Flora of New York/Poaceae 3


Poaceae 2
Flora of New York — Poaceae 3
Poaceae 4
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Poales genus index

From A World-wide Phylogenetic Classification of Poaceae

Subfamily Pooideae edit

Subfam. Pooideae Benth. (1861) is a large group that contains the cool-season grasses. This includes barley, oats, rye, wheat, and others.

Tribe Brachyelytreae edit

Tribe Brachyelytreae Ohwi (1941) contains only the genus Brachyelytrum.[1]

Brachyelytrum edit

 
Brachyelytrum aristosum
The ranges of the two North American shorthusk species overlap in New York, and they grow closely together in some parts of the state, but not in mixed populations, nor have they been known to hybridize.[1]

According to the New York Flora Atlas, both shorthusk species grow in mesic hardwood forests. Northern shorthusk (B. aristosum) is found in cooler, more northern sites, while southern shorthusk (B. erectum) usually grows in warmer, more southern sites, and sometimes in dry-mesic or calcareous sites.

  • Brachyelytrum aristosum (northern shorthusk): Lemmas (0.7-) 0.8—1.2 (-1.4) mm wide, minutely scabrous, longest hairs (0.06-) 0.08—0.14 (-0.2) mm long, not evident at 10x; weakly veined, mid-veins similar in prominence to secondary veins; widest leaf blades (0.8-) 1.0—1.4 (-1.6) cm wide;
  • Brachyelytrum erectum (southern shorthusk): Lemmas (0.8-) 1.1—1.5 (-1.8) mm wide, hispid, longest hairs (0.2-) 0.4—0.8 (-0.9) mm long, easily seen under 10x magnification, conspicuously veined, mid-veins more prominent than the secondary veins; widest leaf blades (0.9-) 1.1—1.7 (-2.0) cm wide.[2]

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Brachyelytreae[1]
Genus Brachyelytrum Shorthusk N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Michx.) Trel.

1888. Brachyelytrum aristosum Trel.
1943. Brachyelytrum erectum
var. septentrionale Babel
1988. B. septentrionale G.C.Tucker
 auct. B. erectumvar. glabratum
Northern short-husk,
Northern long-awned
  wood grass
Native,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5
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(Schreb.) P.Beauv.

1802. Muhlenbergia erecta Schreb.
1812. Brachyelytrum erectum P.Beauv.
1892. B. aristosumvar. glabratum Vasey
1964. B. erectumvar. glabratum
T. Koyama & Kawano
Bearded short-husk,
Southern long-awned
  wood grass
Native,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5
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  1. Brachyelytreae Ohwi, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 55: 361. 1941

Tribe Nardeae edit

Tribe Nardeae W.D.J. Koch. (1837) contains only the genus Nardus..[1]

Nardus edit

 
Nardus stricta
Nardus stricta (matgrass) is and Old-World grass that has been found in northern New York, New England, and eastern Canada. It is also present in Oregon and Idaho, where it is listed as a noxious weed.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Nardeae — Nardus
Genus Nardus Mat grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Nardus stricta L.
1941. N. glabriculmis Sakalo
1976. N. strictavar. glabriculmis
Matgrass,
Mat grass,
Moor matgrass,
Doormat grass,
Strict matgrass,
Nard grass,
Wirebent
Nard raide,
Nard,
Poil-de-bouc,
Poil-de-chien
Introduced from
 Europe,
 temperate Asia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
Naturalized weed
 
NYFA: X

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Tribe Meliceae edit

Tribe Meliceae Link ex Endl. (1830) contains Glyceria, Lycochloa, Melica, Pleuropogon, Schizachne, and Triniochloa.[1]

Glyceria edit

Glyceria (manna grass or sweet grass) is treated here based on:

Glyceria sect. Hydropoa edit
 
Glyceria grandis
Glyceria sect. Hydropoa (Dumort.) Dumort includes a total of about five species, of which only American manna grass in known to grow in New York State. The Eurasian G. maxima is assessed as highly invasive for the region, but there have as yet been no vouchered reports in New York. However, there is concern that some of the specimens of G. grandis might in fact be G. maxima.

An observation of Glyceria maxima made by Paul Rutledge in Wyoming County 1994 is shown in iMapInvasives.[1]


Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Meliceae — Melicineae — Glyceria sect. Hydropoa
Genus Glyceriasect. Hydropoa Manna grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 S.Watson
var. grandis

1890. Glyceria grandis S.Watson
1823. Poa aquaticavar. americana
1892. Panicularia americana
(Torr.) MacMill.
1913. Panicularia grandis
(S. Watson) Nash
1921. Glyceria grandisfo. grandis (i)
1934. Glyceria grandisvar. grandis (i)
1942. Glyceria maximassp. grandis
1957. Glyceria maximavar. grandis
1967. Glyceria maximavar. americana
American manna grass
American mannagrass
American glyceria
Giant glyceria
Giant manna grass
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure,
S5, G5

OBL

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 5
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 (Hartm.) Holb.

1753. Poa aquatica L.
1812. Melica aquatica (L.) Weber ex P.Beauv.
1820. Glyceria aquatica (L.) Wahlb.
1820. Molinia maxima Hartm.
1919. Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holb.
Reed meadowgrass ...
Reed mannagrass ...
Reed sweetgrass ...
Tall glyceria
English watergrass

Glycerie aquatique
Introduced from
 northern Eurasia,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: 80%[1],
No NY reports,
NYFA Excluded
  Wyoming (1994 iMap)
NYFA-Excluded
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Glyceria sect. Glyceria edit
 
Glyceria borealis

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Meliceae — Melicineae — Glyceria sect. Glyceria
Genus Glyceriasect. Glyceria Manna grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Nash) Batchelder

    Panicularia borealis Nash
    G. borealis (Nash) Batchelder
    G. fluitansvar. angustata
Northern manna grass,
Small floating manna grass
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 5
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Hitchc. (1906)
var. septentrionalis

    Panicularia septentrionalis
Floating manna grass Native, CoC: 7,
Secure,
S5, G5

OBL

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 5
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 Torr.

    Panicularia acutiflora
Creeping mannagrass,
Sharp-glumed manna grass,
Sharp-flowered manna grass,
Sharp-scaled manna grass
Native, CoC: 9,
Secure,
S5, G5

OBL

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 5
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 (L.) R.Br.

    Festuca fluitans L.
    Panicularia fluitans
Water manna grass Introduced,
Naturalized,
SNA, GNR

OBL

Perennial,
Graminoid
  Bronx (1898), Chemung, Chenango (1939), Oneida, Richmond, Rockland, Westchester
NYFA: X
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 Brébiss.

Small manna grass,
Waxy mannagrass
Introduced,
Impersistent,
Unk. naturalization
 
NYFA: X
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Genus Glyceriasect. Glyceria (excluded taxa) Manna grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Hitchc.
var. arkansana
(Fernald) Steyerm. & C. Kucera

    
    
    
Floating manna grass Native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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G. borealis × septentrionalis

    
    
    
Hybrid of
 northern manna grass &
 floating manna grass
Native,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

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Chevall.

1827. Glyceria notata Chevall.
1839. G. fluitansvar. plicata
1845. G. plicata (Fr.) Fr.
Plicate sweet grass Introduced from
 Eruasia,
 northern Africa,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded
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Glyceria sect. Striatae edit
 
Glyceria striata
fowl mannagrass

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Meliceae — Melicineae — Glyceria sect. Striatae
Genus Glyceriasect. Striatae Manna grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Lam.) Hitchc.

1791. Poa striata Lam.
1797. Poa nervata Willd.
1830. Glyceria nervata (Willd.) Trin.
1891. Panicularia nervata (Willd.) Kuntze
1928. Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc.
1929. Glyceria striata  var. stricta  (Scribn.) Fernald
1933. Panicularia striata (Lam.) Hitchc.
1942. Glyceria striata  ssp. stricta  (Scribn.) Hultén
Fowl manna grass,
Fowl mannagrass
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5
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(Michx.) F.T.Hubbard (1912)

Slender manna grass ...
Melic mannagrass
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5
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(Michx.) Trin.

    Panicularia canadensis
Rattlesnake mannagrass
Canada manna grass
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5
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 (Muhl.) Trin.

1817. Poa obtusa Muhl.
1830. Glyceria obtusa (Muhl.) Trin.
1891. Panicularia obtusa
(Muhl.) Kuntze
Atlantic mannagrass,
Blunt manna grass
Native, CoC: 10,
Vulnerable
 
NYFA: 3?
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 (Scribn.) Scribn.

    G. canadensisvar. laxa
    Glyceria × ottawensis
    Panicularia laxa Scribn.
Limp manna grass,
Northern manna grass
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered
 
NYFA: 1?

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Genus Glyceriasect. Striatae (excluded taxa) Manna grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Glyceria melicaria ×
Glyceria striata

    Glyceria × gatineauensis
    
    
Hybrid of
 slender manna grass &
 fowl manna grass
Native,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

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Glyceria canadensis ×
Glyceria striata

    Glyceria × ottawensis
    
    
Hybrid of
 slender manna grass &
 Canada manna grass
Native,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

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Melica edit

 
Melica altissima 'Atropurpurea'

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Meliceae — Melicineae — Melica
Genus Melica (excluded taxa) Melic grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Siberian melicgrass Introduced,
N.Y. excluded,
Waif
  excluded
NYFA-Excluded
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Schizachne edit

 
Schizachne purpurascens
False melic (Schizachne purpurascens)
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Meliceae — Schizachne
Genus Schizachne False melic N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Torr.) Swallen

1823. Trisetum purpurascens Torr.
1803. Avena striata Michx. illeg. hom.
1906. Melica striata Hitchc.
1908. Melica purpurascens (Torr.) Hitchc.
1913. Avena torreyi Nash
1928. S. purpurascens (Torr.) Swallen
1936. S. striata (Hitchc.) Hultén
False melic,
False melic grass,
Purple oat
Native,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5

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Tribe Stipeae edit

Tribe Stipeae Dumort. (1824) contains Achnatherum, Aciachne, Amelichloa, Anatherostipa, Anemanthele, Austrostipa, Celtica, Eriocoma, Hesperostipa, Jarava, Lorenzochloa, Macrochloa, Nassella, Oloptum, Ortachne, Orthoraphium, Oryzopsis, Pappostipa, Patis, Piptochaetium, Piptatheropsis, Piptatherum, Psammochloa, Ptilagrostis, Stipa, Stipellula, Timouria, and Trikeraia.[1] Many of the New York grasses in the tribe Stipeae are referred to in general as rice grasses.

Oryzopsis edit

 
Oryzopsis asperifolia
The name Oryzopsis reflects a similarity to the genus Oryza (rice). Spreading whitegrass, roughleaf ricegrass, or white-grained mountain rice grass is common in shaded habitats of New York.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Stipeae — Stipinae — Oryzopsis
Genus Oryzopsis Rice grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Michx.

Spreading white grass ...
Roughleaf ricegrass
White-grained mountain-ricegrass
Native,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5

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Patis edit

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Stipeae — Stipinae — Patis
Genus Patis Rice grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Sm.) Romasch.,
P.M.Peterson & R.J.Soreng

1813. Milium racemosum Sm.
1817. Oryzopsis melanocarpa Muhl.
1829. Piptatherum racemosum (Sm.) Eaton
1906. Oryzopsis racemosain…
2011. Patis racemosa (Sm.) Romasch., in…
Black-fruited rice grass,
Blackseed ricegrass,
Black-fruited mountain-ricegrass
Native,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5

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Piptatheropsis edit

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Stipeae — Stipinae — Piptatheropsis
Genus Piptatheropsis
Romasch., P.M.Peterson & Soreng
Rice grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Torr.) Romasch., P.M.Peterson &
R.J.Soreng

1821. Milium pungens Torr. ex Spreng.
1908. Oryzopsis pungensin…
2001. Piptatherum pungensin…
2011. Piptatheropsis pungens <abbr title=" in (Torr. ex Spreng.) Romasch.,
P.M.Peterson & R.J.Soreng">in…
Mountain ricegrass,
Short-awned mountain-rice grass
Native,
Likely secure
 
NYFA: 4

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(Poir.) Romasch., P.M.Peterson &
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1806. Stipa canadensis Poir.
1835. Urachne canadensis (Poir.) Torr.
1843. Oryzopsis canadensis (Poir.) Torr.
1888. Oryzopsis junceain…
2001. Piptatherum canadense (Poir.) Dorn
2011. Piptatheropsis canadensis (Poir.) in…
Canada ricegrass,
Canada mountain-ricegrass
Native,
Endangered
 
NYFA: 2

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Piptochaetium edit

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Stipeae — Stipinae — Piptochaetium
Genus Piptochaetium Spear grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Parodi (1944)

Stipa avenacea L
Black-seeded spear grass ...
Blackseed speargrass
Native,
Vulnerable
 
NYFA: 3?

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Hesperostipa edit

 
Hesperostipa comata
Needle-and-thread grass is native to western North America and has not been found to naturalize in New York State. It was collected from Cobb's Hill Reservoir in Rochester 1914 but has not persisted there.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Stipeae — Stipinae — Hesperostipa
Genus Hesperostipa Needle and thread N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth

1842. Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr.
1993. Hesperostipa comatain…
Needle-and-thread
Needle-and-thread grass
Needlegrass
Speargrass
Introduced,
N. America native,
Likely extirpated
 
NYFA: XZ

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Nassella edit

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Stipeae — Stipinae — Nassella
Genus Nassella Tussock grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Trin.) Barkworth

Stipa viridula Trin.
Green needlegrass Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent
 
NYFA: Xm

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Tribe Diarrheneae edit

Tribe Diarrheneae C.S. Campb. (1985) contains Diarrhena and Neomolinia.[1]

Diarrhena edit

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Diarrheneae[1]Diarrhena
Genus Diarrhena Beak grain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Gleason) Brandenburg (1991)

Diarrhena americana var. obovata
Western beakgrain ...
Beak grass
Obovate beakgrain ...
Native,
Endangered
 
NYFA: 2

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  1. Diarrheneae Tateoka ex C.S. Campb., J. Arnold Arbor. 66: 188. 8 Apr 1985

Tribe Brachypodieae edit

Tribe Brachypodieae Harz (1880) consists of the single genus Brachypodium (syn. Trachynia),[1] which has no known species that are native to the western hemisphere.

Brachypodium edit

 
Brachypodium sylvaticum
Brachypodium, commonly known as false brome contains the invasive slender false brome (B. sylvaticum), which has a number of dense populations in New York and according to iMapInvasives is present in at least 11 counties.[1]

Purple false brome (B. distachyon) has not been reported in New York, but in listed in iMap as Highly invasive with an NYS Tier of 1b, as it is present in New Jersey.

Heath false brome (B. pinnatum) has not been reported in New York, but may be of concern because it has been reported in western Massachusetts.


Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Brachypodieae[1]Brachypodium
Genus BrachypodiumP.Beauv. False brome N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Huds.) P.Beauv.
ssp. sylvaticum

1762. Festuca sylvatica Huds.
1776. Bromus sylvaticus Moench
1777. Triticum sylvaticum Pollich
1812. Bra. sylvaticum P.Beauv.
1827. Agropyron sylvaticum Chevall.
Slender false brome ...

Brachypode des bois,
Brachypode des forêts
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 87%[2],
Prohibited[3],
NYS Tier 3,
SNA, GNR
  NYFA: 2 counties
iMap: 11 counties
NYFA: X

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Genus Brachypodium (excluded taxa) False brome N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) P. Beauv.

    Brachypodium distachyon
Purple false brome
Stiff brome

Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Highly invasive,
NYS Tier 1b
  No counties
NYFA: 0

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(L.) P.Beauv.

1753. Bromus pinnatus L.
1812. Bra. pinnatum P.Beauv.
Heath false brome,
Chalk false brome,
Japanese false bromegrass
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
No NY reports
  No counties
NYFA: 0

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Tribe Bromeae edit

Bromus edit

The genus Bromus is here divided by sections according to the treatment by Leon E. Pavlick and Laurel K. Anderton.

Bromus sect. Bromus edit

Catalogue of New World Grasses

Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Bromeae — Bromus sect. Bromus
Genus Bromussect. Bromus Brome N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

    Forasaccus arvensis (L.) Bubani
    Serrafalcus arvensis (L.) Godr.
    B. erectusvar. arvensis (L.) Huds.
    B. anatolicus Boiss. & Heldr.
Field brome Introduced

Annual,
Graminoid
 
NYFA-X

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Fisch. & C.A.Mey.

    B. brizaeformis (i)
{Rattlesnake brome,
Rattlesnake chess
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Impersistent

Annual,
Graminoid
 
NYFA-X

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 Schrad. 1806

    B. racemosusssp. commutatus
    B. commutatusvar. apricorum
    B. hordaceusvar. commutatus
Hairy brome,
Hairy chess,
Meadow brome
Introduced,
Weed

Annual,
Graminoid
 
NYFA-X

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 L.
ssp. hordeaceus

    Bromus mollis L.
Soft brome,
Soft chess
Introduced

Annual,
Graminoid
 
NYFA-X

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 L.
ssp. pseudothominei
(P.M.Sm.) H.Scholz

Lesser soft brome Introduced

Annual,
Graminoid
 
NYFA-X

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 L.
ssp. thominei
(Hardouin) Braun-Blanq.

1833. Bromus thominei Hardouin
1907. B. hordeaceusvar. thominei
1923. B. hordeaceusssp. thominei
Sand soft brome
Brome des dunes,
Brome des
  Thomine-Desmazures
Introduced,
No specimens

NYFA-D

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Thunb. ex Murray 1784

    B. arvensisvar. japonicus
    B. japonicusvar. porrectus
    B. patulus Mert. & W.D.J.Koch
Japanese brome,
Japanese chess,
Japanese bromegrass,
Thunberg's brome
Introduced,
Weed
 
NYFA-X

NRCS-XX
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Mediterranean brome Introduced  
NYFA-X

NRCS-XX
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Slender soft brome Introduced
NYFA-X

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 L.

    B. arvensisvar. racemosus
    B. hordeaceusvar. racemosus
    B. squarrosusvar. racemosus
Bald brome,
Smooth brome,
Spiked brome-grass
Introduced,
Naturalized

Annual,
Graminoid
 
NYFA-Xn

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Broom brome Introduced  
NYFA-X

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Rye brome Introduced  
NYFA-X

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var. squarrosus

Corn brome Introduced  
NYFA-X

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Bromus sect. Bromopsis edit
 
Bromus ciliatus
Bromus sect. Bromopsis Dumort has also gone by the name Bromus sect. Pnigma Dumort.

Bromus inermis (smooth brome) is listed as a Tier-4 invasive plant in the Finger Lakes PRISM, though it hasn't been assessed at the state level.


Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Bromeae — Bromus sect. Bromopsis
Genus Bromussect. Bromopsis Brome N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Fringed brome Native,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5

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(Shear) Hitchc.

Bromus altissimus Pursh
Canada brome,
Earlyleaf brome
Native,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5

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Hairy wood brome grass,
Hairy woodland brome
Native,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5

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Arctic brome,
Kalm's brome,
Wild chess
Native,
Likely secure
 
NYFA: 4

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Satin brome,
Virginia brome
Native, CoC: 7,
Very vulnerable,
S1-2, G4-5

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid
  Erie (1927-28),
Tompkins (1914-2004),
Washington (1913-15)
NYFA: 1-2
iNat

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Meadow brome Introduced  
NYFA: X

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Leyss.

    Bromus inermis Leyss.
    Bromus inermis  ssp. aristatus  Schur
    Bromus inermis  ssp. divaricatus  Rohlena
    Bromus inermis  ssp. villosus  (Mert. & Koch) Beck
    Bromopsis inermis (Leyss.) Holub
Smooth brome Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
FL Tier 4[1],
CP-W,[2] NE-M[3],
ISSG-GISD[4],
SNA, G5

UPL

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: X
iNat

USDA-MM
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Genus Bromussect. Bromopsis (excluded taxa) Brome N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

    
    
    
Hairy brome Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

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Bromus sect. Ceratochloa edit
 
Bromus carinatus
Bromus sect. Ceratochloa is native to North and South America, and contains about 25 species, including: B. aleutensis, B. arizonicus, B. carinatus, B. maritimus, B. polyanthus, and B. sitchensis.[1]
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Bromeae — Bromus sect. Ceratochloa
Genus Bromussect. Ceratochloa Brome N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Hook. & Arn.
var. carinatus

1816. Bromus pendulinus Sessé ex Lag.
1840. Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn.
1874. Bromus hookerianus Thurb.
1896. Bromus laciniatus Beal
California brome Introduced from
 western North America,
N. America native,
Not naturalized
  Bronx (2017)
NYFA: X

USDA-MM
ARS-GRIN
Images
Wikispecies
Genus Bromussect. Ceratochloa (excluded taxa) Brome N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
var. marginatus

Large mountain brome Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
  excluded
NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies
var. catharticus

Rescuegrass Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
  excluded
NYFA-Excluded

USDA-XX
Images
Wikispecies
Bromus sect. Genea edit
 
Bromus tectorum
Bromus sect. Genea Dumort. in New York State consists primarily of the moderately invasive Bromus tectorum (cheat grass, downy brome, or downy chess). Other species of this section also present in the state are Bromus diandrus (ripgut brome), B. rubens (red brome), and B. sterilis (poverty brome). All grasses in this section are native to Europe and northern Africa[1]
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Bromeae — Bromus sect. Genea
Genus Bromussect. Genea Brome N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

    Bromus tectorum L.
    Bromus tectorum  var. glabratus  Spenn.
Cheatgrass ...
Downy brome ...
Downy chess ...

Introduced from
 Europe,
 northern Africa,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 50%[1],
ISSG-GISD[2],
SNA, GNR

Annual,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: X

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Barren brome ...
Poverty brome ...
Introduced from
 Europe,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [1],
Naturalized

Annual,
Graminoid
  NYFA: 11 counties
NYFA: X

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Wikispecies

Ripgut brome Introduced from
 Europe,
 northern Africa,
Unknown naturalization,
SNA

Annual,
Graminoid
  Suffolk (1946)
NYFA: X

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Foxtail brome ...
Foxtail chess ...
Red brome
Introduced from
 Europe,
 northern Africa,
Not naturalized,
Impersistent,
SNA

UPL

Annual,
Graminoid
  Tompkins (1932)
NYFA: X

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  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentBromus tectorum: Moderately invasive (50). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
  2. The invasive grass Bromus tectorum is troublesome to farmers and many ecosystems. It usually thrives in disturbed areas preventing natives from returning to the area. Disturbance such as overgrazing, cultivation, and frequent fires encourage invasion. Once established the natives cannot compete and the whole ecosystem is altered. Global Invasive Species Database (2021) Species profile: Bromus tectorum. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Bromus+tectorum on 19-06-2021.

Tribe Triticeae edit


Subtribe Hordeinae edit

Subribe Hordeinae Dumort. (1829) contains Agropyron, Anthosachne, Australopyrum, Connorochloa, Crithopsis, Douglasdewya, Elymus, Eremopyrum, Festucopsis, Henrardia, Heteranthelium, Hordelymus, Hordeum, Kengyilia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Peridictyon, Psathyrostachys, Pseudoroegneria, Secale, Stenostachys, and Taeniatherum.[1] Genera in bold text have been found in New York.
Agropyron edit
 
Agropyron cristatum
Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass) is common and considered invasive in the west but is uncommon in New York State. The New York Flora Atlas shows that it was collected from five counties during the 1940s and '50s. It also infers that North American Agropyron cristatum has likely introgressed with Agropyron desertorum (desert wheatgrass) to a degree that makes them indistinguishable.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Triticeae — Agropyron
Genus Agropyron Wheat grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Gaertn.

1770. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.
1824. Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult. auct.
1956. Agropyron cristatiforme P.K.Sarkar
1970. Agropyron cristatum  ssp. pectinatum  (M.Bieb.) Tzvelev
Crested wheatgrass Introduced  
NYFA: X
NYFA: 5 counties
No observations

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Elymus edit
Elymus virginicus/hystrix complex edit
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Triticeae — Elymus
Genus ElymusL. Wild rye N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. virginicus

1753. Elymus virginicus L.
1797. E. striatus Willd.
1898. E. hirsutiglumis Scribn.
1908. E. virginicusvar. hirsutiglumis
1909. E. jejunus (Ramaley) Rydb.
1926. E. virginicusvar. jejunus
1933. E. virginicusvar. typicus (i)
Virginia wildrye,
Virginia wild rye,
Common eastern wildrye,
Terrell grass
Élyme de Virginie
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 5

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 L.
var. halophilus
(E.P. Bicknell) Wiegand

1908. E. halophilus E.P.Bicknell
1918. E. virginicusvar. halophilus
1932. Terrellia halophila
(E.P. Bicknell) Nevski
1933. E. virginicusfo. lasiolepis
Saltmarsh wildrye,
Terrell grass
Élyme halophile
Native, CoC: 8,
Vulnerable

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 3?

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 L.
var. intermedius
(Vasey ex S.Watson & J.M.Coult.) Bush

1890. E. canadensisvar. intermedius
1926. E. virginicusvar. intermedius
    
    
Hairy Virginia wild-rye,
Intermediate wildrye
Élyme intermédiaire
Native, CoC: 6,
Unranked

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: U

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 L.
var. jejunus (Ramaley) Bush

1909. Elymus jejunus (Ramaley) Rydb.
1926. E. virginicusvar. jejunus Bush
    
Exserted Virginia wild-rye,
Western wildrye
Élyme maigre
Native, CoC: 6,
Unranked

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: U

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 L.
var. hystrix

1753. Elymus hystrix L.
1794. Hystrix patula Moench
1819. Asperella echidnea Raf. (i)
1892. Hystrix hystrix (L.) Millsp. (i)
Eastern bottle-brush grass
Élyme
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

Perennial,
Graminoid,
Part shade
 
NYFA: 5

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 L.
var. bigelovianus
(Fernald) Bowden

1922. Asperella hystrixvar. bigeloviana
1929. Hystrix patulavar. bigeloviana
1964. E. hystrixvar. bigeloviana
1972. E. hystrixvar. bigelovianus (i)
Bigelow’s bottlebrush grass ...
Eastern bottlebrush grass ...

Élyme étalé,
Hystrix étalé,
Gymnostique hérisson
Native, CoC: 5,
Likely secure

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 4

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Images
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 G.C.Tucker

Elymus hystrix ×
Elymus virginicus var. virginicus

    
    
    
Ebinger's wild-rye
Élyme
Native,
Likely secure

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 4?

USDA-NN
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 (Vasey ex
L.H.Dewey) Scribn. & C.R.Ball

1894. E. canadensisvar. glabriflorus
1896. E. virginicusvar. glaucus
1901. E. glabriflorus (Vasey ex
L.H.Dewey) Scribn. & C.R.Ball
1918. E. australisvar. glabriflorus
1926. E. virginicusvar. glabriflorus
Hairy southeastern wildrye,
Southeastern wildrye
Élyme
Native, CoC: 10,
Unranked

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: N

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R.Brooks & J.J.N.Campb.

2000. Elymus macgregorii
R.Brooks & J.J.N.Campb.
 auct. E. striatus (i)
 auct. E. virginicus (i)
 auct. E. glabriflorus (i)
Early wildrye,
MacGregor's wild rye,
Wheatgrass
Élyme de MacGregor
Native, CoC: 6,
Endangered,
Note[1]

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 1?

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  1. University of Michigan Herbarium: Elymus macgregorii is a "recently described species formerly included with E. virginicus".
Elymus canadensis complex edit
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Triticeae — Elymus
Genus ElymusL. Wild rye N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. canadensis

1753. Elymus canadensis L. p.p.
1759. E. philadelphicus L. p.p.
1809. E. glaucifolius Willd.
1824. E. canadensisvar. glaucifolius
    
    
Canada wildrye,
Great Plains wildrye,
Nodding wildrye
Èlyme du Canada
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 5

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 Wiegand

1895. E. salina M.E. Jones
1918. E. riparius Wiegand
1967. E. canadensisvar. riparius
River wild-rye,
Riverbank wildrye,
Eastern riverbank wildrye
Élyme des rivages
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 5

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 (Link) Gould
ssp. glaucus (Pease & A.H.Moore) Cody

1910. Agropyron caninumfo. glaucum
1932. A. trachycaulumvar. glaucum
1994. Elymus trachycaulusssp. glaucus
Slender wheatgrass
Élyme
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 5

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 (Link) Gould ex Shinners
ssp. trachycaulus

1900. Agropyron novae-angliae Scribn.
1947. E. pauciflorus (Schwein.) Gould non Lam. 1791
1954. E. trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners p.p.
1977. E. novae-angliae (Scribn.) Tzvelev
Slender wheatgrass
Élyme
Native, CoC: 8,
Likely secure

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 4

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 Muhl. ex Willd.
var. villosus

1809. Elymus villosus Muhl. ex Willd.
1854. Elymus propinquus Fresen. ex Steud.
1954. Elymus canadensisvar. villosus (i)
Downy wild-rye,
Hairy wildrye
Élyme
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 5

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 Muhl. ex Willd.
var. arkansanus (Scribn. & C.R.Ball) J.J.N.Campb.

1901. Elymus arkansanus Scribn. & C.R. Ball
1906. E. striatusvar. arkansanus
1995. E. villosusvar. arkansanus
Arkansas wild-rye,
Hairy wildrye
Élyme
Native, CoC: 10,
Unranked

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: U

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 Fernald

1933. Elymus wiegandii Fernald
1980. E. canadensisssp. wiegandii
1964. E. canadensisvar. wiegandii
Wiegand's wild rye,
Wiegand's wildrye,
Northern riverbank wild rye
Élyme de Wiegand
Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: 4

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 (L.) Gould

    Agropyron repens
    Elytrigia repens
Quack grass,
Couch grass,
Quick grass,
Quitch
Élyme
Introduced,
Widespread weed,
NISIC

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: X

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Elymus excluded taxa edit
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Triticeae — Elymus
Genus ElymusL. (excluded taxa) Wild rye N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Elymus riparius ×
Elymus villosus

    
    
    
Hybrid of
 river wild-rye &
 hairy wild-rye
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies
L.
var. robustus (Scribn. & J.G.Sm.) Mack. & Bush

1897. Elymus robustus Scribn. & J.G.Sm.
1902. E. canadensisvar. robustus
1926. E. glaucifoliusvar. robustus
1927. E. philadelphicusvar. robustus
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

USDA-NN
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(Hornem.) Feilberg

1832. Triticum violaceum Hornem.
1880. Agropyron violaceum (Hornem.) Lange
1984. E. violaceus (Hornem.) Feilberg
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

ITIS
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Wikispecies
(L.) L.

1753. Triticum caninum L.
1755. E. caninus (L.) L.
1934. Roegneria canina (L.) Nevski
    
Bearded couch,
Bearded wheatgrass,
Fibrous wheatgrass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

ARS-GRIN
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Wikispecies
 Buckley
ssp. glaucus

1862. E. glaucus Buckley
1881. E. glaucusvar. glaucus
1901. E. glaucusvar. jepsonii
1947. E. glaucusssp. jepsonii
1902. E. parishii Burtt Davy & Merr.
Blue wild-rye,
Common western wild-rye,
Smooth wild-rye
Élyme glauque
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded,
Note[1]

Perennial,
Graminoid
 
NYFA-Excluded

USDA-NN
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Piper

1840. E. virginicusvar. submuticus
1903. E. curvatus Piper
    
Awnless wild-rye N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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  1. New York Flora Atlas: Elymus glaucus ssp. glaucus was collected as an introduced waif from Highland Park, Rochester in 1912. An assumed native population was discovered in the Shawangunks in Sullivan County in 2006.
Eremopyrum edit
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Triticeae — Hordeinae — Eremopyrum
Genus Eremopyrum False wheatgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

1827. Agropyron squarrosum Link
1851. Eremopyrum squarrosum
(Roth) Jaub. & Spach
1894. A. bonaepartis
(Spreng.) T. Durand & Schinz
1933. E. bonaepartis (Spreng.) Nevski
Taper-tipped wheatgrass ...
Tapertip false wheatgrass ...
Introduced from
 Asia,
 northern Africa,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
 
NYFA: Xm

USDA-X0
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 (L.) Jaub. & Spach

Oriental false wheatgrass Introduced  
NYFA: Xm
NYFA: Westchester (1894-95)
xx counties

Images
Wikispecies
 (Gaertn.) Nevski

Annual wheatgrass Introduced  
NYFA:
NYFA: Westchester (1895)
xx counties

Images
Wikispecies
Hordeum edit
 
Hordeum jubatum
Barley (genus Hordeum) includes species both native and introduced to North America, but none are considered to be native to New York State.
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Triticeae — Hordeinae — Hordeum
Genus Hordeum Barley N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
 ssp. jubatum

Critesion jubatum
Foxtail barley Introduced,
N. America native,
Naturalized
 
NYFA: X

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 Nutt.

Little barley Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent
 
NYFA: X

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Cultivated barley ...
Common barley
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [2],
 GRIIS-US: invasive (D2),
Not naturalized,
SNA, GNR

Annual,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: X
NYFA: 18 counties
New York county

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 L.
 ssp. leporinum (Link) Arcang.

1834. Hordeum leporinum Link.
1882. Hordeum leporinum  ssp. leporinum  (Link) Arcang.
1890. Hordeum leporinum  var. leporinum  (Link) K.Richt.
1980. Critesion murinum  ssp. leporinum  (Link) Á.Löve
Hare barley,
Leporinum barley
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [3],
Naturalized
 
NYFA: X
NYFA: 4 counties
5 counties

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Huds.
ssp. gussoneanum (Parl.) Thell.

    Hordeum hystrix Roth
Mediterranean barley ...

Introduced,
Not naturalized
 
NYFA: X

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Genus Hordeum (excluded taxa) Barley N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
ssp. brachyantherum

Meadow barley N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

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Leymus edit
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Triticeae — Hordeinae — Leymus
Genus LeymusHochst. Wild rye N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Hochst.

    
    
    
Wild rye Introduced,
Naturalized
 
NYFA: Xn

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Genus LeymusHochst. (excluded taxa) Wild rye N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

    
    
    
American dune grass N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

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Pascopyrum edit
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Triticeae — Hordeinae — Pascopyrum
Genus Pascopyrum Wheat grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Barkworth & D.R.Dewey (1985)

Western wheatgrass Introduced,
N. America native,
Imperisistent
 
NYFA: Xm

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Secale edit
 
Secale cereale
Rye (Secale cereale) is commonly planted as a grain, forage, or cover crop, but is not listed as naturalizing in New York State.[1] Feral rye is known to contaminate wheat crops and become established in open rangeland, waste places, and roadsides if it escapes cultivation elsewhere in North America.[2]
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Triticeae — Hordeinae — Secale
Genus Secale Rye N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Secale cereale L.
1753. Secale cereale  var. hybernum  L.
1753. Secale cereale  var. vernum  L.
1796. Triticum cereale (L.) Salisb.
1933. Triticum secale Link
1933. Secale turkestanicum Bensin
Rye ...
Cereal rye
Cultivated rye
Cultivated annual rye
Common rye

Seigle cultivé
Introduced from
 southwest Asia,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [4],
 GRIIS-US: Invasive,
Not naturalized,
SNA

Annual,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: X
NYFA: 28 counties
iNat
2 counties

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Taeniatherum edit
 
Taeniatherum caput-medusae
Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) is a winter annual grass, native to Eurasia, that has infested western grasslands.[1] It is not known to naturalize in New York State but was collected in Westchester County in 1898, from "about the Yonkers Wool Mill."[2]
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Triticeae — Hordeinae — Taeniatherum
Genus Taeniatherum Taeniatherum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Nevski
ssp. caput-medusae

1753. Elymus caput-medusae L.
auct.. Taeniatherum asperumnon Nevski
1988. Taeniatherum crinitum  var. caput-medusae  (L.) Wipff
1933. Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski
Medusahead,
Rye-weed,
Medusahead rye
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
 GRIIS-US: Invasive,
Not naturalized,
SNA

Winter annual,
Graminoid
 
NYFA: Xm
NYFA: Westchester (1898)
no NY observations

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Subtribe Triticinae edit

Aegilops edit
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Triticeae — Triticinae — Aegilops
Genus Aegilops Goat grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Host

    A. cylindricavar. rubiginosa
 auct. A. tauschiinon Coss.
    Cylindropyrum cylindricum
    Triticum cylindricum
Jointed goatgrass,
Jointgrass
Introduced,
Naturalized
 
NYFA: X
NYFA: 5 counties
iNat
no observations

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 Boiss.

    
    
    
Persian goatgrass Introduced,
Not naturalized,
Waif around wool mill
 
NYFA: X

USDA-X0
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Ovate goatgrass Introduced,
Impersistent
 
NYFA: Xm

USDA-X0
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 Coss.

    
1850. Aegilops tauschii Coss.
    
Tausch's goatgrass,
Rough-spiked hardgrass
Introduced,
Impersistent
 
NYFA: Xm

USDA-X0
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Barbed goatgrass Introduced,
Impersistent
 
NYFA: Xm

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Triticum edit
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Triticeae — Triticinae — Triticum
Genus Triticum Wheat N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Cultivated wheat Introduced  
NYFA: Xm

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Genus Triticum (excluded taxa) Wheat N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L. (1753)

T. dicoccum Schrank
Pouland wheat,
Rivet wheat
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
 
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Thinopyrum edit
Poales — Poaceae — Pooideae — Triticeae — Triticinae — Thinopyrum
Genus Thinopyrum Wheat grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Host) Barkworth & D.R.Dewey (1985)
ssp. barbulatum

Intermediate wheatgrass Introduced,
Impersistent
 
NYFA: Xm

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