Chess Opening Theory/1. e4/1...e5/2. Nf3/2...f6

Damiano Defence
a b c d e f g h
8 a8 b8 c8 d8 e8 f8 g8 h8 8
7 a7 b7 c7 d7 e7 f7 g7 h7 7
6 a6 b6 c6 d6 e6 f6 g6 h6 6
5 a5 b5 c5 d5 e5 f5 g5 h5 5
4 a4 b4 c4 d4 e4 f4 g4 h4 4
3 a3 b3 c3 d3 e3 f3 g3 h3 3
2 a2 b2 c2 d2 e2 f2 g2 h2 2
1 a1 b1 c1 d1 e1 f1 g1 h1 1
a b c d e f g h
Position in Forsyth-Edwards Notation (FEN)
Moves: 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 f6
ECO code: C40
Parent: King's Knight Opening

2... f6? - Damiano Defence


The Damiano Defense is initiated with the moves 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 f6? It's a rare choice in chess openings due to its fundamental weaknesses. The move 2...f6 by Black significantly undermines their position for several reasons:

  1. Kingside Vulnerability: The move f6 leaves the Black king exposed and vulnerable, especially along the e8-h5 diagonal. This weakens the kingside, a critical board area where the king often seeks safety.
  2. Impedes Development: By playing f6, Black prevents the natural development of their knight to f6, a critical square for knight activity in the opening. This hinders Black's ability to control the center and develop other pieces effectively.
  3. Damiano Trap: A notable consequence of the Damiano Defense is the Damiano Trap, where White can sacrifice their knight on the move three, leading to a winning position. This trap underscores the risks Black face in adopting this defence.
  4. Historically, the Damiano Defense is named after the Portuguese chess author Pedro Damiano, who was active in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Interestingly, Damiano himself criticized this defence as weak. The misattribution might originate from the works of Francesc Vicent, which Damiano could have signed. Howard Staunton further analyzed the opening in 1847 who noted Damiano's analysis despite its inherent weaknesses. Despite its historical roots, the Damiano Defense is mainly absent in modern top-level chess due to its strategic drawbacks. Chess Grandmasters like Eric Schiller have advised against moves like 2...f6, highlighting its flaws and risks.[1]

Refutation Through Knight Capture at e5


After 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 f6? 3. Nxe5! White exploits Black's strategic misstep and is a critical refutation of the Damiano Defense, capitalizing on the inherent weaknesses of Black's early game strategy and leading to a dominant position for White. Black's 2...f6? appears to support the e5 pawn but paradoxically weakens their position.

  • White's Tactical Sacrifice: The knight capture at e5 by White, denoted as 3. Nxe5! is a tactical sacrifice. Black's potential response, 3...fxe5?, leads to a critical situation with Qh5+ by White. Black faces a dilemma with only two suboptimal moves, g6 and Ke7, both resulting in material loss.
  • Black's Dilemma and White's Advantage: After 3. Nxe5! Black's position deteriorates. If Black recaptures the knight with fxe5, they face a severe attack. A better, albeit defensive, move for Black is 3...Qe7, targeting the knight and preparing for kingside castling. However, this doesn't fully resolve Black's compromised position.
  • Consequences of 3...fxe5??: If Black retakes with 3...fxe5, White can initiate a sequence starting with 4. Qh5+ g6 5. Qxe5+ Qe7 6. Qxh8, winning a rook. Alternatively, 4... Ke7 leads to 5. Qxe5+ Kf7 6. Bc4+ d5 7. Bxd5+ Kg6 8. h4 h5 9. Bxb7, again resulting in White winning a rook. In both scenarios, White's pieces become active with tempo gains.
  • Black's Best Response and White's Continued Advantage: The least damaging move for Black after 3. Nxe5! is 3... Qe7. However, White maintains a significant edge following 4. Nf3 Qxe4+ 5. Be2, primarily due to a substantial lead in development and control over the board.
  • Historical Weakness of the Defense: The Damiano Defense, tracing back to the 16th century, inherently favors White, especially after 3. Nxe5! Even without this specific continuation, White gains an advantage due to Black's limited piece development and compromised kingside, as the move 2...f6 blocks the knight's natural development to f6.

In summary, the Damiano Defense, with its early f6 move, is not recommended due to its exposure of the king, impediment to piece development, and susceptibility to tactical traps like the Damiano Trap. This makes it an unfavourable choice for Black, particularly against strong opposition.

Theory table


For explanation of theory tables, see theory table and for notation, see algebraic notation.

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 f6?

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Line with Bc4 Bc4
b4 ±
Be2 ±
Nc5 +−
Transposition to Bc4 ...
h3 ±
Nxe5! +/-

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  1. Schiller, Eric (2002). Standard Chess Openings. ISBN 1-58042-048-6


  • Copeland,Sam (2019). Damiano's Defense Chess Opening Trap: Sac A Knight On Move Three!.
  • Perunovic, Miodrag (2019). Chess For Beginners: Killing Damiano's Defense.
  • Rozman, Levy (2022). WORST OPENING In Chess...
  • Volclus (2022). WIN IN 3 - The Damiano Trap.