Flora of New York/Carduoideae


Aquifoliaceae, Campanulaceae, Menyanthaceae
Flora of New York — Asterales : Asteraceae : Carduoideae : Cardueae
Cichorioideae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos

Family AsteraceaeEdit

The Asteraceae (or Compositae)

Subfamily CarduoideaeEdit

Tribe CardueaeEdit

The Cardueae (syn. Cynareae) is a mostly non-native tribe of Asteraceae. It contains various thistles and knapweeds, many of which are considered highly invasive in the region.

Subtribe CarlininaeEdit

CarlinaEdit
 
Carlina vulgaris, Carline thistle
Carline thistle establishes on exposed soil but does not compete with taller dense vegetation.
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carlininae — Carlina
Carlina Carline-thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
ssp. vulgaris

    C. vulgaris ssp. longifolia
Carline thistle Introduced,
Naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
BONAP
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Wikispecies

Subtribe EchinopsinaeEdit

EchinopsEdit
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Echinopsinae
Echinops Globethistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Great globethistle Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Wikispecies

Subtribe CarduinaeEdit

OnopordumEdit
 
Onopordum acanthium

Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Onopordum
Onopordum Cottonthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Scotch thistle,
Scotch cottonthistle
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [1],
Naturalized,
SNA,
NSE: GNR

Biennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-X
USDA-XM
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ArctiumEdit
 
Arctium lappa, greater burdock
Only the two burdock species Arctium lappa (greater burdock) and A. minus (lesser burdock) are currently listed as naturalized in New York. Specimens of A. minus were apparently misidentified as A. tomentosum in the past.

Arctium is an Old World genus whose biennial plants have been introduced around the world, perhaps in part due to Velcro-like burrs that promote wide seed dispersal.


Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Arctium
Arctium Burdock N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

1753. Arctium lappa L.
1762. Lappa vulgaris Hill
1785. Lappa officinalis All.
1791. Lappa major Gaertn.
1800. Arctium majus Bernh.
1833. Arctium nemorosum Lej. & Court.
1883. Lappa lappa (L.) H.Karst. (i)
1913. Arctium vulgare (Hill) A.H.Evans
1928. Arctium edule Beger
Greater burdock,
Great burdock,
Edible burdock,
Beggar's-buttons
Grande bardane,
Bardane majeure,
Rhubarbe sauvage,
Graquias,
Toques,
Rapace
Introduced from
 Eurasia
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(Hill) Bernh.

1762. Lappa minor Hill
1800. Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.
1856. Arctium pubens Bab.
Lesser burdock,
Common burdock,
Cuckoo-button
Petite bardane,
Bardane mineure,
Bardane,
Tabac du diable,
Tapace,
Chou bourache,
Cibourroche,
Graquias
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa
  NYFA-X
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Arctium (excluded taxa) Burdock N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Mill.

1768. Arctium tomentosum Mill.
    
    
Woolly burdock,
Hairy burdock
Bardane tomenteuse
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-XX
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SilybumEdit

Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Silybum
Silybum Milk thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Gaertn.

1753. Carduus marianus L.
1768. Mariana mariana (L.) Hill (i)
1791. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.
Milk-thistle,
Blessed milkthistle,
St. Mary's thistle
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Highly invasive,
NYS Tier 5[1]

Biennial,
Herb-forb
  6 counties NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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CirsiumEdit
Cirsium species are known as plume thistles due to the feathered hairs on their achenes.
New-World CirsiumEdit
 
Cirsium muticum
Swamp thistle
The North American thistles found in New York are here divided into two groups (species complexes) that are known to freely hybridize within the individual group.
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Cirsium
CirsiumMill. (1745)
(North American - HG1)
Thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

1803. Cirsium muticum Michx.
1807. Carduus muticus (Michx.) Pers.
1814. Cnicus muticus (Michx.) Pursh
1838. Cirsium bigelovii DC.
Swamp thistle,
Dunce-nettle,
Horsetops
Chardon mutique,
Circe mutique
Native, CoC: 9,
Secure,
S5, G5

OBL

Biennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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(Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng.

1803. Cnicus discolor Muhl. ex Willd.
1818. Carduus discolor
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Nutt.
1826. Cirsium discolor
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng.
1894. Cirsium altissimum fo. discolor (Muhl. ex Willd.) Voss
1902. Cirsium altissimum var. discolor (Muhl. ex Willd.) Fernald
1917. Cirsium altissimum ssp. discolor (Muhl. ex Willd.) Petr.
Field thistle,
Pasture thistle
Chardon discolore,
Circe discolore
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure,
S5

UPL

Biennial-perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
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 (L.) Spreng.

1753. Carduus altissimus L.
1804. Cnicus altissimus Willd.
1826. Cirsium altissimum (L.) Spreng.
1826. Cirsium altissimum (L.) Hill
1908. Cirsium iowense
(Pammel) Fernald
1917. Cirsium altissimum
var. biltmoreanum Petr.
Tall thistle,
Roadside thistle
Native, CoC: 10,
Likely extirpated

UPL

Biennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-Z
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 (Rydb.) Arthur
1900. Carduus flodmanii Rydb.
1903. Cirsium oblanceolatum
(Rydb.) K.Schum.
1912. Cirsium flodmanii (Rydb.) Arthur

Flodman's thistle,
Prairie thistle
Introduced,
Midwest native,
Preglacial relict?

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-X
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CirsiumMill. (1745)
(North American - HG2)
Thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Nutt.) Spreng.
ssp. pumilum

1818. Carduus pumilus Nutt.
1826. Cirsium pumilum (Nutt.) Spreng.
1911. Cirsium odoratum
(Muhl. ex Steud.) Petr.
Pasture thistle,
Fragrant thistle,
Bull thistle
Chardon nain
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure

N. R.

Biennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
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 Michx.
var. horridulum

1803. Cirsium horridulum Michx.
    
    
Yellow thistle,
Giant thistle,
Bristly thistle,
Horrid thistle,
Bull thistle
Native, CoC: 5,
Rare

FACU

Annual-biennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-N
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Old-World CirsiumEdit
 
Cirsium vulgare
bull thistle
All three of the Eurasian Cirsium (thistle) species are considered invasive in New York State.
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Cirsium
Cirsium(Eurasian ) Plume thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Savi) Ten.

1753. Carduus lanceolatus L.
1798. Carduus vulgaris Savi
1835. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.
1938. Ci. vulgare Airy Shaw (hom.)
1972. Ci. lanceolatum Scop.non Hill
Bull thistle,
Common thistle,
Spear thistle,
Scotch thistle
Chardon vulgaire,
Chardon lancéolé,
Gros chardon,
Circe commun,
Circe vulgaire
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Widespread weed,
NE-3[1],
Invasive.org

FACU

Biennial,
Hert-forb
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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(L.) Scop.

1753. Serratula arvensis L.
1772. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.
1777. Carduus arvensis (L.) E.Robson
1819. Cirsium incanum
(S.G.Gmel.) Fisch. ex M.Bieb.
1819. Cirsium setosum (Willd.) M.Bieb.
Creeping thistle,
Canada thistle,
Field thistle
Chardon des champs,
Chardon du Canada,
Circe des champs
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 71%[2],
Prohibited[3],
CP-2[4] NE-2[5]

FACU

Perennial,
Hert-forb
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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(L.) Scop.

1753. Carduus palustris L.
1772. Cirsium Palustre (L.) Scop.
    
Marsh thistle,
Marsh plume thistle,
European marsh thistle,
European swamp thistle
Chardon des marais,
Cirse des marais
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 68% [6],
NE-2[5]

FACW

Perennial,
Hert-forb
  NYFA-X
USDA-XW
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  1. Category 3 Plants - widespread non-native species - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  2. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentCirsium arvense: Highly invasive (71%).
  3. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Regulation 6 NYCRR Part 575 Prohibited and Regulated Invasive Species
  4. Appendix 2. Plant species that are considered highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
  5. a b Category 2 Plants - moderately invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  6. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentCirsium palustre: Moderately invaisve (68%).
CarduusEdit
 
Carduus acanthoides
spiny plumeless thistle
Carduus species are known as plumeless thistles.
Asterales — Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Carduus
Carduus Plumeless thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
ssp. acanthoides

Spiny plumeless thistle Introduced,
Moderately invasive
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Images
Wikispecies

Musk thistle,
Nodding thistle,
Nodding plumeless thistle
Introduced,
Moderately invasive
  NYFA-Xn
USDA-XX
Images
Wikispecies

Curled plumless-thistle,
Welted thistle,
Curled thistle
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Images
Wikispecies
ssp. pycnocephalus

Italian thistle Introduced,
Unvouchered waif
  NYFA-U
USDA-XX
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Wikispecies
SerratulaEdit
Asterales — Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Serratula
Serratula (excluded) Plumeless saw-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution  NPT
L.

    Serratula tinctoria L.
    
    
Dyer's plumeless saw-wort,
Saw-wort
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-X0
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Subtribe CentaureinaeEdit

The Centaureinae contains knapweeds and starthistles, none of which are native to New York, and some of which are considered to be seriously invasive in the state.[1]

PlectocephalusEdit
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Plectocephalus
Plectocephalus Basketflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Nutt.

1821. Centaurea americana Nutt.
1830. Plectocephalus americanus
(Nutt.) D.Don
American star-thistle,
American basketflower,
Powderpuff thistle,
Thornless thistle
Introduced from
 south-central US,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-N0
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CentaureaEdit
The subgeneric classification of Centaurea (knapweeds) used here is based on Hilpold et al. (2014).[1]
Centaurea identificationEdit
Four of the most common and invasive knapweed species can often be distinguished by the involucre bracts, the scale-like structures surrounding the inflorescence, just below flower petals.[1]
  • Centaurea stoebe (spotted): Bracts are black tipped, tip and upper margin have soft, spine-like fringe, Center spine shorter than others.
  • Centaurea jacea (brown): Bracts are somewhat hairy, with broad, thin papery margins. Center of bract is dark brown.
  • Centaurea nigra (black): Bracts are oval-shaped with broad, comb-like, dark brown or black fringed margins. Fringe length up to 3 times as long as bract width.
  • Centaurea × moncktonii (meadow, brown × black): Bracts are light to dark brown, roundish, with thin papery margin with fringes about equal width of bract center.

Centaurea subg. Centaurea sect. CentaureaEdit
 
Centaurea stoebe
spotted knapweed
Centaurea sect. Centaurea contains spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos), which has widely naturalized in much of North America , including New York State, where it is considered highly invasive.
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Centaurea subg. Centaurea sect. Centaurea
Centaureasubg. Centaureasect. Centaurea Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. micranthos (S.G.Gmel. ex Gugler) Hayek

1838. Centaurea biebersteinii DC.
1872. C. australis Pančić ex A. Kern.
1907. C. maculosa ssp. micranthos Gugler
1931. C. stoebe ssp. micranthos Hayek
2003. C. stoebe ssp. australis Greuter
 auct. C. maculosanon Lam.
 auct. Acosta maculosanon (Lam.) Holub
Spotted knapweed,
Spotted star-thistle
Centaurée maculée,
Centaurée tachetée
Introduced from
 southeast Europe,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: 79%[1],
CP-3[2] NE-1[3],
SNA, GNR
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 L.

1753. Centaurea cineraria L.
1785. C. candidissima Lam.
1839. C. gymnocarpa Moris & DeNot.[4]
1974. Acosta cineraria (L.) Holub
Silver knapweed,
Star-thistle,
Dusty miller
Introduced from
 southern Europe,
Impersistent,
Unk. naturalization,
SNA
  Suffolk (1921) NYFA-X
USDA-X0
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Centaurea (excluded taxa) Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Lam.

1785. Centaurea diffusa Lam.
1799. C. parviflora Desf.
1822. C. parviflora Besser hom.
1970. C. microcalathina A.O.Tarassov
1972. Acosta diffusa (Lam.) Soják
Diffuse knapweed,
White knapweed,
Tumble knapweed
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: 79%[1],
FEIS
  NYFA-0
USDA-XX
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Centaurea diffusa ×
C. stoebe ssp. micranthos

Hybrid of
 Diffuse knapweed &
 Spotted knapweed
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: 79%[1]
 
USDA-0X
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Jersey knapweed Introduced,
N.Y. excluded,
Note[5]
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-X0
ITIS
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  1. a b c New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentC. stoebe, C. diffusa, C. × psammogena: High (79).
  2. Appendix 3. Plant species that are considered moderately to highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
  3. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  4. Euro+Med Plantbase lists Centaurea gymnocarpa as an accepted species, while the Global Compositae Checklist lists it as a synonym of Centaurea cinerea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2014.1, states "C. gymnocarpa belongs to the group known as the "cineraria" group. This group probably was once a single species when the land masses were united, but as islands were formed, new species evolved on each island. This means that today there are a number of closely related species of Centaurea in the Mediterranean growing on rocky seaward cliffs, all probably related to a common ancestor."
  5. Centaurea paniculata checklist entries were based on reports only. No known specimens from New York exist. It is similar in appearance to Centaurea stoebe.
Centaurea subg. Centaurea sect. PhrygiaEdit
 
Centaurea × moncktonii
meadow knapweed
Centaurea sect. Phrygia, in New York State, contains three moderately invasive species of knapweeds, cumulatively known as the Centaurea jacea complex, and gradations of hybrids between possibly all three of them. The named hybrid Centaurea × moncktonii (C. jacea × C. nigra) is morphologically variable, and some individuals appear to have a similarity to C. nigrescens, possibly resulting from hybridization between all three species.



Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Centaurea subg. Centaurea sect. Phrygia
Centaureasubg. Centaureasect. Phrygia Knapweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Centaurea jacea L.
1778. Jacea pratensis Lam.
1799. Centaurea pratensis Thuill. (i)
Brown knapweed,
Brownray knapweed,
Brown-rayed knapweed,,
Brown starthistle
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 62%[1],
CP-3[2]
  NYFA-X
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L.

1753. Centaurea nigra L.
1769. Jacea nigra (L.) Hill
1852. Centaurea nemoralis Jord.
1894. Centaurea jacea ssp. nigra (L.) Bonnier & Layens
Black knapweed,
Lesser knapweed,
Common knapweed,
Black starthistle
Introduced from
 Europe,
 northern Africa,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 62%[1]
  NYFA-X
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C.E.Britton

Centaurea jacea ×
Centaurea nigra

1799. C. pratensis Thuill. non Salisb.
1813. C. nigra var. radiata DC.
18??. C. jacea var. pratensis W.D.J.Koch
1975. C. debeauxii ssp. thuillieri Dostál
1921. Centaurea × moncktonii
C.E.Britton
Meadow knapweed,
Protean knapweed,
Hybrid of
 black knapweed &
 brown knapweed
Introduced from
 Europe,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 62%[1]
  NYFA-X
USDA-0X
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 Willd.

1803. Centaurea nigrescens Willd.
1831. C. vochinensis Bernh. ex Rchb.
1917. C. dubia ssp. nigrescens (Willd.) Hayek
1917. C. dubia ssp. vochinensis (Bernh. ex Rchb.) Hayek
Tyrol knapweed,
Short-fringed knapweed,
Short-fringed starthistle,
Vochin knapweed
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 62%[1]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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    Centaurea austriaca
    C. uniflora ssp. nervosa
Wig knapweed Introduced,
Impersistent,
Unk. naturalization
  NYFA-Xu
USDA-X0
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Centaurea subg. Centaurea sect. CnicusEdit
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Centaurea subg. Centaurea sect. Cnicus
Centaureasubg. Centaureasect. Cnicus Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) L.

1753. Cnicus benedictus L.
1763. Centaurea benedicta (L.) L.
1895. Cirsium pugnax
Sommier & Levier
1908. Carduus benedictus Thell. (i)
Blessed thistle,
Our Lady's thistle
Chardon béni,
Cnicaut béni,
Chardon bénit
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Not naturalized,
SNA
  Oswego (1883) NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Centaurea subg. LopholomaEdit
 
Centaurea solstitialis
yellow knapweed

Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Centaurea subg. Lopholoma
Centaureasubg. Lopholoma Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Yellow starthistle,
Barnaby star-thistle,
St. Barnaby’s thistle
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [2],
Unknonwn naturalization,
SNA,
NSE: Exotic GNR
 
NYFA: 6 counties
iNat: no counties
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Wikispecies

Great starthistle,
Greater knapweed,
Hardheads,
Scabious knapweed,
Greater centaury
Introduced,
Unk. naturalization
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Wikispecies

Purple starthistle,
Red star-thistle,
Caltrops
Introduced from
 Europe,
Not naturalized,
Impersistent,
SNA
  Bronx (1898-99),
Kings (1897),
Queens (1879),
Westchester (1894-95)
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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North African knapweed Introduced,
Not naturalized,
Impersistent
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
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Rough star-thistle Introduced,
Not naturalized,
Impersistent,
SNA
  New York (1880) NYFA-X
USDA-X0
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Centaurea subg. CyanusEdit
 
Centaurea cyanus
bachelor’s button

Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Centaurea subg. Cyanus
Centaureasubg. Cyanus Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L. (1753)

1769. Cyanus segetum Hill
1837. Centaurea pulchra DC.
Cornflower,
Bachelor’s-button,
Bluebottle,
Bluebonnets
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
Naturalized,
Note:[1],
SNA, GNR

UPL-FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Centaurea montana L.
1768. Cyanus montanus (L) Hill
Mountain starthistle,
Mountain cornflower,
Mountain bluet,
Perennial cornflower
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [3],
NSE: Exotic, GNR
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Images
Wikispecies
CarthamusEdit
 
Carthamus tinctorius
Safflower is grown primarily as a source of vegetable oil and mostly in Southwest.
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Carthamus
Carthamus Distaff thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Carthamus tinctorius L.
1753. Cathamus tinctorius L. (i)
Safflower,
Dyer's-saffron,
False saffron,
Bastard-saffron
Introduced from
 western Asia?,
 eastern Med.?,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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iNaturalist
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
L.

    Carthamus lanatus L.
Woolly distaff thistle
Downy safflower

Introduced,
Potentially invasive
 
NYFA: 0 counties
iNat: 0 counties

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iNaturalist
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CrupinaEdit
 
Crupina vulgaris
Crupina vulgaris has spread rapidly in western rangelands since first being reported in west-central Idaho in 1969. It has also been reported in Massachusetts.[1]
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Crupina
Crupina Bearded creeper N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Cass.

1819. Crupina vulgaris Cass.
Common crupina
Bearded creeper
False saw-wort

Crupine
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: 18 listing sources,
 GRIIS-US: Invasive,
Not listed in NYFA
 
NYFA: not listed
iNat: no NY observations

GBIF
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ARS-GRIN
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