History of video games/Print version/Fifth Generation of Video Game Consoles

Fifth generation of video game consoles


3D GamingEdit

A typical CRT TV set from 1995. By this point the more capable RCA jacks were becoming more common on televisions, reducing the need for RF output.

Polygonal 3D gaming was supported by all major home consoles this generation. However real time 3D graphics on consumer level hardware was still a new concept, and there were many different wildly different approaches to how a 3D system should work in a console. This lead to some consoles being much better at 3D graphics performance and ease of use by developers, and some with performance much less than their at the time impressive specifications would indicate.

Many game series failed to make effective 3D versions of their traditionally 2D games.[1] Crafting a believable 3D environment on the hardware available was difficult. Furthermore, developers not only had to design good controls for a 3D game, they had to explain them to players used to playing 2D games exclusively.[2] All these issues were exasperated by a lack of developers familiar with 3D gaming, even within major development companies.[3] Even developers that were able to competently make 3D games struggled somewhat, with large improvements in 3D game control schemes occurring within the generation as developers figured out ways to improve the player experience.[4][2]

Display technologyEdit

The backlight of a Sega Nomad. While portable consoles could incorporate backlighting this generation, it wouldn't be till the sixth generation where backlighting became efficient enough to be practical.

Display technology improves rapidly during this time with the final major refinements in CRT displays, and the emergence of new technologies. In 1996 Sonys Trinitron (Aperture grille CRT) patents expire, allowing other manufacturers to produce similar quality television sets[5][6] and improving the gaming experience. In 1998 Phillips introduces the first consumer plasma TV for $15,000.[7] Such TVs would become common in the mid 2000's with improving technology and price drops.

This generation more portable consoles adopted color screens, though monochrome screens were still common.


Fourth generation of video game consoles · Sixth generation of video game consoles


3DO logo


Development of the 3DO started in September 1989, when noted computer and game console designers Dave Needle and Robert J. Mical met with David Morse at a restaurant and noted initial 3DO on a paper napkin at a restaurant.[1][2]


The 3DO was launched in North America on October 4th, 1993[3] at a cost of $699.[4][5] Unlike many also rans of the era, the 3DO was widely publicized, and Time Magazine named the 3DO it's product of the year in 1993.[6]

On March 20th, 1994 the 3DO was launched in Japan.[3]


Discontinued in 1996, about two million 3DO consoles were sold.[4] Despite it's relatively small market share, the 3DO is known for the talent behind it, namely Trip Hawkins and third party supporting studios such as Naughty Dog, Crystal Dynamics, and Toys for Bob.

The 3DO was intended to be succeeded by the M2, though that system was never released.


A 3DO console with accessories.

The Panasonic FZ-1 3DO has a 32 bit ARM architecture CPU clocked at 12.5 megahertz.[5] This was quite substantial at launch, though lower end competitors quickly caught up and surpassed this spec within a few years. The system has 2 megabytes of DRAM, and 1 megabyte of Video RAM,[5][7] which was quite also quite a substantial amount of memory for a game console at the time of the 3DO launch.

The 3DO uses a custom Clio chip and a custom Madam chip to accelerate certain tasks.[8][9] The 3DO supported texture mapping and anti-aliasing.[10]


A 3DO in a museum.

3DO Game AestheticsEdit

Many games for the 3DO were hallmarked by FMV (Full Motion Video) graphics, typically featuring real actors and often featuring early computer generated imagery. FMV was sometimes used nearly exclusively for FMV games. Some other games simply relied on FMV for story cutscenes or environment flair.

Gameplay graphics were often entirely FMV. More interactive games often used simple real time 3D graphics, prerendered 3D graphics, advanced 2D graphics, or some mix of the aforementioned techniques.


Crash 'n BurnEdit

A launch title and pack in game.

Read more about Crash 'n Burn on Wikipedia.

Escape from Monster ManorEdit

An exclusive 3D survival horror first person shooter.

Read more about Escape from Monster Manor on Wikipedia.

Jurassic Park InteractiveEdit

A 3DO exclusive action game developed as a tie in to the prior year's hit movie Jurassic Park.

Read more about Jurassic Park Interactive on Wikipedia.

The Life Stage: Virtual HouseEdit

A 3DO exclusive construction simulator, and a launch title for the Japanese release of 3DO.

Read more about The Life Stage: Virtual House on Wikipedia.

Twisted: The Game ShowEdit

A 3DO exclusive party game.

Read more about Twisted: The Game Show on Wikipedia.

Plumbers Don't Wear TiesEdit

An adult FMV game.[11]

Read more about Plumbers Don't Wear Ties on Wikipedia.


Doctor HauzerEdit

Read more about Doctor Hauzer on Wikipedia.

Advanced Dungeons & Dragons: SlayerEdit

Read more about Advanced Dungeons & Dragons: Slayer on Wikipedia.

Station InvasionEdit

Read more about Station Invasion on Wikipedia.

Demolition ManEdit

Read more about Demolition Man on Wikipedia.

Guardian WarEdit

Read more about Guardian War on Wikipedia.

Iron Angel of the ApocalypseEdit

Read more about Iron Angel of the Apocalypse on Wikipedia.

John Madden FootballEdit

Read more about John Madden Football on Wikipedia.


Read more about PaTaank on Wikipedia.

Kurokishi no KamenEdit

A Japan only, 3DO only, game.

Read more about Kurokishi no Kamen on Wikipedia.

Way of the WarriorEdit

Read more about Way of the Warrior on Wikipedia.


Blade ForceEdit

A third person 3D shooter set in a dystopian future crime ridden city.

Read more about Blade Force on Wikipedia.

Foes of AliEdit

Read more about Foes of Ali on Wikipedia.

Guardian WarEdit

Read more about Guardian War on Wikipedia.

Iron Angel of the Apocalypse: The ReturnEdit

Read more about Iron Angel of the Apocalypse: The Return on Wikipedia.

Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon SEdit

A 3DO exclusive 2D fighting game based on the Japanese Sailor Moon media franchise. It was released the same month as Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon, a 2D beat em' up arcade machine with similar graphics.

Read more about Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon S on Wikipedia.

Slam 'N Jam '95Edit

A 3DO exclusive basketball game well regarded for its solid two player mode.

Read more about Slam 'N Jam '95 on Wikipedia.

Zhadnost: The People's PartyEdit

3DO exclusive party game with a dystopian theme and extensive FMV use. The intro cutscene appears to take clear inspiration from the collapse of the Soviet Union, a then recent event.

Read more about Zhadnost: The People's Party on Wikipedia.



The 3DO port of Doom was notoriously poor as most development was delegated to a single person with only 10 weeks to perform most of the port.[12][13]

In December 2014 the source code for this port of the game was released.[14][15]

In January 2022 the example of Doom for the 3D0 became a common talking point in the NFT gaming community.[16]

Read more about Doom on Wikipedia.





External ResourcesEdit


  1. "Third Time's a Charm (They Hope)". Wired. https://www.wired.com/1994/01/3do/. 
  2. "Dave Needle, Original Amiga Engineer and Creator of the Atari Lynx and 3DO, Dies" (in en). Quarter Disorder. 24 February 2016. https://quarterdisorder.com/2016/02/23/dave-needle-original-amiga-engineer-and-creator-of-the-atari-lynx-and-3do-dies/. 
  3. a b "Panasonic R.E.A.L 3DO Interactive Multiplayer - Game Console - Computing History". https://www.computinghistory.org.uk/det/13612/Panasonic-R-E-A-L-3DO-Interactive-Multiplayer/. 
  4. a b "3DO Interactive Multiplayer (1993 - 1996)". 13 March 2020. https://obsoletemedia.org/3do-interactive-multiplayer/. Retrieved 28 October 2020. 
  5. a b c "Panasonic FZ-1 R.E.A.L. 3DO Interactive Multiplayer Video Game Home Console" (in en). https://www.ifixit.com/Device/Panasonic_FZ-1_R.E.A.L._3DO_Interactive_Multiplayer. Retrieved 29 October 2020. 
  6. "THE BEST PRODUCTS OF 1993". 3 November 2005. https://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1125840,00.html. Retrieved 13 November 2020. 
  7. "3DO System Info". http://www.vgmuseum.com/systems/3do/. Retrieved 17 November 2020. 
  8. "Revisiting the Panasonic 3DO FZ-10 32 bit console - is it underrated? Review, Teardown, Games". https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l01No0chbqw. Retrieved 18 November 2020. 
  9. Lyon, Tony. "Panasonic FZ-10 3DO Interacvtive Multiplayer". https://retrovideogamesystems.com/panasonic-3do-interacvtive-multiplayer/. Retrieved 18 November 2020. 
  10. "3DO, Formatting Our Future". http://www.gamezero.com/team-0/articles/features/3do_93/. Retrieved 21 November 2020. 
  11. "Abysmal 3DO 'classic' Plumbers Don't Wear Ties is getting a re-release from Limited Run Games" (in en-CA). Destructoid. 18 June 2021. https://www.destructoid.com/plumbers-dont-wear-ties-limited-run-games-rerelease/. 
  12. Gander, Matt (May 17, 2016). "The unfortunate tale of 3DO DOOM". https://www.gamesasylum.com/2016/05/17/the-unfortunate-tale-of-3do-doom/. 
  13. Hurley, Leon. "Here's Why the 3DO Port of Doom Sucked" (in en-us). Kotaku. https://kotaku.com/heres-why-the-3do-port-of-doom-sucked-1671138312. 
  14. "Source code for Doom’s 3DO port has been released online". PCGamesN. https://www.pcgamesn.com/doom/source-code-for-doom-s-3do-port-has-been-released-online. 
  15. Prescott, Shaun (16 December 2014). "DOOM 3DO source code is now publicly available". PC Gamer. https://www.pcgamer.com/doom-3do-source-code-is-now-publicly-available/. 
  16. Obedkov, Evgeny (13 January 2022). "Story of 90s Doom 3DO port and what it says about modern-day NFT evangelists’s view of video games". Game World Observer. https://gameworldobserver.com/2022/01/13/story-of-90s-doom-3do-port-and-what-it-says-about-modern-day-nft-evangelists-view-of-video-games. 


The Amiga CD32 logotype.

The Amiga CD32 was preceded by the unsuccessful Commodore CDTV.

The Amiga CD32 was launched in 1993.[1] The CD32 sold decently at launch.[2] The CD32 was met with cautious optimism and skepticism of a future for the system by some reviewers at launch.[3][4]

The system was unable to be launched in the USA due to a legal issue,[5] which further reduced the ability of the CD32 to gain a significant marketshare.

The production of the Amiga CD32 was cut short in April 1994 when Commodore went bankrupt.[1]



The Amiga CD32 is based on the Amiga 1200, and uses a Motorola 68020 CPU and 2 megabytes of RAM.[6] The CPU is clocked at 14.18 megahertz in PAL regions, and 14.32 megahertz in NTSC regions.[7]








PIPPIN logotype.


The console was primarily developed as a joint effort between Apple and Bandai.[1] Apple was in dire straits and unable to dedicate many resources to producing a console, leading Bandai and other partners to handle most aspects of the console not related to it's core Mac architecture.[1]

A prototype console was referred to as the "Power Player".[2]


The Pippin was announced in late 1994.[3] Marketing for the device was mainly handled by Bandai.[4]

The Japanese and American launches occurred in 1995.[5] The Apple Pippin cost $599.[6][7]


42,000 Apple Pippins were sold.[7] The possibility of Pippin discontinuation had been speculated on since at least February 6th, 1997 as a result of restructuring brought on by the return of Stve Jobs.[8] Such speculation that Jobs would eliminate the product line proved correct, and the Apple Pippin was discontinued later on in 1997.[6][9] In Japan the system was discontinued much later, in 2002.[10]



The Pippin used a 66MHz PowerPC Processor.[11]

Video and System Memory was a combined 6MB.[11]


128 Kilobytes of SRAM resided on the system for saving games and settings[11], with a modified Mac OS 7 operating system residing on each game disk to avoid compatibility and optimization issues.[7][6][9]

The Pippin had a 4x speed CD-ROM drive.[11]

Notable gamesEdit

  • Gadget: Invention, Travel, & Adventure
  • Gundam Tactics: Mobility Fleet 0079
  • Super Marathon


Bandai Apple PippinEdit

Katz Media Player 2000Edit

Applejack ControllerEdit



Read moreEdit

There is a Wikibook on the History of Apple Inc.


  1. a b Staff, Ars (24 March 2018). "The Mac gaming console that time forgot" (in en-us). Ars Technica. https://arstechnica.com/gaming/2018/03/the-mac-gaming-console-time-has-forgot/. 
  2. "La concurrence entre ordinateurs et consoles de jeux s'intensifie" (in fr). Le Monde.fr. 26 November 1995. https://www.lemonde.fr/archives/article/1995/11/26/la-concurrence-entre-ordinateurs-et-consoles-de-jeux-s-intensifie_3888874_1819218.html. 
  3. "The Cutting Edge: COMPUTING / TECHNOLOGY / INNOVATION : Apple's Pippin Plays Video Games, Plugs Into TV Set". Los Angeles Times. 14 December 1994. https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1994-12-14-fi-8786-story.html. Retrieved 24 October 2020. 
  4. "Apple sold a $599 game console in 1996 — Apple Scoop" (in EN). applescoop.org. https://applescoop.org/story/apple-sold-a-599-game-console-in-1996. 
  5. Frank, Allegra (8 September 2015). "Before gaming on iOS and Apple TV, there was Pippin" (in en). Polygon. https://www.polygon.com/2015/9/8/9277273/what-is-pippin-apple-tv. Retrieved 24 October 2020. 
  6. a b c "The Most Unusual Video Game Consoles" (in en). PCMAG. https://www.pcmag.com/news/the-most-unusual-video-game-consoles. Retrieved 24 October 2020. 
  7. a b c Villas-Boas, Antonio. "Apple made a game console back in 1996, and it was terrible". Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.com/apple-made-a-games-console-called-pippin-in-1996-2017-6. Retrieved 24 October 2020. 
  8. "Apple se restructure à nouveau et rappelle ses anciennes gloires" (in fr). Le Monde.fr. 6 February 1997. https://www.lemonde.fr/archives/article/1997/02/06/apple-se-restructure-a-nouveau-et-rappelle-ses-anciennes-gloires_3769697_1819218.html. 
  9. a b Johnston, Casey (25 August 2011). "For the good of the company? Five Apple products Steve Jobs killed" (in en-us). https://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2011/08/five-apple-products-steve-jobs-killed-for-the-good-of-the-company/. Retrieved 24 October 2020. 
  10. "The Apple game system that failed early in the console wars". SlashGear. 20 January 2022. https://www.slashgear.com/the-apple-game-system-that-failed-early-in-the-console-wars-20708084/. 
  11. a b c d "PIPPIN TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS". 29 January 1997. https://web.archive.org/web/19970129095719/http://www.pippin.apple.com/TechSpecs.html. Retrieved 24 October 2020. 


Sketch of the Atari Panther, the cancelled predecessor to the Atari Jaguar.


The Atari Jaguar was the first major system to be marketed by Atari since the Atari 7800.

The number pad at the bottom of the controller was designed to offer extra control, and also to accept paper overlays per game.[1]

The Atari Jaguar was manufactured in Charlotte, North Carolina and Colorado Springs, Colorado.[2]


The touted performance of the machine lead some to speculate it would overtake offerings from rival companies Nintendo and Sega.[3]


Do The Math
—American Atari Jaguar Slogan, What's in a Name article by Tom Charnock.[4]

The Atari Jaguar launched in 1993 for $250.[5]

Atari did not overly focus on internal software development, instead focusing on their core competency of hardware and leaving software mostly to third parties.[6] This was a critical issue for Atari because they had trouble attracting third-party developers to the Jaguar.[7]

The Do the Math Slogan was part of a marketing effort to get consumers to recognize the Jaguar as a superior 64 bit system.[4] The slogan was not used in British English markets.[4]


The Atari Jaguar was discontinued in 1996 and rights to the system were released to the public by Hasbro at E3 in 1999.[8][9] The Atari Jaguar sold 250,000 consoles at most,[10] a quite small number for a major console.

While the Jaguar game console had a relatively short production, its case mold was used for around a decade longer in other applications. The machines used to make Atari Jaguar cases were repurposed for making dental equipment cases.[11][12] The Jaguar molds are said to have been reused for the canceled Coleco Chameleon console.[13] The case design itself is a major divisive part of the legacy of the console with some comparing the Jaguar CD equipped systems to a toilet,[14] and others praising the design as possessing a functional layout.[15]



The Jaguar contains five processors, with the primary two 32 bit processors being named Tom and Jerry being clocked at clocked at 26 megahertz.[2][8][16] The Jaguar was capable of 55 Million Instructions Per Second(MIPS).[17] The Jaguar contains two megabytes of RAM.[2]

Development KitsEdit

The Jaguar development kit was considered to be well made.[18] The Alpine Development Kit was simply designed as an cartridge with an extended PCB which would be inserted into regular Jaguar consoles.[19]

Notable GamesEdit








Jaguar CDEdit




External ResourcesEdit


  1. "Is This The Worst Controller Ever Made?" (in en-us). Kotaku. https://kotaku.com/is-this-the-worst-controller-ever-made-453103476. Retrieved 25 October 2020. 
  2. a b c "Jaguar FAQ". https://atariage.com/Jaguar/faq/index.html?SystemID=JAGUAR. Retrieved 15 November 2020. 
  3. "Le Salon international de la " High Tech " de loisirs La console de jeux vidéo cède le pas à la machine multimédia" (in fr). Le Monde.fr. 30 November 1993. https://www.lemonde.fr/archives/article/1993/11/30/le-salon-international-de-la-high-tech-de-loisirs-la-console-de-jeux-video-cede-le-pas-a-la-machine-multimedia_3967984_1819218.html. 
  4. a b c Charnock, Tom. "What's in a Name?". http://www.atarijaguar.co.uk/2013/09/whats-in-name.html. 
  5. "AtariAge - Atari Jaguar History". https://www.atariage.com/Jaguar/history.html. 
  6. Burns, Benjamin (19 February 2020). "The story of the Atari Jaguar saviour that never came out" (in en). https://www.eurogamer.net/articles/2020-02-19-the-story-of-black-ice-white-noise-the-atari-jaguar-saviour-that-never-came-out. Retrieved 30 October 2020. 
  7. Writer, Eric Gwinn, Tribune Staff. "PLAYSTATION, SATURN BATTLE FOR POSITION IN THE MARKETPLACE". https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1995-11-24-9511240232-story.html. 
  8. a b "Video game controller:Atari Jaguar Controller - Atari, Inc." (in en). https://artsandculture.google.com/asset/video-game-controller-atari-jaguar-controller-atari-inc/lAHJKgCXIVoUNA?hl=en. Retrieved 14 November 2020. 
  9. "Hasbro Releases Jaguar Publishing Rights!!!". http://www.atarimuseum.com/videogames/hasbrojagrelease.html. Retrieved 14 November 2020. 
  10. "Atari Jaguar (1993-1996)" (in en). 14 October 2016. https://hiscoga.wordpress.com/atari-jaguar-1993-1996/. Retrieved 14 November 2020. 
  11. Orland, Kyle (8 May 2015). ""Retro VGS" console aims to revive the humble video game cartridge [Updated"] (in en-us). Ars Technica. https://arstechnica.com/gaming/2015/05/retro-vgs-console-aims-to-revive-the-humble-video-game-cartridge/. Retrieved 25 October 2020. 
  12. "The Machines That Literally Made Atari's Last Console" (in en-us). Kotaku. https://kotaku.com/the-machines-that-literally-made-ataris-last-console-5934490. Retrieved 25 October 2020. 
  13. "Coleco Chameleon console runs into trouble, could lose Coleco branding" (in en). https://www.stuff.tv/news/coleco-chameleon-console-runs-trouble-could-lose-coleco-branding. Retrieved 13 November 2020. 
  14. "The 10 ugliest pieces of technology ever made". The Telegraph. 12 September 2019. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2019/09/12/10-ugliest-pieces-technology-ever-made/atari-jaguar/. 
  15. "The Video Game Critic's Atari Jaguar System Review". https://videogamecritic.com/jaguarinfo.htm. 
  16. "The Atari Jaguar That Should Have Been". Hackaday. 27 November 2013. https://hackaday.com/2013/11/27/the-atari-jaguar-that-should-have-been/. Retrieved 25 October 2020. 
  17. "Atari Jaguar - On the Prowl". http://www.gamezero.com/team-0/articles/features/jaguar_93/. Retrieved 21 November 2020. 
  18. "Interview - Hyper Image Productions". http://www.gamezero.com/team-0/articles/interviews/hyper_image/. Retrieved 21 November 2020. 
  19. "Alpine Development System". https://www.jagware.org/jag_uploads/dev/glenn_bruner_atarishowroom/alpine.htm. 



The Casio headquarters in Tokyo in 2006.

The Loopy followed the ill-fated PV-1000 as Casio's second major attempt to enter the home video game console market.

While in development, the Loopy was not initially intended to appeal to a specific demographic, with the progression to be a female oriented console being somewhat a matter of happenstance.[1]


The Casio Loopy was released in Japan in October 1995 at a cost of cost 25,000 yen, and was marketed to women.[2] First year production was expected to be 200,000 units,[2] though little is known of actual production or sales numbers.


Software development ended in November 1996, the final software released in 1997, and console production ended in December 1998.[2]

Though the Loopy was not a big success, it was a much greater success than Casio's previous console, the PV-1000. However the main legacy of the Loopy is more concerned with its reception rather than with its performance on the market. Not only was the Casio Loopy was among the most atypical consoles of the fifth generation, it is one of a select few consoles marketed to appeal to women as a specific demographic. A similar tactic of appealing to non-traditional gamers by forgoing the latest technology, and focusing on a fun and appealing hardware differentiator would later find much greater success with other consoles, such as the Nintendo Wii.[1]

Contentious discussion of the Loopy at the intersection of gaming and feminism emerged during and after the 2010's, with some finding the marketing of the Loopy as quite patronizing,[3] and others hailing the console as a subversion of common narratives of gaming in the 1990's.[1]


The Casio Loopy Power Supply. Made in Taiwan, this power supply takes 100V 50/60Hz 50VA AC in, and outputs 24V 1.0 A DC power to the console. The inner pole is labeled positive, the outer barrel is labeled negative.

In general, technology in the Casio Loopy was selected to be similar to the Super Famicom, then a market leader.[2] This made the Loopy competitive with fourth generation consoles, but underpowered compared to other fifth generation consoles. As a result, Casio compensated for this by relying heavily on leveraging features of the console not found on competing devices.

The Casio Loopy is powered by a 32 bit RISC SH-1 CPU[2][4] clocked at 20MHz.[5] The front of the box proudly advertises 32-bit RISC CPU,[4] suggesting that Casio thought that marketing the Loopy as an advanced 32-bit system was a key marketing point. The Loopy has 1 megabyte of RAM, and 2 megabytes of ROM.[5]

The console outputs graphics in 8-bit color with a maximum of 512 colors on screen.[5] The graphics output is handled in part by a Sony CXA1645M RGB encoder chip.[6] The Loopy outputs 4 channel 12 bit PCM audio.[2][5]

This type of controller connector is used by both the controller, and the mouse. Only one can be used at a time since there is only one port.

The Loopy has a built in color thermal printer, with setting dial to adjust contrast.[7][8] There were five levels of contrast that could be selected using the dial.[1] While the printer may seem like a strange choice, the ability to print custom art on stickers (Called "Seals" in the context of the Loopy[9]) proved to be a fun and creative tool for play beyond video games.[1] Output from the printer is generally considered to be of good quality,[1] and while a few game consoles of the 1990's would see optional printers released, none would match the quality of the colorful prints of the Loopy.

The Loopy was about one foot long, four inches high, and weighed 3.5 pounds.[1] The console is powered by a 24 volt external power supply.[4]

Optional hardwareEdit

Casio Loopy with Magical Shop add on installed.

The Magical Shop is an add on for the Loopy that allows for screen capture from video streams.[7] The Magical Shop add on cost 14,800 yen,[2] a significant cost at the time.

The Loopy two button mouse used a trackball mechanism.[7]

Games / SoftwareEdit

Eleven titles were released for the system.[10]


  • Dream Change: Kokin-chan's Fashion Party[11]
  • Anime Land - Character and scene creation software.[12]
  • Magical Shop[13] - Video capture to image manipulator to sticker software.[10]
  • PC Collection - Suite containing 10 creative, supernatural, or productivity applications supporting the mouse.[14]
  • Lupiton no Wonder Palette - Art application. [15]
  • Wanwan Aijou Monogatari - Game featuring a dog[16] named Peach.[10] Worked on by Kenji Terada.[17]
  • HARIHARI Seal Paradise - Sticker printing game.[18]
  • Nigaoe Artist - Caricature art application[19][20]


  • Loopy Town no Oheya ga Hoshii! - Life simulation game with room decoration, jobs, and a pet.[21] The game was worked on by Kenji Terada, a writer on the first three Final Fantasy games.[22]
  • Little Romance[23] - Dating simulator.[10]


  • Chakurakun no Omajinai Paradise[24] - Charm and spell making program.[10]




Tape MechanismEdit




As of October 2020 an incomplete skeleton Loopy driver exists for MAME.[25]


  1. a b c d e f g Milligan, Caleb Andrew; Bohunicky, Kyle (14 July 2020). "Girly Game History on Paper" (in en). ROMchip 2 (1). https://romchip.org/index.php/romchip-journal/article/view/105. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  2. a b c d e f g Packwood, Lewis (15 July 2018). "In the Loopy: the story of Casio's crazy 90s console" (in en). Eurogamer. https://www.eurogamer.net/articles/2018-07-15-in-the-loopy-the-story-of-casios-crazy-90s-console. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  3. "Casio Loopy SV-100". Retro Treasures. 6 October 2016. https://retro-treasures.blogspot.com/2016/10/casio-loopy-sv-100.html. 
  4. a b c "Casio Loopy 101: 32-bit Japanese Console for Girls" (in en). 19 November 2010. https://www.racketboy.com/retro/casio-loopy-101-32-bit-japanese-console-for-girls. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  5. a b c d Blanchard, Jonn (29 December 2017). "Casio Loopy". Re-enthused: world of retro. https://re-enthused.com/information/casio-loopy/. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  6. "The motherboard for the Casio Loopy.". 2 June 2016. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Casio-Loopy-Motherboard-FL.jpg. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  7. a b c Ashens (Apr 8, 2017). "Casio Loopy Review". Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNWGVtwTkiM. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  8. "7 Japanese Game Consoles That Never Made it to America" (in en). PCMAG. https://www.pcmag.com/news/7-japanese-game-consoles-that-never-made-it-to-america. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  9. "Loopy by Casio – The Video Game Kraken". http://videogamekraken.com/casio-loopy. 
  10. a b c d e OatBob (November 17th, 2007). "Classic Gaming: Girly Console Review: Casio Loopy - My Seal Computer SV-1000 - What about channel 4?". www.rfgeneration.com. https://www.rfgeneration.com/news/classic-gaming/System-Overview-Casio-Loopy-My-Seal-Computer-362.php. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  11. "video game: Casio Loopy Dream Change: Kokin-chan's Fashion Party - Japanese Edition - Casio Computer Co., Ltd." (in en). https://artsandculture.google.com/asset/video-game-casio-loopy-dream-change-kokin-chan-s-fashion-party-japanese-edition/sQHK7_jpVRhL1g. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  12. "Anime Land (あにめらんど) - Software - Game - Computing History". https://www.computinghistory.org.uk/det/46788/Anime-Land-(-12354-12395-12417-12425-12435-12393-)/. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  13. "FEMICOM Magical Shop". http://www.femicom.org/collection/magical-shop/. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  14. "PC Collection (パソコン・コレクション) - Software - Game - Computing History". https://www.computinghistory.org.uk/det/46791/PC-Collection-(-12497-12477-12467-12531-12539-12467-12524-12463-12471-12519-12531-)/. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  15. "FEMICOM Lupiton no Wonder Palette". http://www.femicom.org/collection/lupiton-no-wonder-palette/. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  16. "FEMICOM Wanwan Aijou Monogatari". http://www.femicom.org/collection/wanwan-aijou-monogatari/. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  17. "Wan Wan Aijō Monogatari (1995) Casio Loopy credits". https://www.mobygames.com/game/casio-loopy/wan-wan-aij-monogatari/credits. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  18. "FEMICOM HARIHARI Seal Paradise". http://www.femicom.org/collection/harihari-seal-paradise/. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  19. "FEMICOM Nigaoe Artist". http://www.femicom.org/collection/nigaoe-artist/. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  20. "Casio Loopy - Nigaoe Artist / 似顔絵アーティスト Intro Movie". https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=epN0QuVJpF4. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  21. "FEMICOM Loopy Town no Oheya ga Hoshii!". http://www.femicom.org/collection/loopy-town-no-oheya-ga-hoshii/. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  22. "Kenji Terada, writer for early Final Fantasy games, worked on a little-known Animal Crossing-like game in the 1990s". www.femicom.org. http://www.femicom.org/research/kenji-terada-writer-for-early-final-fantasy-games/. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  23. "FEMICOM Little Romance". http://www.femicom.org/collection/little-romance/. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  24. "FEMICOM Chakurakun no Omajinai Paradise". http://www.femicom.org/collection/chakurakun-no-omajinai-paradise/. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 
  25. "mamedev/mame" (in en). https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/a1d35e5abf431e03e06d55b96379a3b14753ed4d/src/mame/drivers/casloopy.cpp. Retrieved 22 October 2020. 

History of video games/Platforms/Design Master Senshi Mangajukuuu


In February of 1993 Fujistu released the FM Towns Marty in Japan.[1]

The FM Towns Marty cost 98,000 yen at launch, and a 1994 revision cost 66,000 yen.[2]

The Car Marty was briefly released in April 1994, acting as an in car entertainment setup and adding a GPS for car navigation, before it was discontinued in 1995 after failing to sell well.[3][4]


An AMD 386SX processor, similar to the one used by the FM Towns Marty.


The FM Towns Marty uses a 32 bit AMD 386SX x86 architecture processor clocked at 16 megahertz.[5]

The FM Towns Marty has 2 megabytes of RAM.[6]


The FM Towns Marty had a single speed CD-ROM drive, as well as a 3.5" floppy drive.[5] This was an unusual combination for a console, but it does make sense given the roots of this console in a home computer line.

Notable gamesEdit

The FM Towns Marty is backwards compatible with FM Towns games.[7]





The Game.com was preceded by the R-Zone.


The Game.com was launched in the United States in September of 1997 at a cost of about $69.95.[1][2][3] The game console launch was marred by a commercial which backfired.[4]


The Game.com was discontinued in 2000, and sold under 300,000 consoles.[3][5]



The Game.com uses an 8-bit Sharp SM8521 CPU clocked at 4.9152 megahertz.[3][6]


The Game.com could use an external modem with a speed of 14.4 kbit/s to connect to the internet.[7]

Notable gamesEdit

  • Sonic Jam
  • Resident Evil 2
  • Duke Nukem 3D




External ResourcesEdit




The Genesis Nomad was originally the Sega Venus,[1] which kept the naming scheme Sega had been using at the time.


The Genesis Nomad was released in October of 1995 in North America, a development on the previous Japanese Mega Jet which was a portable Mega Drive without a built in screen.[2][3]


The Genesis Nomad sold about one million units in North America, the only area where it was released.[2] Around the end of 1996 the Genesis Nomad was discontinued.[4]

The Genesis Nomad is typically either classified as a fourth generation console, or a fifth generation console. The classification of fourth generation console is typically used when viewing the system as a Sega Genesis that happens to be portable, and thus should be in the same generation. The classification of fifth generation console is used when observing its capabilities as a handheld in relation to other handheld systems of the era, which more closely match with fifth generation systems. Chronologically the console was either launched very late in the fourth generation, or rather early in the fifth generation. As a result of these factors, this console tends to be categorized differently under different points of view.


The Genesis Nomad has a 3.25" passive matrix LCD which uses composite video internally and tends to ghost.[5]

The Genesis Nomad takes six AA batteries, which can power the Genesis Nomad for about two to three hours.[2][6]

The Nomad audio is powered by a YM3438 chip and has a single speaker for mono audio, though it has a headphone jack.[5]

Game LibraryEdit

The Nomad is essentially a portable Sega Genesis, and plays standard North American region Genesis games.[7] Add on devices like the 32X do not work with the Genesis Nomad.[5]




External ResourcesEdit




The Toaster VR was under development from 1992 to 1995 with an expected launch in 1996.[1]


Hasbro spent millions of dollars developing the Toaster VR before deciding to cancel the project.[2]

The Hasbro Toaster VR is remembered as a potentially industry changing product that was not launched in favor of safer bets in the market.[2]


The Hasbro Toaster VR would have been a 3D oriented system.[3]

An unspecified VR system being made by Hasbro at the time, potentially the Toaster, used three ARC cores for processing.[4][5]




Neo Geo Pocket Logo.

The monochrome Neo Geo Pocket was released in 1998.[1] Few third parties developed for the Neo Geo Pocket,[2] though the company Dimps worked on many Neo Geo Pocket games.[3] It's most major third party IP to see a release on the system was Sonic, when Sega partnered with SNK to make a portable version of Sonic 2 for the system.[4]

SNK competed hard against the Game Boy line in the United States. This is especially true with the Neo Geo Pocket Color, which offered a console with superior technology compared to the Game Boy Color as wile also undercutting Nintendo, with the system costing only $69.95 at launch.[5] By the year 2000, the Neo Geo Pocket was slightly profitable in the United States, and held a two percent marketshare of handhelds.[6][7] For a new entrant to the market going against an entrenched company, those are quite good numbers given the small timeframe the system was available for sale. Unlike many consoles, internal problems with SNK in Japan rather then the console's market performance would lead to the withdraw of the console in American markets.[8]


Due to financial difficulties and new ownership of SNK by Aruze, including a rocky stint in the Pachinko business[9], the Neo Geo Pocket Color was discontinued in Canada and the United States on June 13th, 2000.[6][10]

After resuming operations in March, 2001 in October of 2001, SNK was again defunct.[11][12]

The Neo Geo Pocket sold two million consoles.[13] The Neo Geo Pocket Color sold under 200,000 systems.[2]

In 2020 SNK began rereleasing certain Neo Geo Pocket games on the Nintendo Switch.[14]


Neo Geo PocketEdit

The specs of the Neo Geo Pocket are close enough to the Neo Geo Pocket Color that most Neo Geo Pocket Color games will run on it.[15]

Neo Geo Pocket ColorEdit


The Neo Geo Pocket Color is powered by a primary 16-bit Toshiba TLCS900H processor clocked at 6.144 megahertz and 12 kilobytes of dedicated RAM.[16] A secondary 8-bit Z80 processor used for sound clocked at 3.072 megahertz with four kilobytes of dedicated RAM..[16]

The Neo Geo Pocket Color has 12 kilobytes of RAM, and four kilobytes of sound RAM.[17][6]


The system has a built in clock.[1]

A wireless link accessory for the Neo Geo Pocket Color was planned.[18]

Notable gamesEdit


  • Neo Geo Cup '98 Plus Color
  • Baseball Stars
  • King of Fighters R-1


Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket AdventureEdit

A portable version of Sonic the Hedgehog 2 released for the Neo Geo Pocket Color.[4] The game was well received at the time and was seen as a major title for the system in a market dominated by the Nintendo GameBoy.[19]

Read more about Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure on Wikipedia.



  • SNK vs. Capcom: Card Fighter's Clash 2 Expand Edition






Original InteriorEdit

Color InteriorEdit

External ResourcesEdit


  1. a b "Neo Geo Pocket Color: The Handheld That Helped Kill a Company". https://padandpixel.com/neo-geo-pocket-color-1999-the-handheld-that-helped-kill-a-company/. Retrieved 4 November 2020. 
  2. a b Freeman, Jesse (11 May 2020). "Modernizing A Neo Geo Pocket Color" (in en). https://medium.com/swlh/modernizing-a-neo-geo-pocket-color-c2e4a649f700. Retrieved 4 November 2020. 
  3. Robinson, Martin (6 September 2020). "The gaming archaeologist and his quest for a Neo Geo holy grail" (in en). https://www.eurogamer.net/articles/2020-09-06-snks-gaming-archaeologist-and-his-holy-grail. Retrieved 4 November 2020. 
  4. a b "Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure Gamebits". https://www.gamebits.net/handheld/sonic/. 
  5. Marriott, Michel (20 May 1999). "NEWS WATCH; An Upstart Unveils Rival to the Game Boy (Published 1999)". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1999/05/20/technology/news-watch-an-upstart-unveils-rival-to-the-game-boy.html. 
  6. a b c "The History of SNK". https://www.gamespot.com/articles/the-history-of-snk/1100-6089278/. Retrieved 4 November 2020. 
  7. Axton, Gene (8 June 2019). "Retro collector review: Neo Geo Pocket Color" (in en). https://mintcondition.news/2019/06/08/retro-collector-review-neo-geo-pocket-color/. Retrieved 20 November 2020. 
  8. "Interview: Ben Herman, former SNK Playmore USA president SEGA Nerds". http://www.seganerds.com/2018/07/16/interview-ben-herman-former-snk-playmore-usa-president/. Retrieved 20 November 2020. 
  9. "Ben Herman (SNK) - Interview". 25 February 2018. https://www.arcadeattack.co.uk/ben-herman-snk/. Retrieved 20 November 2020. 
  10. Kent, Steven. "NeoGeo surrenders -- is Sega next?" (in en). ZDNet. https://www.zdnet.com/article/neogeo-surrenders-is-sega-next/. 
  11. Bramwell, Tom (31 October 2001). "Rest in peace SNK" (in en). https://www.eurogamer.net/articles/article_31371. Retrieved 4 November 2020. 
  12. Bramwell, Tom (14 February 2001). "SNK to Reopen?" (in en). https://www.eurogamer.net/articles/article_30150. Retrieved 4 November 2020. 
  13. "The 10 Worst-Selling Handhelds of All Time Feature on GamePro.com". 13 October 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20071013043037/http://www.gamepro.com/gamepro/domestic/games/features/125749.shtml. Retrieved 17 November 2020. 
  14. Byford, Sam (30 April 2020). "Turn your Switch into a Neo Geo Pocket Color with SNK Gals’ Fighters" (in en). The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2020/4/30/21242396/nintendo-switch-neo-geo-pocket-color-snk-gals-fighters. 
  15. "SNK Neo-Geo Pocket: A Beginner's Guide" (in en). 4 January 2012. https://www.racketboy.com/retro/neogeo-pocket-color-101-beginners-guide. 
  16. a b "Neo-Geo Pocket Color System Info". http://www.vgmuseum.com/systems/ngpc/. Retrieved 16 November 2020. 
  17. "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". https://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?st=2&c=1265. Retrieved 20 November 2020. 
  18. EDT, Newsweek Staff On 9/5/99 at 8:00 PM (5 September 1999). "Who's Got Game?" (in en). https://www.newsweek.com/whos-got-game-166296. Retrieved 20 November 2020. 
  19. Mullen, Micheal. "Sonic returns to handhelds" (in en). ZDNet. https://www.zdnet.com/article/sonic-returns-to-handhelds/. 


Nintendo 64 logotype.


The Nintendo 64 was proceeded by the Super Nintendo Entertainment System and Super Famicom, a family of systems capable of refined 2D graphics, but only extremely limited 3D graphics. Notably the Playstation, among the biggest rivals to the Nintendo 64, also had its roots in the Super Nintendo Entertainment System.

The Nintendo 64 would be the first major home console released by Nintendo with no significant regional differences between American, European, and Japanese releases,[1] The innovative analog stick on the N64 controller was designed by Genyo Takeda.[2] though the China focused iQue player would depart from the design standard of the system.

On February 11th, 1994 Nintendo announced that Project Reality would not use a CD Rom drive, surprising the industry with decision which went against industry trends.[3][4]

A chip shortage in early 1996 delayed the launch of the Nintendo 64 in North America to fall.[5]


"Change the System" and "Get N or Get Out"
—Nintendo 64 Slogans, Polygon article,[6] LA Times article[7]

The Nintendo 64 was launched in the United States in September of 1996 at a price of $200.[8]


In North America the Nintendo 64 was discontinued in 2003.[9] The Nintendo 64 sold 32.93 million consoles, and 224.97 million software titles.[10]

The Nintendo 64 was succeeded by the Nintendo GameCube.

A notable lasting legacy of the Nintendo 64 is the gaming journalism outlet IGN, which got its start as an online news outlet focused on the Nintendo 64.[11]

iQue PlayerEdit

In 2003 the iQue player was released as a version of the N64 with enhancements and modifications for the Chinese market.[12]

The iQue Player ceased receiving updates and new games in 2006.[12] Ten years later on December 31st 2016, iQue game download support officially ended.[13] By 2018 the service was fully shuttered.[14] Also in 2018, community members figure out how to unofficially access the iQue software[15]


N64's push to SGI style pixels was technologically premature.
—John Carmack, Tweet on February 21st, 2013.[16]


The CPU of the Nintendo 64 is a 64-bit NEC VR4300 (Compatible with the SGI RISC R4300i) MIPS III architecture processor clocked at 93.75 megahertz.[17][18] Despite having a 64 bit CPU, more efficient 32 bit operations were often used by developers.[19]

The Nintendo 64 uses a SGI Reality Co-Processor clocked at 62.5 megahertz, combining the Reality Immersion Processor GPU and Reality Signal Processor Audio system on a single chip.[17][18][20] The GPU alone is capable of 500 MIPS, and can render 150,000 polygons a second.[20]

The Nintendo 64 has four megabytes of RDRAM.[17] The system could be expanded to eight megabytes of RAM.[17]

The Nintendo 64 is capable of 100 megaflops.[21]


Official Nintendo 64 Cartridges had a maximum capacity of 64MB.[22] Because of the expense of cartridges, Nintendo 64 games cost much more than games for other systems on CD.[23] To compensate for limited space on cartridges, developers were encouraged to use dynamic music progmatically rather then recorded but static soundtracks.[24]

Cartridges used a CIC lockout chip to stop bootleg games from being produced and to stop piracy.[25][26]

Nintendo 64 DDEdit

A version was produced for an American release, but was ultimately never sold.[27]

Special EditionsEdit

A translucent orange Nintendo 64, an example of the clear craze of the 1990's.

Special editions and versions of the console.

  • Starlight Gaming Station - Kiosk for hospital use.[28]
  • McDonalds Kiosk - A kiosk using a Nintendo 64 for use in McDonalds restaurants.[29]

Notable GamesEdit


  • Fast paced action adventure, platformers, and first person shooter games were quite popular on the system. This is due in part to the specialties of developers who chose the system, and due in part to the unique technological properties of the system favoring such games.
  • The Nintendo 64 did not enjoy the same level of support for popular JRPGs as it's predecessor, the SNES. Major JRPG franchises tended to release on competing consoles instead, leaving the Nintendo 64 with more obscure titles.


Super Mario 64Edit

Of all the games for the Nintendo 64, Super Mario 64 perhaps has the most historic and lasting impact. It's successful translation of Mario from a 2D to a 3D platformer set an example of how a 3D platformer should enhance gameplay, look and control, paving the way for quality games in the genre by it's example. It was the first 3D game experienced by a number of 90's gamers.

Noted developers Cliff Bleszinski and Gabe Newell cite Super Mario 64 as an influence.[30][31]

Long after the discontinuation of the system, the game would find new relevance as a popular game for speedrunners. A number of game specific techniques were developed, such as "Quantum Positioning Units".[32] Another famous speedrunning glitch was discovered on accident, likely as the result of a cosmic ray causing a bit flip.[33][34]

Read more about Super Mario 64 on Wikipedia.

Mario Kart 64Edit

An influential game in the Mario Kart series, and the first to take the series into true 3D environments.

Read more about Mario Kart 64 on Wikipedia.

Wave Race 64Edit

Jet-ski water racing game.

Read more about Wave Race 64 on Wikipedia.

Pilotwings 64Edit

A launch title and casual flight simulator.

Read more about Pilotwings 64 on Wikipedia.

Killer Instinct GoldEdit

A port of the arcade fighting game Killer Instinct 2. Known for it's technical excellence with cutting edge graphics for the era.

Read more about Killer Instinct Gold on Wikipedia.


GoldenEye 007Edit

A standout title, which paved the way for other console first person shooters. It's well remembered for it's local couch co-op mode.

Read more about GoldenEye 007 on Wikipedia.

Star Fox 64Edit

An influential on rails shooter. Commonly counted as one of the best entries in the Star Fox series.

Read more about Star Fox 64 on Wikipedia.

Diddy Kong RacingEdit

The Diddy Kong Racing soundtrack was shaped to be like Diddy Kong's head, an unusual choice.[35]

Read more about Diddy Kong Racing on Wikipedia.

Doom 64Edit

Read more about Doom 64 on Wikipedia.

Yoshi's StoryEdit

Read more about Yoshi's Story on Wikipedia.

Mischief MakersEdit

Shake, Shake!
—Marina, Mischief Makers

An eclectic 2D platformer with a distinct style. It was poorly received at launch before later becoming a cult classic.

Read more about Mischief Makers on Wikipedia.

Turok: Dinosaur HunterEdit

Read more about Turok: Dinosaur Hunter on Wikipedia.


The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of TimeEdit

A considerable amount of crunch occurred during development.[36]

The game is considered to be among the most important of the generation due to it's pioneering use of 3D game design to make a vast action adventure game with mechanical fluidity paired with excellent audio and graphical fidelity for the era.[37][38] As a result of these factors, this game is often considered among the best ever made.[39][40]

Read more about The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time on Wikipedia.

Mario PartyEdit

The first entry in the popular Mario Party series.

A minigame control resulted in hand palm injuries by some gamers leading to an investigation by the New York Attorney General, which resulted in protective gloves being shipped to some affected parties.[41]

Read more about Mario Party on Wikipedia.

F-Zero XEdit

Fast paced futuristic racer.

Read more about F-Zero X on Wikipedia.


A 3D platformer and collectathon made by the company Rare.

Read more about Banjo-Kazooie on Wikipedia.

Hey You, Pikachu!Edit

A digital pet game about learning to communicate with a Pokemon creature, a Pikachu.[42][43]

One of two games to use the Voice Recognition Unit (VRU).[44] The system could recognize up to 256 words.[45] The game was said to be difficult to control due to either poor voice recognition and or bad microphone quality.[46][47]

Read more about Hey You, Pikachu! on Wikipedia.



The Legend of Zelda: Majora's MaskEdit

A short documentary on Eiji Aonuma and the creation of Majora's Mask by YouTube channel Video Game Story Time.

Read more about The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask at Wikipedia.


Post MarketEdit

A number of notable titles saw release after the platform was officially discontinued.

40 WinksEdit

A game with a rocky development finally shipped an Nintendo 64 version in December of 2018.[48][49]

Read more about 40 Winks on Wikipedia.

Dinosaur PlanetEdit

A December 1st, 2000 build of Dinosaur Planet for the Nintendo 64 by Rare was unofficially released on the 20th, of February, 2021 as the result of an online leak.[50][51]

Dinosaur Planet had previously been released under a different name following a significant overhaul. Read more about Star Fox Adventures for the GameCube on Wikipedia.


N64 ConsoleEdit

N64 ControllersEdit



Developer ToolsEdit

iQue PlayerEdit

The Nintendo backed iQue Player released in 2003 exclusively in mainland China, and was an all in one system that played Nintendo 64 games.



There is a WikiBook on N64 Programming.

External ResourcesEdit

Archived web materialsEdit

Other WebsitesEdit


  1. "Lance Barr Interview". nintendojo ~ a site to see. 13 February 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20060213124455/http://www.nintendojo.com/interviews/view_item.php?1130801472. 
  2. "Nintendo's hardware visionary is calling it a day" (in en). Engadget. https://www.engadget.com/2017-04-27-nintendos-hardware-visionary-is-calling-it-a-day.html. Retrieved 26 October 2020. 
  3. Times, Special to The New York (11 February 1994). "COMPANY NEWS; Nintendo's Focus (Published 1994)". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1994/02/11/business/company-news-nintendo-s-focus.html?searchResultPosition=8. 
  4. "Retro: This Is Why We Should Probably Be Glad Nintendo Stuck With Carts For The N64". Nintendo Life. 20 February 2017. https://www.nintendolife.com/news/2017/02/retro_this_is_why_we_should_probably_be_glad_nintendo_stuck_with_carts_for_the_n64. 
  5. "Nintendo Game Is Delayed (Published 1996)". The New York Times. 5 February 1996. https://www.nytimes.com/1996/02/05/business/nintendo-game-is-delayed.html. 
  6. Tach, Dave (29 September 2014). "Celebrate the N64's 18th anniversary with this 1996 VHS tape" (in en). Polygon. https://www.polygon.com/2014/9/29/6863407/n64-anniversary-change-system-vhs. 
  7. "New Nintendo Game, Same Distasteful Slogan". Los Angeles Times. 2 April 1998. https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1998-apr-02-fi-35155-story.html. 
  8. "New Nintendo 64 Is a Technical Wonder". 30 September 1996. https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1996-09-30-fi-49002-story.html. Retrieved 1 November 2020. 
  9. "That Was Quick: Nintendo 64 Is 20 Years Old" (in en). https://fortune.com/2016/06/23/nintendo-64-20-years-old/. Retrieved 14 November 2020. 
  10. "IR Information : Sales Data - Dedicated Video Game Sales Units" (in en). https://www.nintendo.co.jp/ir/en/finance/hard_soft/. Retrieved 14 November 2020. 
  11. "Welcome to N64.com - IGN" (in en). https://www.ign.com/articles/1996/10/16/welcome-to-n64com. 
  12. a b "Meet the iQue Player, a Nintendo console that was only available in China" (in en-us). News. https://news.avclub.com/meet-the-ique-player-a-nintendo-console-that-was-only-1798244884. 
  13. "https://twitter.com/zhugeex/status/793369039766712320" (in en). Twitter. https://twitter.com/zhugeex/status/793369039766712320. 
  14. "Nintendo Planned to Make a Pokémon MMO for the GameBoy Advance". 31 July 2020. https://www.cbr.com/nintendo-planned-pokemon-mmo-game-boy-advance/. 
  15. "Nintendo’s iQue Player Hacked Fifteen Years After Launch". 29 April 2018. https://nintendosoup.com/nintendos-ique-player-hacked-fifteen-years-after-launches/. 
  16. "@ID_AA_Carmack". Twitter. https://twitter.com/ID_AA_Carmack/status/304662242627031040?. 
  17. a b c d "PS1 Strengths and Weaknesses vs N64 and Sega Saturn" (in en). 11 January 2020. https://www.racketboy.com/journal/ps1-strength-and-weaknesses-vs-n64-sega-saturn. Retrieved 29 October 2020. 
  18. a b "Nintendo 64 Architecture A Practical Analysis" (in en). 12 September 2019. https://www.copetti.org/projects/consoles/nintendo-64/. Retrieved 29 October 2020. 
  19. "Advanced Navigation". http://classes.kvcc.edu/students/~nlahman1850/final/n64.html. Retrieved 1 November 2020. 
  20. a b "How N64 Works" (in en). HowStuffWorks. 18 October 2000. https://electronics.howstuffworks.com/n64.htm. 
  21. "Console Power Comparison Chart". 7 April 2020. https://thegamingsetup.com/guides/console-power-comparison-chart. Retrieved 4 November 2020. 
  22. "A Brief and Abbreviated History of Gaming Storage – Techbytes". https://blogs.umass.edu/Techbytes/2014/02/10/history-of-gaming-storage/. Retrieved 18 October 2020. 
  23. "The Game: Sony PlayStation versus Nintendo64" (in en). Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/1997/09/19/feat.html?sh=5073f9c27dd9. 
  24. "Shigeru Miyamoto Interview - IGN" (in en). https://www.ign.com/articles/1997/02/07/shigeru-miyamoto-interview. 
  25. Ryan, Mike (15 August 2020). "mikeryan/UltraCIC". https://github.com/mikeryan/UltraCIC. Retrieved 9 November 2020. 
  26. "How Nintendo Stopped Bootleg Games on the Nintendo 64 MVG". https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5uOK0nR934. Retrieved 9 November 2020. 
  27. Machkovech, Sam (15 July 2016). "Rare US version of the N64’s disc-drive add-on unearthed near Seattle [Updated"] (in en-us). Ars Technica. https://arstechnica.com/gaming/2016/07/rare-us-version-of-the-n64s-disc-drive-add-on-unearthed-near-seattle/. 
  28. "Announcing the Starlight Nintendo Switch Gaming Station!" (in en). https://www.starlight.org/stories/announcing-the-starlight-nintendo-switch-gaming-station/. 
  29. "Nintendo And McDonalds: A Short History" (in en-us). Kotaku. https://kotaku.com/nintendo-and-mcdonalds-a-short-history-5498833. 
  30. "Nintendo 64: Launching a Legacy - IGN" (in en). https://www.ign.com/articles/2011/09/24/nintendo-64-launching-a-legacy. 
  31. "Valve's Gabe Newell Thinks Super Mario 64 Is Just Swell". Nintendo Life. 6 March 2014. https://www.nintendolife.com/news/2014/03/valves_gabe_newell_thinks_super_mario_64_is_just_swell. 
  32. "Famous Super Mario 64 Trick Involving Parallel Universes Finally Becomes Real". Kotaku. https://kotaku.com/the-famous-super-mario-64-trick-involving-parallel-univ-1794215869. 
  33. Wickens, Katie (13 September 2021). "Rampant space particles might be behind eight-year-old Mario speedrun glitch" (in en). PC Gamer. https://www.pcgamer.com/cosmic-rays-cause-tech-bit-flips-blue-screen-of-death/. 
  34. "Sorry, you'll never get your Mario to go as fast as this Super Mario 64 Mario" (in en-us). The A.V. Club. https://www.avclub.com/sorry-a-literal-cosmic-ion-ray-boost-to-your-super-mar-1846250037. 
  35. Elston, Brett. "Game music of the (holi)day: Diddy Kong Racing" (in en). https://www.gamesradar.com/game-music-of-the-holiday-diddy-kong-racing/. 
  36. Hagues, Alana (3 May 2022). "Former Nintendo Of America Associate Producer Talks Crunch On Zelda: Ocarina Of Time". Nintendo Life. https://www.nintendolife.com/news/2022/05/former-nintendo-of-america-associate-producer-talks-crunch-on-zelda-ocarina-of-time. 
  37. Gerstmann, Jeff. "Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, The Review". GameSpot. https://www.gamespot.com/reviews/legend-of-zelda-ocarina-of-time-the-review/1900-2543677/. 
  38. Schneider, Peer (26 November 1998). "The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time Review" (in en). IGN. https://www.ign.com/articles/1998/11/26/the-legend-of-zelda-ocarina-of-time-review. 
  39. "Should ‘Ocarina of Time’ Be Called the Greatest Game Ever?". The Hollywood Reporter. 21 November 2018. https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/movies/movie-news/is-legend-zelda-ocarina-time-best-game-ever-1157191/. 
  40. Luckerson, Victor (23 October 2018). "Why ‘The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time’ Will Always Be the "Best Game Ever"" (in en). The Ringer. https://www.theringer.com/2018/10/23/18012564/legend-of-zelda-ocarina-time-best-game-ever-1998. 
  41. Becker, David. "Nintendo offers glove to prevent joystick injuries" (in en). CNET. https://www.cnet.com/news/nintendo-offers-glove-to-prevent-joystick-injuries/. 
  42. "Photographing Magikarp, Voice Chatting With Pikachu, And All Of Our Favorite Pokemon Spin-Offs". GameSpot. https://www.gamespot.com/gallery/photographing-magikarp-voice-chatting-with-pikachu/2900-3412/#2. 
  43. Peters, Jay (25 February 2021). "Pokémon might be famous for its games, but it also has some great gadgets" (in en). The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2021/2/25/22298495/pokemon-hardware-gadgets-pikachu-poke-ball-mini-camera-consoles. 
  44. "The Weird, Weird Games of the Nintendo 64" (in en). www.vice.com. https://www.vice.com/en/article/mv5k7p/acknowledging-the-ultra-ambition-of-the-nintendo-64-645. 
  45. Moyer, Michael (September 2000) (in en). Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. https://books.google.com/books?id=IKvES_TIwJoC&q=pikachu&pg=PA42#v=snippet&q=pikachu&f=false. Retrieved 3 May 2022. 
  46. LoChiatto, Jonathan (22 December 2021). "Peripherals That Ruined Great Games - Looper". Looper.com. https://www.looper.com/715366/peripherals-that-ruined-great-games/. 
  47. Simmons, Nathan (17 September 2021). "We Finally Know Why Pikachu Ignored You In Hey You, Pikachu! - SVG". SVG.com. https://www.svg.com/607791/we-finally-know-why-pikachu-ignored-you-in-hey-you-pikachu/. 
  48. "Update 19: Shipping · 40 Winks - A New Nintendo 64 Game" (in en). https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/retrogames/40-winks-a-new-nintendo-64-game/posts/2362713. 
  49. "40 Winks Future Uncertain - IGN" (in en). https://www.ign.com/articles/1999/12/17/40-winks-future-uncertain. 
  50. Welch, Chris (20 February 2021). "Rare’s unreleased N64 game Dinosaur Planet has leaked" (in en). The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2021/2/20/22292964/dinosaur-planet-rare-n64-game-leak-star-fox. 
  51. Yin-Poole, Wesley (20 February 2021). "Rare's unreleased Dinosaur Planet for N64 out in the wild, gameplay emerges" (in en). Eurogamer. https://www.eurogamer.net/articles/2021-02-20-rares-unreleased-dinosaur-planet-for-n64-out-in-the-wild-gameplay-emerges. 



NEC had previously attempted to enter the home console market with the TurboGrafx-16 line of consoles.


The PC-FX was launched on the 23rd of December, 1994.[1][2]

The PC-FX GA expansion card was made to allow the PC-FX games to be played on personal computers running the DOS/V operating system and a free ISA expansion slot.[3][4]

The final game for the PC-FX was released in 1998.[1]


The PC-FX is primarily remembered as a console that excelled in 2D and FMV performance, in an era dominated by demand for 3D gaming. Compared to other consoles of the era, the Japan focused library of games stands out. While many games for the system have aged poorly, they represent design trends that would shortly thereafter fall out of favor, making them an important window into 1990's game design trends. The system is also remembered for it's highly unusual industrial design.



The PC-FX uses a 32-bit RISC NEC V810 CPU clocked at 21.5 megahertz.[5][6] The PC-FX had a performance of 20 million instructions per second (MIPS).[7]

The PC-FX has 3.25 megabytes (26 megabits) of RAM,[6] split between 2 megabytes of system RAM, and 1.25 megabytes of Video RAM.[4]


The PC-FX had a number of subsystems designed to show video streams and other features without taxing the CPU.[1][4]

The most unusual chip, was the Huc6273 3D Accelerator chip, which was found only on the PC-FX GA and not on the PC-FX.[4] Though underutilized, this chip allowed computers with a PC-FX GA to run some real time 3D software that would not be easily possible on a standard PC-FX console.[4]


The PC-FX CD-ROM drive is a 2x speed drive.[6] The console could be linked with a PC-9800 computer via a special SCSI adapter to allow it to use the CD-ROM drive of the PC-FX,[2] a useful feature in an time where such drives were quite expensive.

The system contained 32 kilobytes of battery backed RAM for long term save game storage and could also accept a memory card in the form of the 128 kilobyte FX-BMP.[4][2] The PC-FX GA emulated this hardware and stored save game data standard floppy disks, hard disks,[4] or other DOS/V accessible storage instead.

The system is noted for being hard to assemble.[8]

Notable gamesEdit


Team Innocent: The Point of No ReturnEdit

Team Innocent was a launch title for the PC-FX that used an animated intro screen and sprites on predrawn backgrounds.[9][10]


Kishin Dōji Zenki FX: Vajra FightEdit

A beat em up well know for its artful 2D presentation.[11] The game made good use of environmental storytelling in background details as well.[12] The gameplay is well regarded, but the game is notably short, especially for the era in which it was released.[13]

Read more about Kishin Dōji Zenki FX: Vajra Fight on Wikipedia.




Controllers & AccessoriesEdit


External ResourcesEdit


  1. a b c "Feature: What NEC And Hudson Did Next: The Disasterous Story Of The PC-FX". Nintendo Life. 9 May 2015. https://www.nintendolife.com/news/2015/05/feature_what_nec_and_hudson_did_next_the_disasterous_story_of_the_pc-fx. Retrieved 26 October 2020. 
  2. a b c "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". https://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?st=1&c=796. 
  3. "The Strange World of Console-Computer Hybrids" (in en). PCMAG. https://www.pcmag.com/news/the-strange-world-of-console-computer-hybrids. Retrieved 26 October 2020. 
  4. a b c d e f g "What did we do to deserve the PC-FX? (and the PC-FX GA)". https://nicole.express/2020/what-did-pcfx-deserve.html. 
  5. "PC-FX System Info". http://www.vgmuseum.com/systems/pcfx/. Retrieved 17 November 2020. 
  6. a b c "Introducing: The PC-FX". http://www.gamezero.com/team-0/articles/features/pc-fx_opinion/. Retrieved 17 November 2020. 
  7. Murnane, Kevin. "From Pong To Playstation: The 40-Year Evolution Of Gaming Processing Power" (in en). https://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinmurnane/2016/04/25/charting-forty-years-of-power-ratings-for-video-game-consoles-and-arcade-machines/#63dfddee2472. Retrieved 26 October 2020. 
  8. "NEC PC-FX - The Successor to the PC-Engine / TurboGrafx - Hardware Overview and History" (in en). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cKilVPhpdUU. 
  9. "Team Innocent: The Point Of No Return - Software - Game - Computing History". https://www.computinghistory.org.uk/det/31245/Team-Innocent-The-Point-Of-No-Return/. Retrieved 17 November 2020. 
  10. "Team Innocent: The Point of No Return for PC-FX (1994)". https://www.mobygames.com/game/team-innocent-the-point-of-no-return. Retrieved 17 November 2020. 
  11. "Kishin Douji Zenki FX: Vajra Fight | Retro Gamer". www.retrogamer.net. December 10, 2013. https://www.retrogamer.net/retro_games90/kishin-douji-zenki-fx-vajra-fight/. 
  12. "Zenki FX: Vajra Fight - The Reason to Own a PC-FX - NEC PC-FX Review" (in en). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9RIPcfKd_Fo. 
  13. "Kishin Douji Zenki FX: Vajura Fight – Hardcore Gaming 101". http://www.hardcoregaming101.net/kishin-douji-zenki-fx-vajura-fight/. 



At the June 1994 Tokyo Game Show Bandai announces the BA-X, showcasing a Dragon Ball Z game.[1][2]


The Playdia was released by Bandai in 1994 only in the Japanese market.[3][4][5]


The Playdia was discontinued in 1996, with remaining units being repurposed for use in arcades.[6][7]



The Playdia is powered by an 8-bit Toshiba TMP87C800F clocked at eight megahertz, and another 8-bit NEC μPD78214GC processor.[3]

The Playdia has 256 kilobytes of RAM, and 512 kilobytes of VRAM.[3]

The Playdia uses a Asahi Kasei AK8000 processor for audio and visual processing.[3]


The Bandai Playdia has a CD Drive.[3]

The Bandai Playdia uses a wireless controller.[8]

Notable gamesEdit


  • Dragon Ball Z - Shin Saiyajin Zetsumetsu Keikaku Chikyū Hen
  • Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon S - Quiz Taiketsu! Sailor Power Kesshū!!
  • SD Gundam Daizukan


  • Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon SuperS


  • Gekisou Sentai Carranger






PlayStation wordmark.

Nintendo PartnershipEdit

The Play Station was initially a partnership between Nintendo and Sony to develop a disk based add on for the SNES.[1] The partnership fell through when Nintendo made a surprise announcement in 1991 that they were partnering with Phillips for their CD-i system instead, as they did not want to yield control over the SNES CD format to Sony.[2][3]


Ken Kutaragi, an important figure in the development of the PlayStation.

Despite litigation from Nintendo, Sony continued to develop their game console independently.[2]

Ken Kutaragi was able to keep costs low by leveraging Sony's existing semiconductor and CD-ROM factories.[4] This vertical integration gave Sony a huge cost advantage over competing hardware, which had to buy from external firms instead of an internal supply chain.[5]

The entry of Sony into the console market was initially not taken seriously by the industry.[6] However by building a solid support infrastructure for their console prior to release, Sony was able to sign a number of developers, and even get a few developers to switch their franchises entirely to their platform.[6] The PlayStation was also considered relatively easy to develop for,[7] which was a huge advantage in a market featuring a number of consoles with hard to master architectures.


A PlayStation in use.


The PlayStation launched in Japan on December 3rd, 1994.[8]

North AmericaEdit

Sony employee Steve Race announced the cost of the PlayStation in North America at E3 1995, shortly after Sega announced the release of it's Sega Saturn at a cost of $399.[9]

—Steve Race, Entire speech at E3 1995.[9]

This short speech launched the room into applause,[10] as the PlayStation was significantly less expensive then competing systems.


The PlayStation was quite popular after launching in France, with a March 4th, 1997 article in Le Monde claiming 600,000 consoles were sold over the prior 18 months.[11]


Various PlayStation revisions.

A number of revisions were made during the production of the PlayStation, resulting in the removal of RCA ports and later on the parallel port.[12]

Net YarozeEdit

The Net Yaroze was launched in March of 1997 for $750 to promote independent development for the PlayStation.[13] While not comparable to the full development kit with features like a debugger missing, the system gave Indie developers the opportunity to have demos of their games included in official Demo CDs.[13][14]


The original PlayStation had worldwide popularity. Here two children can be seen playing an original PlayStation in Nigeria in 2003.

The original PlayStation was followed by the PlayStation 2.

Manufacturing of the original PlayStation stopped in 2006.[15] The PlayStation was a massively popular console, ultimately selling over 102 million units.[2][16]

The original PlayStation had a popularity long surpassing its launch. Due to its status in the modding community as a cheap and beginner friendly console, unofficial mods for the system continued to be released as recently as 2021.[17][18]


The PlayStation 1 CPU die.
PS1 was the best design of its generation.
—John Carmack, Tweet on February 21st, 2013.[19]


The PlayStation CPU uses a 32 bit RISCI processor derived from an LSI CoreWare CW33300 design, and is clocked at 33.87 megahertz.[20]

The PlayStation has 2 megabytes of RAM and 1 megabyte of VRAM.[21]

The PlayStation did not generate enough heat to need a fan.[22]


The PlayStation AestheticEdit

The unique technical attributes of the PlayStation lead to games developed for the system possessing a unique aesthetic. A defining aspect of this are visually sharp polygons which "wobble".[23]

Because of the relatively large storage space available on CD, many games used relatively high resolution textures. However a lack of compute resources meant that these textures were generally not very filtered or smoothed.

It's important to note the context of which the PlayStation would have been used to understand how its graphics would have actually looked to a gamer of the day. Generally game consoles of that period were played on cheap or modest consumer grade CRT televisions, which naturally had a fuzzy sort of quality and distortion to them. These imperfections and flaws thus somewhat worked to obscure console limitations. When playing original PlayStation games on superior displays, it should be noted that the result one sees is different from what would have been generally seen at the time.


The Net Yaroze Development Tool

CD DriveEdit

The PlayStation has a 2x speed CD Drive.[24] Though the console is not the first to leverage CD-ROMs, the original PlayStation is perhaps the most iconic console to use CD-ROMs, and is often seen as the archetype of a CD-ROM Console.


Sony was a major player in the CD-ROM industry, and the PlayStation exists precisely because of this given it's origin as an SNES and Super Famicom CD-Add On. However the CD-ROM was important for more then design inertia. The use of CD technology was a major selling point of the system, for both consumers and manufacturers. This is because CD-ROMs were capable of much more storage then consumer grade cartridges of the time, allowing for more expansive games. CDs could be pressed at a lower cost for the manufacturer then the manufacture of cartridges.


While the PlayStation was not the first console to use optical disks, the technology still had a long way to go. The most notable downside was speed, with many games requiring significant loading times. Despite the massive increase of capacity over cartridges, some ambitious developers required even more space than what could be offered by a CD-ROM, requiring some games to be shipped on multiple disks. Additionally, as the 1990s progressed, the proliferation of consumer CD-Burners made piracy for the system extraordinarily easy compared to cartridges.


Memory CardsEdit

Since the PlayStation could not burn save data to CD-ROMS[25] and game saves had become a somewhat standard feature among games, a way for users to save games was needed. This was accomplished with memory cards.


In Japan, the Pocketstation was released as a basic handheld console and memory card combo that could sync mobile minigames with PlayStation games.[26]


The PlayStation section of the Super Potato game store in Akihabara, Japan in 2017. The console continued to be widely played after it was discontinued.


  • The original PlayStation is seen as an usurper in the JRPG field, with major publishers taking advantage of the system's enhanced storage capabilities, as well as a much lesser degree of publisher restrictions on game content to create new and innovative experiences. Many JRPGs for the original PlayStation are seen as "Killer Apps" for the system.
  • Racing and sports games all did well on the original PlayStation.
  • Platformers on the original PlayStation have a mixed legacy. While some of the most acclaimed platforms released on the original PlayStation, the system would also see the release of some of the most notorious platformed blunders of the genre.
  • Thanks in part due to it's native CD audio capabilities, rhythm and music games did well on the system.



Read more about Tekken on Wikipedia.

Twisted MetalEdit

Read more about Twisted Metal on Wikipedia.

Air Combat / Ace CombatEdit

Read more about Air Combat on Wikipedia.


Crash BandicootEdit

The first Crash Bandicoot game.

Read more about Crash Bandicoot on Wikipedia.

Tomb RaiderEdit

Read more about Tomb Raider on Wikipedia.

Tekken 2Edit

Read more about Tekken 2 on Wikipedia.

PaRappa the RaperEdit

Read more about PaRappa the Rapper on Wikipedia.

Revelations: PersonaEdit

The first of a series of games noted for loosely drawing concepts from Jungian psychology.[27]

Read more about Revelations: Persona on Wikipedia.

Resident EvilEdit

The first Resident Evil game.

The game included some Live Action cutscenes, and despite using some cutting edge filmmaking techniques for the time, credits for the actors involved were not properly recorded, leaving only the actor's first names in the credits.[28]

The 1998 Resident Evil Director's Cut had music said to be composed by the then famous deaf composer Mamoru Samuragochi, only for it to later be revealed in 2014 that a Samuragochi used a ghostwriter,[29][30] and that Samuragochi was not fully deaf.[31] Samuragochi would later claim he actually had written the music for the Basement section of the game, and backed this up with a recorded VHS performance of him playing it on keyboard in the 1990's.[32] The music of the Directors Cut is often seen as hit or miss, depending on the individual track.[33]

Read more about Resident Evil on Wikipedia.


Klonoa: Door to PhantomileEdit

2.5D mascot platformer Read more about Klonoa: Door to Phantomile on Wikipedia.

Ace Combat 2Edit

Read more about Ace Combat 2 on Wikipedia.



Xenogears was originally supposed to be Final Fantasy 7.[34]

Read more about Xenogears on Wikipedia.

Metal Gear SolidEdit

The first 3D game in the Metal Gear series. This game was originally a 3DO title before development shifted to the PlayStation.[35]

The game featured an advanced stealth system, accounting for events such as enemy guards tracking footprints the player left in the snow,[36] using wolf urine to mask the player scent,[35] and other innovative mechanics.

The acclaimed main theme of the game is notably similar to the earlier composition of Winter Road by the famed Russian composer Georgy Sviridov.[37][38]

Read more about Metal Gear Solid on Wikipedia, or read the WikiBook on the general Metal Gear Series.

Spyro the DragonEdit

The first game in the Spyro the Dragon series. This innovative 3D platformer and collectathon allowed more open movement then most other games in the genre at the time.

Read more about Spyro the Dragon on Wikipedia.


Persona 2: Innocent SinEdit

Despite being the older release, Innocent Sin was released in North America years after Eternal Punishment due to localization issues arising from including Adolf Hitler as a character.[39]

Read more about Persona 2: Innocent Sin on Wikipedia.

Um Jammer LammyEdit

The sequel to PaRappa the Rapper. The game is noted for it's guitar focused spin on the mechanics of PaRappa the Rapper.[40]

Read more about Um Jammer Lammy on Wikipedia.

Spyro 2: Ripto's RageEdit

The sequel to Spyro was released just a year later, and featured greater movement options, as well as more side quests.

Read more about Spyro 2: Ripto's Rage! on Wikipedia.

Ace Combat 3: ElectrosphereEdit

Read more about Ace Combat 3: Electrosphere on Wikipedia.


Vagrant StoryEdit

Vagrant Story is known for its system defying artwork, which used subtle application of pixel art and 3D tricks to create an incredibly detailed environment, especially given the limitations of the hardware.[41][42]

Read more about Vagrant Story on Wikipedia.


Tear Ring SagaEdit

A tactical role playing game developed by Shouzou Kaga, the creator of the Fire Emblem series.[43] Nintendo would later take legal action over the close similarities between this game and Fire Emblem.[44]

Read more about Tear Ring Saga on Wikipedia.




PSone InternalsEdit




Nintendo Play StationEdit

The prototype Nintendo Play Station.


  1. Walton, Mark (9 November 2015). "The fabled SNES-PlayStation prototype has been turned on and disassembled" (in en-us). Ars Technica. https://arstechnica.com/gaming/2015/11/the-fabled-snes-playstation-prototype-has-been-turned-on-and-disassembled/. Retrieved 18 October 2020. 
  2. a b c Walton, Mark (3 July 2015). "Fabled CD-playing, SNES-compatible “Play Station” prototype found in a box" (in en-us). https://arstechnica.com/gaming/2015/07/fabled-sony-nintendo-play-station-prototype-discovered/. Retrieved 18 October 2020. 
  3. Shapiro, Eben (3 June 1991). "Nintendo-Philips Deal Is a Slap at Sony (Published 1991)". https://www.nytimes.com/1991/06/03/business/nintendo-philips-deal-is-a-slap-at-sony.html. Retrieved 17 November 2020. 
  4. "Hideki Sato Discussing the Sega Saturn". 16 June 2020. https://mdshock.com/2020/06/16/hideki-sato-discussing-the-sega-saturn/. Retrieved 27 October 2020. 
  5. "Hideki Sato talks about creating SEGA Saturn hardware and Sony asking SEGA to go third party". http://segabits.com/blog/2018/06/29/hideki-sato-talks-about-creating-sega-saturn-hardware-and-sony-asking-sega-to-go-third-party/. 
  6. a b "PlayStation: How Sony came to dominate the gaming industry". https://digital.hbs.edu/platform-digit/submission/playstation-how-sony-came-to-dominate-the-gaming-industry/. Retrieved 18 October 2020. 
  7. "Interview - Seth Mendelsohn". http://www.gamezero.com/team-0/articles/interviews/seth_mendelsohn/. Retrieved 21 November 2020. 
  8. "Decade of dominance for PlayStation". 3 December 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/4054797.stm. Retrieved 28 October 2020. 
  9. a b "It's Been 25 Years Since Sega Shocked the Gaming World: Here's What Happened" (in en). PCMAG. https://www.pcmag.com/news/its-been-25-years-since-sega-shocked-the-gaming-world-heres-what-happened. Retrieved 26 October 2020. 
  10. "PlayStation 25th Anniversary: How Sony created the console that redefined the game industry" (in en). https://www.gamesradar.com/playstation-25th-anniversary-how-sony-created-the-console-that-redefined-the-game-industry/. Retrieved 26 October 2020. 
  11. "Le public des consoles de jeux prend de l'âge" (in fr). Le Monde.fr. 4 March 1997. https://www.lemonde.fr/archives/article/1997/03/04/le-public-des-consoles-de-jeux-prend-de-l-age_3765876_1819218.html. 
  12. Byford, Sam (11 July 2019). "A brief history of cutdown game consoles" (in en). The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/circuitbreaker/2019/7/11/20690011/nintendo-switch-lite-game-console-redesign-xbox-playstation. Retrieved 19 October 2020. 
  13. a b "15 Years Later: How Sony's Net Yaroze Kickstarted Indie Console Development". https://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/169245/15_years_later_how_sonys_net_.php?print=1. 
  14. "Doing It Together: Remembering PlayStation’s Net Yaroze Console" (in en). https://www.vice.com/en/article/mvxbky/doing-it-together-remembering-playstations-net-yaroze-console-935. 
  15. "Sony stops making original PS". GameSpot. https://www.gamespot.com/articles/sony-stops-making-original-ps/1100-6146549/. Retrieved 28 October 2020. 
  16. "The bestselling consoles of all time". https://www.digitaltrends.com/gaming/bestselling-consoles-of-all-time/. Retrieved 14 November 2020. 
  17. "VGA Without The Hassle, From Your PlayStation One". Hackaday. 12 February 2021. https://hackaday.com/2021/02/12/vga-without-the-hassle-from-your-playstation-one/. 
  18. "Burning Your Own PS1 Modchip Is Easy". Hackaday. 1 November 2020. https://hackaday.com/2020/11/01/burning-your-own-ps1-modchip-is-easy/. 
  19. "@ID_AA_Carmack". Twitter. https://twitter.com/ID_AA_Carmack/status/304662242627031040?. 
  20. "PlayStation Architecture A Practical Analysis" (in en). 8 August 2019. https://www.copetti.org/projects/consoles/playstation/. Retrieved 29 October 2020. 
  21. "PS1 Strengths and Weaknesses vs N64 and Sega Saturn" (in en). 11 January 2020. https://www.racketboy.com/journal/ps1-strength-and-weaknesses-vs-n64-sega-saturn. Retrieved 29 October 2020. 
  22. Gartenberg, Chaim (3 December 2019). "Remember how simple consoles used to be with this original PlayStation teardown" (in en). The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/circuitbreaker/2019/12/3/20993374/playstation-sony-ifixit-teardown-simple-hardware-internal-components-cd-drive. Retrieved 20 October 2020. 
  23. "PlayStation 1 Graphics Wobble". RetroRGB. 26 March 2020. https://www.retrorgb.com/playstation-1-graphics-wobble.html. 
  24. "Sony PlayStation Teardown" (in en). 3 December 2019. https://www.ifixit.com/Teardown/Sony+PlayStation+Teardown/128089. Retrieved 29 October 2020. 
  25. Note: It is sometimes possible to burn data to finished CD-ROMs with unused space, but this is unsuitable for consumer applications, and the original PlayStation lacked a CD burner, making this infeasible.
  26. Byford, Sam (4 December 2019). "The portable PlayStations were Sony at its most ambitious" (in en). The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2019/12/4/20991654/psp-vita-portable-playstation-console-sony-25-anniversary. Retrieved 20 October 2020. 
  27. Tisdale, Alex. "'Persona' Bends But Doesn't Totally Break Jungian Psychology" (in en). Inverse. https://www.inverse.com/article/22672-persona-carl-jung-psychology-matthew-fike-interview. 
  28. "23-Year-Old Resident Evil Mystery Solved". Game Rant. 26 December 2019. https://gamerant.com/resident-evil-actor-rebecca/. 
  29. "Noted deaf composer admits his music was ghostwritten". The Japan Times. 5 February 2014. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/02/05/national/noted-deaf-composer-admits-someone-else-writes-his-music/. 
  30. Yin-Poole, Wesley (5 February 2014). "Resident Evil and Onimusha composer exposed as a fraud" (in en). Eurogamer. https://www.eurogamer.net/articles/2014-02-05-resident-evil-and-onimusha-composer-exposed-as-a-fraud. 
  31. "Japan's Fraudulent Composer Returns Years Later With New Music" (in en-us). Kotaku. https://kotaku.com/japans-fraudulent-composer-returns-years-later-with-new-1846728880. 
  32. "Disgraced Composer Proves He Wrote Basement Theme" (in en). Dead Entertainment. https://deadentertainment.com/2018/04/27/disgraced-composer-proves-he-wrote-basement-theme/. 
  33. Balmont, James. ""Clowns farting": The wild story behind Resident Evil's worst soundtrack" (in en). Inverse. https://www.inverse.com/gaming/resident-evil-25-composer-mamoru-samuragochi-impostor. 
  34. "Anime and Games That Wouldn’t Exist Without Neon Genesis Evangelion" (in en-sg). 5 October 2020. https://sea.ign.com/neon-genesis-evangelion-1/164513/news/anime-and-games-that-wouldnt-exist-without-neon-genesis-evangelion. Retrieved 17 November 2020. 
  35. a b "How Metal Gear Solid empowered the stealth genre". Den of Geek. 7 February 2013. https://www.denofgeek.com/games/how-metal-gear-solid-empowered-the-stealth-genre/. 
  36. Kuchera, Ben (11 February 2021). "The 10 essential examples of snow and ice in video games" (in en). Polygon. https://www.polygon.com/essentials/2021/2/11/22268302/snow-ice-levels-games-best-worst-sonic-tomb-raider-star-wars-hoth-metal-gear. 
  37. Alexander, Leigh. "Report: Konami Didn't Use Metal Gear Solid Theme In MGS4 Due To Plagiarism Accusations" (in en). www.gamasutra.com. https://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=21513. 
  38. Square, Push (9 November 2015). "Ever Wonder Why the Classic Metal Gear Solid Theme Isn't in the Phantom Pain?". Push Square. https://www.pushsquare.com/news/2015/11/ever_wonder_why_the_classic_metal_gear_solid_theme_isnt_in_the_phantom_pain. 
  39. Hilliard, Kyle. "Learn How Hitler's Cameo In Persona 2: Innocent Sin Complicated Localization For North America" (in en). Game Informer. https://www.gameinformer.com/b/news/archive/2015/08/23/learn-how-hitler-39-s-cameo-in-persona-2-innocent-sin-complicated-localization-for-north-america.aspx. 
  40. "10 Rare PS1 Classics On The Older PlayStation Store You Need To Buy Before It Closes". TheGamer. 3 April 2021. https://www.thegamer.com/best-ps1-classics-playstation-store/. 
  41. Lee, Richmond (6 December 2019). "The Forgotten Pixel Art Masterpieces of the PlayStation 1 Era" (in en). Medium. https://onezero.medium.com/the-forgotten-pixel-art-masterpieces-of-the-playstation-1-era-8b453dfe00bf. 
  42. Yin-Poole, Wesley (10 February 2020). "Vagrant Story, one of the greatest JRPGs ever, turns 20" (in en). Eurogamer. https://www.eurogamer.net/articles/2020-02-10-vagrant-story-one-of-the-greatest-jrpgs-ever-turns-20. 
  43. "The 10 Best Fan Translation Rom Hacks Of Games Never Released In North America". TheGamer. 1 September 2020. https://www.thegamer.com/best-fan-translation-rom-hacks-games-never-released-north-america/. 
  44. "Nintendo Sues Over Emblem Copyright - IGN" (in en). https://www.ign.com/articles/2001/07/25/nintendo-sues-over-emblem-copyright. 


Pokemon Pikachu was released in Japan on Friday, March 27th, 1998 for 2,500 yen.[1] The system was later released in North America on November 2nd, 1998 for $19.95.[2] This dedicated console used a pedometer to measure player activity and create an fusion of exercising and a digital pet gaming experience on the go.[2] The system also featured a slot machine gambling mechanic.[3][4]

The Pokémon Pikachu 2 GS was released in Japan on Sunday, November 21st, 1999 for 3,000 yen,[5] and in North America and Europe the following year.[3]

The Pokémon Mini was a cartridge based followup console released in 2001. Some consider the later Poke Walker accessory for the Nintendo DS to be part of the legacy of this device, as it shares a similar concept.[6]


A CR2032 disposable lithium coin cell battery, similar to that used by the Pokémon Pikachu handheld console.

The console had built in clock, as well as a pedometer for measuring player activity.[2] The system can be cliped onto a belt,[7] making it an early example of wearable computing and a wearable console.

The original Pokemon Pikachu used a black and white screen.[8]

The Pokemon Pikachu 2 GS featured a color screen and inferred port, which could send data to other Pokemon Pikachu 2 GS handhelds, as well as to GameBoy Color consoles.[9][3]

The system is powered by a single CR2032 disposable lithium coin cell battery.[10]

External ResourcesEdit