Levantine Arabic/Verbs/Subjunctive

Formation edit

The stem of the subjunctive is usally formed by changing the vowels of the past tense 3rd person singular. It can be predicted for form II-X verbs, however it must be learned for form I verbs.

The given form is the 3rd person singular with the prefix “y-”, other persons are derived from it.

Note that any stressed “i” in an emphatic environment can become “u” in North Levantine.

Form Type Stem vowel(s) Past Subjunctive
I regular a → a فتح fataḥ يفتح yiftaḥ
a → i مسك masak يمسك yimsik
a → u درس daras يدرس yidrus (N) / yudrus (S)
i → a فهم fihim يفهم yifham
i → i (rare) عرف ʕirif يعرف yaʕrif, yiʕrif
defective i (N) / a (S) → i حكيiki (N) / حكىaka (S) يحكي yiḥki
i → a نسي nisi ينسى yinsa
a → a (rare) قرا 'ara يقرا yi'ra
hollow a → i جاب jāb يجيب yjīb
a → u شاف šāf يشوفūf
a → a (rare) نام nām ينام ynām
geminate a → i حسّass يحسّ yḥiss
a → u حطّaṭṭ يحطّ yḥuṭṭ
a → a (rare) ضلّall يضلّ yḍall
II / Iq regular a → a-i علّم ʕallam يعلّمallim
defective a → a-i خلّىalla يخلّي yḵalli
III
IV (rare)
V / IIq
VI
VII
VIII
IX (rare)
X

Conjugation edit

Usage edit

Future tense edit