Chess Opening Theory/1. d4/1...d5

Closed Game
a b c d e f g h
8 a8 b8 c8 d8 e8 f8 g8 h8 8
7 a7 b7 c7 d7 e7 f7 g7 h7 7
6 a6 b6 c6 d6 e6 f6 g6 h6 6
5 a5 b5 c5 d5 e5 f5 g5 h5 5
4 a4 b4 c4 d4 e4 f4 g4 h4 4
3 a3 b3 c3 d3 e3 f3 g3 h3 3
2 a2 b2 c2 d2 e2 f2 g2 h2 2
1 a1 b1 c1 d1 e1 f1 g1 h1 1
a b c d e f g h
Position in Forsyth-Edwards Notation (FEN)


Moves: 1.d4 d5
ECO code: D00-D69

Closed GameEdit


With 1...d5, Black begins to fight for the center in the traditional fashion, by occupying it with pawns. 1...d5 opens a diagonal for the development of the light-squared black bishop, and it also discourages, though does not definitively prevent, an immediate 2.e4. If White plays e4 immediately, he initiates the Blackmar-Diemer gambit, which is considered dubious against best play.

Theory tableEdit

For explanation of theory tables see theory table and for notation see algebraic notation.

1. d4 d5

White's main options are now:

Queen's Gambit c4
Queen's Pawn Game Nf3
Levitsky Attack Bg5
Mason Variation Bf4
Chigorin Variation Nc3
Blackmar-Diemer Gambit e4
Queen's Boungcloud Kd2?
Amazon Attack Qd3

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  • Nunn's Chess Openings. 1999. John Nunn (Editor), Graham Burgess, John Emms, Joe Gallagher. ISBN 1-8574-4221-0.
  • Modern Chess Openings: MCO-14. 1999. Nick de Firmian, Walter Korn. ISBN 0-8129-3084-3.
  • Batsford Chess Openings 2 (1989, 1994). Garry Kasparov, Raymond Keene. ISBN 0-8050-3409-9.