Flora of New York/Poaceae 2


Poaceae 1
Flora of New York — Poaceae 2
Poaceae 3
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Poales genus index

Subfamily DanthonioideaeEdit

Subfam. Danthonioideae H.P. Linder & N.P. Baker (2001) (sister to Chloridoideae) contains the tribe Danthonieae.[1]

Tribe DanthonieaeEdit

Tribe Danthonieae Zotov (1963) contains the genera Austroderia, Capeochloa, Chaetobromus, Chimaerochloa, Chionochloa, Cortaderia, Danthonia, Geochloa, Merxmuellera, Notochloe, Pentameris, Plinthanthesis, Pseudopentameris, Rytidosperma, Schismus, Tenaxia, and Tribolium.[1]

DanthoniaEdit

 
Danthonia spicata
Two species of oat grass (Danthonia spp.) are native to New York: poverty grass (D. spicata) and northern oat grass (D. compressa).
Poales — Poaceae — Danthonioideae — Danthonieae
Danthonia Oat grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem.& Schult.

1753. Avena spicata L.
1817. Danthonia spicata
(L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem.& Schult.
1913. Pentameris spicata
(L.) A.Nelson & J.F.Macbr.
Poverty grass,
Poverty oatgrass,
Poverty oat grass
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
 Austin

1869. Danthonia compressa Austin
1871. D. spicata var. compressa
1909. Merathrepta compressa
(Austin) A. Heller
1913. Pentameris compressa
(Austin) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr.
Northern oat grass,
Flattened oatgrass
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
Danthonia (excluded taxa) Oat grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Nutt.

1818. Danthonia sericea Nutt.
1901. Danthonia epilis Scribn.
    
Downy oat grass,
Downy danthonia
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0

ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp

Danthonia compressa ×
Danthonia spicata

    
    
    
Hybrid of
 northern oat grass &
 poverty grass
Native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD






Images, wsp

Subfamily ChloridoideaeEdit

Subfam. Chloridoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. (1833) (sister to Danthonioideae) contains the tribes Centropodieae, Triraphideae, Eragrostideae, Zoysieae, and Cynodonteae.[1]

Tribe EragrostideaeEdit


Subtribe EragrostidinaeEdit


EragrostisEdit

Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Eragrostideae — Eragrostidinae — Eragrostis
Eragrostis Lovegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Nees

Lace grass,
Tiny love-grass
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
C.A.Mey. ex Steud.

Frank's love-grass,
Sandbar lovegrass
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NX
NPT 





Images, wsp
(Lam.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Teal love grass Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp

Purple lovegrass Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NX
NPT 





Images, wsp
(Michx.) Nees ex Steud.
var. pectinacea

Tufted lovegrass,
Spreading lovegrass,
Purple lovegrass
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
(Michx.) Nees ex Steud.
var. miserrima
(Fourn.) J.Reeder

Desert lovegrass Introduced,
N. America native
  NYFA-X
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
(Nutt.) Alph. Wood

Sand lovegrass Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-N0
NPT 





Images, wsp
(L.) P.Beauv.
var. pilosa

1753. Poa pilosa L.
1812. Eragrostis pilosa P.Beauv.
India love-grass,
Hairy love-grass,
Soft love-grass,
Jersey love-grass
Pâturin poilu
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp
(All.) Vign. ex Janchen

    E. major Host
    E. megastachya (Koeler) Link
    Poa cilianensis All.
Stinkgrass,
Candygrass
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 Host

Little lovegrass Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
(Schrad.) Nees

    E. chloromelas Steud.
    E. robusta Stent
Weeping lovegrass,
Boer love grass
Introduced,
Invasive,
NYIS: 57%[1],
Invasive
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NPT 


BNA


Images, wsp

Subtribe UnioliinaeEdit

Subtribe Unioliinae Clayton (1982) contains 11 species in 5 genera: Entoplocamia, Fingerhuthia, Tetrachaete, Tetrachne, and Uniola.[1]
UniolaEdit
 
Uniola paniculata
Sea oats (Uniola paniculata) are native to the southeastern coastal United States, Mexico, Bahamas and Cuba. They are not known to have naturalized any farther north than Delaware. Sea oats produce few seeds and spread primarily by rhizomes. This plant is no longer considered to be a close relative of Chasmanthium latifolium (Indian woodoats) which was once placed in this genus as Uniola latifolia and is sometimes known as "northern sea oats".
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Eragrostideae — Uniolinae — Uniola
Uniola Uniola N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Uniola paniculata L.
Seaoats,
Sea oats,
Seaside oats,
North American sea-oats
Araña,
Arroz de costa
Introduced,
N. America native

FACU
  NYFA-Not listed
USDA-N



BNA


Images, wsp

Tribe ZoysieaeEdit


Subtribe SporobolinaeEdit


SporobolusEdit
The subgeneric classification used here for Sporobolus (Dropseed) is from Peterson et. al. (2014), which includes the genera Calamovilfa, Crypsis, Spartina,

and Thellungia (most of Sporobolinae) within Sporobolus to make it monophyletic.[1]


Sporobolus sect. ClandestiniEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Clandestini
Sporobolussect. Clandestini Dropseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Nash

1895. Sporobolus neglectus Nash
1901. Sporobolus vaginiflorus
var. neglectus Scribn.
1954. Sporobolus vaginiflorus
var. neglectus Shinners [isonym]
Small dropseed,
Puffsheath dropseed
Sporobole négligé
Native,
Secure

Annual,
Graminoid
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
(Torr. ex A. Gray) Alph. Wood
var. vaginiflorus

Sheathed dropseed,
Poverty dropseed
Native,
Secure

Annual,
Graminoid
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ITIS




Images, wsp
 (Poir.) Merr.
var. compositus

1803. Agrostis aspera Michx. [illeg.]
1823. Agrostis longifolia Torr.
1829. Sporobolus asper (P.Beauv.) Kunth
1901. Sporobolus compositus (Poir.) Merr.
Composite dropseed,
Tall dropseed,
Rough dropseed,
Rushgrass
Sporobole rude
Native,
Likely secure
  NYFA-4-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
(Biehler) Hitchc.

1807. Agrostis clandestina Biehler
1861. Sporobolus longifolius Alph.Wood
1901. Sporobolus canovirens Nash
1908. Sporobolus clandestinus Hitchc.
1954. S. asper var. canovirens Shinners
1954. S. asper var. clandestinus Shinners
1995. S. compositus var. clandestinus
Rough dropseed,
Hidden dropseed
Native,
Endangered

Perennial,
Graminoid
  NYFA-1
USDA-N0
NPT 
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Sporobolus sect. CalamovilfaEdit
Because the genus Calamovilfa (sandreed) has been found to be embedded within a paraphyletic Sporobolus genus, Peterson et. al. (2014) recommended the transfer of the Calamovilfa species to a subsection within Sporobolus.[1]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Calamovilfa
Sporobolussubsect. Floridani Dropseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(A.Gray) A.Gray

1835. Vilfa heterolepis A.Gray
1848. Sporobolus heterolepis
(A.Gray) A.Gray
Northern dropseed,
Prairie dropseed
Native, C:10,
Threatened

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid
  NYFA-2
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp
Sporobolussubsect. Calamovilfa Sandreed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Buckley) P.M.Peterson
var. magnus P.M.Peterson

1901. Calamovilfa longifolia
var. magna Scribn.& Merr.
2014. Sporobolus rigidus
var. magnus P.M.Peterson
Prairie sandreed,
Sand reed-grass
Introduced,
N. America native,
Likely extirpated in NY
  NYFA-XZm
USDA-NN

ITIS




Images, wsp
Sporobolus sect. PyramidatiEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Pyramidati
Sporobolussect. Pyramidatisubsect. Pyramidati Dropseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Lam.) Hitchc.

Whorled dropseed Introduced,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
 Hitchc.

1882. S. cryptandrus var. strictus
1901. S. strictus (Scribn.) Merr. (i)
1915. S. contractus Hitchc.
Narrow-spiked dropseed,
Spike dropseed
Introduced from
 western U.S.A.,
 northern Mexico,
N.Y. excluded

Perennial,
Graminoid
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0

ARS 




Images, wsp
Sporobolus sect. CryptandriEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Cryptandri
Sporobolussect. Cryptandri Dropseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Torr.) A.Gray

1824. Agrostis cryptandra Torr.
1840. Vilfa cryptandra (Torr.) Trin.
1848. Sporobolus cryptandrus A.Gray
1870. Sporobolus subinclusus Phil.
Sand dropseed,
Prairie grass
Sporobole à fleurs cacnées
Native,
Unranked

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Graminoid
  NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS

BNA


Images, wsp
Sporobolus sect. SporobolusEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Sporobolus
Sporobolussect. Sporobolus Dropseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Blackseed,
Smut grass
Introduced   NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
Sporobolus sect. AiroidesEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Airoides
Sporobolussect. Airoides Dropseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Torr.) Torr.

1824. Agrostis airoides Torr.
1841. Vilfa airoides Trin. ex Steud.
1854. Vilfa airoides Trin. ex Steud. hom?
1856. Sporobolus airoides Torr.
Alkali sacaton Introduced from
 western N.A.,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-NN

ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
Sporobolus sect. SpartinaEdit
 
Sporobolus michauxianus
prairie cordgrass
Because the genus Spartina (Cordgrass) has been found to be embedded within a paraphyletic Sporobolus genus, Peterson et. al. (2014) recommended the transfer of the Spartina species to a section within Sporobolus.[1][2]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Spartina
Sporobolussect. Spartinasubsect. Spartina Cordgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Hitchc.) P.M.Peterson & Saarela

1803. Trachynotia cynosuroides Michx.
1820. Spartina pectinata Link
1908. Spartina michauxiana Hitchc.
2014. Sporobolus michauxianus
P.M.Peterson & Saarela
 non Sporobolus pectinatus Hack.
Fresh water cordgrass,
Prairie cordgrass
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
(Roth) P.M.Peterson & Saarela

1789. Dactylis patens Aiton
1806. Spartina pumila Roth
1817. Spartina patens Muhl.
2014. Sporobolus pumilus
P.M.Peterson & Saarela
 non Sporobolus patens Swallen
Saltmeadow cordgrass,
Marshhay cordgrass,
Marsh grass
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp
(L.) P.M.Peterson & Saarela

1753. Dactylis cynosuroides L.
1803. Trachynotia cynosuroides Michx.
1804. Paspalum cynosuroides Brot.
1806. Spartina cynosuroides Roth
1812. Spartina polystachya
(Michx.) P. Beauv.
1825. Cynodon cynosuroides Raspail
Salt reedgrass,
Big cordgrass
Native,
Likely secure
  NYFA-4
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
P.M.Peterson & Saarela

Sporobolus michauxianus ×
Sporobolus pumilus

1898. Spartina × caespitosa
A.A.Eaton
1906. Spartina patens
var. caespitosa Hitchc.
2014. Sporobolus × eatonianus
P.M.Peterson & Saarela
 non Sporobolus caespitosus Kunth
Marsh cordgrass hybrid,
Hybrid of
 Freshwater cordgrass &
 Saltmeadow cordgrass
Native,
Threatened
  NYFA-2?
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
Sporobolussect. Spartinasubsect. Alterniflori Cordgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Loisel.) P.M.Peterson & Saarela

1803. Spartina alterniflora Loisel.
1815. Trachynotia alterniflora DC.
2014. Sporobolus alterniflorus
P.M.Peterson & Saarela
Saltwater cordgrass,
Smooth cordgrass
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
Sporobolus sect. CrypsisEdit

Because the genus Crypsis (Picklegrass) has been found to be embedded within a paraphyletic Sporobolus genus, Peterson et. al. (2014) recommended the transfer of the Crypsis species to a subsection within Sporobolus.[1]

Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Crypsis
Sporobolussect. Crypsis Prickle grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) P.M.Peterson

1753. Phleum schoenoides L.
1791. Crypsis schoenoides Lam.
1801. Heleochloa schoenoides Host
2014. Sporobolus schoenoides
P.M.Peterson
Swamp pricklegrass,
Swamp timothy,
Rush-like timothy
Crypside faux-choin,
Crypsis faux-choin
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa

OBL-FACU

Annual,
Graminoid
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp

Tribe CynodonteaeEdit

Subtribe GouiniinaeEdit

TriplasisEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Gouiniinae
Triplasis Sand grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Walter) Chapm.
var. purpurea

1788. Aira purpurea Walter
1860. Triplasis purpurea Chapm.
Purple sandgrass Native,
Likely secure
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN

ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp

Subtribe EleusininaeEdit

Subtribe Eleusininae Dumort. (1829) contains the genera Acrachne, Afrotrichloris, Apochiton, Astrebla, Austrochloris, Chloris, Chrysochloa, Coelachyrum, Cynodon, Daknopholis, Dinebra, Diplachne, Disakisperma, Eleusine, Enteropogon, Eustachys, Harpochloa, Leptochloa, Lepturus, Lintonia, Microachne, Microchloa, Oxychloris, Pommereulla, Rendlia, Rheochloa, Saugetia, Schoenefeldia, Sclerodactylon, Stapfochloa, and Tetrapogon.[1] Those in bold type contain species found in New York. Of those, only Diplachne contains a species that is considered to be native.
DiplachneEdit
 
Diplachne fusca
bearded sprangletop
Bearded sprangletop (Diplachne fusca (L.) P. Beauv. ssp. fascicularis (Lam.) P.M. Peterson & N. Snow) is the only Diplachne species known to grow in the wild in New York State.
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Diplachne
Diplachne Sprangle top N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) P.Beauv.
ssp. fascicularis

    Diplachne maritima E.P.Bicknell
    Diplachne acuminata Nash
    Diplachne fascicularis (Lam.) P.Beauv.
    Leptochloa fusca ssp. fascicularis
    Diplachne fusca ssp. fascicularis
Bearded sprangletop,
Salt-meadow grass,
Saltpond grass
Native, C:7,
Endangered

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid
  NYFA-1
USDA-NX
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
StapfochloaEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Stapfochloa
Stapfochloa Windmill grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Fringed windmill grass Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
ChlorisEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Chloris
Chloris Windmill grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Nutt.

Tumble windmill grass Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
 Sw. (1797)

Feather fingergrass Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-N0

ARS 




Images, wsp
LeptochloaEdit
 
Leptochloa crinita
false rhodes grass
Sprangletop (Leptochloa[1], syn. Trichloris) species are not native to nor known to be naturalized in New York State, but an apparent waif of false rhodes grass (Leptochloa crinita) was collected in Westchester County in 1898.
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Leptochloa
Leptochloa Sprangletop N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Lag.) P.M.Peterson & N.Snow

1805. Chloris crinita Lag.
1947. Trichloris crinita (Lag.) Parodi
2012. Leptochloa crinita
(Lag.) P.M.Peterson & N.Snow
False rhodes grass Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent
  NYFA-X
USDA-N

ARS ITIS


IPN 

Images, wsp
CynodonEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Cynodon
Cynodon Bermuda grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Pers.
var. dactylon

1753. Panicum dactylon L.
1805. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
1806. Digitaria stolonifera Schrad.
1891. Capriola dactylon (L.) Kuntze
Bermudagrass,
Bermuda grass
Introduced   NYFA-Xn
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp
EleusineEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Eleusine
EleusineGaertn. Goose grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Gaertn.

1753. Cynosurus indicus L.
1788. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.
1854. Eleusine japonica Steud.
Goose grass,
India goosegrass,
Indian goosegrass
Introduced from
 Africa,
 Asia,
Naturalized

FACU

Annual,
Graminoid
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 




Images, wsp
EleusineGaertn. (excluded taxa) Goose grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Lam.) Lam.

1786. Cynosurus tristachyos Lam.
1792. Eleusine tristachya (Lam.) Lam.
    
American crowfoot grass Introduced from
 South American,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD

ARS 




Images, wsp
EustachysEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Eustachys
Eustachys Finger grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Lag.) Kunth

Argentine fingergrass Introduced,
Impersistent
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
DactylocteniumEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Dactyloctenium
Dactyloctenium Crowfoot-grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Willd. (1809)

Crowfoot grass,
Egyptian grass,
Finger grass
Introduced,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Subtribe PappophorinaeEdit

Subtribe Pappophorinae Dumort. (1829) contains the genera Neesiochloa, Pappophorum, and Tridens (excl. Tridentopsis}.[1] Those in bold type contain species found in New York. Of those, only Tridens contains a species that is considered to be native.
TridensEdit
 
Tridens flavus
Native purpletop (Tridens flavus) is the only species of Tridens found in New York.
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Pappophorinae
Tridens tridens N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Hitchc.
var. flavus

1753. Poa flava L.
1894. Sieglingia sesleroides (Michx.) Scribn.
1906. Tridens flavus (L.) Hitchc.
1913. Triodia flava (L.) Smyth
Purpletop tridens,
Tall purple-topped fluffgrass,
Purpletop,
Redtop,
Tall Red Top
Native, C:0,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Perennial
  NYFA-5
USDA-NX
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
PappophorumEdit
 
Pappophorum vaginatum
Pappus grass
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Pappophorinae
Pappophorum Pappus grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Buckley

Whiplash pappusgrass Introduced,
US South native,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
(Lam.) Kuntze

    Pappophorum pappiferum
(Lam.) Kuntze
Limestone pappus grass
Limestone pappusgrass
Introduced from
 Puerto Rico,
 Virgin Islands,
Not naturalized
NYFA-Xm
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
Pappophorum (excluded taxa) Pappus grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Fourn.

Pink pappusgrass Introduced,
US South native,
Excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0






Images, wsp

Subtribe TraginaeEdit

TragusEdit
 
Tragus racemosus
Burr grass does not appear to naturalize in New York State, but these two Eurasian species were collected in 1889 in New York and Westchester Counties.
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Traginae
Tragus Burr grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Schult.

Spiked burr grass,
Spiked bur grass,
Texas bur,
African bur grass
Introduced from
 Africa,
 Asia,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-XX

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
 (L.) All.

Spiked burr grass,
Stalked bur grass,
Texas bur,
European bur grass
Introduced from
 Africa,
 Eurasia,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp

Subtribe MonanthochloinaeEdit

DistichlisEdit
 
Distichlis spicata
Saltgrass is found in salt marshes and brackish marshes, occasionally in dense stands in southeastern New York State.
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Monanthochloinae
Distichlis Salt grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Greene

Saltgrass,
Salt grass,
Inland saltgrass
Native, C:9,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp

Subtribe BoutelouinaeEdit

BoutelouaEdit
 
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bouteloua has about 20 species that are native to North America. The two that have been found in New York, sideoats grama and blue grama were both major components of the shortgrass prairie of the Great Plains.[1] Sideoats grama is still common in the west, but has become rare in the east and in listed as endangered in New York. Blue grama is not considered to be native to the Northeast, and is a rare introduction to New York.
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Boutelouinae — Bouteloua
Boutelouasubg. Bouteloua Grama N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Michx.) Torr.
var. curtipendula

1803. Chloris curtipendula Michx.
1853. Bouteloua curtipendula Torr.
Sideoats grama,
Side-oats grama,
Tall grama grass
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]
  NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Boutelouasubg. Chondrosum Grama N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths

    
Blue grama,
Blue gramma,
Eyelash grass
Introduced,
N. America native,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-Xnn
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS 

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Lag.
var. hirsuta

1805. Bouteloua hirsuta Lag.
    
    
Hairy grama Introduced,
N. America native
  NYFA-U

ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp
Boutelouasubg. Buchloe Grama N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Nutt.) J.T.Columbus

    
    
    
Buffalograss,
Buffalo-grass
Introduced from
 central N. America,
N. America native
  NYFA-U
USDA-NN

ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp

Subtribe MuhlenbergiinaeEdit

MuhlenbergiaEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Muhlenbergiinae — Muhlenbergia
Muhlenbergia Muhly N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Poir.) Fernald

1803. Agrostis lateriflora Michx.
1810. Agrostis frondosa Poir.
1833. M. lateriflora Trin. ex Kunth (i)
1907. M. mexicana ssp. commutata Scribn.
1943. M. frondosa (Poir.) Fernald
Wirestem muhly,
Wire-stemmed muhly
Muhlenbergie feuillée
Native, C:4,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
(Willd.) Trin.

 auct. M. racemosanon BSP
Spike muhly,
Spiked muhly,
Bog muhly,
Marsh muhly
Muhlenbergie agglomérée,
Muhlenbergia agglomérée
Native, C:10,
Secure

OBL-FACW
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can





Images, wsp
(L.) Trin.

    Agrostis mexicana
    M. ambigua
    M. foliosa
    M. mexicana var. filiformis
Mexican muhly,
Wire-stemmed muhly
Native, C:4,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
J.F.Gmel.

Nimblewill,
Nimblewill muhly,
Schreber muhly
Native, C:0,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Trin.

Cliff muhly Native, C:8,
Secure
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ITIS




Images, wsp
(Torr.) Torr. ex A. Gray

Woodland muhly,
Forest muhly
Native, C:6,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ITIS




Images, wsp
(Willd.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Slender muhly Native, C:8,
Secure
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ITIS




Images, wsp
(Muhl.) Fernald

Fall dropseed muhly,
Bog muhly
Native, C:6,
Likely secure
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
(Lam.) Trin.

Hairawn muhly Native, C:10,
Likely extirpated
  NYFA-Z
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
(Nees & Meyen ex Trin.) Parodi

Alkali muhly,
Scratchgrass
Introduced,
N. America native
  NYFA-X
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
Muhlenbergia (excluded taxa) Muhly N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Schult.) Hitchc.

    M. torreyana (Schult.) Hitchc.
    
    
New Jersey muhly N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
(Michx.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

    M. racemosa (Michx.)
Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.
    
    
Marsh muhly N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN






Images, wsp

Subfamily AristidoideaeEdit

Subfamily Aristidoideae Caro (1982) contains 364 species in 3 genera in one tribe: Aristideae.[1]

Tribe AristideaeEdit

Tribe Aristideae C.E. Hubb. (1960) contains 364 species in 3 genera: Aristida,, Sartidia, and Stipagrostis.[1]

AristidaEdit

 
Aristida dichotoma
Three awn (Aristida)
Poales — Poaceae — Aristidoideae — Aristida
Aristida Threeawn N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.
var. dichotoma

Churchmouse threeawn,
Shinners three-awned grass
Native, C:3,
Secure

FACU

Annual,
Graminioid
  NYFA-5
USDA-NX
NPT 
iNat


BNA


Images, wsp
 Poir.
var. purpurascens

Arrow-feather threeawn
Arrow feather threeawn
Arrowfeather threeawn
Native, C:5,
Unranked
  NYFA-NU
USDA-NN
NPT 
iNat





Images, wsp
 Nutt.

Seaside threeawn
Native, C:7,
Unranked

Annual,
Graminoid
  NYFA-3
USDA-N0
NPT 
iNat





Images, wsp
Engelm. ex Vasey

Forked threeawn,
Forked three-awned grass,
Branching needle-grass
Native, C:0,
Endangered,
NYNHP: S1S2[1]
  NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NPT 
iNat


BNA


Images, wsp
 Raf.

1816. Aristida gracilis Elliott
1817. Aristida geniculata Raf.
1901. Aristida intermedia Scribn. & C.R.Ball
1933. Aristida longespica var. geniculata
1954. Aristida necopina Shinners
Kearney’s threeawn Native, C:5,
Endangered,
NYNHP: S1[2]
  NYFA-1
USDA-NN

iNat
ARS 




Images, wsp
 Poir.

Slimspike threeawn,
Slim-spiked threeawn
Native, C:8,
Endangered,
NYNHP: S1[3]
  NYFA-H
USDA-NN
NPT 
iNat





Images, wsp
 L.

    Aristida fasciculata Torr.
Sixweeks threeawn,
Six-weeks three-awn grass
Introduced,
Waif
  NYFA-X
USDA-N0

iNat





Images, wsp
 Michx.

Prairie three-awn grass Introduced   NYFA-X
NPT 
iNat





Images, wsp

Subfamily ArundinoideaeEdit

Subfamily Arundinoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. (1833) contains 40 species in 16 genera in 2 tribes: Arundineae and Molinieae.[1]

Tribe MolinieaeEdit

Tribe Molinieae Jirásek (1966) contains 24 species in 13 genera: Crinipes, Dichaetaria, Dregeochloa, Elytrophorus, Hakonechloa, Leptagrostis, Molinia, Moliniopsis, Nematopoa, Phragmites, Piptophyllum, Styppeiochloa, and Zenkeria.[1]

PhragmitesEdit

 
Phragmites australis
The vast majority of Phragmites (common reed) in New York today is of the introduced Eurasian lineage (haplotype M) Phragmites australis subsp. australis. The native lineage (haplotype E) P. australis subsp. americanus is only known to be present in the vicinity of Montezuma Swamp in Cayuga County, although it is likely to have been present, and may still be present elsewhere in the state.

Although the native and non-native Phragmites strains normally share habitats (until the natives are replaced by the non-natives), hybrids of the two were not discovered in the field until 2014, when a hybrid clone was discovered at the Montezuma site.[1]


Poales — Poaceae — Arundinoideae — Phragmites
Phragmites Reed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Saltonst., P.M.Peterson & Soreng)
A.Haines

2004. Phragmites australis
ssp. americanus[1]
2010. P. americanus (Saltonst.,
P.M.Peterson & Soreng) A.Haines[2]
 auct. P. communis ssp. berlandieri
 auct. P. communis var. berlandieri
American reed,
American common reed,
American reedgrass
Roseau d'Amérique
Native, C:7,
Rare
  NYFA-3
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
(Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.

1753. Arundo phragmites L.
1799. Arundo australis Cav.
1820. P. communis Trin.
1841. P. australis Trin. ex Steud.
1881. P. phragmites (L.) Karst.
Common reed,
Phragmites,
European reed,
European reedgrass,
Phragmites
Roseau commun
Introduced,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 92%[3],
CP-2[4]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Phragmites australis ×
Phragmites americanus[5]

P. australis ssp. americanus ×
P. australis ssp. australis

Hybrid of
 American reed &
 Common reed
Introduced,
Unranked
  NYFA-U
USDA-X
NPT 


BNA

CABI 
Images, wsp
Phragmites (excluded species) Reed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
E.Fourn.

1877. P. berlandieri E.Fourn.
1932. P. communis var. berlandieri
1954. P. communis ssp. berlandieri
1987. P. australis var. berlandieri
2007. P. australis ssp. berlandieri
Subtropical common reed N. America native,
Excuded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0


Trop.



Images, wsp

MoliniaEdit

 
Molinia caerulea
Moorgrass (Molinia)
Poales — Poaceae — Arundinoideae — Molinia
Molinia Moor grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Moench

1753. Aira caerulea L.
1771. Melica caerulea L.
1794. Molinia caerulea Moench
Purple moorgrass,
Purple moor grass
Molinie bleue
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp

Subfamily OryzoideaeEdit

Tribe OryzeaeEdit

Subtribe OryzinaeEdit

LeersiaEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Ehrhartoideae — Oryzeae — Oryzinae
Leersia Cut grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Sw.

Rice cutgrass,
Ricegrass
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
 Willd. (1797)

Virginia cutgrass,
Whitegrass
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp

Subtribe ZizaniinaeEdit

ZizaniaEdit
Poales — Poaceae — Ehrhartoideae — Oryzeae — Zizaniinae
Zizania Wildrice N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. aquatica

1753. Zizania aquatica L.
1967. Zizania aquatica var. subbrevis
    
Annual wildrice,
Eastern wild rice,
Indian rice
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp
 L.
var. palustris

1771. Zizania palustris L.
1906. Zizania aquatica var. angustifolia
1971. Zizania aquatica ssp. angustifolia
Northern wildrice,
Northern wild rice
Native,
Unranked
  NYFA-U
USDA-NN

ARS 




Images, wsp

Subfamily BambusoideaeEdit

The bamboo subfamily, Bambusoideae Luerss. (1893). Synonyms: Olyroideae Pilg. (1956), Parianoideae Butzin (1965).

Tribe ArundinarieaeEdit

The Arundinarieae contains about 500 temperate woody bamboo species. Most are native to Asia, with only three native to the Western Hemisphere. However, all bamboo species that are known to have naturalized in New York are considered to be invasive or potentially invasive.

Subtribe ArundinariinaeEdit

Subtribe Arundinariinae Nees ex Lindl. (1836) contains Acidosasa, Ampelocalamus, Arundinaria, Bashania, Bergbambos, Chimonobambusa, Chimonocalamus, Drepanostachyum, Fargesia, Ferrocalamus, Gaoligonshania, Gelidocalamus, Himalayacalamus, Indocalamus, Indosasa, Kuruna, Oldeania, Oligostachyum, Phyllostachys, Pleioblastus, Pseudosasa, Sarocalamus, Sasa, Sasaella, Sasamorpha, Semiarundinaria, Shibataea, Sinobambusa, Thamnocalamus, Vietnamocalamus, Yushania.[1]
ArundinariaEdit
The three North American bamboo or cane species comprise the genus Arundinaria and are from the southeastern United States.[1] [2] Although listed in New York's Non-Native Plant Species Invasiveness Assessment,[3] both of these species have been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas.
Poales — Poaceae — Bambusoideae — Arundinarieae — Arundinaria
Arundinaria Cane N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Walter) Muhl.

1788. Arundo tecta Walter
1813. Arundinaria tecta Muhl.
1871. A. macrosperma var. tecta Alph.Wood
1893. A. gigantea var. tecta Scribn
1973. A. gigantea ssp. tecta McClure
Switch cane Introduced from
 southern US,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 60%[1],
Excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 (Walter) Muhl.

1788. Arundo gigantea Walter
1803. Arundinaria macrosperma Michx.
1813. Arundinaria gigantea Muhl.
1818. Miegia gigantea Nutt.
1973. A. gigantea ssp. macrosperma McClure
Giant cane,
River cane,
Canebreak bamboo
Introduced from
 southern US,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: 60%[1],
Excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
PhyllostachysEdit

Poales — Poaceae — Bambusoideae — Arundinarieae — Phyllostachys
Phyllostachys Bamboo N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
 McClure

1945. Phyllostachys aureosulcata McClure
1980. P. aureosulcata f. spectabilis
Yellow-groove bamboo Introduced from
 China,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: 71%[1]
  NYFA-0
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Carrière ex Rivière & C.Rivière

1878. Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & al.
Golden bamboo,
Fish-pole bamboo
Introduced from
 China, Taiwan,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: 71%[1]
  NYFA-0
USDA-X0

ARS 




Images, wsp
PseudosasaEdit

Poales — Poaceae — Bambusoideae — Arundinarieae — Pseudosasa
Pseudosasa Arrow bamboo N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
(McClure) Keng f. ex S.L.Chen et al.

1931. Arundinaria amabilis McClure
1957. Pseudosasa amabilis Keng f. nom. inval.
1996. Pseudosasa amabilis S.L.Chen et al.
Arrow bamboo,
Tea-stick bamboo,
Tonkin cane
Introduced from
 China,
Potentially invasive
  NYFA-0
USDA-00

ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
(Siebold & Zucc. ex Steud.) Makino ex Nakai

1854. Arundinaria japonica Siebold & al.
1912. Sasa japonica Makino
1920. Pseudosasa japonica Makino nom. inval.
1925. Pseudosasa japonica Nakai
Arrow bamboo Introduced from
 Japan, Korea,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: 55%[1]
  NYFA-0
USDA-X0
NPT 
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp

Poaceae 1
Flora of New York — Poaceae 2
Poaceae 3
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index