# R Programming/Documentation

## Obtaining Help

editFor each package you have a *reference manual* available as an HTML file from within R or as a PDF on the CRAN website. You also often have *Vignettes* or comprehensive articles in the R Journal, the Journal of Statistical Software, etc.

```
library(help="package_name")
vignette("np",package="np")
vignette(all=FALSE) # vignettes for all attached packages
vignette(all=TRUE) # vignettes for all packages on the computer
```

You can search for help inside all loaded packages using `help()` or `?`. Usually you do not need to add quotes to function names, but sometimes it can be useful. `args()` gives the full syntax of a function.

```
help(lm)
?lm
?"for"
?"[["
args("lm")
function (formula, data, subset, weights, na.action, method = "qr",
model = TRUE, x = FALSE, y = FALSE, qr = TRUE, singular.ok = TRUE,
contrasts = NULL, offset, ...)
# NULL
```

`apropos()` and `find()` looks for all the functions in the loaded packages containing a keyword or a regular expression^{[1]}.

```
apropos("norm")
# [1] "dlnorm" "dnorm" "plnorm"
# [4] "pnorm" "qlnorm" "qnorm"
# [7] "qqnorm" "qqnorm.default" "rlnorm"
# [10] "rnorm" "normalizePath"
```

You can search for help in all installed packages using `help.search()` or its shortcut `??`.

```
??"lm"
help.search("covariance")
```

`RSiteSearch()` looks for help in all packages and in the R mailing lists. The **sos** package improves the `RSiteSearch()` function with the `findFn()` function. `???` is a wrapper for `findFn()`.

```
RSiteSearch("spline")
library("sos")
findFn("spline", maxPages = 2)
???"spline"(2)
```

`hints()` in the **hints** package suggests what to do with an object.

```
fit <- lm(y ~ x)
library("hints")
hints(fit) # returns a list of function using lm objects.
```

## Handouts

edit**An Introduction to R**The**R**Reference Manual**Robert Kabacoff's Quick R****Grant Farnsworth's Econometrics in R**The best introduction for an economist (about 20 pages)**UCLA R Computing Resources****A Handbook of Statistical Analyses Using R**by Brian S. Everitt and Torsten Hothorn**fr+en**Arthur Charpentier's R for acturies- Dan Goldstein's video tutorial
**fr**Julien Barnier's introduction to R for sociologists- Rosetta Code presents solutions to the same task in different programming languages.
- 'R language for programmers', by John Cook
- A Brief Guide to R Beginners in Econometrics
- R Tutorial by Kelly Black

## Teaching Resources

edit- François Briatte has a nice introduction to data analysis using R
^{[2]} - Simon Jackman Political Methodology Classes
- Jonathan Katz Political Methodology Classes
- A Brief Guide to R for Beginners in Econometrics
- PRISM luncheons
- Statistical Analysis: an Introduction using R - which includes a course on R
- Biostatistics with R aka A R companion to Wayne Daniel 's
*Biostatistics*Book

## Blogs

edit- Planet R the first R blog aggregator
- R Bloggers
*The news pulse for the R blogosphere* - "R" you Ready ?
- One R Tip a Day
- Revolution computing blog
- Yu Sung Su's Blog:R
**(fr)**Freakonometrics (in French) lots of code chunks**(fr)**Baptiste Coulmont (in French)**(fr)**Quanti Sciences Sociales (in French) R blog for sociologists

## Journals

edit- The R Journal
- Journal of Statistical Software contains lots of articles on R packages.
- The Political Methodologist contains lots of articles on R for political scientists.

## Books

edit- Venables and Ripley : Modern Applied Statistics with S
- A very good introduction to R covering numerous topics.

- A Handbook of Statistical Analyses Using R (Brian S. Everitt and Torsten Hothorn, Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2008)
- An Introduction to Data Technologies, by Paul Murrell
- Everything you need to know about data management

*A first course in statistical programming with R*, John Braun and Duncan Murdoch.- Peter Dalgaard (2009). ISwR: Introductory Statistics with R. R package version 2.0-4. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=ISwR
- Springer Use R Series
- John Fox : An R and S-PLUS Companion to Applied Regression
- Gelman Hill : Data Analysis using Regression and Multilevel Hierarchical Models

## useR and other R conferences

edit- useR! 2009
- useR! 2010
- London R homepage
- R / Finance conferences in 2009 and 2010

## Search Engine

edit- R seek
- Google Code Search with keyword "lang:r" gives access to r programs including the request. For instance the following request
`optim lang:r`

gives access to all the r programs including`optim`

.

## Q&A / Forums

edit- Nabble R http://r.789695.n4.nabble.com/
- Stackoverflow
- The #rstats hashtag on Twitter
- IRC: #r@freenode
- r-soc : mailing list for French sociologist

## References

edit- ↑ If you want to know more about regular expressions, have a look at the Regular expressions section in the Text Processing page.
- ↑ Introduction to Data Analysis