Flora of New York/Lamiales 1


Solanales
Flora of New York — Lamiales 1:
Oleaceae, Tetrachondraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae

Lamiales 2:
Lamiaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The Lamiales [1]

Family OleaceaeEdit

The Oleaceae (olive family) in New York consists of a handful of native and introduced ash trees, along with a number of non-native shrubs, some of which, primarily the privets, are extremely invasive and create dense thickets. Interestingly, the olive family does not include Elaeagnus species (Russian olive and autumn olive), which are also common alien invasives but are categorized in the Elaeagnaceae (oleaster family) in the Rhamnales.[1][2]
  1. Oleaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Oleaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Tribe ForsythieaeEdit

ForsythiaEdit

Forsythia is a popular non-native ornamental shrub, planted at least in part for its bright yellow early spring flowers. In New York, the degree of this popularity is tempered in much of the state where local weather doesn't consistently allow much flowering. The two species listed as having to some extent naturalized in New York are F. viridissima (greenstem forsythia) and F. suspensa (weeping forsythia). It's likely that in recent times the hybrid of the two, Forsythia × intermedia, has been planted at least as much as either of its parents, but it is sterile and also may not reproduce vegetatively as well as F. suspensa, whose arching branches root where they touch the ground, allowing it to do a slow walk into any adjacent natural area.[1]
Branch center Branch position Leaf type Species
Hollow between nodes Forsythia suspensa (weeping forsythia)
Pith between nodes Upright Simple Forsythia viridissima (greenstem forsythia)
Upright or arching Simple or 3-lobed Forsythia × intermedia (hybrid forsythia)
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Forsythieae — Forsythia
Forsythia Forsythia N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Lindl.

1846. Forsythia viridissima Lindl.
1932. Rangium viridissimum Ohwi
Greenstem forsythia,
Green-stemmed forsythia,
Golden-bells
Forsythia vert
Introduced from
 China & Korea
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 (Thunb.) Vahl

1780. Ligustrum suspensum Thunb.
1784. Syringa suspensa Thunb. ex Murray
1804. Forsythia suspensa Vahl
1932. Rangium suspensum Ohwi
Forsythia,
Weeping forsythia,
Golden-bells
Introduced from
 China,
Impersistent
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 Zabel

Forsythia suspensa var. fortunei ×
Forsythia viridissima

1885. Forsythia × intermedia Zabel
1900. F. × intermedia var. densiflora Koehne
Border forsythia,
Showy forsythia,
Hybrid forsythia
Introduced,
Not naturalized,
No NY reports
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp

Tribe OleeaeEdit

Subtribe FraxininaeEdit

FraxinusEdit
The genus Fraxinus is represented in New York primarily by the three native and economically important ash trees: white ash, black ash, and green ash. All are susceptible to infestation by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) which has already infested a number of areas in the state and is expected to decimate ash tree populations in the near future.
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Oleeae — Fraxininae — Fraxinus
Fraxinussect. Melioides Ash N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Fraxinus americana L.
1878. F. americana var. microcarpa
1898. F. biltmoreana Beadle
1947. F. americana var. biltmoreana
1983. F. americana ssp. biltmoreana
White ash,
American ash
Frêne blanc,
Franc frêne,
Frêne d'Amérique
Native, C:3,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
  NYFA-N
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Marsh.

1785. Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.
1788. F. pubescens Lam.
1800. F. lanceolata Borkh.
1865. F. juglandifolia var. aucubifolia
1894. F. pennsylvanica var. lanceolata
1947. F. pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima
1949. F. pennsylvanica fo. aucubifolia
Green ash,
Downy ash,
Northern red ash
Frêne de Pennsylvanie,
Frêne rouge
Native, C:4,
Secure

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp
 (Bush) Bush

1813. Fraxinus tomentosa F.Michx. superfl.
1894. Fraxinus americana var. profunda
1897. Fraxinus profunda (Bush) Bush
1897. Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. profunda
1914. Calycomelia profunda (Bush) Nieuwl.
Pumpkin ash
Frêne pubescent
Native, C:8,
Impersistent

OBL

Perennial,
Tree
  NYFA-X
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Fraxinussect. Fraxinus Ash N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Marshall

1785. Fraxinus nigra Marshall
1788. F. sambucifolia Lam.
1790. F. nigra var. sambucifolia
1846. F. americana var. sambucifolia
Black ash,
Brown ash,
Hoop ash,
Swamp ash,
Water ash
Frêne noir,
Frêne de grève,
Frêne gras
Native, C:8,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Tree
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Fraxinus excelsior L.
    
    
European ash,
Black ash
Frêne commun,
Frêne d'Europe
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Impersistent

Perennial,
Tree
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp

Subtribe LigustrinaeEdit

The subtribe Ligustrinae contains the non-native lilacs and privets.

SyringaEdit
The common lilac (Syringa vulgaris) has been grown in the state as an ornamental shrub for centuries and appears to persist only where it has been cultivated, and so it is found to have naturalized mainly around abandoned farmsteads and such. The more recently introduced Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata) however is considered to be potentially invasive, and although it is not yet widespread outside of cultivation in New York, it is of concern.
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Oleeae — Ligustrinae — Syringa
SyringaL. Lilac N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Syringa vulgaris L.
Common lilac,
Purple lilac
Lilas commun,
Lilas vulgaire
Introduced from
 southeastern Europe,
Naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
Note: WI, CA
(Blume) H. Hara
ssp. reticulata

1850. Ligustrum reticulatum Blume
1941. Syringa reticulata H.Hara
1952. Ligustrina reticulata Nakai
Japanese tree lilac
Lilas japonais
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: 31%[1]
  NYFA-Xn
USDA-X0
NPT Can
ARS 



BBG 
Images, wsp
Note: NYFA blog
Syringa (excluded taxa) Lilac N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Blume) H. Hara
ssp. amurensis
(Rupr.) P.S. Greene & M.C. Chang

1856. Syringa amurensis Rupr.
1995. S. reticulata ssp. amurensis
Amur lilac Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0

ARS 



BBG 
Images, wsp
 Vahl

1804. Syringa villosa Vahl
1895. Syringa bretschneideri Lemoine
Villous lilac,
Late lilac,
Japanese lilac
Introduced from
 China,
No NY reports
  NYFA-0
USDA-X0
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Note: [2]
 J. Jacq. ex Rchb.

1830. Syringa josikaea Rchb.
Hungarian lilac Introduced from
 southeastern Europe,
No NY reports
  NYFA-0
USDA-X0
NPT Can
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
Note: [3]
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentSyringa reticulata: 31% (Capital/Mohawk).
  2. USDA-NRCS Plants database showed Syringa villosa in Westchester County, apparently based on Glenn, S.D. (ed.). 2013. New York Metropolitan Flora database. New York Metropolitan Flora Project, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York. The New York Metropolitan Flora Project entry for genus Syringa at http://nymf.bbg.org/genus/195, only shows S. reticulata and S. vulgaris present in the New York metro area.
  3. https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/syringa/josikaea/ shows Syringa josikaea appearing to be naturalized in adjacent Berkshire County, MA.
LigustrumEdit
 
Ligustrum vulgare
European privet
In general, the several privet species, none of which are native to the western hemisphere, have been found to be invasive, and some are quite difficult to control where they have naturalized. The New York Flora Atlas reports that Ligustrum obtusifolium (border privet) is by far the most common and invasive of the naturalized privets, but that Ligustrum vulgare (European privet) can be locally quite aggressive as well.
Ligustrum sp. young twigs &
stalks of floral panicles
floral-panicle
length
corolla lobe to
tube length ratio
tube length
L. vulgare hairless or minutely pubescent longer than 2" ~1/1 2.5 - 3 mm
L. obtusifolium conspicuously hairy 1" to 2" long 1/3 - 2/3 5 - 8 mm
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Oleeae — Ligustrinae — Ligustrum
Ligustrum Privet N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Ligustrum vulgare L.
1877. L. insulense Decne.
1879. L. insulare Decne.
European privet,
Common privet,
Wild privet,
Prim
Troène commun,
Troène
Introduced from
 Europe,
 western Asia,
 northern Africa,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 68%[1]

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Siebold & Zucc.
var. obtusifolium

1846. L. obtusifolium Siebold & Zucc.
1899. L. obtusifolium var. regelianum
1900. L. ibota var. regelianum
1904. L. regelianum Koehne
Border privet Introduced from
 Japan,
 Korea,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 77%[2],
Prohibited[3],
CP-2[4] NE-4[5],
IPA VT

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NPT 
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
var. suave

1861. Ligustrum amurense Carrière
1934. L. ibota var. Kitag.
1944. L. obtusifolium var. suave
1965. L. obtusifolium ssp. suave
Amur privet,
Amur river privet[5]
Introduced from
 China,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: NA[6]

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NPT 
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 Hassk.

1844. Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk.
1850. L. japonicum var. ovalifolium Blume
1877. L. californicum Decne.
1878. L. medium Franch. & Sav.
California privet,
Oval-leaf privet,
Garden privet
Troène des haies
Introduced from
 Japan,
 South Korea,
Invasive,
NYIS: 45%[7],
CP-3[8],
CT-FL

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
Ligustrum (excluded taxa) Privet N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Lour.

1790. Ligustrum sinense Lour.
1874. L. villosum May
1931. L. microcarpum Kaneh. & Sasaki
Chinese privet,
Small-leaf privet
Introduced from
 China, Taiwan,
 Laos, Vietnam,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: NA[9]
  NYFA-U
USDA-X0
NPT 
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp

Subtribe OleinaeEdit

ChionanthusEdit
White fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) is a usually-dioecious tree that is native to the southeastern US, possiibly as far north as southern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, but it has been reported to have naturalized in a few New York counties. It is becoming popular as a small ornamental tree in residential landscapes. There is some evidence that white fringetree in an acceptable host for the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).[1]
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Oleeae — Oleinae — Chionanthus
Chionanthus Fringetree N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Chionanthus virginica L.
1814. C. virginicus var. maritimus
1830. C. maritimus (Pursh) Sweet
White fringetree,
White fringe-tree,
White fringe tree,
American fringetree,
Old-man's-beard
Introduced from
 southeast US,
N. America native

FAC

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Part shade
  NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NPT 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp

Family TetrachondraceaeEdit

The Tetrachondraceae is a very small family containing only two species of the genus Tetrachondra and a single species of the genus Polypremum. Of these three species, only Polypremum procumbens, juniper leaf, has been reported to have been collected in New York, but it has since been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas.[1][2]

PolypremumEdit

Juniper leaf appears to be native from southern New Jersey to Florida and Texas. It is not known to have naturalized in New York State.

Lamiales — Tetrachondraceae — Polypremum
Polypremum (excluded taxa) Juniper leaf N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Juniper leaf N. America native
 southeastern US,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN



BNA


Images, wsp
  1. Tetrachondraceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Tetrachondraceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Family PlantaginaceaeEdit

The Plantaginaceae (plantain family)[1][2]

  1. Plantaginaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Plantaginaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Tribe GratioleaeEdit

GratiolaEdit

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Gratioleae — Gratiola
Gratiola Hedge-hyssop N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Torr.

1819. Gratiola neglecta Torr.
    
    
Northern clammy hedge-hyssop,
Clammy hedge-hyssop,
American hedge-hyssop
Gratiole négligée
Native, C:4,
Secure

OBL

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Muhl.

1811. Gratiola lutea Raf.
1813. Gratiola aurea Muhl.
1920. Gratiola aurea var. obtusa
1935. Gratiola lutea var. obtusa
Golden hedge-hyssop,
Golden hedgehyssop,
Golden pert
Gratiole dorée
Native, C:9,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
L.

    Gratiola virginiana L.
Virginia hedge hyssop
Roundfruit hedgehyssop

Native, C:?,
Endangered

OBL

Annual-biennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-1
USDA-N0






Images, wsp

LeucosporaEdit

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Gratioleae — Leucospora
Leucospora Leucospora N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Michx.) Nutt.

1803. Capraria multifida Michx.
1825. Stemodia multifida (Michx.) Spreng.
1834. Leucospora multifida (Michx.) Nutt.
1844. Sutera multifida (Michx.) Walp.
1846. Conobea multifida (Michx.) Benth.
Narrow-leaved paleseed,
Narrow-leaf paleseed,
Obe-Wan-Conobea,
Cliff conobea
Introduced from
 southern Midwest,
N. America native,
Naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-NN
NEW-0Can
ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp

Tribe CheloneaeEdit

CheloneEdit

 
Chelone glabra
white turtle-head
Turtleheads are all native to eastern North America, but only the white turtlehead is native to New York State. Although common in New York wetlands and listed as secure, it is also listed as exploitably vulnerable by the state.[1]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Cheloneae — Chelone
Chelone Turtlehead N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Chelone glabra L.
1840. Chlonanthes glabra (L.) Raf.
1929. Chelone chlorantha Pennell & Wherry
White turtlehead,
White turtle-head,
Snakehead,
Smooth balmony
Galane glabre
Native, C:6,
Secure,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - shade
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Pursh

1814. Chelone Lyonii Pursh
Flora Americae Septentrionalis 2: 737.
Pink turtlehead Introduced,
US South native,
No NY reports

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-0
USDA-N0
NPT 
ITIS

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1767. Chelone obliqua L.
1935. Chelone obliqua
ssp. typica (L.) Pennell nom. inval.
Red turtlehead Introduced,
US South native,
No NY reports

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-0
USDA-N0
NPT 
ITIS

NSE BNA


Images, wsp

PenstemonEdit

Penstemon or beardtongue is a large genus of about 250 species of primarily North American herbaceous perennials. The genus name was derived from the Greek penta (five) and stemon (stamen), referring to the flowers, which have five stamens (one sterile and four fertile).

Some Penstemon species have been hybridized and selected for horticultural trade. A popular example is Penstemon 'Dark Towers' (2004), which is a cross between an eastern U.S. cultivar: Penstemon digitalis Nutt. 'Husker Red' (Lindgren, 1984) and south-central U.S. hybrid pollen parent: Penstemon 'Prairie Splendor' (Penstemon cobaea Nutt. × Penstemon triflorus A.Heller) (Lindgren, 1993).[1]


Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Cheloneae — Penstemon
Penstemonsubg. Penstemonsect. Penstemon Beardtongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Willd.

1753. Chelone hirsuta L. (i)
1800. Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd. (i)
Hairy beardtongue,
Hairy beard-tongue,
Northeastern beard-tongue
Native, C:7,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
 Small

1903. Penstemon pallidus Small
1922. P. arkansanus var. pubescens
1933. P. brevisepalus Pennell
Pale beardtongue,
Eastern white beardtongue
Penstémon pâle
Native, C:10,
Secure

FACU-UPL
  NYFA-5
USDA-NX
NPT 
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Nutt. ex Sims

    Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex Sims
    P. laevigatus ssp. digitalis
    P. laevigatus var. angulatus
Foxglove beardtongue,
Fox-glove beard-tongue,
Talus-slope beard-tongue
Introduced,
US South native,
Naturalized

FAC
  NYFA-5
USDA-NX
NPT 


BNA


Images, wsp
 Small

    Penstemon calycosus Small
    P. laevigatus ssp. calycosus
    
Longsepal beardtongue,
Long-sepal beard-tongue
Introduced,
N. America native,
Unk. naturalizaiton
  NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NPT 


BNA


Images, wsp
Nutt.

1837. Penstemon tubaeflorus Nutt. (i)
1837. Penstemon tubiflorus Nutt. (i)
1949. P. tubaeflorus var. achoreus Fernald
    
Funnel-form beardtongue,
White-wand beardtongue,
Tube beardtongue
Introduced,
N. America native
  NYFA-X
USDA-NX
NPT Can
ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp

CollinsiaEdit

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Cheloneae — Collinsia
CollinsiaNutt. (1817) Blue-eyed-Mary N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Nutt.

1817. Collinsia verna Nutt.
1824. Collinsia bicolor Raf.
Blue-eyed Mary,
Spring blue-eyed Mary,
Eastern blue-eyed Mary,
Broad-leaved collinsia,
Innocence
Collinsie printanière
Native, C:10,
Endangered,
No recent reports,
DEC-A[1]

FAC-FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-Z
USDA-NN
NEW-0Can
ITIS
Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Lindl.

1813. Antirrhinum tenellum Pursh nom. illeg.
1827. Collinsia parviflora Lindl.
1846. Collinsia parviflora var. parviflora
1906. Collinsia tenella Piper nom. illeg.
Small-flowered blue-eyed Mary
Maiden blue-eyed Mary
Few-flowered blue-eyed Mary
Blue-lips
Small blue-eyed Mary
Small-flowered collinsia

Collinsie à petites fleurs
Introduced,
N. America native,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-NN
Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp

Tribe AntirrhineaeEdit

NuttallanthusEdit

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Nuttallanthus
Nuttallanthus Toadflax N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) D.A.Sutton

1753. Antirrhinum canadense L.
1802. Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum. Cours.
1988. N. canadensis (L.) D.A. Sutton
Old-field toadflax,
Canada toadflax,
Blue toadflax,
Field toadflax
Linaire du Canada
Native, C:3,
Likely secure

Biennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp

ChaenorhinumEdit

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Chaenorhinum
Chaenorhinum Dwarf-snapdragon N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Lange

Dwarf snapdragon Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

LinariaEdit

 
Linaria vulgaris
butter-and-eggs
Linaria (toadflax) has also been placed in the Scrophulariaceae (figwort family).
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Linaria
Linaria Toadflax N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Mill.

    Linaria linaria (L.) Karst.
Butter-and-eggs,
Yellow toadflax,
Flax-weed,
Wild snapdragon,
Eggs-and-bacon
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
Refs.[1][2]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
(L.) Mill.
ssp. dalmatica

    L. genistifolia ssp. dalmatica
    Antirrhinum dalmaticum L.
Balkan toadflax,
Dalmatian toadflax
Introduced from
 Mediterranean,
Potentially invasive,
Refs.[3][4],
Invasive.org
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 Hook. f.

Moroccan toadflax,
Morocco toadflax
Introduced from
 Mediterranean,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
(L.) Mill.
ssp. genistifolia

1753. Antirrhinum genistifolium L.
1768. Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill.
    
Broom-leaved toad-flax Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp
(L.) Mill.

    Linaria repens (L.) Mill.
    Linaria striata DC.
    
Pale toad-flax,
Striped toadflax
Introduced,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
(L.) Chaz.
ssp. supina

    Linaria repens (L.) Mill.
    Linaria striata DC.
    
Prostrate toad flax,
Lesser butter and eggs
Introduced,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
  1. National Invasive Species Information Center lists Linaria vulgaris as invasive in the US.
  2. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States lists Linaria vulgaris as invasive in adjacent states CT & NJ and ten other states.
  3. National Invasive Species Information Center lists Linaria dalmatica as invasive in the US.
  4. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States lists Linaria dalmatica as invasive in four western states.

CymbalariaEdit

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Cymbalaria
Cymbalaria Cymbalaria N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Gaertn., Meyer & Sherb.

Linaria cymbalaria
Kenilworth ivy Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 Wettst.

White coliseum-ivy,
Italian toadflax
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-00






Images, wsp

KickxiaEdit

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Kickxia
Kickxia Cancerwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Dumort.

Sharp-point toadflax Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 (L.) Dumort.

Round-leaved cancerwort Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

AntirrhinumEdit

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Antirrhinum
Antirrhinum Snapdragon N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Garden snapdragon Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

MisopatesEdit

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Misopates
Misopates Snapdragon N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Raf.

Antirrhinum orontium L.
Lesser snapdragon Introduced,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Tribe CallitricheaeEdit

CallitricheEdit

 
Callitriche palustris
vernal water-starwort
The Callitriche found in New York are aquatic plants known as water-starworts.
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Callitricheae — Callitriche
Callitriche Water-starwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Pursh
ssp. heterophylla

    Callitriche anceps Fernald
Diverseleaf water-starwort,
Twoheaded water-starwort
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.

    Callitriche verna L.
Vernal water-starwort Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
 Raf.

    Callitriche austinii Engelm.
    Callitriche deflexa A.Braun
Terrestrial water-starwort Native,
Threatened,
DEC-B[1]
  NYFA-2-3
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.

Autumnal water-starwort,
Northern water-starwort
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[2]
  NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp

Pond water-starwort Introduced,
Somewhat invasive,
NYIS: 49%[3]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp

HippurisEdit

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Callitricheae — Hippuris
Hippuris Mare's-tail N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1953. Hippuris vulgaris L.
Common mare's-tail
Hippuride vulgaire,
Queue de cheval,
Pesse vulgaire
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1]
  NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp

Tribe DigitalideaeEdit

DigitalisEdit

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Digitalideae — Digitalis
Digitalissect. Digitalis Foxglove N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Digitalis purpurea L.
Purple foxglove,
Common foxglove,
Digitalis,
Fairy cap
Digitale pourpre,
Grande digitale
Introduced from
 Europe,
 Morocco,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 53%[1]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
Digitalissect. Globiflorae Foxglove N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Ehrh.

1792. Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
Grecian foxglove,
Woolly foxglove,
Woolly digitalis
Digitale laineuse
Introduced from
 Europe,
 Turkey,
Somewhat invasive,
NYIS: 37%[2]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
Digitalissect. Macranthae Foxglove N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Mill.

1768. Digitalis grandiflora Mill.
1770. Digitalis ambigua Murray
Yellow foxglove,
Large yellow foxglove
Digitale à grandes fleurs
Introduced from
 Eurasia
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Digitalis lutea L.
Straw foxglove,
Small yellow foxglove
Digitale jaune,
Digitale à petites fleurs,
Petite digitale
Introduced from
 Europe
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS 




Images, wsp

Tribe VeroniceaeEdit

VeronicaEdit

Veronica subg. VeronicaEdit
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Veronica
Veronicasubg. Veronica Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Marsh speedwell,
Skullcap speedwell
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Veronica officinalis L.
1862. V. officinalis var. tournefortii Rchb.
Common speedwell,
Gypsy-weed,
Common gypsy-weed
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 Macaronesia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 52%[1]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentVeronica officinalis: Moderate (52). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
Veronica subg. BeccabungaEdit
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Beccabunga
Veronicasubg. Beccabunga Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Schwein. ex Benth. 1846

American speedwell,
American brooklime
Native, C:4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. peregrina

Neckweed,
Purslane speedwell
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. xalapensis

    Veronica xalapensis Kunth
    Veronica sherwoodii M.Peck
    
Hairy purslane speedwell,
Neckweed
Native,
Vulnerable
  NYFA-3
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
 Pennell

1921. Veronica catenata Pennell
    Veronica comosa Richt.
    Veronica connata Raf.
    Veronica salina Schur. misapplied
 auct. V. anagallis-aquatica
Chained speedwell,
Pink water speedwell,
Water speedwell,
Pennell's speedwell
Native, C:10,
Vulnerable
  NYFA-3-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp
(Dicks. ex With.) Syme
ssp. humifusa

    Veronica tenella All.
    Veronica humifusa Dicks.
Bright blue speedwell Native,
Likely extirpated
  NYFA-X
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
ssp. serpyllifolia

Thyme-leaved speedwell Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.

1753. V. anagallis-aquatica L.
    V. brittonii Porter ex Pennell
    V. glandifera Pennell
 auct. V. catenata
Water speedwell,
Blue speedwell,
Water pimpernel,
Brook pimpernel,
Blue water speedwell
Mouron d'eau
Introduced   NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

Brooklime,
European speedwell
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
Veronica subg. ChamaedrysEdit
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Chamaedrys

Veronicasubg. Chamaedrys Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Corn speedwell Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.

Germander speedwell Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 Crantz

Dillen's speedwell Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
 L.

Spring speedwell Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
Veronica subg. CochlidiospermaEdit
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Cochlidiosperma
Veronicasubg. Cochlidiosperma Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Ivy-leaved speedwell Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
Veronica subg. OrientalesEdit
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Orientales
Veronicasubg. Orientales Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. teucrium (L.) D.A. Webb

1762. Veronica teucrium L.
1939. V. krylovii Schischk.
1972. V. austriaca ssp. teucrium
Broad-leaved speedwell
Broadleaf speedwell
Large speedwell
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Unk. naturalization
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 




Images, wsp
Veronica subg. PocillaEdit
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Pocilla
Veronicasubg. Pocilla Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Field speedwell,
Green field speedwell
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.

    Pocilla biloba (L.) W.A. Weber
Two-lobe speedwell Introduced,
Rare
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 Sm.

Slender speedwell Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 Poir.

    Pocilla persica
Bird-eye speedwell Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 Fries

    Pocilla polita (Fr.) Fourr.
    Veronica didyma Ten. p.p.
Wayside speedwell Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
Veronica subg. PseudolysimachionEdit
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Pseudolysimachion
Veronicasubg. Pseudolysimachion Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Veronica longifolia L.
1852. Pseudolysimachion longifolium
(L.) Opiz
Longleaf speedwell,
Long-leaf speedwell,
Long-leaved speedwell,
Garden speedwell
Introduced,
Eurasia native
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Veronica spicata L.
1769. Veronica orchidea Crantz
1817. Veronica barrelieri Schult.
1852. Pseudolysimachion spicatum
(L.) Opiz
1950. Veronica hololeuca Juz.
Spike speedwell Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp
 Heuff.

1821. Veronica grandis
Fisch. ex Spreng. misapplied
1835. Veronica bachofenii Heuff.
1967. Pseudolysimachion bachofenii
Heartleaf speedwell,
Heart-leaved speedwell
Introduced from
 eastern Europe,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp

VeronicastrumEdit

 
Veronicastrum virginicum
Culver's root
Culver's root is the sole species of Veronicastrum, meaning "false Veronica."
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronicastrum
Veronicastrum Veronicastrum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Farw.

1753. Veronica virginica L.
1818. Leptandra virginica (L.) Nutt.
1917. Veronicastrum virginicum
(L.) Farw.
Culver's root,
Blackroot,
Bowman's root,
Tall speedwell
Native, C:5,
Threatened

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - part shade
  NYFA-2
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS

BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp

Tribe PlantagineaeEdit

Littorella Edit

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Plantagineae — Littorella
Littorella Shore grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Fernald

1753. Plantago uniflora L.
1859. Littorella uniflora (L.) Asch.
1918. Littorella americana Fernald
1952. Littorella uniflora
var. americana Gleason
1996. Plantago americana Rahn
American shore-grass Native,
Endangered

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN 

Images, wsp
Note: [1]

PlantagoEdit

Plantago subg. PlantagoEdit
 
Plantago rugelii
black-seeded plantain

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Plantagineae — Plantago subg. Plantago
Plantagosubg. Plantago Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Rugel’s plantain
Blackseed plantain
Black-seeded plantain
American plantain

Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NX
NPT 
iNat





Images, wsp
 L.

Virginia plantain,
Pale-seeded plantain,
Hoary plantain
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 Lam.

1792. Plantago cordata Lam.
Heart-leaved plantain,
Heartleaf plantain,
Kingroot
Native,
Rare

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-3
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp

Dwarf plantain Introduced,
N. America native
 
USDA-N0
NPT 





Images, wsp
 Nutt.

Slender plantain Introduced,
N. America native
  NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.

Common plantain,
Nipple-seeded plantain
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.

Lamb's tongue plantain
Hoary plantain

Plantain moyen
Plantain bâtard
Introduced from
 Eurasia
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
Plantagosubg. Plantago (excluded taxa) Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Torr.

Redwool plantain Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN
NPT 





Images, wsp
Plantago subg. CoronopusEdit
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Plantagineae — Plantago subg. Coronopus
Plantago Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. juncoides

    Plantago juncoides Lam.
    Plantago maritima ssp. borealis
    Plantago oliganthos
Seaside plantain Native,
Threatened
  NYFA-2-3
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 L.

    
    
    
Buckhorn plantain Introduced,
Rare
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
Plantago subg. Psyllium s.lEdit

This subgenus combines subg. Psyllium s.s and subg. Albicans, which have been found to be polyphyletic when treated separately.

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Plantagineae — Plantago subg. Psyllium s.l
Plantago Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

Largebracted plantain,
Rat-tail plantain,
Western ripplegrass
Introduced,
N. America native
  NYFA-X
USDA-NX






Images, wsp
 Jacq.

Woolly plantain Introduced,
N. America native
  NYFA-X
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 L.

English plantain,
Narrowleaf plantain,
Narrow-leaved plantain
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 Waldst. & Kit.

1753. Plantago psyllium L., nom. utique rej.
1759. Plantago indica L., nom. utique rej.
1794. Plantago scabra Moench
1801. Plantago arenaria Waldst. & Kit.
Flaxseed plantain
Sand plantain

Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 




Images, wsp

Family ScrophulariaceaeEdit

The Scrophulariaceae (figwort Family) ...[1][2]

Tribe ScrophularieaeEdit

ScrophulariaEdit

Lamiales — Scrophulariaceae — Scrophularieae — Scrophularia
Scrophularia Figwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Pursh 1813

Hare figwort,
Lanceleaf figwort,
American figwort
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
L. 1753

Carpenter's square,
Figwort,
Eastern figwort,
Maryland figwort
Native,
Likely secure
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
 L. 1753

Woodland figwort,
Common figwort,
Figwort
Introduced,
Eurasia native
  NYFA-X
USDA-NX

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
L. 1753

S. aquatica auct.
Shoreline figwort,
Water betony,
Water figwort
Introduced,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
  1. Scrophulariaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Scrophulariaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

VerbascumEdit

Lamiales — Scrophulariaceae — Scrophularieae — Verbascum
Verbascum Mullein N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Verbascum blattaria L.
Moth mullein,
White moth mullein
Introduced,
Eurasia native,
N. Africa native
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
 L. 1753

1753. Verbascum thapsus L.
Common mullein,
Great mullein
Molène,
Bouillon blanc
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Verbascum lychnitis L.
White mullein Introduced,
Eurasia native
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
K.Koch

Verbascum lychnitis ×
Verbascum thapsus

1837. Verbascum spurium K.Koch
Mullein Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS 




Images, wsp
L. 1753

1753. Verbascum phlomoides L.
Orange mullein,
Clasping-leaved mullein
Introduced,
Eurasia native
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
L.

1753. Verbascum phoeniceum L.
1753. Verbascum phoenicium L.
Purple mullein Introduced,
Eurasia native
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Verbascum sinuatum L.
Wavyleaf mullein,
Wavy-leaved mullein,
Black-leaved mullein,
Scallop-leaved mullein
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ITIS




Images, wsp

Tribe LimoselleaeEdit

LimosellaEdit

Lamiales — Scrophulariaceae — Limoselleae — Limosella
Limosella Mudwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
R.Br. (1810)

L. aquatica var. tenuifoliaL. subulata
Mudwort,
Welsh mudwort
Native,
Rare,
Vulnerable
  NYFA-3
USDA-NN

ITIS




Images, wsp

Tribe BuddlejeaeEdit

BuddlejaEdit

One species of Butterfly bush, Buddleja davidii has escaped cultivation and become invasive in New York State. It has been widely planted to attract butterflies and birds, but it has been found to be invasive in many temperate locations outside of its native range in China. Butterfly-bush should not be confused with butterfly-weed (Asclepias tuberosa), which is a native milkweed.

Lamiales — Scrophulariaceae — Buddlejeae — Buddleja
Buddleja Butterflybush N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Franch.

1888. Buddleja davidii Franch.
Orange-eyed butterfly-bush,
Orange-eye butterfly-bush,
Orange eye butterflybush,
Butterfly bush,
Orange eye,
Summer lilac
Arbre aux papillons,
Lilas d'été
Introduced from
 China,
Invasive,
NYIS: 45%[1]

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentBuddleja davidii: Low (45). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.

Solanales
Flora of New York — Lamiales 1:
Oleaceae, Tetrachondraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae

Lamiales 2:
Lamiaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index