Flora of New York/Commelinales, Zingiberales, Ceratophyllales


Poales 4
Flora of New York — Commelinales, Zingiberales, Ceratophyllales
Ranunculales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The orders Commelinales and Zingiberales are members of the commelinids clade within the monocots.
commelinids

Arecales (palms, not naturalized in NY)



Poales (grasses, rushes, sedges)





Zingiberales (gingers, banana, unlikely naturalized in NY)



Commelinales (spiderwort, water hyacinth)





The monospecific order Ceratophyllales is thought to be the phylogenetic sister to all the eudicots, which include all the angiosperms that follow.


Order CommelinalesEdit

The Commelinales

Family CommelinaceaeEdit

The Commelinaceae (dayflower family).[1]
  1. Commelinaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subamily CommelinoideaeEdit

Tribe TradescanteaeEdit
TradescantiaEdit
 
Wild Flowers of New York Part 1, Plate 7. Spider Lily, Spiderwort - Tradescantia virginiana (1918)
Spiderwort (Tradescantia) is a New World genus of herbaceous perennials, named by Carl Linnaeus in honor of John Tradescant the Elder (ca. 1570–1638). Although all spiderworts listed in New York are considered to be native to eastern North America, none are listed as New York natives by the New York Flora Atlas.
Commelinales — Commelinaceae — Commelinoideae — Tradescanteae — Tradescantia
Tradescantia Spider wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Raf.

1814. Tradescantia ohiensis Raf.
Ohio spiderwort,
Bluejacket,
Smooth spiderwort
Introduced from
 eastern N. America,
N. America native,
Naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-NN
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FNA
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 L.

1753. Tradescantia virginiana L.
Virginia spiderwort
Éphémère de Virginie
Introduced from
 eastern N. America,
N. America native,
Naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-NX
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ARS-GRIN
ITIS
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T. ohiensis × virginiana

Tradescantia ohiensis ×
Tradescantia virginiana

Hybrid of
 Ohio spiderwort &
 Virginia spiderwort

Introduced from
 eastern N. America,
N. America native,
Naturalized
  NYFA-X
Images
Wikispecies
 (Britton) Smyth
 var. occidentalis

yyyy. Tradescantia virginiana var. occidentalis L.
Prairie spider-wort,
Western spiderwort
Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
FNA
BONAP
Images
Wikispecies
 Ker Gawl.

1813. Tradescantia subaspera Ker Gawl.
1893. Tradescantia montana Shuttlew. ex Small & Vail
1935. Tradescantia subaspera
var. montana (Shuttlew. ex Small & Vail) E.S.Anderson & Woodson
1949. Tradescantia subaspera ssp. montana (Shuttlew. ex Small & Vail) R.T.Clausen
Zigzag spiderwort Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Xm
USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
FNA
BONAP
Images
Wikispecies
Tribe CommelineaeEdit
The Commelineae in New York include the dayflowers (Commelina spp.) and dewflowers (Murdannia spp.).
CommelinaEdit
 
Commelina erecta L.
slender or whitemouth dayflower
The only dayflower (Commelina sp.) listed as native to New York is Commelina erecta (slender dayflower),[1] which is thought to be extirpated from the state.

The introduced Asiatic dayflower (Commelina communis) is fairly common in many parts of the state. It is reported to be invasive in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virgina, Virginia, and Kentucky.[2]


  1. M.L. Fernald (1950). Gray's manual of botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. p. 393. Lists C. erecta (typical) as present in southeastern New York.
  2. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. July 10, 2018
Commelinales — Commelinaceae — Commelinoideae — Commelineae — Commelina
Commelina Dayflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Commelina erecta L.
    Commelina elegans Kunth
    Commelina saxicola Small
Slender dayflower,
Whitemouth dayflower
Native,
Extirpated,
Impersistent,
NYNHP:[1]
  NYFA-Z
USDA-N0
Go Botany-0
BONAP
Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Commelina communis L.
1811. C. debilis Ledeb.
1843. C. willdenowii Kunth
1861. C. ludens Miq.
1881. C. communis var. ludens (Miq.) C.B. Clarke
1909. C. communis var. angustifolia Nakai
1910. C. coreana H.Lév.
1961. C. communis fo. aureostriata
Asian dayflower,
Asiatic dayflower,
Dayflower
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Potentially invasive,
Naturalized

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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iNaturalist
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
Tropicos
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Commelina (excluded taxa) Dayflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
var. diffusa

1768. Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
    
    
Climbing dayflower N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-N0
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Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Commelina virginica L.
    
    
Virginia dayflower N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-N0
Images
Wikispecies
MurdanniaEdit
Commelinales — Commelinaceae — Commelinoideae — Commelineae — Murdannia
MurdanniaRoyle (excluded species) Dew-flower N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Brenan

1753. Commelina nudiflora L.
1952. Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan
    
Nakedstem dewflower,
Dove-weed
Introduced from
 Asia,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP
Images
Wikispecies
(Hassk.) Hand.-Maz.

    
1870. Aneilema keisak Hassk.
1936. Murdannia keisak (Hassk.)
Hand.-Mazz.
Wart-removing herb,
Marsh dewflower,
Asian spiderwort
Introduced from
 Asia,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: 78%[1],
No NY reports
 
USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP
BUG Images
Wikispecies

Family HaemodoraceaeEdit

The Haemodoraceae (bloodwort family).[1]

Subfamily HaemodoroideaeEdit

LachnanthesEdit
 
Lachnanthes caroliniana
The genus Lachnanthes consists of the single species Carolina redroot or bloodroot (Lachnanthes caroliniana).
  1. Haemodoraceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
Commelinales — Haemodoraceae — Haemodoroideae
Lachnanthes Redroot N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Lam.) Dandy

1791. Dilatris caroliniana Lam.
1791. Heritiera tinctorium
Walter ex J.F.Gmel.
1812. Gyrotheca tinctoria
(Walter ex J.F.Gmel.) Salisb.
1814. Dilatris tinctoria
(Walter ex J.F.Gmel.) Pursh
1816. Lachnanthes tinctoria
(Walter ex J.F.Gmel.) Elliott
1932. L. caroliana (Lam.) Dandy
Carolina redroot,
Carolina bloodroot,
Red-root,
Paint-root,
Dye-root
Lachnanthe de Caroline
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
S1, G4,
NYNHP: 1[1]

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  Suffolk NYFA-1
USDA-NN
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VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
Tropicos
BONAP
LBJ
Images
Wikispecies

Family PontederiaceaeEdit

The Pontederiaceae (family).[1]
  1. Pontederiaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Tribe PontederieaeEdit

PontederiaEdit
Pontederia subg. PontederiaEdit
 
Pontederia cordata
pickerel weed

Commelinales — Pontederiaceae — Pontederieae — Pontederia
Pontederia Pickerel weed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
 L.

1753. Pontederia cordata L.
Pickerelweed
Pontédérie cordée,
Langue du boeuf
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Images
Wikispecies
Pontederia subg. OshunaeEdit
 
Eichhornia crassipes
water hyacinth
Pontederia crassipes (water hyacinth) is an attractive free-floating aquatic perennial that is known to be very invasive in the south. It has been reported outside of cultivation in New York State, but was thought to be unable to overwinter this far north. However, it may be able to grow as an annual, and there is concern that water hyacinths may eventually evolve resistance to the cold.[1][2]
Commelinales — Pontederiaceae — Pontederieae — Pontederia
Pontederia Water hyacinth N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Mart.

1823. Pontederia crassipes Mart.
1843. Eichhornia speciosa Kunth (i)
1883. Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms
1883. Eichornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (i)
1893. Piaropus crassipes (Mart.) Britton
Common water hyacinth Introduced,
Highly invasive
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies

Tribe HeteranthereaeEdit

HeterantheraEdit
 
Heteranthera dubia
The genus Heteranthera contains aquatic plants known as mud plantains, two of which are native to New York.
Commelinales — Pontederiaceae — Heteranthereae — Heteranthera
Heteranthera Mud plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Jacq.) MacMill.

1768. Commelina dubia Jacq.
1892. H. dubia (Jacq.) MacMill.
1894. H. dubia (Jacq.) Morong (i)
1913. Zosterella dubia (Jacq.) Small
Water star-grass,
Grassleaf mudplantain,
Grass-leaved mud-plantain
Hétéranthère litigieuse,
Hétéranthère douteuse
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure,
S5, G5

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-
USDA-NN
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ARS-GRIN
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Ruiz & Pav.

    
    
    
Mud-plantain,
Kidneyleaf mudplantain,
Kidney-leaved mud-plantain
Native, CoC: 7,
Rare,
S3, G5

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  Albany, Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Rensselaer, Suffolk, Ulster NYFA-3
USDA-N0
ITIS
FNA
LBJ
Images
Wikispecies

Order ZingiberalesEdit

Family CannaceaeEdit

The Cannaceae (family) contains the single genus Canna.[1]
  1. Cannaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

CannaEdit

 
Canna × generalis

Zingiberales — Cannaceae — Canna
Canna Canna lily N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.H.Bailey (pro sp.)

Canna glauca ×
Canna indica

1923. Canna × generalis L.H.Bailey
1923. Canna × orchiodes L.H.Bailey
 auct. Canna × hortensis
non Guillaumin (1934)
Canna-lily,
Canna lily,
Common garden canna
Balisier
Introduced,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized,
Cultivated,
SNA, GNA

FACW-OBL
  Oneida (1965) NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies

Order CeratophyllalesEdit

The Ceratophyllales contains a single family.

Family CeratophyllaceaeEdit

The Ceratophyllaceae contains a single genus.

CeratophyllumEdit

 
Ceratophyllum demersum
The genus Ceratophyllum contains a relatively small number of species, of which, two are listed as native to New York.
Ceratophyllales — Ceratophyllaceae — Ceratophyllum
Ceratophyllum Hornwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Ceratophyllum demersum L.
1794. Dichotophyllum demersum (L.) Moench
1829. C. apiculatum Cham.
1860. C. dermersum var. apiculatum
Common coontail
Coon's tail
Common hornwort
Coontail
Common hornweed
Coontail hornwort
Rigid hornweed

Cornifle nageante
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure,
S5, G5

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNAFNA
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 A.Gray

1837. Ceratophyllum echinatum A.Gray
1856. C. demersum var. echinatum
1985. C. submersum var. echinatum
Spiny-fruited coontail
Prickly coontail
Prickly hornwort
Spineless hornwort

Cornifle échinée
Native, CoC: 4,
Vulnerable,
S4, G4?

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-3
USDA-NN
Go Botany
FNAFNA
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies