Flora of New York/Dipsacales


Apiales
Flora of New York — Dipsacales
Lycophytes
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The order Dipsacales is here organized, down to subfamily, according to the system presented in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.[1]
Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Vernacular Names #
Dipsacales Viburnaceae Viburneae Viburnum hobblebush, nannyberry,
arrowwood, possumhaw,
cranberrybush
19
Adoxeae Sambucus elderberry 3
Adoxa muskroot 1
Caprifoliaceae Diervilloideae Diervilla northern bush-honeysuckle 1
Weigela crimson weigela 2
Caprifolioideae Triosteum horse-gentian 3
Lonicera honeysuckle 20
Symphoricarpos snowberry 4
Linnaeoideae Linnaea twinflower 1
Kolkwitzia beautybush 2
Dipsacoideae Dipsaceae Succisella frosted pearls 1
Dipsacus teasel 3
Knautia scabious, blue-buttons 1
Scabiosa scabious, pincushions 1
Valerianoideae Valeriana valerian 3
Valerianella corn salad 3

Family ViburnaceaeEdit

The viburnum family (Viburnaceae Raf., nom. cons. or Adoxaceae E. Mey., nom. cons.) in New York contains about 14 species of Viburnum, three species of Sambucus (elderberries), and the endangered Adoxa moschatellina (muskroot). These species were previously included in the Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle Family), and have the characteristic opposite-leaf pattern of that family.

Recent sources, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, treat the Adoxaceae as Viburnaceae Raf., nom. cons.[1][2]


Tribe ViburneaeEdit

ViburnumEdit

The four major clades of Viburnum, proposed by Donoghue, Winkworth and Clement,[1][2][3] are all represented in New York by about 14 species (17 taxa) of woody plants.
Viburnum clade ValvatotinusEdit
 
Viburnum lentago

Dipsacales — Adoxaceae — Opuloideae — Viburneae — Viburnumclade Valvatotinus
Viburnumsect. Lentago Viburnum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Viburnum lentago L.
1889. Viburnum × vetteri Zabel
Nannyberry,,
Nanny-berry,
Sweet viburnum,
Black haw,
Sheepberry
Viorne flexible,
Viorne lentago,
Alisier, bourdaine
Native, C:4,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun - shade
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN LBJ

Images, wsp
 L.
var. cassinoides (L.) Torr. & A.Gray

1762. Viburnum cassinoides L.
1789. Viburnum nitidum Aiton
1841. V. nudum var. cassinoides
1956. V. cassinoides var. nitidum
[1]
1956. V. cassinoides var. harbisonii
Northern wild raisin,
Wild raisin,
Withe-rod,
Witherod viburnum,
Witherwood,
Swamp haw,
Possumhaw
Viorne cassinoïde,
Alises,
Alisier,
Bleuets sains,
Bourdaine
Native, C:7,
Secure

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun - shade
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN LBJ

Images, wsp
 L.
var. nudum

    Viburnum nudum L.
    V. cassinoides var. angustifolium
Southern wild-rasin,
Possumhaw,
Withe-rod
Native, C:9,
Endangered

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
  NYFA-1
USDA-N0
NPT 

Trop.
NSE BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Viburnum prunifolium L.
1924. Viburnum bushii Ashe
1935. Viburnum prunifolium var. bushii
Black-haw
Blackhaw
Black haw
Sweet-haw
Stagbush
Native, C:4,
Likely secure

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub,
Part shade
  NYFA-4
USDA-N0

ARS 
Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Viburnumsect. Euviburnum Viburnum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Viburnum lantana L.
1779. V. tomentosum Lam
1796. V. pallidum Salisb. (i)
1812. V. farinosum Stokes (i)
    V. lantana var. sphaerocarpum
    V. lantana var. glabratum
    V. aragonensis Pau
Wayfaring tree,
Mealytree,
Wayfaring viburnum
Viorne mancienne
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 53%[2],
CP-5[3] NE-4[4]

Perennial,
Tree, shrub
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
Viburnumsect. Lantana (excluded taxa) Viburnum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Hemsl.

Leatherleaf,
Leatherleaf arrowwood,
Leatherleaf viburnum
Introduced from
 Japan,
N.Y. excluded

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0






Images, wsp

Viburnum carlesii ×
Viburnum macrocephalum

    Viburnum carlcephalum
Fragrant snowball viburnum
Introduced,
Cultivated
  NYFA-XCLD






Images, wsp
  1. W. L. McAtee (1956). A Review of the Nearctic Viburnum. Chapel Hill, N.C. 125 pp.
  2. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentViburnum lantana: Moderate (53). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
  3. Appendix 5. Plant species of concern (Watch List) within the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2009)
  4. Category 4 Plants - local concern and monitoring - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
Viburnum clade "Pseudotinus / Urceolata"Edit
Landis et al. (2019) place sect. Pseudotinus in a small, un-named, mostly east Asian clade along with sect. Urceolata. They list Viburnum lantanoides (hobblebush) as the only North American species in this clade. This clade appears to be the sister of a clade containing the Crenotinus and Valvatotinus clades.[1]
Dipsacales — Adoxaceae — Opuloideae — Viburneae — Viburnumclade Pseudotinus
Viburnumsect. Pseudotinus Viburnum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

1783. Viburnum lantana
var. latifolium C.F.Ludwig
1789. Viburnum lantana
var. grandifolium Aiton
1803. Viburnum lantanoides Michx.
1817. Viburnum grandifolium Smith
[1]
 auctViburnum alnifoliumnon Marsh.
Hobblebush,
Alder-leaved viburnum,
American wayfaring tree,
Witch hobble
Viorne bois-d'orignal,
Viorne faux-lantana,
Viorne à feuilles d'aulne
Native, C:8,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Viburnum clade CrenotinusEdit
Crenotinus is an Asian clade containing the sections Solenotinus and Lutescentia. It is sister to clade Valvatotinus.[1] The two species in this clade introduced in New York occasionally naturalize and are of concern for becoming invasive.
Dipsacales — Adoxaceae — Opuloideae — Viburneae — Viburnumclade Crenotinus
Viburnumsect. Lutescentia Viburnum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Thunb.

1784. V. tomentosum Thunb.
1794. V. plicatum Thunb.
1866. V. plicatum var. tomentosum
1880. V. tomentosum var. plicatum
Japanese snowball,
Doublefile viburnum
Introduced from
 eastern Asia,
Potentially invasive,
NE-4[1]

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NPT 
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Note: VT
Viburnumsect. Solenotinus Viburnum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Miq.

1867. Viburnum sieboldii Miq.
Siebold viburnum,
Siebold’s arrowwood
Introduced from
 eastern Asia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[2],
CP-5[3] NE-4[4]

Perennial,
Tree, shrub
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp
  1. Category 4 Plants - local concern and monitoring - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  2. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentViburnum sieboldii: Moderate (62).
  3. Appendix 5. Plant species of concern (Watch List) within the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2009)
  4. Category 4 Plants - local concern and monitoring - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
Viburnum clade PorphyrotinusEdit
 
Viburnum dentatum
smooth arrowwood
Clade Porphyrotinus contains western hemisphere Viburnum species. The two sections represented in New York (Dentata and Mollotinus) contain North America species. A much larger South/Central American section (Oreinotinus) is sister to sect. Dentata.[1]

The viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni) often defoliates smooth arrowwood (V. dentatum) and downy arrowwood (V. rafinesqueanum) from this clade, but Viburnum opulus is its preferred host.[2]


Dipsacales — Adoxaceae — Opuloideae — Viburneae — Viburnumclade Porphyrotinus
Viburnumsect. Dentata Arrowwood N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.
var. lucidum Aiton

1789. Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum
1924. Viburnum ashei Bush
1941. Viburnum recognitum Fernald
1953. V. recognitum var. alabamense
2011. V. alabamense (McAtee) Sorrie
Smooth arrowwood,
Northern arrowwood
Viorne litigieuse,
Viorne dentée
Native, C:3,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Tree-shrub,
Sun - shade
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN LBJ

Images, wsp
Note: [1]
L.
var. venosum (Britton) Gleason

1789. V. dentatum var. pubescens
1814. Viburnum pubescens (Aiton) Pursh
1901. Viburnum venosum Britton
1952. Viburnum dentatum var. venosum
1953. V. scabrellum var. venosum
Southern arrowwood Native, C:7,
Threatened

FAC

Perennial,
Tree-shrub,
Sun - shade
  NYFA-2
USDA-N
NPT 
ARS 
Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Viburnumsect. Mollotinus Arrowwood N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Schult.

1820. V. rafinesquianum Schult.
1911. V. affine Bush
1918. V. affine var. hypomalacum
1935. V. rafinesquianum var. affine
Downy arrowwood,
Downy-leaved
  arrow-wood
Viorne de Rafinesque
Native, C:8,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Shrub,
Part Shade - shade
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 

BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Viburnum clade "Opulus"Edit
This small clade with a worldwide distribution is the sister to Laminotinus

Both sect. Lobata and sect. Opulis have leaves with somewhat of a maple-leaf shape. The native and invasive Eurasian variety of V. opulus are very similar in appearance, and some populations may be the result of introgression between the two.


Dipsacales — Adoxaceae — Opuloideae — Viburneae — Viburnumclade "Opulus"
Viburnumsect. Opulus Viburnum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. americanum Aiton

1768. V. americanum Miller
1785. V. trilobum Marshall
1789. V. opulus var. americanum
1949. V. opulus ssp. trilobum
Highbush cranberry,
American cranberrybush,
Cranberrybush viburnum,
Mooseberry
Viorne trilobée,
Viorne pimbina
Native, C:3,
Likely secure,
NE-5[1]

FACW

Perennial,
Shrub,
Sun - part shade
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 
Trop.

LBJ

Images, wsp
Note: [2]
 L.
var. opulus

1753. V. opulus L.
1753. V. opulus var. roseum
1821. V. roseum Steud.
European cranberrybush,
Guelder rose
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 67%[3],
CP-3[4] NE-4[5]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp
Note: [6]
 (Michx.) Raf.

1803. V. opulus var. edule
1808. V. edule Raf.
1838. V. opulus var. pauciflorum
1841. V. pauciflorum Torr. & A.Gray
Squashberry,
Mooseberry,
Moosewood viburnum,
Few-flowered
  cranberry bush
Viorne comestible,
Pimbina
Native, C:10,
Threatened

FACW

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-2
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
  1. Category 5 Plants - native invasives - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  2. http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=267
  3. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentViburnum opulus var. opulus: Moderate (67).
  4. Appendix 3. Plant species that are considered moderately to highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2009)
  5. Category 4 Plants - local concern and monitoring - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  6. http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=402
Viburnum clade LaminotinusEdit
Clade Laminotinus is sister to section Opulus.
Dipsacales — Adoxaceae — Opuloideae — Viburneae — Viburnumclade Laminotinus
Viburnumsect. Lobata Viburnum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. V. acerifolium L.
1860. V. densiflorum Chapm.
1956. V. acerifolium var. densiflorum
Mapleleaf viburnum,
Maple-leaved viburnum,
Mapleleaf arrowwood,
Possum haw,
Dockmackie
Viorne à feuilles d'érable
Native, C:7,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Shrub,
Sun - shade
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Viburnumsect. Succotinus Viburnum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Thunb.

1784. V. dilatatum Thunb.
1911. V. brevipes Rehder
1966. V. d. var. macrophyllum
1966. V. fulvotomentosum P.S.Hsu
1988. V. d. var. fulvotomentosum
Linden arrowwood,
Linden viburnum
Introduced from
 China,
 Japan,
 South Korea,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 57%[1],
NE-L[2] IPA,
Sun - part shade
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
Note: [3][4][5]
Hance

1882. V. setigerum Hance
1907. V. theiferum Rehder
1911. V. bodinieri H. Lév.
1965. V. setigerum var. sulcatum
Tea viburnum,
Tea-leaf viburnum
Introduced from
 Cina,
 Taiwan,
Invasive,
NYIS: 41%[6]
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp

Tribe AdoxeaeEdit

SambucusEdit

 
Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis
American black elderberry
Sambucus contains the shrubs know as elderberry or simply elder. The name Sambucus is likely derived from the Latin sambuca (a type of harp).

The some sources, including New York Flora Atlas, treat the American black elderberry as S. nigra ssp. canadensis, while other common sources treat it as S. canadensis. The European black elderberry (S. nigra s.s.) has not been discovered outside of cultivation in New York.


Dipsacales — Adoxaceae — Adoxoideae — Sambuceae — Sambucus
Sambucus Elderberry N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

1753. Sambucus racemosa L.
1803. Sambucus pubens Michx.
1892. Sambucus callicarpa Greene
1901. Sambucus microbotrys Rydb.
1913. S. racemosa ssp. pubens House
Red elderberry,
Scarlet elder,
Red-berried elder,
Bunchberry elder
Sureau rouge
Native, C:6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub,
Shade
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA
LBJ
MBG 
Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. canadensis (L.) R.Bolli

1753. Sambucus canadensis L.
1884. S. canadensis var. laciniata
1911. S. simpsonii Rehder
1994. S. nigra ssp. canadensis
2003. S. nigra var. canadensis
Common elderberry,
American
  black elderberry,
Black elder,
American elder
Sureau blanc,
Sirop blanc,
Sureau du Canada
Native, C:4,
Secure

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Shrub,
Part shade
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
iNat
ARS ITIS
Trop.

LBJ
MBG 
Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. nigra

1753. Sambucus nigra L.
1753. Sambucus nigra var. laciniata L.
1769. Sambucus laciniata Mill.
European
  black elderberry
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Not naturalized,
Not reported

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-0
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.


MBG 
Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Sambucus ebulus L.
Dwarf elderberry,
Dwarf elder,
Danewort
Sureau yèble
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Not naturalized,
Tompkins only
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Can
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp

AdoxaEdit

The sole member of the Adoxa genus is muskroot (Adoxa moschatellina), which is considered endangered in New York.

Dipsacales — Adoxaceae — Adoxoideae — Adoxeae — Adoxa
Adoxa Muskroot N.Y. Status Images Distribution  NPT
 L.

    Adoxa moschatellina L.
Muskroot,
Musk-root,
Musk root,
Moschatel,
Townhall clock
Moscatelline
Native, C:9,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1],
NYNHP: 1[2]

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW-0Can


BNA


Images, wsp

Family CaprifoliaceaeEdit

Caprifoliaceae is represented by the "Cap" in "MADCap Horse", the mnemonic used to recall which trees and shrubs have opposite leaves. (The other trees being Maple, Ash, Dogwood, and Horse-chestnut.)

Subfamily DiervilloideaeEdit

The Diervilloideae is also commonly treated as Diervillaceae Pyck (1998) (bush honeysuckle family). It should be noted that most of the non-native Caprifoliaceae species in New York also take the form of a bushes or shrubs commonly called bush honesuckle (Lonicera spp.) and are considered to be highly invasive.

DiervillaEdit

 
Diervilla lonicera

Diervilla contaiins three species of eastern North American bush honeysuckle. It was named in honor of the French surgeon and writer, Sieur de Dièreville, who introduced the genus to Europe after his travels to Acadia around 1700.

Its only New York native, Northern bush-honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera), is considered to be a good replacement for the invasive exotic bush honeysuckles (in Lonicera sect. Coeloxylosteum). Diervilla's other two species (D. rivularis and D. sessilifolia are native to limited regions of the southeastern U.S. but are not known to naturalize in New York.


Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Diervilloideae — Diervilla
Diervilla Bush-honeysuckle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Mill.

1753. Lonicera diervilla L.
1768. D. lonicera Mill.
1803. D. tournefortii Michx.
1892. D. diervilla MacMill. (i)
1940. D. lonicera var. hypomalaca
Northern bush-honeysuckle,
Bush-honeysuckle
Dièreville chèvrefeuille,
Herbe bleue
Native, C:6,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Shrub,
Shade, part shade,
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA
LBJ
FED 
Images, wsp

WeigelaEdit

 
Weigela floribunda
Weigela is native to eastern Asia and has been planted in New York as an ornamental shrub. Weigela floribunda has been known to naturalize in some areas in the southeastern part of the state. Weigela japonica has not been confirmed to truly naturalize.
Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Diervilloideae — Weigela
WeigelaThunberg (1780) Weigela N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Siebold & Zucc.) K.Koch

1839. Diervilla floribunda Siebold & Zucc.
1854. W. floribunda (Siebold & Zucc.) K.Koch
 auct. W. floribunda var. versicolor
Weigela,
Crimson weigela
Introduced from
 eastern Asia,
Naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-X
NPT 
ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp
 Thunb.

1780. Weigela japonica Thunb.
1830. Diervilla japonica (Thunb.) DC.
1839. Diervilla versicolor Siebold & Zucc.
1927. Diervilla floribunda var. versicolor
Japanese weigela Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Unknown naturalization
  NYFA-X
USDA-EXCL

ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp

Subfamily CaprifolioideaeEdit

The Caprifolioideae (honeysuckle subfamily)...

Tribe Caprifolieae here contains Lonicera and Symphoricarpos.[1]

TriosteumEdit

 
Triosteum aurantiacum
The New York Flora Atlas lists three species of horse gentian (Triosteum).
Triosteum
species
sepal
length
(mm)
sepal back
(abaxial surface)
sepal
margins
leaf
width
(cm)
leaf
shape
stem
pubescence
(mm)
style fruit
T. aurantiacum 10 - 18 evenly pubescent evenly pubescent 4 - 15 tapers to narrow,
sessile base
> 0.5 ± included orange-red
ovoid
T. perfoliatum 10 - 18 evenly pubescent evenly pubescent 4 - 15 connate-perfoliate ≤ 0.5 exserted yellow-orange
subglobose
T. angustifolium 9 - 12 glabrous or
short-pubescent
hispid-ciliate 2 - 6 lanceolate 1.5 - 3.0
Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Caprifolioideae — Triosteeae — Triosteum
Triosteum Horse-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
E.P.Bicknell

Orangefruit horse-gentian,
Wild coffee,
Coffee tinker's weed
Native, C:7,
Secure

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ITIS




Images, wsp
 L.

Perfoliate-leaved horse-gentian,
Perfoliate tinker's-weed,
Feverwort
Native, C:8,
Rare

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
 L.

Lesser horse-gentian,
Yellowfruit horse-gentian,
Yellow-leaved tinker's-weed,
Narrow-leaved horse gentian
Native, C:8,
Likely extirpated

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
 
NYFA-Z
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ITIS




Images, wsp

LoniceraEdit

Members of the Lonicera genus are mostly known as honeysuckle. There are seven native New York honeysuckles and a couple other North American honeysuckles. But there are also about a dozen Eurasian honeysuckles found in New York, many of which have become quite prevalent and are considered highly invasive in the Northeast.
Lonicera subg. CaprifoliumEdit
Subgenus Caprifolium contains vining or trailing shrub honeysuckles with perfoliate leaves immediately beneath the flowers.
Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Caprifolioideae — Caprifolieae — Lonicera subg. Caprifolium
Lonicerasubg. Caprifolium Honeysuckle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1767. Lonicera dioica L.
1768. Lonicera glauca Hill
1830. Caprifolium douglasii Lindl.
1830. L. douglasii (Lindl.) DC.
1896. L. hirsuta var. glaucescens
1897. L. glaucescens Rydb.
1912. L. dioica var. glaucescens
1929. L. dioica var. douglasii
1982. L. dioica ssp. glaucescens
Smooth honeysuckle
Limber honeysuckle
Glaucous honeysuckle
Mountain honeysuckle
Wild honeysuckle
Red honeysuckle
Douglas honeysuckle

Dhèvrefeuille dioïque
Chèvrefeuille glauque
Native,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Vine, shrub
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Note: [1]
 Eaton

1818. Lonicera hirsuta Eaton
1826. Lonicera pubescens Sweet
1952. Lonicera hirsuta
var. interior Gleason
1968. Lonicera hirsuta
var. schindleri B.Boivin
Hairy honeysuckle
Chèvrefeuille hirsute,
Chèvrefeuille hérissé
Native,
Likely secure

FAC

Perennial,
Vine
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Lonicera sempervirens L.
1768. Periclymenum sempervirens L.
1789. L. sempervirens var. minor Aiton
1802. Caprifolium sempervirens Moench
1895. Phenianthus sempervirens Raf.
1903. L. sempervirens var. hirsutula Rehder
Trumpet honeysuckle,
Coral honeysuckle
Chèvrefeuille toujours vert
Native,
Likely secure

FACU

Perennial,
Vine
  NYFA-4
USDA-NX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Schmidt ex Tausch

Lonicera caprifolium ×
Lonicera etrusca

Italian honeysuckle
Clématite des jardins
Introduced,
Europe native

Perennial,
Vine
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS ITIS

BNA


Images, wsp
Lonicerasubg. Caprifolium (excluded taxa) Honeysuckle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L. (1753)

Italian woodbine,
Italian honeysuckle,
Perfoliate honeysuckle
Clématite des jardins
Introduced,
Europe native

Perennial,
Vine
  NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XX

ARS ITIS

BNA


Images, wsp
  1. Many references treat all varieties of Lonicera dioica as a single taxon, but the 2003 USDA Forest Service Conservation Assessment for Red Honeysuckle (Lonicera dioica L. var. glaucescens) (Rydb.) Butters states that "If it is to be accepted as a variety, its correct name should be Lonicera dioica var. douglasii (Lindl.) Farw., otherwise it could be considered a minor variation within Lonicera dioica L."
Lonicera subg. LoniceraEdit
Lonicera sect. Isika & NintooaEdit
Because sect. Nintooa appears to be embedded within sect. Isika, these two sections have been placed in the following table together.[1]
Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Caprifolieae — Lonicera subg. Lonicera
Lonicerasubg. Lonicerasect. Nintooa Honeysuckle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Thunb.

Japanese honeysuckle Introduced from
 East Asia,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 84%[1],
CP3[2] NE1[3]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 





Images, wsp
Note: VT
Lonicerasubg. Lonicerasect. Isika Honeysuckle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Lindl. & Paxton

Xylosteon fragrantissimum
Fragrant honeysuckle,
January jasmine,
Sweet-breath-of-spring
Introduced,
Invasive,
China native
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
 Jacques

Standish's honeysuckle Introduced,
Impersistent
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
(Richardson) Banks ex Spreng.

1823. Xylosteon involucratum Richardson
1824. L. involucrata Banks ex Spreng.
1826. Lonicera ledebourii Eschsch.
p.p.
Twinberry honeysuckle,
Bearberry honeysuckle,
California honeysuckle,
Black twinberry
Introduced from
 west & north,
N. America native,
No NY reports,
Cultivated
  NYFA-0
USDA-NN
Can
ARS ITIS

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentLonicera spp.: Very high (84).
  2. Appendix 3. Plant species that are considered moderately to highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2009)
  3. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
Lonicera sect. CoeloxylosteumEdit
The Lonicera section Coeloxylosteum in New York contains native and naturalized "fly honeysuckles" including the very-highly invasve "exotic bush honeysuckles."
Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Caprifolioideae — Caprifolieae — Lonicera subg. Lonicera
Lonicerasubg. Lonicerasect. Coeloxylosteum Honeysuckle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Bartram & W.Bartram ex Marshall

1777. Lonicera canadensis Bartram
1785. Lonicera canadensis Marshall
1813. Xylosteon ciliatum Pursh
American fly-honeysuckle,
Canada fly honeysuckle[1],
Fly Honeysuckle[2]
Chèvrefeuille du Canada
Native, C:8,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub,
Sun - shade
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS

BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
(Goldie) Hook.

1822. Xylosteon oblongifolium Goldie
1833. Lonicera oblongifolia Hook.
1911. Lonicera oblongifolia
var. altissima Rehder
Swamp fly-honeysuckle
Chèvrefeuille
 à feuilles oblongues
Native, C:9,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA
IPN 

Images, wsp
(Michx.) Roem. & Schult.

1803. Xylosteon villosum Michx.
1819. Lonicera villosa Roem. & Schult.
1841. L. caerulea var. villosa
[3]
1982. L. caerulea ssp. villosa
Mountain fly-honeysuckle,
Northern fly-honeysuckle,
Velvet honeysuckle,
Blue fly honeysuckle
Chèvrefeuille velu
Native, C:9,
Vulnerable

Perennial,
Shrub
  NYFA-3?
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Raf.

1838. Lonicera reticulata Raf.
1864. Caprifolium proliferum G.Kirchn.
1884. Lonicera sullivantii A.Gray
1910. L. prolifera J.R.Booth ex Rehder
1952. L. prolifera var. glabra Gleason
Grape honeysuckle
Chèvrefeuille réticulé
Introduced from
 US Midwest,
N. America native
  NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Lonicera tatarica L.
1800. Lonicera sibirica Georgi
1803. Xylosteon tataricum Michx.
1891. Caprifolium tataricum Kuntze
Tatarian honeysuckle,
Tartarian honeysuckle
Clématite de Tartarie
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 86% [4],
CP2[5] NE1[6],
IPA VT
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 A.Gray

1857. Lonicera morrowii A.Gray
1917. Lonicera insularis Nakai
1968. Xylosteon morrowii Moldenke
2011. Lonicera tatarica
var. morrowii Q.E.Yang et al.
Morrow's honeysuckle,
Asian fly honeysuckle
Chèvrefeuille de Morrow
Introduced from
 Asia,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 86% [4],
CP2[5] NE1[6],
IPAVT
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Zabel

Lonicera morrowii ×
Lonicera tatarica

1889. Lonicera × bella Zabel
Bell's honeysuckle,
Showy fly honeysuckle,
Bella honeysuckle,
Whitebell honeysuckle
Chèvrefeuille de Bell,
Chèvrefeuille joli
Introduced,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 86% [4],
CP2[5] NE1[6],
IPA VT
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 (Rupr.) Maxim.

1857. Xylosteon maackii Rupr.
1859. Lonicera maackii Maxim.
1864. Lonicera maackii Herder
1891. Caprifolium maackii Kuntze
Amur honeysuckle,
Bush honeysuckle,
Late honeysuckle,
Maack's honeysuckle
Chèvrefeuille de Maack,
Clématite de Maack
Introduced from
 Asia,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 84% [4],
CP2,[5] NE1[6],
IPAVT
 
NYFA-X
NPT Can
ARS ITIS

BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Lonicera xylosteum L.
1889. Lonicera segreziensis
   Lavallée ex Dippel
European fly honeysuckle,
Fly honeysuckle,
Dwarf honeysuckle
Chèvrefeuille à balais,
Camérisier à balais,
Clématite des haies
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: 33%[7],
CP4[8] NE4[9],
IPA
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Tausch.

Lonicera tatarica ×
Lonicera xylosteum

1838. Lonicera × xylosteoides Tausch
Hybrid of
 Tatarian honeysuckle &
 European
  fly honeysuckle
Introduced,
Potentially invasive
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Can
ARS ITIS

BNA


Images, wsp
 Regel

1869. Lonicera ruprechtiana Regel
1891. Caprifolium ruprechtianum
Kuntze
1893. Lonicera × muscaviensis
Rehder
Manchurian honeysuckle,
Ruprecht's honeysuckle
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Potentially invasive,
Excluded
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Zabel

Lonicera ruprechtiana ×
Lonicera tatarica

1889. Lonicera × notha Zabel
Hybrid of
 Manchurian &
 Tatarian honeysuckle
Introduced,
Potentially invasive
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
  1. Northern Ontario Plant Database
  2. Connecticut Botanical Society
  3. GRIN treats Lonicera villosa as a synonym of L. caerulea var. villosa
  4. a b c d New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentLonicera spp.: Very high (84-86). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
  5. a b c d Appendix 2. Plant species that are considered highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2009)
  6. a b c d Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  7. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentLonicera xylosteum: Unknown (33).
  8. Appendix 4. Plant species that are considered moderately invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2009)
  9. Category 4 Plants - local concern and monitoring - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service

SymphoricarposEdit

Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Caprifolioideae — Caprifolieae — Symphoricarpos
Symphoricarpos Snowberry N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) S.F.Blake
var. albus

    
    S. racemosus Michx.
    
Common snowberry,
Northern snowberry,
Thin-leaved snowberry,
White coralberry,
Waxberry
Symphorine blanche
Native,
Likely secure
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS

BNA


Images, wsp
(L.) S.F.Blake
var. laevigatus
(Fernald) S.F. Blake

1905. S. racemosus var. laevigatus
1914. S. albus var. laevigatus
1927. S. rivularis Suksd.
    
Pacific snowberry,
Common snowberry,
Smooth-leaved snowberry,
Waxberry
Symphorine lisse,
Symphorine blanche lisse
Introduced from
 western N. America,
N. America native
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Moench

1753. Lonicera symphoricarpos L.
1794. S. orbiculatus Moench
1803. S. vulgaris Michx.
1892. S. symphoricarpos
(L.) MacMill. (i)
Buck brush,
Coralberry,
Indian-coralberry,
Indian-currant
Symphorine à baies-de-corail
Introduced,
N. America native
  NYFA-X
USDA-NX

ARS ITIS

BNA


Images, wsp
Hook. (1833)

Wolfberry,
Western snowberry,
Northern snowberry
Introduced,
N. America native
  NYFA-X
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp

Subfamily LinnaeoideaeEdit

The Linnaeoideae (twinflower subfamily)...

LinnaeaEdit

Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Linnaeoideae — Linnaea
LinnaeaL. Twinflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. americana
(Forbes) Hultén ex R.T. Clausen

    Linnaea americana Forbes
    L. borealis ssp. americana
    
Twinflower,
Longtube twinflower
Native, C:9,
Likely secure

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb, subshrub
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NPT 



LBJ

Images, wsp

KolkwitziaEdit

Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Linnaeoideae — Kolkwitzia
Kolkwitzia Beautybush N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Graebn.

1901. Kolkwitzia amabilis Graebn.
    
    
Beautybush,
Cold-whiskey-plant,
Buisson de beauté
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp

Subfamily DipsacoideaeEdit

The Dipsacoideae (teasel subfamily) is native to a region centered on the Mediterranean and has no members that are native to the western hemisphere.[1]

Tribe DipsaceaeEdit

SuccisellaEdit
 
Succisella inflexa

Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Dipsacoideae — Succiseae — Succisella
SuccisellaBeck Succisella N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Kluk) Beck

1803. Scabiosa australis Wulfen
1809. Scabiosa inflexa Kluk
1830. Succisa australis Rchb.
1893. Succisella inflexa Beck
Devil’s bit
Southern succisella
Frosted pearls

Succiselle infléchie
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Can





Images, wsp
DipsacusEdit
 
Dipsacus fullonum
Teasels (Dipsacus spp.) are common weeds in New York, introduced from Eurasia. The most common are the "wild fuller's teasels" (D. fullonum). The least common are the "cultivated fuller's teasels" (D. sativus) which have been used as natural combs in the textile industry since the Middle Ages.[1] Cut-leaf teasels have turned out to be the most invasive. They seem to be increasing in population and are on the DEC's list of Prohibited Invasive Species.[2][3]
Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Dipsacoideae — Dipsaceae — Dipsacus
DipsacusL. Teasel N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Dipsacus fullonum L.
1762. Dipsacus sylvestris Huds.
1778. D. fullonum var. sylvestris Schmalh.
1962. D. fullonum ssp. sylvestris A.R.Clapham.
Common teasel,
Wild fuller's teasel,
Wild teazle
Cardaire sauvage
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Widespread weed
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Dipsacus laciniatus L.
Cutleaf teasel,
Cut-leaf teasel,
Cut-leaved teasel,
Laciniate teasel
Cardère découpée,
Cardère laciniée
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 76%[1],
Prohibited[2]
  Albany, Cayuga, Chemung, Columbia, Erie, Livingston, Montgomery, Niagara, Saratoga, Schenectady, Tompkins NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 (L.) Honckn.

1762. Dipsacus fullonum Huds. non L.
1763. Dipsacus fullonum var. sativus L.
1767. Dipsacus sativus (L.) Garsault
1782. Dipsacus sativus (L.) Honckn.
1912. Dipsacus fullonum ssp. sativus Thell.
Cultivated teasel,
Cultivated fuller's teasel,
Indian teasel,
Fuller's teasel
Introduced from
 Mediterrean,
Not naturalized
  Cayuga, Livingston, Seneca NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
KnautiaEdit
Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Dipsacoideae — Knautieae — Knautia
Knautia Scabious N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Coult.

1753. Scabiosa arvensis L.
1823. Knautia arvensis Coult.
Field scabiosa,
Field-scabious,
Bluebuttons,
Blue-buttons
Knautie des champs,
Scabieuse des champs
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
IPA
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
ScabiosaEdit
Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Dipsacoideae — Scabioseae — Scabiosa
Scabiosa Pincushions N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Scabiosa columbaria L.
Dove pincushions,
Pincushion flower,
Yellow scabious
Oeil de perdrix,
Colombaire
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NPT 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp

Subfamily ValerianoideaeEdit

The Valerianoideae is often included in the Valerianaceae (valerian family)...

ValerianaEdit

Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Valerianoideae — Valeriana
Valeriana Valerian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Torr. & A.Gray) Rydb.

1842. V. sylvatica var. uliginosa Torr. & A.Gray
1918. Valeriana uliginosa Rydb.
1901. Valeriana dubiosa Gand.
1951. V. sitchensis ssp. uliginosa F.G.Mey.
1952. V. septentrionalis var. uliginosa Gleason
1966. V. sitchensis var. uliginosa B.Boivin
Marsh valerian,
Swamp valerian,
Mountain valerian
Valériane des tourbières,
Valériane uligineuse
Native,
Endangered,
CA
  NYFA-1-2
USDA-
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
NSE 


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Valeriana officinalis L.
1932. Valeriana stubendorfii Kreyer ex Kom.
1933. Valeriana dageletiana Nakai ex F.Maek.
Garden heliotrope,
Common valerian,
European valerian,
Garden valerian
Valériane officinale,
Valériane cultivée
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1],
Prohibited in CT
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
NSE 


Images, wsp
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentValeriana officinalis: Moderate (62). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.

ValerianellaEdit

Dipsacales — Caprifoliaceae — Valerianoideae — Valerianella
Valerianella Cornsalad N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Dufr.

1753. Valeriana locusta var. radiata L.
1811. Valerianella radiata Dufr.
1938. V. stenocarpa var. parviflora Dyal
1843. Valerianella woodsiana Walp.
Beaked corn-salad Native,
Threatened
  NYFA-2-4
USDA-N
NPT 
ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 (Pursh) DC.

1814. Fedia chenopodiifolia Pursh
1830. Valerianella chenopodiifolia DC.
Goose-foot corn-salad,
Goosefoot valerian
Valérianelle à feuilles
 de chénopode
Native,
Endangered
  NYFA-1
USDA-
Can
ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 (Sull.) Alph.Wood

1842. Fedia umbilicata Sull.
1848. Fedia patellaria Sull.
1861. Valerianella umbilicata Alph.Wood
1861. Valerianella patellaria Alph.Wood
1872. V. radiata var. umbilicata Porter
1884. V. woodsiana var. umbilicata A.Gray
1938. Valerianella intermedia Dyal
1952. V. radiata var. intermedia Gleason
Navel cornsalad,
Corn salad,
Kankakee corn-salad,
Navel-shape corn-salad,
Northern corn salad
Native,
Endangered,
No recent reports
  NYFA-Z
USDA-NN
NPT 
ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp

European cornsalad,
Common cornsalad,
Lamb's-lettuce
Mâche douchette,
Valérianelle
Introduced   NYFA-X
USDA-

ARS 




Images, wsp

Apiales
Flora of New York — Dipsacales
Lycophytes
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index