantum Positioning Unit, used by the Super Mario 64 speedrunning community.

R edit

  • RISC - Reduced Instruction Set Architecture.
  • RAM - Random Access Memory.
  • ROM - Read Only Memory. Also slang for an amateur digital copy of a physical game.
  • RPG - Multiple meanings. Generally refers to Role Playing Game. In FPS games, refers to the real life weapon - Rocket Propelled Grenade.
    • ARPG - Action Role Playing Game
    • CRPG - Computer Role Playing Game - Often western in origin
    • JRPG - Japanese Role Playing Game
    • TRPG - Tactical Role Playing Game
    • WRPG - Western Role Playing Game
  • RSX - Reality Synthesizer. The GPU used on the PlayStation 3.
  • RTS - Real Time Strategy. A genre of game.

S edit

  • SMB - Super Mario Bros..
  • SMS - Short for Sega Master System.
  • SNES - Short for Super Nintendo Entertainment System.
  • SPE - Synergetic Processing Element, used by the PlayStation 3 Cell CPU.
  • SSD - Solid State Drive.

T edit

  • TBS - Turn Based Strategy. A genre of game.
  • TF - Team Fortress.
    • TFC - Team Fortress Classic.
    • TF2 - Team Fortress 2.

U edit

  • UMD - Universal Media Disc, a portable optical disk format used by Sony.

V edit

  • VC - Multiple meanings. Short for Venture Capital. Short for Nintendo's Virtual Console.
  • VCS - Atari Video Computer System, original name of console CX-2600, later renamed "Atari 2600". Also the name of an Atari console launched in 2020.
  • VCR - Short for "video cassette recorder", a device used to play and record on VHS tapes or, occasionally, also other video tapes.
  • VHS - Video Home System, the most common video tape standard, also used for some very low cost video game consoles.
  • VMS - Visual Memory System - Handheld game system/Sega Dreamcast Memory Card in Japan and Europe.
  • VMU - Visual Memory Unit - Handheld game system/Dreamcast Memory Card in North America.
  • VR - Virtual Reality

W edit

  • WAD - Short for "Where's All the Data?", default format for Doom package files, in which mods are usually distributed.
  • WIN - Short for Windows, an operating system.
  • Wolf3D - Short for Wolfenstein 3D, after the game's main executable in PC versions.
  • WOW - World of Warcraft.

X edit

  • x86 - Commonly-used processor architecture designed by Intel, and used by AMD, VIA, and others. The "x" stands for a variable digit.
  • x86-64 - Commonly-used extension of the x86 standard, designed by AMD, and used by Intel.
  • XB - Informal acronym for Xbox.
  • XBL - Xbox Live
  • XBLA - Xbox Live Arcade.

Y edit

  • Y2K - Year 2000. A feared collapse of global computing technology due to poor coding practices on the eve of the millennium.

Z edit

  • Z80 - Short for Zilog Z80 processor.

References edit