Flora of New York/Ferns 1


Lycophytes
Flora of New York — Pre-polypod ferns
Polypodiales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Class Polypodiopsida contains the ferns, including the eusporangiate ferns (horsetails, scouring rushes, moonworts, and grape ferns) and the leptosporangiate ferns of subclass Polypodiidae.[1][2]

Cladogram of ferns showing outgroups and the four subclasses down to orders:

tracheoophytes
lycophytes
Lycopodiopsida

Lycopodiales

Isoetales

Selaginellales

euphyllophytes
Polypodiopsida (ferns)
Equisetidae

Equisetales

Ophioglossidae

Psilotales

Ophioglossales

Marattiidae

Marattiales

Polypodiidae

Osmundales

Hymenophyllales

Gleicheniales

Schizaeales

Salviniales

Cyatheales

Polypodiales

spermatophytes

gymnosperms ↓

angiosperms ↓↓

eusporangiate
ferns
leptosporangiate
ferns

A more detailed cladogram of New York State ferns down to subgenera or single species:

ferns
Equisetales : Equisetaceae : Equisetum

subg. Equisetum (6 horse tails)

subg. Hippochaete (7 scouring rushes)

Psilotales : Psilotaceae (0 whisk ferns in NY)

Ophioglossales : Ophioglossaceae

OphioglossoideaeOphioglossum pusillum (northern adder's-tongue) 

Botrychioideae

Botrypus virginianum (rattlesnake fern)

Sceptridium (4 evergreen grapeferns)

Botrychium (7 moonworts, grape ferns)

Marattiales : Marattiaceae (0 marattid ferns in NY)

Osmundales : Osmundaceae

Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (cinnamon fern)

Claytosmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)

Osmunda regalis (royal fern)

Hymenophyllales : Hymenophyllaceae

Hymenophylloideae (0 filmy ferns)

TrichomanoideaeCrepidomanes intricatum (Appalachian bristle fern) 

Gleicheniales

Gleicheniaceae (0 forked ferns)

Matoniaceae (0 fan ferns)

Dipteridaceae (0 umbrella ferns)

Schizaeales

LygodiaceaeLygodium palmatum (American climbing fern)

SchizaeaceaeSchizaea pusilla (curlygrass)

Salviniales

SalviniaceaeAzolla cristata (mosquitofern)

MarsileaceaeMarsilea quadrifolia (water clover)

Cyatheales (0)

Polypodiales (continued below)

eusporangiate
ferns
leptosporangiate
ferns

Continuation of Polypodiales part of above cladogram of New York State ferns, including the six suborders employed by PPG I (2016):

Polypodiales

Saccolomatineae (1 genus, 0 in NY)

Lindsaeineae (3 families, 0 in NY)

Pteridineae : Pteridaceae

CryptogrammoideaeCryptogramma stelleri (fragile rockbrake}

PteridoideaePteris multifida (brake fern - excluded!)

Cheilanthoideae

Pellaea atropurpurea (purple cliffbrake)

Pellaea glabella (smooth cliffbrake)

Myriopteris lanosa (hairy lip-fern)

Vittarioideae

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)

Vittaria appalachiana (Appalachian shoestring fern)

Dennstaedtiineae : Dennstaedtiaceae

Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)

Pteridium aquilinum (brackenfern)

Aspleniineae
Cystopteridaceae

Cystopteris (4 bladderferns)

Gymnocarpium dryopteris (northern oak fern)

DiplaziopsidaceaeHomalosorus pycnocarpos (narrow-leaved glade fern)

AspleniaceaeAsplenium (11 spleenworts)

Thelypteridaceae

PhegopteridoideaePhegopteris (2 beech ferns)

ThelypteridoideaeThelypteris (3 marsh ferns)

WoodsiaceaeWoodsia (5 cliff ferns)

Athyriaceae

Athyrium (2 lady ferns)

Deparia acrostichoides (silvery spleenwort)

Onocleaceae

Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)

Matteuccia struthiopteris (ostrich fern)

Blechnaceae : Woodwardioideae

Anchistea virginica (Virginia chainfern)

Lorinseria areolata (netted chainfern)

Polypodiineae
Dryopteridaceae : Dryopteridoideae

Dryopteris (28 woodferns)

Polystichum (4 holly ferns)

Cyrtomium falcatum (netvein hollyfern - excluded)

Polypodiaceae : Polypodioideae

Polypodium (3 rock-cap ferns)

Pleopeltis polypodioides (resurrection fern excluded)


Subclass Order Suborder Family Subfamily Genus Subgenus Common names #
Equisetidae Equisetales Equisetaceae Equisetum Equisetum horsetail 6
Hippochaete scouring rush 7
Ophioglossidae Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Botrychioideae Botrychium Botrychium moonwort, grape fern 8
Osmundopteris rattlesnake fern 1
Sceptridium evergreen grapefern 4
Ophioglossoideae Ophioglossum adder's tongue 1
Polypodiidae

(leptosporangiate
ferns)
Osmundales Osmundaceae Osmundastrum cinnamon fern 1
Osmunda Claytosmunda interrupted fern 1
Osmunda royal fern 1
Hymenophyllales Hymenophyllaceae Trichomanoideae Crepidomanes grotto felt, weft fern 1
Schizaeales Lygodiaceae Lygodium climbing fern 1
Schizaeaceae Schizaea curlygrass fern 1
Salviniales Salviniaceae Azolla mosquitofern 1
Salvinia watermoss, floatingfern x
Marsileaceae Marsilea waterclover, waterfern 1
Polypodiales Dennstaedtiineae Dennstaedtiaceae Dennstaedtia hay-scented fern 1
Pteridium brackenfern 2
Pteridineae Pteridaceae Cryptogrammoideae Cryptogramma rock brake 1
Pteridoideae Pteris brake fern x
Cheilanthoideae Pellaea cliff brake 2
Cheilanthes lip fern 1
Vittarioideae Adiantum maidenhair-fern 1
Vittaria ribbon fern 1
Aspleniineae Cystopteridaceae Cystopteris bladder fern 5
Gymnocarpium oak fern 2
Diplaziopsidaceae Homalosorus glade fern 1
Aspleniaceae Asplenium spleenwort 10
Thelypteridaceae Phegopteridoideae Phegopteris beech fern 2
Thelypteridoideae Thelypteris marsh fern, New York fern 3
Woodsiaceae Woodsia cliff fern 5
Onocleaceae Onoclea sensitive fern 1
Matteuccia ostrich fern 1
Blechnaceae Woodwardioideae Anchistea Virginia chainfern 1
Lorinseria netted chainfern 1
Athyriaceae Deparia false spleenwort 1
Athyrium lady fern 3
Polypodiineae Dryopteridaceae Dryopteridoideae Cyrtomium netvein hollyfern x
Dryopteris woodfern 30
Polystichum hollyfern 5
Polypodiaceae Polypodioideae Polypodium polypody, rockcap fern 3
Pleopeltis resurrection fern x

Order Equisetales edit

The order Equisetales contains the plants commonly known as horsetails and scouring rushes. This order contains the single living genus Equisetum, which is represented in every county of New York.

Family Equisetaceae edit

The Equisetaceae (horsetail family) ...

Equisetum edit

Equisetum is here divided into the two subgenera Equisetum (horsetails) and Hippochaete (scouringrushes).
Equisetum subg. Equisetum edit
 
Equisetum arvense
field horsetail
The Equisetum subgenus Equisetum comprises the horsetails.
Equisetales — Equisetaceae — Equisetum subg. Equisetum
Genus Equisetumsubg. Equisetum Horsetail N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Equisetum arvense L.
1832. Equisetum boreale Bong.
1912. Allostelites arvensis (L.) Börner
1960. Equisetum calderi B.Boivin
Field horsetail,
Common horsetail,
Common field horsetail
Prêle des champs,
Queue de renard
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-fern
 
NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Equisetum fluviatile L.
1753. Equisetum limosum L.
Water horsetail,
River horsetail
Prêle fluviatile
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-fern
 
NYFA: 5

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 Kühlew. ex Rupr. (pro sp.)

Equisetum arvense ×
Equisetum fluviatile

1845. Equisetum litorale Kühlew. ex Rupr.
Litoral horsetail
Prêle littorale
Native,
Rare

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-fern
 
NYFA: 3

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 L.

1753. Equisetum sylvaticum L.
1795. Equisetum capillare Hoffm.
Wood horsetail,
Woodland horsetail
Prêle des bois
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-fern
 
NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Equisetum palustre L.
1927. Equisetum palustre  var. americanum  Vict.
Marsh horsetail
Prêle des marais
Native, CoC: 5,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[1]

FACW
 
NYFA: 2

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 Ehrh.

1784. Equisetum pratense Ehrh.
Meadow horsetail,
Shady horsetail
Prêle des prés
Native, CoC: 4,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[2]

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-fern
 
NYFA: 2

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Genus Equisetum(excluded)subg. Equisetum Horsetail N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Ehrh.
 ssp. braunii (Milde) Hauke

1862. Equisetum braunii Milde
1978. Equisetum telmateia  var. braunii  (Milde) Hauke
 auct. Equisetum maximum non Lam.
Giant horsetail,
Great horsetail,
Ivory horsetail
Prêle géante
Introduced from
 western N. America,
N.Y. excluded

OBL
 
NYFA-Excluded

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Equisetum subg. Hippochaete edit
 
Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine
western scouringrush
Plants of subg. Hippochaete are often referred to as scouring rushes.

Christenhusz et. al. (2019) suggests that the western scouringrush (Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine) should be treated at the species level (Equisetum praealtum Raf.).[1]


Equisetales — Equisetaceae — Equisetum subg. Hippochaete
Genus Equisetumsubg. Hippochaete Scouringrush N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
 ssp. affine Calder & Roy L.Taylor

    Equisetum affine Engelm.
    Equisetum praealtum Raf.
    Equisetum robustum A.Braun
    Hippochaete hyemalis (L.) Braun
Common scouringrush,
Western scouringrush,
Rough horsetail,
Scouringrush horsetail
Prêle d'hiver
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5
iNat

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 Michx. (1803)

Dwarf scouring rush
Prêle faux-scirpe
Native, CoC: 9,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5

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 Schleich. ex F.Weber & D.Mohr

1807. Equisetum variegatum Schleich. ex F.Weber & D.Mohr
1822. Equisetum multiforme  var. variegatum  Vaucher
1839. Equisetum hyemale  ssp. variegatum  A.Braun
1842. Equisetum hyemale  var. variegatum  Newman
1868. Hippochaete variegata (Schleich. ex F.Weber & D.Mohr) Bruhin
Variegated scouring rush,
Variegated horsetail
Prêle panachée
Native, CoC: 3,
Likely secure

FACW

Perennial,
Herb
 
NYFA: 4

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Equisetum hyemale ×
Equisetum variegatum

Rough-toothed scouring rush Native, CoC: 3,
Vulnerable
 
 

NYFA: 3

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 (A.A.Eaton) J.H.Schaffn.

Equisetum laevigatum ×
Equisetum variegatum

1904. Equisetum variegatum  var. nelsonii  A.A.Eaton
1926. Equisetum nelsoni J.H.Schaffn.
Nelson's scouring rush,
Nelson's horsetail
Native,
Unranked
 
NYFA: U

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 Clute

Equisetum hyemale ×
Equisetum laevigatum

1903. Equisetum hyemale  var. intermedium  A.A.Eaton
1904. Equisetum ferrissii Clute
1917. Equisetum intermedium Rydb.
1951. Equisetum hyemale  var. elatum  (Engelm.) C.V.Morton
Ferris' scouring rush Native,
Unranked

NYFA: U

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Genus Equisetum(excluded)subg. Hippochaete Scouring rush N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 A.Braun (1844)

    E. funstonii
    Equisetum kansanum
    Hippochaete laevigata
Smooth scouring-rush N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

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Order Ophioglossales edit

The order Ophioglossales may contain the oldest of the plants now considered to be ferns s.l. [1]

Family Ophioglossaceae edit

The Ophioglossaceae (adder's-tongue family) comprises primitive ferns that have traditionally been considered part of a group informally known as fern-allies. In New York, the family is represented by about a dozen native species, all of which are listed as protected plants.[1]

Botrychioideae edit

Botrychium edit
The genus Botrychium contains the moonworts, evergreen grapeferns, and rattlesnake ferns, each of which is treated here as a subgenus of Botrychium. These groups are also sometimes treated as separate genera within the Ophioglossaceae.
Botrychium subg. Botrychium edit
 
Botrychium matricariifolium
daisy-leaved moonwort

Ophioglossales — Ophioglossaceae — Botrychium subg. Botrychium
Genus Botrychiumsubg. Botrychium Moonwort, grape fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Döll) A.Braun ex W.D.J.Koch

1843. Botrychium lunaria  var. matricariifolium  Döll
1847. Botrychium neglectum Alph.Wood
1847. Botrychium matricariifolium ex W.D.J.Koch
Daisy-leaved moonwort,
Chamomile grape-fern,
Matricary grapefern
Botryche à feuille
 de matricaire
Native, CoC: 7,
Likely secure

FACU

Perennial,
Fern
 
NYFA: 4

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 (Pease & A.H.Moore) Fernald

1906. Botrychium lanceolatum  var. angustisegmentum  Pease & A.H.Moore
1915. Botrychium angustisegmentum (Pease & A.H.Moore) Fernald
1937. Botrychium lanceolatum  ssp. angustisegmentum  R.T.Clausen
Narrow triangle moonwort,
Narrow moonwort,
Lance-leaved grape-fern
Botryche à segments étroits
Native, CoC: 7,
Likely secure

FACW

Perennial,
Fern
 
NYFA: 4

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 E.Hitchc.

1823. Botrychium simplex E.Hitchc.
1899. Botrychium tenebrosum A.A.Eaton
Least grape-fern,
Little grape-fern
Native, CoC: 9,
Likely secure

Perennial,
Fern
 
NYFA: 4-5

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 A.A.Eaton

    Botrychium simplex  var. tenebrosum  (A.A.Eaton) R.T.Clausen
    Botrychium tenebrosum A.A.Eaton
Shade-loving moonwort,
Swamp moonwort
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered

Perennial,
Fern
 
NYFA: 1
NYFA: Cayuga, St.Lawrence
4 counties

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 Stensvold & Farrar

1753. Osmunda lunaria L. misapplied
1801. B. lunaria (L.) Sw. misappl.
1903. B. onondagense Underw.
1923. B. lunaria  var. onondagense  (Underw.) House
2017. B. neolunaria Stensvold & Farrar
Moonwort grape-fern,
Common moonwort
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
CA,
NYNHP: 1[1]

Perennial,
Fern
 
NYFA: 1

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 Vict.

1927. Botrychium minganense Vict.
1937. Botrychium lunaria  var. minganense  (Vict.) Dole
1965. Botrychium lunaria  ssp. minganense  (Vict.) Calder & Roy L.Taylor
Mingan's moonwort,
Mingan moonwort,
Mingan Island moonwort
Botryche de Mingan
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
CA,
NYNHP: 1[2]

Perennial,
Fern
 
NYFA: 1

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 W.H.Wagner & Farrar

    Botrychium minganense (in part)
Prairie moonwort,
Prairie dunewort,
Dunewort,
Iowa moonwort
Native, CoC: 10,
No recent reports,
NYNHP: 1[3]

Perennial,
Fern
 
NYFA: Z

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Genus Botrychiumsubg. Botrychium (excluded taxa) Moonwort, grape fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(S.G.Gmel.) Ångstr.

1854. Botrychium lanceolatum (S.G.Gmel.) Ångstr.
Triangle moonwort
Botryche élancé
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

Perennial,
Fern
 
NYFA-Excluded

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 W.H.Wagner

1986. Botrychium ascendens W.H.Wagner
Triangle-lobe moonwort,
Upswept moonwort,
Ascending grapefern
Botryche ascendant
Native,
Unreported

Perennial,
Fern
 
NYFA: D

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Botrychium subg. Osmundopteris edit
 
Botrychium virginianum
The subgenus Osmundopteris (sometimes treated as the genus Botrypus) contains a single, fairly widespread Rattlesnake fern species (Botrychium virginianum or Botrypus virginianus).
Ophioglossales — Ophioglossaceae — Botrychium subg. Osmundopteris
Genus Botrychiumsubg. Osmundopteris Rattlesnake fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Sw.

1753. Osmunda virginiana L.
1800. Botrychium virginianum Sw.
1803. Botrypus virginianus Michx.
1814. Botrychium gracile Pursh
1938. Osmundopteris virginiana Small
1958. Japanobotrychium virginianum M.Nishida
Rattlesnake fern,
Rattlesnake grapefern,
Virginia grapefern
Botryche de Virginie
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5

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Botrychium subg. Sceptridium edit
 
Botrychium dissectum
cut-leaved grape-fern
The subgenus Sceptridium, often treated as a separate genus Sceptridium Lyon (1905), contains the evergreen grape ferns, four species of which are native to New York.
Ophioglossales — Ophioglossaceae — Botrychium subg. Osmundopteris sect. Sceptridium
Genus Botrychiumsubg. Sceptridium Evergreen grape fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Spreng.

1804. Botrychium dissectum Spreng.
1810. Botrychium obliquum Muhl.
1902. Botrychium dissectum  var. obliquum  Clute
1905. Sceptridium dissectum Lyon
1905. Sceptridium obliquum Lyon
Cut-leaved grape-fern,
Cutleaf grapefern,
Dissected grapefern
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5

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 (S.G.Gmel.) Rupr.

1768. Osmunda multifida S.G.Gmel.
1825. Botrychium silaifolium C.Presl
1859. Botrychium multifidum (S.G.Gmel.) Rupr.
1898. Botrychium coulteri Underw.
1905. Botrychium californicum Underw.
1938. Botrychium obliquum  var. multifidum  (S.G.Gmel.) Clute
1958. Sceptridium multifidum (S.G.Gmel.) M.Nishida
Leathery grape-fern,
Leather grape-fern
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure
 
NYFA: 5

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 (Gilbert) House

1901. Botrychium ternatum  var. oneidense  Gilbert
1902. Botrychium dissectum  var. oneidense  (Gilbert) Clute
1902. Botrychium dissectum  f. oneidense  (Gilbert) Clute
1902. Botrychium obliquum  f. oneidense  (Gilbert) Clute
1903. Botrychium obliquum  var. oneidense  (Gilbert) Waters
1905. Sceptridium obliquum  var. oneidense  (Gilbert) Lyon
1905. Botrychium ternatum  f. oneidense  (Gilbert) Clute
1916. Botrychium multifidum  var. oneidense  Farw.
1921. Botrychium oneidense (Gilbert) House
1998. Sceptridium oneidense (Gilbert) Holub
Blunt-lobed grape-fern,
Bluntlobe grapefern,
Oneida grape fern
Native, CoC: 5,
Threatened,
CA,
NYNHP: 2[1]
 
NYFA: 2-3

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 W.H.Wagner

1939. Botrychium multifidum  f. dentatum  R.M.Tryon
1982. Botrychium rugulosum W.H.Wagner
1997. Sceptridium rugulosum (W.H.Wagner) Škoda & Holub
 auct. Botrychium ternatum non (Thunb.) Sw.
Ternate grapefern,
Rugulose grape-fern,
St. Lawrence grape-fern,
Botryche à limbe rugueux
Native, CoC: 6,
Endangered,
Few populations,
CA,
NYNHP: 1[2]
 
NYFA: 1

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Genus Botrychiumsubg. Sceptridium (excluded taxa) Evergreen grape fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Savigny) Underw.

1798. Osmunda biternata Savigny
1896. Botrychium biternatum (Savigny) Underw.
1903. Botrychium tenuifolium Underw.
1905. Sceptridium tenuifolium (Underw.) Lyon
1905. Sceptridium biternatum (Savigny) Lyon
1924. Botrychium dissectum  var. tenuifolium  (Underw.) Farw.
Sparselobe grapefern,
Sparse-lobe grape fern
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

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Ophioglossoideae edit

Ophioglossum edit
 
Ophioglossum pusillum
northern adder's-tongue
Northern adder's-tongue may appear in wet meadows, swamp edges, and thickets.
Ophioglossales — Ophioglossaceae — Ophioglossum
Genus Ophioglossum Adder's-tongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Raf.

1814. Ophioglossum pusillum Raf.
1927. Ophioglossum vulgatum  var. alaskanum  C.Chr.
1917. Ophioglossum vulgatum  var. pseudopodum  (S.F.Blake) Farw.
 auct. Ophioglossum vulgatum non L. (s.s.)
Northern adder's-tongue
Herbe-sans-couture
Native, CoC: 5,
Vulnerable

FACW

Perennial,
Fern
 
NYFA: 3

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Genus Ophioglossum (excluded) Adder's-tongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Ophioglossum vulgatum L.
1939. Ophioglossum vulgatum  var. pycnostichum  Fernald
1977. Ophioglossum pycnostichum (Fernald) A.Löve & D.Löve
Southern adder's-tongue,
English adder's-tongue
Herbe sans couture
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA-Excluded

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Order Osmundales edit

The Osmundales contains a single family with three native species represented outside of cultivation in New York.

Family Osmundaceae edit

The Osmundaceae (royal fern family), as circumscribed here,[1] contains six extant genera, three of which have single species found in New York.
Osmundaceae


Todea



Leptopteris





Osmundastrum (cinnamon fern)




Claytosmunda (interrupted fern)




Plenasium



Osmunda (royal fern)






Osmundastrum edit

 
Osmundastrum cinnamomeum
Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (cinnamon fern) is the only living species of Osmundastrum.
Osmundales — Osmundaceae — Osmundastrum
Genus Osmundastrum Cinnamon fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) C.Presl
 ssp. cinnamomeum

1753. Osmunda cinnamomea L.
1841. Osmunda cinnamomea  var. frondosa  Torr. & A.Gray
1847. Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (L.) C.Presl
1868. Osmunda cinnamomea  var. imbricata  (Kunze) Milde
1902. Osmunda cinnamomea  var. glandulosa  Waters
1909. Osmunda cinnamomea  var. fokiensis  Copel.
Cinnamon fern,
Buckhorn
Osmonde cannelle
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure,
DEC-D[1]

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Herb-fern
 
NYFA: 5

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Claytosmunda edit

 
Claytosmunda claytoniana
Claytosmunda (Y. Yatabe, N. Murak. & K. Iwats.) Metzgar & Rouhan[1] contains the single species Claytosmunda claytoniana(L.) Metzgar & Rouhan (interrupted fern), which until recently was placed in Osmunda subgenus Claytosmunda.
Osmundales — Osmundaceae — Claytosmunda
Genus Claytosmunda
(Y. Yatabe, N. Murak. & K. Iwats.) Metzgar & Rouhan
Interrupted fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Metzgar & Rouhan

1753. Osmunda claytoniana L.
1801. Struthiopteris claytoniana (L.) Bernh.
1848. Plenasium claytonianum (L.) C. Presl
1941. Osmundastrum claytonianum (L.) Tagawa
2016. Claytosmunda claytoniana (L.) Metzgar & Rouhan
Interrupted fern,
Clayton's fern
Osmonde de Clayton
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure,
DEC-D[1]

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-fern
 
NYFA: 5

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Osmunda edit

 
Osmunda spectabilis at Clark Reservation State Park
Osmunda L.. Osmunda spectabilis Willd.[1]
Osmundales — Osmundaceae — Osmunda
Genus Osmundasubg. Osmunda Flowering fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Willd.

1810. Osmunda spectabilis Willd.
1856. Osmunda regalis  var. spectabilis  (Willd.) A.Gray
1977. Osmunda regalis  ssp. spectabilis  (Willd.) Á.Löve & D.Löve
Royal fern,
Regal fern,
Flowering fern
Osmonde royale,
Fougère royale
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure,
DEC-D[1]

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-fern
 
NYFA: 5

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Order Hymenophyllales edit

 
Crepidomanes intricatum
The order Hymenophyllales contains a single family, the Hymenophyllaceae, or filmy fern family.

Family Hymenophyllaceae edit

 
Crepidomanes intricatum
In New York, only one species of this family has been verified as living outside of cultivation, and that species is considered to be endangered in the state.

Crepidomanes edit

 
Crepidomanes intricatum
The only member of the Hymenophyllaceae found in New York is a gametophitic weft fern Crepidomanes intricatum, which was transferred from Trichomanes to the mostly Asian Crepidomanes genus by Ebihara & Weakley (2011) based on molecular sequence. Crepidomanes intricatum is assumed to be gametophitic only. Sporophitic generations of this plant have not been observed.[1][2]
Hymenophyllales — Hymenophyllaceae — Crepidomanes
Genus Crepidomanes Grotto felt N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Farrar) Ebihara & Weakley

1992. Trichomanes intricatum Farrar
2011. Crepidomanes intricatum (Farrar) Ebihara & Weakley
Appalachian bristle fern,
Appalachian trichomanes,
Filmy fern,
Weft fern
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1]
  Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Greene, Schoharie, Sullivan, Ulster, Westchester
NYFA: 1

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Order Schizaeales edit

The order Schizaeales contains the seemingly dissimilar families Anemiaceae (flowering ferns), Lygodiaceae (climbing ferns), and Schizaeaceae (curly-grass ferns). A single endangered species in each of the latter two families are present in New York.

Family Lygodiaceae edit

 
Lygodium palmatum
The Lygodiaceae (climbing-fern family) consists of the single genus Lygodium, which in New York, is represented by the endangered American climbing fern. No other Lygodium species are native to North America, and some have been found to be invasive in the southern U.S.[1]

Lygodium edit

 
Lygodium palmatum
The genus Lygodium contains about 40 species of climbing ferns, the only one of which is found in New York (and the only North American native) is the endangered American climbing fern or Hartford fern (Lygodium palmatum). It grows in moist acidic thickets and woods.
Schizaeales — Lygodiaceae — Lygodium
Genus Lygodium Climbing fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Bernh.) Sw.

1800. Gisopteris palmata Bernh.
1806. Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw.
American climbing fern,
Creeping fern,
Hartford fern,
Windsor fern
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1]

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-fern
  Chenango, Greene, Oneida, Onondaga, Saratoga, Suffolk
NYFA: 1

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Family Schizaeaceae edit

The Schizaeaceae (curly-grass family)...

Schizaea edit

Schizaeales — Schizaeaceae — Schizaea
Genus SchizaeaSm. Curlygrass fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Pursh

1814. Schizaea pusilla Pursh
Curlygrass,
Curly-grass fern,
Little curlygrass fern
Native, CoC: 9,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1]

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-fern
 
NYFA: 1

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Order Salviniales edit

The order Salviniales (the heterosporous or water ferns) contains the families Salviniaceae (mosquitoferns) and Marsileaceae (waterferns), which have few species represented in New York.

Family Salviniaceae edit

The family Salviniaceae contains the aquatic fern genera Azolla and Salvinia.

Azolla edit

 
Azolla cristata, mosquito fern
Azolla (mosquito ferns) have previously been placed in their own family, the Azollaceae. The taxonomy of the New World Azolla species has been in dispute - four species have been reported in the literature: A. caroliniana, A. filiculoides, A. mexicana and A. microphylla, but Evrard and Van Hove (2004) concluded that only two species exist in America and, according to the priority rule for nomenclature, they should be named A. cristata and A. filiculoides.[1][2] Azolla filiculoides has been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas.
  1. The New York Flora Atlas states: "Evrard and Hove (2004) provide evidence that the correct name for this taxon is A. cristata and that A. caroliniana, which has been misapplied to A. cristata, is a true synonym of A. filiculoides."
  2. C. Evrard & C. Van Hove (2004) Taxonmy of the American Azolla species (Azollaceae): a critical review Systematics and Geography of Plants 74:301-318
Salviniales — Salviniaceae — Azolla sect. Azolla
Genus Azollasect. Azolla Mosquitofern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Kaulf.

1824. Azolla cristata Kaulf.
1827. Azolla portoricensis Spreng.
1830. Azolla mexicana Schltdl. & Cham. nom. nud.
1844. Azolla mexicana Schltdl. & Cham. ex Kunze
1845. Azolla mexicana Schltdl. & Cham. ex C.Presl
 auct. Azolla caroliniananon Willd.
 auct. Azolla filiculoidesnon Lam.
Mosquito fern,
Carolina mosquitofern,
Eastern mosquito-fern,
Fairy-moss,
Mosquito-plant
Azolle de Caroline,
Azolla de Caroline
Native, CoC: 2,
Unranked,
DEC-D[1],
SNR, G5

OBL

Annual,
Herb-fern
 
NYFA: 2?

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Note: [2][3]
Genus Azolla (excluded taxa) Mosquitofern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Lam.

1783. Azolla filiculoides Lam.
1810. Azolla caroliniana Willd.
1810. Azolla magellanica Willd.
1824. Azolla microphylla Kaulf.
1827. Azolla arbuscula Desv.
Pacific mosquitofern,
Pacific azolla,
Fern azolla,
Large mosquito fern,
Duckweed fern,
Redwater fern
Azolle fausse-filicule,
Azolla fausse-filicule
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  excluded
NYFA-Excluded

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  1. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) Regulation §193.3, Protected Native Plants, (d) Exploitably vulnerable. [Listed as Azolla caroliniana, Mosquito-fern]
  2. The New York Flora Atlas states: "Evrard and Hove (2004) provide evidence that the correct name for this taxon is A. cristata and that A. caroliniana, which has been misapplied to A. cristata, is a true synonym of A. filiculoides."
  3. C. Evrard & C. Van Hove (2004) Taxonmy of the American Azolla species (Azollaceae): a critical review Systematics and Geography of Plants 74:301-318

Salvinia edit

 
Salvinia minima
The two species of Salvinia previously reported in New York have been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas as of 9/18/2016.[1]

The genus Salvinia (watermoss) contains mostly tropical, aquatic ferns. S. minima, mistakenly reported as S. natans has been reported from ponds on Staten Island and Rockland County, but these may have been aquarium escapes, as this genus is unlikely to be able to naturalize that far north.[2]

DEC regulation 193.3 Protected native plants, lists Salvinia minima as Exploitably vulnerable,[3] even though it is a Central and South American native that is considered to be invasive in the southeastern U.S.[4]


Salviniales — Salviniaceae — Salvinia
Genus SalviniaSeg. (excluded species) Watermoss N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Baker

1886. Salvinia minima Baker
Floating-fern,
Water-fern,
Water spangles,
Common watermoss
Introduced from
 South America,
 southern Mexico,
Highly invasive,
 USGS: L48 invasive,
NYFA Excluded,
DEC-D[1],
(Exploitably vulnerable‽)
 
NYFA-Excluded
NYFA: excluded
iNat
No observations

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Aubl.

1775. Salvinia auriculata Aubl.
1792. Marsilea auriculata (Aubl.) Vitman
1810. Marsilea rotundifolia Willd.
Eared water-moss ...
African payal ...

Rundblättriger Schwimmfarn
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 USGS: L48 not listed
 
NYFA-Excluded
NYFA: excluded
iNat
no observations

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1753. Marsilea natans L.
1785. Salvinia natans (L.) All.
Floating watermoss ...

Schwimmfarn ...
Helechillo de agua ...
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northen Africa,
N.Y. excluded,
 USGS: L48 not listed
  excluded
NYFA-Excluded
iNat

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Note: [2]
  1. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) Regulation §193.3, Protected Native Plants, (d) Exploitably vulnerable.
  2. The New York Flora Atlas states: "Most likely all New York material previously referred to as Salvinia natans is actually S. minima."

Family Marsileaceae edit

The Marsileaceae (water-clover family) has a single species (Marsilea quadrifolia) surviving outside of cultivation in New York.

Marsilea edit

 
Marsilea quadrifolia,
European water-clover
Although fairly rare, European water-clover can have large local populations and is considered to be potentially invasive in the Finger Lakes and Lower Hudson Valley.[1][2] According to the USDA-NRCS PLANTS database, Marsilea quadrifolia is native to parts of Ontario, Canada,[3] but other sources list it as only a European native.[4][5]
Salviniales — Marsileaceae — Marsilea
Genus Marsilea Waterclover N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

European water-clover,
European water fern,
Water shamrock,
European pepperwort
Marsilée à quatre feuilles,
Marsile à quatre feuilles
Introduced from
 Europe,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: 45%[1]
 
NYFA: X
NYFA: 6 counties
1 county

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