Flora of New York/Caryophyllales 1


Santalales:
Santalaceae
Flora of New York — Caryophyllales 1: : Droseraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae
Caryophyllales 2:
Caryophyllaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Caryophyllales introductionEdit

The order Caryophyllales[1]

Family DroseraceaeEdit

The Droseraceae (sundew family) ...[1]
  1. Droseraceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

DroseraEdit

 
Drosera intermedia
spatulate-leaved sundew

Caryophyllales — Droseraceae — Drosera
Drosera Sundew N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Hayne

1753. Drosera longifolia L. p.p.
1801. Drosera intermedia Hayne
1809. Drosera americana Willd.
1824. Drosera intermedia
var. americana (Willd.) DC.
1915. Rorella intermedia Nieuwl.
Spoon-leaved sundew,
Spoonleaf sundew,
Oblong-leaf sundew,
Spatulate-leaved sundew
Droséra intermédiaire,
Rossolis intermédiaire,
Rossolis à feuille longue
Native,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
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 L.
var. rotundifolia

Round-leaved sundew,
Roundleaf sundew
Native,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany
Images
Wikispecies
 L.
var. comosa

Round-leaved sundew Native,
Unranked

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-U
USDA-NN
Go Botany
Images
Wikispecies
 Raf.

Thread-leaved sundew Native,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-3
USDA-NN
Go Botany
Images
Wikispecies

AldrovandaEdit

 
Aldrovanda vesiculosa
Although the waterwheel plant is listed as endangered globally it is considered potentially invasive in the Northeast, where this carnivorous aquatic plant has been introduced into private ponds by hobbyists and probably transported into the wild on the feet of birds.[1]
Caryophyllales — Droseraceae — Aldrovanda
Aldrovanda waterwheel plant N.Y. Status Images Distribution  NPT
L.

1753. Aldrovanda vesiculosa L.
1753. Aldrovanda verticillata Roxb.
1753. Drosera aldrovanda F.Muell.
1819. Ruelingia polyphylla Haw.
1826. Anacampseros polyphylla (Haw.) Sweet
1876. Aldrovanda vesiculosa var. verticillata (Roxb.) Darwin
1902. Aldrovanda generalis E.H.L.Krause
Waterwheel plant
Waterwheel
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [1],
Naturalized,
SNA,
NSE: Exotic GNR
 
NYFA: Orange (2013)
iNat: no observations
NYFA-Xn
USDA-X0
GBIF
iNaturalist
Images
Wikispecies

Family TamaricaceaeEdit

Some sources still list the Tamaricaceae (tamarisk family) as part of the Violales.[1]
  1. Tamaricaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

TamarixEdit

 
Tamarix parviflora
Several tamarisk or saltcedar (Tamarix) species are considered invasive in North America, and they can be difficult to distinguish from one another.[1] The New York Flora Atlas lists Tamarix parviflora as naturalized in Suffolk County. iNaturalist shows a 2020 observation of Tamarix parviflora on Shelter Island, but it had only been confirmed to genus level as of 2022.[2]
Caryophyllales — Tamaricaceae — Tamarix
Tamarix Tamarisk N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
DC.

1828. Tamarix parviflora DC.
1827. Tamarix laxa var. subspicata Ehrenb.
1852. Tamarix cretica Bunge
1907. Tamarix rubella Batt.
1928. Tamarix lucronensis
Sennen & Hermano Elias
Small-flowered tamarisk
Smallflower tamarisk
Saltcedar

Introduced from
 southeast Europe,
 western Asia,
 northern Africa,
Naturalized
 
NYFA: Suffolk (2012)
iNat: Suffolk (2020)
NYFA-U
USDA-X0
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Family PlumbaginaceaeEdit

The Plumbaginaceae (leadwort or Plumbago family)

Subfamily LimonioideaeEdit

Tribe LimonieaeEdit

LimoniumEdit
 
Limonium carolinianum (Walter) Britton
sea-lavender
The genus Limonium is generally known as sea lavender or statice. But it's not related to lavender (Lavandula), which is in the Lamiaceae (mint family).

Limonium carolinianum is reported as secure in salt marshes along the New York Atlantic Coast.

According to the Flora of North America, although Limonium leptostachyum was reported from New York by R. S. Mitchell and G. C. Tucker (1997), it's doubtful that it could naturalize New York.[1]


Caryophyllales — Plumbaginaceae — Limonioideae — Limonieae — Limonium
Limonium Sea lavender N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Walter) Britton

Sea-lavender
American thrift
Lavender thrift
Seaside thrift
Canker root
Ink root
Marsh root
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure,
S5, G5

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  Bronx, Kings, Nassau, New York, Queens, Richmond, Suffolk, Westchester NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Images
Wikispecies
(Boiss.) Kuntze

    Statice leptostachya Boiss.
    Limonium leptostachyum
(Boiss.) Kuntze
Statice Introduced from
 central Asia,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized,
SNA

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Westchester (1898) NYFA-X
USDA-X0
Images
Wikispecies
ArmeriaEdit
 
Armeria maritima
Armeria maritima is native to coastal regions throughout the northern hemisphere but has not been known to naturalize in New York. Its North American distribution is primarily along the west coast, but there is a fairly significant population near Lehigh Gap, Palmerton, Pennsylvania, where it was used for remediation in test plots downwind from zinc smelters that severely damaged the forest on top of Blue Mountain.
Caryophyllales — Plumbaginaceae — Limonioideae — Limonieae — Armeria
Armeria (excluded taxa) Thrift N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Mill.) Willd.
ssp. sibirica (Turcz.) Nyman

1844. Armeria labradorica Wallr.
1848. Armeria sibirica Turcz. ex Boiss.
1881. Armeria maritima ssp. sibirica (Turcz.) Nyman
1948. Armeria maritima ssp. labradorica (Wallr.) Hultén
1993. Armeria labradorica ssp. sibirica (Turcz. ex Boiss.) Kamelin
Siberian sea thrift

N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-NN
Images
Wikispecies

Subfamily StaticoideaeEdit

Tribe StaticeaeEdit

PsylliostachysEdit
 
Limonium suworowii

Caryophyllales — Plumbaginaceae — Staticoideae — Staticeae — Psylliostachys
Psylliostachys Statice N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Regel) Roshkova

1880. Statice suworowii Regel
1891. Limonium suworowii (Regel) Kuntze
1916. Limonium superbum (Regel) F.T.Hubb.
ex L.H.Bailey
1952. Psylliostachys suworowii (Regel) Roshkova
Russian-statice
Rat tail statice

Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Not naturalized
 
NYFA: Tompkins (1926)
iNat: no counties
NYFA-Xm
Kew POWO
iNaturalist
Images
Wikispecies

Family PolygonaceaeEdit

The Polygonaceae (buckwheat family)

Subfamily PolygonoideaeEdit

The order in which Polygonoideae tribes are shown here has been modified somewhat from Reveal's system, based on phylogenic data shown in Schuster et al. (2013) "Age Estimates for the Buckwheat Family Polygonaceae Based on Sequence Data Calibrated by Fossils and with a Focus on the Amphi-Pacific Muehlenbeckia.

Tribe PersicarieaeEdit

PersicariaEdit

Kim & Donoghue (2008). Molecular phylogeny of Persicaria (Persicarieae, Polygonaceae). Systematic Botany 33(1): pp. 77–86

Persicaria sect. PersicariaEdit

Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Persicarieae — Persicaria sect. Persicaria
Persicariasect. Persicaria Smartweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Delarbre

1753. Polygonum lapathifolium L.
1794. Polygonum scabrum Moench
1800. Persicaria lapathifolia
(L.) Delarbre
1966. Persicaria scabra
(Moench) Moldenke
Dock-leaved smartweed
Pale smartweed
Willow-leaved smartweed
Curlytop knotweed
Curlytop smartweed
Pink knotweed
Willow-weed

Renouée à
feuilles de patience
Native, CoC: 1,
Unranked,
Circumboreal

FACW

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-U
USDA-NX
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(L.) M.Gómez

1753. Polygonum pensylvanicum L.
1896. Persicaria pensylvanica
(L.) M.Gómez
Pennsylvania smartweed
Renouée de Pennsylvanie
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure

OBL-FACW

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
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FNA
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BONAP
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 (Elliott) Small

1817. Polygonum punctatum Elliott
1817. Pol. acre Kunth
1894. Pol. punctatum var. robustius Small
1903. Per. punctata Small
1903. Per. punctata var. robustior Small
1909. Per. robustior E.P.Bicknell
1921. Pol. robustius Fernald
1949. Pol. punctatum var. majus (Meisn.) Fassett
Dotted smartweed
Renouée ponctuée
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Annual, perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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(Muhl. ex Willd.) Greene

1803. Pol. amphibium var. emersum
1808. Pol. inundatum Raf.
1809. Pol. coccineum Muhl. ex Willd.
1879. Pol. muehlenbergii S.Watson
1904. Pol. amphibium var. coccineum
1904. Per. coccinea
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Greene
1906. Per. muhlenbergii
(S.Watson) Small
1984. Per. amphibia var. emersa
Scarlet smartweed,
Longroot smartweed
Native, CoC: 5,
Unranked

OBL

Perennial,
Forb-herb
  NYFA-N
USDA-
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ARS-GRIN
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IPN
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 (L.) Delarbre
ssp. laevimarginata (Hult.) Soják

1803. Pol. amphibium var. natans Michx. (i)
1822. Pol. natans (Michx.) Eaton
1874. Pol. amphibium var. stipulaceum N.Coleman
1944. Pol. amphibium
ssp. laevimarginatum
1952. Per. amphibia var. stipulacea (Coleman) Hara
1974. Per. amphibia ssp. laevimarginata (Hultén) Soják
American water smartweed

Renouée amphibie
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Forb-herb
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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ARS-GRIN
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(Michx.) Small

1803. Po. hydropiperoides Michx.
1892. Po. opelousanum
Riddell ex Small
1903. Pe. hydropiperoides Small
1903. Pe. opelousana Small
Swamp smartweed,
False water-pepper,
Mild water-pepper
Renouée
  faux-poivre-d'eau
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-5
USDA-
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Wikispecies
 (Olney) Greene

1847. Po. careyi Olney
1904. Pe. careyi (Olney) Greene
Carey's smartweed
Renouée de Carey
Native, CoC: 5,
Endangered

FACW

Annual,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-1-2
USDA-NN
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FNA
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(Baldwin) Small

1817. Po. setaceum Baldwin
1903. Pe. setacea (Baldwin) Small
Bog smartweed,
Swamp smartweed,
Bristly smartweed
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-1-2
USDA-N0
Go Botany
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
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Wikispecies
(L.) Delarbre

1753. Polygonum hydropiper L.
1800. Pe. hydropiper Delarbre
1927. Po. hydropiper var. projectum
1943. Pe. hydropiper var. projecta
Marshpepper smartweed,
Water-pepper smartweed,
Redleaf
Renouée poivre-d'eau
Introduced from
 Europe
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
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FNA
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 (L.) Spach

1753. Polygonum orientale L.
1841. Persicaria orientalis Spach
1899. Polygonum spaethii Dammer
Kiss-me-over-
   the-garden-gate,
Prince's-feather,
Princess-feather
Renouée orientale
Introduced from
 Asia,
 Australia
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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 Gray

1753. Po. persicaria L.
1821. Pe. maculosa Gray
1903. Pe. persicaria Small
taut.
Spotted lady's-thumb,
Redshank, Heart's-ease,
Smartweed,
Jesusplant
Renouée persicaire,
Pied rouge
Introduced,
from Eurasia
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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ARS-GRIN
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(Vorosch.) Tzvelev

1984. Po. extremiorientale Vorosch.
1987. Pe. extremiorientalis
(Vorosch.) Tzvelev
Far eastern smartweed Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
[1]
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
(Bruijn) Kitag.

1854. Polygonum longisetum Bruijn
1930. Po. cespitosum var. longisetum
1937. Pe. longiseta Kitag.
1941. Pe. longiseta Moldenke (i)
1987. Pe. caespitosa var. longiseta
Bristly lady's-thumb,
Creeping smartweed
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 60%[2]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
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Wikispecies
(Huds.) Opiz

    Polygonum minus  Huds.
    Persicaria minor (Huds.) Opiz
Small water pepper
Pygmy smartweed

Introduced from
 Eurasia

OBL
  NYFA-Xn
USDA-XX
Images
Wikispecies
Persicariasect. Persicaria (excluded taxa) Smartweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

    
    
    
Chinese knotweed
Chinese smartweed

Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-00
CABI
Images
Wikispecies
(Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) H.Gross

1825. Polygonum posumbu
Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
1825. Po. cespitosum Blume
1913. Persicaria posumbu
(Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) H.Gross
1934. Pe. cespitosa (Blume) Nakai
Tufted knotweed

Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
Images
Wikispecies
ssp. amphibia

    Persicaria amphibia
    
    

Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
Go Botany
BONAP
Images
Wikispecies
Persicaria amphibia ssp.
 laevimarginata × coccinea

Persicaria amphibia
     
ssp. laevimarginata ×
Persicaria coccinea

    
    
    
Hybrid of
 water smartweed &
 scarlet smartweed
Native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
Images
Wikispecies
  1. Daniel E. Atha, et. al. (2010) "Persicaria extremiorientalis (Polygonaceae) is established in the flora of the eastern United States of America." The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 137(4):333-338.
  2. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentPersicaria longiseta: Moderate (60). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
Persicaria sect. TovaraEdit
 
Persicaria virginiana (L.) Gaert.
jumpseed

Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Persicarieae — Persicaria sect. Tovara
Persicariasect. Tovara Smartweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Gaert.

1753. Polygonum virginianum L.
1790. Persicaria virginiana Gaertn.
1836. Tovara virginiana Raf.
1964. Antenoron virginianum
Roberty & Vautier
Jumpseed,
Virginia knotweed
Renouée de Virginie
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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Persicaria sect. EchinocaulonEdit
 
Persicaria perfoliata, mile-a-minute weed
Persicaria sect. Echinocaulon contains armed climbers known as tearthumbs. Two of these are New York natives, and one P. perfoliata (mile-a-minute weed) is a fairly recent introduction from Asia that is considered to be very highly-invasive in New York.
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Persicarieae — Persicaria sect. Echinocaulon
Persicariasect. Echinocaulon Tearthumbs N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) H.Gross

1753. Polygonum sagittatum L.
1903. Tracaulon sagittatum Small
1919. Persicaria sagittata H.Gross
1974. Truellum sagittatum Soják
Arrowleaf tearthumb,
Arrow-leaved tearthumb,
American tearthumb,
Arrow-vine,
Scratch-grass
Renouée sagittée
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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 (L.) Haraldson

1753. Polygonum arifolium L.
1836. Tracaulon arifolium Raf.
1978. Persicaria arifolia Haraldson
Halberdleaf tearthumb,
Halberd-leaved tearthumb
Renouée à feuilles d'arum
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
 (L.) H. Gross

1759. Polygonum perfoliatum L.
1913. Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross
Mile-a-minute weed,
Asiatic tearthumb,
Climbing tearthumb,
Devil's-tail climbing tearthumb,
Giant climbing tearthumb
Introduced from
 Asia,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 91%[1],
Prohibited[2],
CP-2[3] NE-1[4]
  NYFA-X
USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN
Images
Wikispecies
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentPersicaria perfoliata: Very high (91). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
  2. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Regulation 6 NYCRR Part 575 Prohibited and Regulated Invasive Species
  3. Appendix 2. Plant species that are considered highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2018)
  4. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
Persicaria sect. CephalophilonEdit
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Persicarieae — Persicaria sect. Cephalophilon
Persicariasect. Cephalophilon Smartweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

1825. Polygonum alatum Buch.-Ham.
ex D. Don
1826. Polygonum nepalense Meisn.
1886. Polygonum alatum var. nepalense
1913. Persicaria nepalensis H.Gross
Nepal smartweed,
Nepal knotweed
Renouée du Népal
Introduced from
 Asia,
Potentially invasive,
 NYIS: 47%[1]
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentPersicaria longiseta: Unknown (47). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
Persicaria sect. RubrivenaEdit
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Persicarieae — Persicaria sect. Rubrivena
Persicariasect. Rubrivena (excluded taxa) Smartweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Greuter & Burdet

1832. Polygonum polystachyum
Wall. ex Meisn.
1941. Reynoutria polystachya Moldenke
1969. Aconogonon polystachyum M.Král
1985. Rubrivena polystachya M.Král
1989. P. wallichii Greuter & Burdet
Himalayan knotweed
Giant smart-weed
Kashmir plume
Garden smartweed
Cultivated knotweed
Introduced from
 Asia,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-XX
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
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FNA
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Tribe FagopyreaeEdit

FagopyrumEdit
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Fagopyreae — Fagopyrum
Fagopyrum Buckwheat N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Moench

1753. Polygonum fagopyrum L.
1794. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench
    F. sagittatum Gilib.
    F. vulgare Hill
    F. fagopyrum (L.) H.Karst.
Buckwheat,
Common buckwheat
Sarrasin commun
Introduced,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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 (L.) Gaertn.

1753. Polygonum tataricum L.
1790. Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.
Tartarian buckwheat,
Tartary buckwheat,
Green buckwheat,
Japanese buckwheat,
India-wheat
Introduced,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Images
Wikispecies

Tribe RumiceaeEdit

RumexEdit
Rumex subg. AxillaresEdit
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Rumiceae — Rumex subg. Axillares
Rumexsubg. Axillares Dock N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Rech.f.

1926. R. salicifolius ssp. triangulivalvis
1936. R. triangulivalvis Rech.f.
1964. R. salicifolius var. triangulivalvis
1964. R. triangulivalvis var. oreolapathum
White dock,
White willow dock,
Triangular-valved dock
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure,
2n = 20
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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 L.

1753. Rumex verticillatus L.
1856. R. floridanus Meisn.
1895. R. fascicularis Small
Swamp dock,
Water dock
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure,
2n = 60
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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 L.

1753. Rumex britannica L.
1856. R. hydrolapathum var. americanum
1867. R. orbiculatus A.Gray
1937. R. britannica var. borealis
Water dock,
Greater water dock,
British dock
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure,
2n = 20
  NYFA-5
USDA-N0
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 Alph.Wood

1847. Rumex altissimus Alph.Wood
1856. R. britannicus Meisn.non L.
1856. R. britannica Meisn.non L.
Pale dock
Tall dock
Smooth dock

Patience élevée
Native, CoC: 10,
Secure,
2n = 20
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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Bigelow

1840. Rumex pallidus Bigelow
    
    
Sea-beach dock
Seaside dock
Pale willow dock
White dock

Native, CoC: 10,
Unranked,
2n = 20
  NYFA-U
USDA-NN
FNA
Tropicos
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Rumexsubg. Axillares (excluded taxa) Dock N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Weinm.

1821. Rumex salicifolius Weinm.
    
    
Willow dock
Willow-leaf dock

N. America native
 s.w. N. America,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-NM
ARS-GRIN
Images
Wikispecies
Meisn.

1856. Rumex mexicanus Meisn.
1964. R. salicifolius var. mexicanus (Meisn.) C.L.Hitchc.
    
Mexican dock
Mexican-willow
White dock

N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Images
Wikispecies
Rumex pallidus × triangulivalvis

Rumex pallidus ×
Rumex triangulivalvis

    
    
    
Hybrid of
 sea-beach dock &
 white dock
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
Images
Wikispecies
Rumex pallidus × mexicanus

Rumex pallidus ×
Rumex mexicanus

    
    
    
Hybrid of
 sea-beach dock &
 Mexican dock
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
Images
Wikispecies
Rumex subg. RumexEdit
 
Rumex fueginus
Plants of subg. Rumex are generally synoecious (have male and female organs in the same flower), but polygamodioecious or dioecious individuals occasionally occur in some species.
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Rumiceae — Rumex subg. Rumex
Rumexsubg. Rumex Dock N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Phil.

1895. Rumex fueginus Phil.
1900. Rumex maritimus var. fueginus Dusén
1915. Rumex maritimus var. athrix H.St.John
1937. Rumex fueginus var. athrix (H.St.John) Rech.f.
1937. Rumex fueginus var. typicus Rech.f.
1968. Rumex maritimus ssp. fueginus Hultén
2010. Rumex persicarioides var. fueginus (Phil.) A.Haines[1]
American golden dock
Tierra del Fuego dock
Sea-side dock
Golden dock
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
2n = 40
 
NYFA: 11 counties
iNat: 2 NRG observations
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
COL
GBIF
Kew POWO
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 L.

1753. Rumex persicarioides L.
1794. Lapathum persicarioides (L.) Moench
1978. Rumex maritimus var. persicarioides (L.) R.S.Mitch.
Coastal dock
Peach-leaved dock
American golden dock
Golden dock
Seaside dock
Seashore dock

Rumex fausse-persicaire
Patience fausse-persicaire
Patience faux-persicaire
Native, CoC: 10,
No recent reports,
2n = 40
 
NYFA: Suffolk (1879-1926)
iNat: No observations
NYFA-H
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COL
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WFO
Kew POWO
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 L.
 ssp. crispus

    Rumex crispus L.
    
    
Curly dock,
Sour dock,
Yellow dock
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [2],
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized,
SNA, GNR,
NSE: Exotic

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 60
 
NYFA: 45 counties
iNat: 54 counties
NYFA-Xn
USDA-XX
GBIF
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 L.
 ssp. obtusifolius

Bitter dock,
Broad-leaved dock
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [3],
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized,
SNA,
NSE: Exotic

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 40
 
NYFA: 48 counties
iNat: ? counties
NYFA-Xn
USDA-XX
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 Mert. & W.D.J.Koch

Rumex crispus ×
Rumex obtusifolius

1753. Rumex × acutus L. (pro sp.
1826. Rumex × pratensis Mert. & W.D.J.Koch
1855. Rumex × crispobtusifolius Meisn.
Field dock
Meadow dock
Introduced  
NYFA: ? counties
iNat: ? counties
NYFA-X
USDA-XN
iNaturalist
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Dooryard dock,
Long-leaved dock,
Northern dock
Introduced,
Naturalized,
2n = 60
 
NYFA: 20 counties
iNat: ? counties
NYFA-Xn
USDA-XX
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 L.

Patience dock Introduced,
Naturalized,
2n = 60
 
NYFA: ? counties
iNat: ? counties
NYFA-Xn
USDA-XX
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 Simonkai

Rumex crispus ×
Rumex patientia

Large curly dock,
Confused dock
Introduced  
NYFA: ? counties
iNat: ? counties
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
iNaturalist
ITIS
FNA
Images
Wikispecies
Rumexsubg. Rumex (excluded taxa) Dock N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

    
    
    
Redvein dock

Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA: ? counties
iNat: ? counties
NYFA-Excluded
USDA-XW
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Rumex subg. AcetosaEdit
 
Rumex acetosa

Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Rumiceae — Acetosa
Rumexsubg. Acetosa Sorrel N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Baldwin

1817. Rumex hastatulus Baldwin
1856. Rumex engelmannii Meisn.
1948. Acetosa hastatula Á.Löve
Heartwing sorrel,
Heart-winged sorrel,
Wild sorrel,
Heartwing dock,
Wild dock
Native,
Endangered
 
NYFA: Suffolk (1872-1987)
iNat: Suffolk (2020?)
NYFA-1
USDA-N0
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 L.

1753. Rumex acetosa L.
1768. Acetosa pratensis Mill.
1903. R. acetosa ssp. pratensis
Garden sorrel,
Green sorrel,
Common sorrel,
Common dock,
Sourdock
Oseille de prés,
Grande oseille
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [4],
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized,
SNA, G5,
NSE: Exotic

UPL-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
 
NYFA: 20 counties
iNat: No RG observations
NYFA-X
USDA-XM
GBIF
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Rumex subg. AcetosellaEdit
 
Rumex acetosella
Rumex acetosella (sheep sorrel) is the only Rumex species currently listed in the New York State Invasive Species Tiers Table. It is listed with an Ecological Invasiveness of Moderate but shown as untiered in all PRISMS except Finger Lakes, where it has been assigned Tier 4 (Local Control). [1]
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Rumiceae — Acetosella
Rumexsubg. Acetosella Sorrel N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
 ssp. pyrenaicus (Pourr. ex Lapeyr.) Akeroyd

1991. Rumex acetosella ssp. pyrenaicus (Pourr. ex Lapeyr.) Akeroyd
1818. Rumex pyrenaicus Pourr. ex Lapeyr.
 auct. Rumex acetosella ssp. angiocarpus (Murb.) Murb. misapplied
Sheep sorrel,
Red sorrel,
Field sorrel
Oseille,
Petite oseille,
Sûrette
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 66%[1],
 NYIS Tier: Untiered (FL-4),
 Invasive.org: [5],
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized,
CP-4[2]
 
NYFA: 48 counties
iNat: 30 counties
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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L.
 ssp. acetosella

1753. Rumex acetosella L.
1869. Acetosella vulgaris Fourr.
    
Sheep sorrel

Introduced from
 Europe,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA: ? counties
iNat: ? counties
NYFA-Excluded
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Images
Wikispecies
L.
 ssp. multifidus (L.) Arcang.

1762. Rumex multifidus L.
1834. Rumex acetosella ssp. multifidus
    
    
Sheep sorrel,
Red sorrel,
Field sorrel
Oseille,
Petite oseille,
Sûrette
Introduced from
 Europe,
N.Y. excluded
 
NYFA: ? counties
iNat: ? counties
NYFA-Excluded
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
RheumEdit
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Rumiceae — Rheum
RheumL. Rhubarb N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Rheum rhabarbarum L.
1762. R. undulatum L.
1879. R. franzenbachii Münter
Garden rhubarb,
Pie-plant,
Rhubarb,
Wine-plant
Rhubarbe
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Not naturalized

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
2n = 44
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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RheumL. (excluded taxa) Rhubarb N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Rheum rhaponticum L.
    
    
European rhubarb
False rhubarb

Introduced,
N.Y. excluded,
2n = 22
  NYFA-Excluded
ITIS
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Wikispecies

Tribe PolygoneaeEdit

PolygonumEdit
The Flora of North America recognizes the two sections Duravia and Polygonum used here.[1]
Polygonum sect. DuraviaEdit
Schuster, Reveal & Kron (2011)[1] transferred Polygonella articulata back to Polygonum articulatum.
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Polygoneae — Polygonum sect. Duravia
Polygonumsect. Duraviasubsect. Polygonella Jointweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Polygonum articulatum L.
1841. Polygonella articulata (L.) Meisn.
1932. Delopyrum articulatum (L.) Small
Coastal jointweed,
Northern jointweed,
Coast jointweed
Polygonelle articulée
Native,
Likely secure
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
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Polygonumsect. Duraviasubsect. Duravia Knotweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx. (1803)

P. tenue var. protrusum
Pleatleaf knotweed,
Pleat-leaved knotweed,
Slender knotweed
Native,
Rare
  NYFA-3
USDA-NN
FNA
Images
Wikispecies
 Greene

Douglas knotweed Native,
Threatened
  NYFA-2
USDA-NN
Images
Wikispecies
Polygonum sect. PolygonumEdit
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Polygoneae — Polygonum
Polygonumsect. Polygonum Knotweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 S.F.Blake

1917. Polygonum achoreum S.F.Blake
1982. Polygonum erectum ssp. achoreum Á & D.Löve
Leathery knotweed,
Blake's knotweed,
Striate knotweed
Renouée coriace
Native, CoC: 0,
Likely secure
  NYFA-4
USDA-NN
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 Michx.
ssp. prolificum (Small) Costea & Tardif

1894. Polygonum ramosissimum var. prolificum Small
1902. Polygonum prolificum (Small) B.L. Rob.
1948. Polygonum prolificum var. autumnale (Brenckle) Brenckle
1948. Polygonum prolificum var. profusum Brenckle
2003. Polygonum ramosissimum ssp. prolificum (Small) Costea & Tardif
Proliferous knotweed
Bushy knotweed
Saltmarsh knotweed

Renouée prolifique
Native, CoC: 1,
Introduced
  NYFA-NX
USDA-NN
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 Michx.
ssp. ramosissimum

1803. Polygonum ramosissimum Michx.
1894. Polygonum exsertum Small
1894. Polygonum interior Small
1904. Polygonum leptocarpum B.L.Rob.
1909. Polygonum atlanticum (B.L.Rob.) E.P.Bicknell
1913. Polygonum triangulum E.P.Bicknell ex Small
1932. Polygonum latum Small ex Rydb.
1941. Polygonum stevensii Brenckle
Bushy knotweed,
Slender knotgrass,
Renouée à fleurs jaunes
Native, CoC: 1,
Introduced
  NYFA-NX
USDA-NN
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 Nutt.

    
    Polygonum aviculare var. glaucum
Seabeach knotweed,
Seaside knotweed
Native, CoC: 8,
Rare
  NYFA-3
USDA-N0
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 L.

1753. Polygonum erectum L.
Erect knotweed
Upright knotweed
Devil's shoestring
Leathery knotweed
Striate knotweed
Wireweed

Renouée dressée
Native, CoC: 10,
No recent reports,
Impersistent
  NYFA-Zm
USDA-NN
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 Small

1906. Polygonum buxiforme Small
1831. Polygonum aviculare var. littorale (Link) Mert. & W.D.J. Koch (i)
2003. Polygonum aviculare ssp. buxiforme (Small) Costea & Tardif
Box knotweed,
Small's knotweed,
American knotweed
Renouée faux-buis
Native, CoC: 0,
Endangered
  NYFA-1
USDA-NN
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 L.
ssp. aviculare

    
1753. Polygonum aviculare L.
1912. Polygonum heterophyllum Lindm.
Common knotweed,
Dooryard knotweed,
Doorweed,
Prostrate knotweed
Introduced,
N. America native
  NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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 L.
ssp. depressum (Meisn.) Arcang.

1856. Polygonum aviculare var. depressum
1857. Polygonum arenastrum Boreau
1882. Polygonum aviculare ssp. depressum
1912. Polygonum aequale Lindm.
1942. Polygonum montereyense Brenckle
Common knotweed,
Oval-leaved knotweed,
Equal-leaved knotgrass
Renouée à petits fruits
Introduced   NYFA-X
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 L.
 ssp. neglectum (Besser) Arcang.

1785. Polygonum bellardii All.
1822. Polygonum neglectum Besser
1882. Polygonum aviculare ssp. neglectum
Narrowleaf knotweed,
Narrow-leaved knotweed
Introduced from
 Eurasia
  NYFA-X
USDA-XN
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 Jaubert & Spach

    
1844. Polygonum polycnemoides Jaub. & Spach
Himalayan knotweed
Manyleg knotweed

Introduced,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0
ITIS
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Images
Wikispecies
Polygonumsect. Polygonum (excluded taxa) Knotweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 All.

1792. Polygonum procumbens Gilib.
1822. Polygonum neglectum Besser
1841. Polygonum nervosum Wallr.
1857. Polygonum agrestinum Jord. ex Boreau
1882. Polygonum bellardii All.
1959. Polygonum rectum (Chrtek) Scholz
Bellard's knotweed,
Narrow-leaved knotweed
Introduced from
 Europe,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-XN
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Images
Wikispecies
 L.
 ssp. rurivagum

    
Narrow-leaved knotweed Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
  NYFA-Excluded
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Wikispecies
C.A.Mey. & Bunge ex Ledeb.
ssp. raii (Bab.) D.A.Webb & Chater

1836. Polygonum raii Bab.
1963. Polygonum oxyspermum ssp. rali (Bab.) D.A.Webb & Chater
    
Ray's knotweed

Renouée de Ray
N. America native
 eastern Canada
 Maine,
N.Y. excluded

Annual-perennial,
Herb-forb
  NYFA-Excluded
USDA-NN
VASCAN
FNA
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Images
Wikispecies
L.

1753. Polygonum maritimum L.
1849. Polygonum chilense K.Koch
1913. Polygonum maritimum var. chilense (K. Koch) Skottsb.

Introduced,
N.Y. excluded,
Missaplied to
 P. glaucum
  NYFA-Excluded
Images
Wikispecies
FallopiaEdit
Fallopia sect. FallopiaEdit
 
Fallopia scandens from Wild Flowers of New York (1918)
False-buckwheat (Fallopia) contains vines similar to those of Convolvulaceae (in order Solanales), many of which are also known as bindweeds.
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Polygoneae — Fallopia sect. Fallopia
FallopiaAdansonsect. Fallopia False-buckwheat N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Michx.) Holub

1803. Polygonum cilinode Michx.
1903. Tiniaria cilinodis Small
1904. Bilderdykia cilinodis Greene
1967. Reynoutria cilinodis Shinners
1971. Fallopia cilinodis Holub
Fringed black bindweed,
Fringed bindweed,
Blackfringe knotweed
Renouée à noeuds ciliés
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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 (L.) Holub
var. scandens

1753. Polygonum scandens L.
1867. Polygonum dumetorum var. scandens A.Gray
1913. Bilderdykia scandens Greene
1913. Fagopyrum scandens H.Gross
1967. Reynoutria scandens Shinners
1971. Fallopia scandens Holub
Climbing false-buckwheat
Renouée grimpante
Native,
Secure
  NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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 (L.) Holub
var. cristatum (Engelm. & A.Gray) H.R.Hinds

1845. Polygonum cristatum Engelm. & A.Gray
1904. Bilderdykia cristata Greene
1952. P. scandens var. cristatum Gleason
1971. Fallopia cristata Holub
2005. F. scandens var. cristatum H.R.Hinds
Climbing false-buckwheat,
Crested bindweed
Native,
Likely secure
  NYFA-4
USDA-N0
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Wikispecies
 (L.) Á. Löve

1753. Polygonum convolvulus L.
1970. Fallopia convolvulus Á. Löve
Black bindweed,
Wild buckwheat,
Eurasian black bindweed
Renouée liseron,
Renouée faux-liseron,
Chevrier
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [6],
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized
 
NYFA: 53 counties
iNat: ? counties
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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 (L.) Holub

1762. Polygonum dumetorum L.
1952. P. scandens var. dumetorum Gleason
1971. Fallopia dumetorum Holub
Climbing false buckwheat,
Thicket bindweed,
Copse-bindweed,
Desert knotgrass
Renouée des haies
Introduced,
from Eurasia
  NYFA-X
USDA-XN
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 (Regel) Holub

1885. Polygonum baldschuanicum Regel
1907. Polygonum aubertii L.Henry
1941. Reynoutria baldschuanica Moldenke
1971. Fallopia baldschuanica Holub
1971. Fallopia aubertii Holub
Bukhara fleeceflower,
China fleece vine,
Silver lace-vine,
Mile-a-minute-vine,
Russianvine
Introduced,
Invasive,
 NYIS: 51%[1]
  Kings (1992), Monroe, Orange(1990,96) NYFA-X
USDA-X0
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ReynoutriaEdit
 
Reynoutria japonica
Knotweed (Reynoutria — syns. Polygonum and Fallopia) includes the very common Japanese knotweed (R. japonica var. japonica) and the less common giant knotweed (R. sachalinensis). The hybrid of the two (R. × bohemica or Bohemian knotweed), often occurs mixed in with Japanese knotweed. All three are considered to be very highly invasive in New York State.
Caryophyllales — Polygonaceae — Polygonoideae — Polygoneae — Reynoutria
Reynoutria Knotweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Houtt.
var. japonica

1777. Reynoutria japonica Houtt.
1846. Polygonum cuspidatum
Siebold & Zucc.
1901. Polygonum reynoutria Makino illeg.
1919. Pleuropterus cuspidatus
(Siebold & Zucc.) H. Gross
1926. Reynoutria henryi Nakai
1946. Tiniaria japonica (Houtt.) Hedberg
1988. Fallopia japonica Ronse Decr.
2008. Polygonum japonicum
(Houtt.) S.L.Welsh illeg.
Japanese knotweed
Mexican bamboo
Japanese bamboo
Fleeceflower
Japanese winged-knotweed

Renouée du Japon
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 98%[1],
Prohibited[2],
CP-2[3] NE-1[4]
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USDA-XX
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ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
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(F.Schmidt) Nakai

1859. Polygonum sachalinense F.Schmidt
1919. Reynoutria sachalinensis
(F. Schmidt) Nakai
1950. Tiniaria sachalinensis Janchen
1988. Fallopia sachalinensis Ronse Decr.
Giant knotweed
Sakhalin knotweed
Sachaline knotweed
Elephant-ear
Giant winged-knotweed

Renouée de Sakhaline
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 98%[1],
Prohibited[2],
CP-3[5]
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Chrtek & Chrtková

Reynoutria japonica ×
Reynoutria sachalinensis

1983. Reynoutria × bohemica
Chrtek & Chrtková
1989. Fallopia × bohemica J.P.Bailey
2003. Polygonum × bohemicum
Zika & Jacobson
Bohemian knotweed,
Hybrid Japanese
 & giant knotweed
Renouée de Bohème
Introduced,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 98%[1],
Prohibited[2],
CP-2[3]
  Tompkins (2004) NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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  1. a b c New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentFallopia spp.: Very highly invasive (98%).
  2. a b c New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Regulation 6 NYCRR Part 575 Prohibited and Regulated Invasive Species
  3. a b Appendix 2. Plant species that are considered highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2018)
  4. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  5. Appendix 3. Plant species that are considered moderately to highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2018)