Afrikaans/Print version


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This page has 2 sentences and 6 words for you to learn

The youngest Germanic language


The name "Afrikaans" means literally "African". Afrikaans has its roots in 17th-century Dutch, but has since developed its own distinctive character and flavour in the three centuries that it developed mostly in South Africa and in parts of Namibia. Being a Germanic language, it is closely related to Dutch, English and to a lesser extent German. Compare the following:

  • English: I eat an apple.
  • Afrikaans: Ek eet 'n appel.
  • Dutch: Ik eet een appel.
  • German: Ich esse einen Apfel.

English has many more words of a Latin or French origin than Afrikaans, but a more archaic word can often show the similarities between the two languages.

  • English: hound, fowl, house, milk
  • Afrikaans: hond, voël, huis, melk
Provinces of South Africa where Afrikaans is in the majority. Note that Afrikaans is spoken all over the country and also in Namibia.

Most interestingly, consider these two sentences:

  • My hand is in warm water.
  • My pen is in my hand.

These two sentences can be either English or Afrikaans, and both have exactly the same meaning in both languages. But despite this, Afrikaans has significant differences from English. It might not be as easy to learn for an English speaker as, say, Esperanto, but it is still considered a relatively easy language to learn, and is advocated by some as a good introduction to learning Dutch and other Germanic languages in general.

Can Afrikaans people and Dutch people understand each other?

Afrikaans and Dutch are very closely related and are more or less mutually understandable. More about that here. Dutch's grammar is a bit more complex than Afrikaans', but they share a lot of the same vocabulary, albeit with slightly different spellings and pronunciations. Comparing Afrikaans and Dutch is somewhat like comparing Norwegian Bokmål and Danish.

It is a commonly held belief that Afrikaans people tend to understand Dutch quite well, and Dutch people generally need more time to understand Afrikaans. The truth of this claim may vary from individual to individual. Some Afrikaans people claim to understand written Dutch better than spoken Dutch.

Language of the oppressor?

Afrikaans is seen by some in a negative light because it was the language promoted by the apartheid regime. Some even claim that it should be forgotten. We acknowledge the terrible atrocities of that regime but still regard Afrikaans language and culture as beautiful and worthy of preservation. However, with regard to the sentiment of preservation of the language and culture, there remains an underlying tone of segregation as illustrated by the special interest groups: Afriforum; Solidariteit and the AfrikanerBond amongst others. The underlying segregationist sentiments of Afrikaner language and cultural proponents are along the lines of Hendrik Verwoerd's assertion of Apartheid as: 'Good Neighbourliness', which can be seen in the fact of the majority of Afrikaans Speakers being what, in South Africa, are called 'Coloured' people who are then represented as a minority in Afrikaans institutions and media such as the television channel KYKNET, radio RSG and newspapers like BEELD, Volksblad and magazines HUISGENOOT and ROOIROSE. What one sees then is that there is a concerted, if not wholly deliberate effort to present Afrikaans as the language of the majority of White South Africans in the same way that it had been prioritised in the 20th Century to aid the White Afrikaner Nationalism of the National Party; in its infancy in the 1910s to its introduction and preservation of Apartheid from 1948 until the introduction of the 1996 South African Constitution with its ideal of the equality of all languages.

Besides, more than half of the speakers of the language are not white and were victims of the regime's many manipulations, including ripping apart families and forcefully moving whole communities. As has been stated in the preceding paragraph, the complexity of understanding Afrikaans social presence in South Africa is dependent upon understanding what the language has been and what the attempts at it's rehabilitation are; while there remains an element of Afrikaner society that looks upon the history of Afrikaner people and the attending atrocities as something to look back upon, fondly, it is this aspect of the culture and the people that undercuts whatever is being done to disillusion afrikaans-speakers of claims of its superiority and importance over other South African languages if not English itself.

Additonally, some of the first literary works in Afrikaans were translations of holy Islamic texts by Abu Bakr Effendi that were used by the Muslim Cape slave population. Hence, the language can be equally be described as the language of the oppressed. Indeed, while there may be those who delude themselves in thinking that Afrikaans is the 'language of the oppressed', one cannot simply ignore the social environment in which 'the oppressed' came to speak Afrikaans in the first place as slaves who tried to manoeuvre their way across the Dutch language of their Slave masters. Afrikaans, then comes to be used as a way to distinguish those who created an identity out of propagating slavery and anti-equality in the Cape and further oppression down the centuries. How Afrikaans comes to be a Language in 21st Century South Africa is a fraught 200+ years history


The Afrikaans monument.

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On to Pronunciation!>>



Afrikaans uses the same alphabet as English. Notable differences include diacritics on the letters (like ê), while certain letters, such as c, exist but are infrequently used.

You'll soon find Afrikaans has a very phonetic (phonemic) spelling; that is, unlike in English, French or even its parent language Dutch, Afrikaans words are almost always spelled the way they sound.

This chart uses IPA - the international phonetic alphabet to show the exact Afrikaans pronunciation. You can read more about it here. The English words are only an approximate guide. Afrikaans pronunciation can be a bit tricky for English speakers because the language has quite a few sounds that don't exist in English. The best way to learn is to listen to native Afrikaans speakers. You can listen to streaming Afrikaans radio here and hear Afrikaans sound recordings at this site[dead link].

Letter IPA English Approximation Example Word
a ʌ, a, ɑː plus, jump, awesome kap
aa ɑː awesome daad
aai aːɪ why laai
ai thai baie
au ou goat auditorium
b b, p (final position) bat, mapp bevat
ch x loch chemie
c s (before e, i, and y), k sun, kick Celsius
d d, t (final position) dark, hat daar
dj c no English approximation djihad
e ɛ, iˑǝ, ə, æ bed, erie, about, cat bed
ê ɛː (final position), æ hair, cat
ee iˑe eerie een
eeu iːu east + took leeu
ei əi play seil
ey əi play ceylon
eu øː few euforie
f f fox familie
g x, g, ç loch, golf, hue geld
gh g, k (final position) golf, kick gholf
h h high hoe
i i, ə see, about idee
ie i see dankie
j j yes ja
k k kick kat
l l let lughawe
m m mall maak
n n, ŋ (before c, k, q, and x) nice, sing van
ng ŋ sing vang
ns ns barns Afrikaans
o ɔ, oˑǝ bog, wisdom obligasie
ô ɔ cause môre
oe u loot voet
oei uiː phooey koei
oi oj row + yes boikot
oo uˑo loot soom
ooi ɔiː oil strooi
ou ɔʊ tow mou
p p map paar
r ɾ rolled r rooi
s s sun sein
sj ʃ shin sjoe
t t top taal
tj tʃ (initial position), kj top + shin, kick + yes tjek
u ɵ urn uit
uu y breed duur
û œː no English approximation brûe
ui œy play lui
uy œy urn + east ly
v f fox voël
w v, w (after consonant) visit, winter water
y əi play ys
z z zulu zirkonium

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On to Lesson One!>>

Lesson One

Lesson One: The Basics #1 — Les Een: Die Grondbeginsels #1


Welcome to Afrikaans Lesson One. This course will focus heavily on translation and reading in order to further your knowledge in a shorter span of time. In far later lessons, we will start the lesson with the dialogues, but for now, we shall start with the grammar of the language. The chapter vocabulary section is where one can find the stress markers of words that appear throughout the lesson. Still, if you still need to practice basic Afrikaans pronunciation or need to get familiar with the idea of stress markers, we recommend using the Pronunciation page. This lesson will cover similarities between English and Afrikaans, the use of articles, subject and object pronouns, and infinitive and present tense verbs.

I. Similarities Between English and Afrikaans

As both Afrikaans and English stem from the West Germanic family, obvious similarities exist in syntax, vocabulary and word formation. This fortune allows for Afrikaans to be a simple language for English speakers to grasp.

Spelling Comparison

Apart from direct cognates, spelling patterns can be ascertained too. Though none of these rules are etched in stone and each word should be studied carefully, these commonalities definitely make acquiring certain Afrikaans words much easier. Any word here indicated with a stress marker does not need immediate attention is not necessary, while some without a stress marker will reappear latter in this lesson.

  • The English suffix, -tion, often translates to the Afrikaans suffix, -sie.
    • Examples: poˈsisie (position), ˈaksie (action), konˈdisie (condition)
  • Some monosyllabic Afrikaans words containing the letter, g often correspond to an English, y. This trend continues with the particularly noticeable Afrikaans adjectival suffix, -ig.
    • 'G' Examples: geel (Yellow), dag (day), weg (way), vlieg (to fly), oog (eye)
    • '-ig' Examples: ˈheilig (holy), ˈsonnig (sunny), ˈysig (icy), ˈbesig (busy)
  • Some Afrikaans words beginning with sk-, are akin to English, sh-.
    • Examples: skip (ship), ˈskaduˌwee (shadow), skoen (shoe)
  • If there are words that are the same in both languages, an English hard c is usually equivalent to an Afrikaans k with few exceptions:
    • Examples: kamoeˈflage (camouflage), kalaˈmari (calamari)

II. Determiners: Articles

The definite article in English is the, which in Afrikaans, is die.

  • "Die man." ('The man.'); "Die kind." ('The child.'); "Die rivier in die woud." ('The river in the forest.')

English's indefinite article, a/an both become ʼn (pronounced as [ə]) in Afrikaans. Whenever a sentence begins with the indefinite article, the spelling rule associated declares that the noun, proper noun or adjective that directly follows must be capitalized.

  • "ʼn Vrou." ('A woman.'); "ʼn Tafel." ('A table.'); "ʼn Seun en ʼn meisie." ('A boy and a girl.')

III. Pronouns: Subject and Object

A. Subject Pronouns (Nominative Case)

Person English Afrikaans English Afrikaans English Afrikaans
Singular Plural Formal
1st Pers.
2nd Pers.
3rd Pers.

Afrikaans, like English, follows a simplistic SVO (Subject - Verb - Object) word order. The subject of a sentence refers to who/what is doing an action.

  • I know him. → Ek ken hom.

Though the subject rules are essentially the same as in English, there are two things to note on formality of conversation:

  1. When in an informal context, julle and hulle can be shortened to jul and hul.
    • They talk to him. → "Hulle praat met hom." is the same as "Hul praat met hom.", though the latter is more informal. (NOTE: speak/talk topraat met)
  2. The formal, u (pronounced as [œ]), functions like a plural, but refers to both singular and plural. This form is used to show respect and is used toward one's superiors (a boss or teacher, for instance), to a stranger, to older people or to the Christian God. When in reference to the Christian God, it is capitalized as U.

B. Object Pronouns (Oblique Case)

Person English Afrikaans English Afrikaans English Afrikaans
Singular Plural Formal
1st Pers.
2nd Pers.
3rd Pers.

The object of a sentence describes who/what the action is directed towards. Unlike German or Russian, Afrikaans, like English, does not distinguish between the Direct Object (Accusative Case) and Indirect Object (Dative Case). Thus, all objective pronouns remain the same.

  • I know him. → Ek ken hom.

It should be noted that every plural object pronoun (including u) is the exact same as its subject form.

  • She forgets you. → Sy vergeet u.
  • He understands them. → Hy verstaan hulle/hul.

IV. Practicality: Greetings and Phrases

Afrikaans greetings are used in the exact same contexts as English ones, though with more attention to formality. When in an informal context, you might greet someone with a "haai" rather than a "hallo" or a "goeiedag". For instance, goeienaand is used when greeting a person during the evening while goeienag is used when leaving; No different from English.

A small thing to note is that the 'Good [x]' forms below exist as one word when posed as an interjection/greeting (Good afternoon! = Goeiemiddag!), but the form becomes two words when talking about a good part of the day (It was a good afternoon.' = "Dit was ʼn goeie middag.").

English Afrikaans Notes
hello halˈlo
hi haai
goodbye totˈsiens Literally a compound of "tot" ('till') + "sien" ('to see')
good day ˈgoeieˌdag A compound of "goed" ('good') + "dag" ('day')
good morning ˌgoeieˈmôre A compound of "goed" ('good') + "môre" ('morning', 'morrow')
good afternoon ˈgoeiemidˌdag A compound of "goed" ('good') + "middag" ('midday', 'afternoon')
good evening ˌgoeieˈnaand A compound of "goed" ('good') + "aand" ('evening'). Note the extra n in goeienaand.
goodnight ˈgoeieˌnag A compound of "goed" ('good') + "nag" ('night')
How are you? Hoe gaan dit (met jou/u/julle)? Though this phrase can be shortened informally to "Hoe gaan dit?", the phrase in full is "Hoe gaan dit met jou/u/julle?", this dependent on person and formality.
I'm fine Dit gaan goed (met my) The phrase is a direct answer to "Hoe gaan dit?", the ending depending on formality again.
My name is... My naam is...
(many) thanks (baie) ˈdankie
please asseˈblief
pleased to meet you ˈaangeˌname ˈkennis The phrase is literally translated as "aangenaam" ('pleasant') + "kennis" ('knowledge')

In later lessons, the different given forms in the notes will be expounded on and will make sense to the learner (eg. Why Good becomes Goeie). For now, just learn the forms as given.

V. Verbs: The Infinitive, Present Simple and Present Continuous

The Infinitive

The infinitive, sometimes referred to as the verb's 'dictionary form', is formed in English by adding 'to' before the verb's present participle. The infinitive is the form of a verb without a subject or specific tense.

  • to walk, to sleep, to eat.

In Afrikaans, the infinitive form is formed by adding 'om te' before the participle.

  • om te loop, om te slaap, om te eet.

The Present Simple and Present Continuous

Fortunately, Afrikaans has extremely simple conjugation. If you look at every present form in every countable person, you will notice that the verb and its participle NEVER change. There is no direct distinction between verb forms of the present simple or present continuous.

  • I (am) eat(ing) an apple. → Ek eet ʼn appel.
  • I (am) sleep(ing). → Ek slaap.

However, it must be noted that there are literal ways to describe the continuous, and we shall cover it in future lessons. Another thing to know is that there are two very common verbs that deviate completely from the conjugation's common ruleset: "om te wees" ('to be') and "om te " ('to het'), which we'll cover in the next lesson.

Person English Afrikaans English Afrikaans
Present Simple Present Continuous
1st Pers.
I walk
ek loop
I am walking
ek loop
2nd Pers.
you walk
jy/u loop
you are walking
jy/u loop
3rd Pers.
he/she/it walks
hy/sy/dit loop
he/she/it is walking
hy/sy/dit loop
Present Simple Present Continuous
1st Pers.
we walk
ons loop
we are walking
ons loop
2nd Pers.
you walk
julle loop
you are walking
julle loop
3rd Pers.
they walk
hulle loop
they are walking
hulle loop

VI. Chapter Vocabulary

This is the chapter's main vocabulary. By the next chapter, you should well know these words as they are all quite common. Still, one should take note of the example words used in the grammatical explanations and try to keep them in mind as they will appear in the exercises too.

Nouns and Adjectives Verbs and Adverbs Conjunctions and Prepositions Numerals: 0 - 10
English Afrikaans English Afrikaans English Afrikaans English Afrikaans
apple ˈappel to be om te wees (pres. is) also ook zero nul
boss baas to eat om te eat and en one een
boy seun to forget om te verˈgeet in in two twee
child kind to have om te hê (pres. het) on op three drie
day dag to live; to reside om te woon four vier
forest woud to see om te sien five vyf
friend vriend to sleep om te slaap six ses
girl ˈmeisie to think om te dink seven ˈsewe
icy ysig to understand om te verstaan eight agt
man man here hier nine ˈnege
mister; sir meˈneer no nee ten tien
madam; missus meˈvrou yes ja
night nag very; much; many baie
pretty mooi where waar
river riˈvier
ship skip
shoe skoen
summer ˈsomer
sunny ˈsonnig
table ˈtafel
today vanˈdag
weather weer
winter ˈwinter
woman vrou

VII. Chapter Dialogues

Almost every lesson, two different dialogues related to the material of the lesson is provided to get the learner familiar with the material at hand. Having reviewed this lesson's notes, you should be able to understand the grammatical structure. If you must look at the vocabulary and its stresses above or at the translation below, do so as sparingly as possible.

Dialogue 1: An Informal Conversation

Sonja Goeiemôre, Johan!
Johan Haai, Sonja! Hoe gaan dit?
Sonja Dit gaan goed, dankie. En met jou?
Johan Ook goed. Die weer is goed vandag, né?
Sonja Ja, ek dink so.
Sonja Good morning, Johan!
Johan Hi, Sonja! How are you?
Sonja I'm fine, thanks. And you?
Johan Also well. The weather is good today, huh?
Sonja Yes, I think so.

Dialogue 2: A Formal Conversation

Die Baas Goeiedag, Johan.
Johan Goeiemôre, meneer. Hoe gaan dit met u?
Die Baas Dit gaan goed met my, dankie. Waar is Japie?
Johan Hy is besig in die winkel.
Die Baas Baie dankie, Johan. Totsiens.
Johan Totsiens, meneer.
The Boss Good day, Johan.
Johan Good morning, sir. How are you?
The Boss I'm fine, thanks. Where is Japie?
Johan He is busy in the store.
The Boss Thank you very much, Johan. Goodbye
Johan Goodbye, sir.


Exercise A: Translate into English:

Translate these sentences into English.

  • Goeienaand en goeienag.
  • Die dag is sonnig.
  • Die woud is mooi in die somer.
  • My naam is Japie, en hier is my vriend, Valerie.
  • Hul werk op ʼn skip.
  • Waar is my ander skoen?
  • Een, Vyf, Nege, Ses, Sewe, Twee
  • Good evening and goodnight.
  • The day is sunny.
  • The forest is pretty in the summer.
  • My name is Japie, and here is my friend, Valerie.
  • They work on a ship.
  • Where is my other shoe?
  • One, Five, Nine, Six, Seven, Two

Exercise B: Translate into Afrikaans:

Translate these sentences into Afrikaans.

  • Hello, my name is Sally. Pleased to meet you.
  • The river is icy in the winter.
  • The madam lives here.
  • You (plural) eat an apple.
  • We are sleeping.
  • Hi! Where is the boss?
  • You (formal) see him.
  • Hallo, my naam is Sally. Aangename kennis.
  • Die rivier is ysig in die winter.
  • Die mevrou woon hier.
  • Julle eet ʼn appel.
  • Ons slaap.
  • Haai! Waar is die baas?
  • U sien hom.

The Next Lesson

In the next lesson, we shall cover plurals, the past and future tenses, the verbs "om te wees" and "om te hê" and possessive pronouns and determiners. Good luck on your studies!
On to Lesson Two!>>

Lesson Two

The Basics #2 — Les Twee: Die Grondbeginsels #2

Welcome to Afrikaans Lesson Two. It is good to be familiar with the material of the first lesson, so if you need to go back, don't be unwilling to do so. While we will be skipping dialogue in this lesson, more than two exercises will be provided to practice for upcoming translations. This lesson will cover plural forms, word order, past and future verbs and possessive forms.

Plurals: Vowels, "-f" and Suffixes

Plural forms in Afrikaans must be carefully studied as the amount of rules can feel numerous, and it's not uncommon to find many exceptions in common words. Though once learnt and practiced, it becomes a rather simple process to figure out most plurals. The general plural ending in Afrikaans is an -e. Depending on the root of the word and its ending, the plural could react in multiple different ways. From now on, plurals will be provided in the chapter vocabulary section, and if you want to view a more concise list of irregulars (especially more uncommon words), you can do so here.

In this lesson, we will not be covering words ending in the letters, "-g" and "-d" as they tend to have unique rules or be unpredictable in form. Those will be covered next lesson.

GENERAL RULE 1: Short Vowels, Long Vowels and Diphthongs

For words ending in an -f, see the next rule.

  • Monosyllabic words containing a single vowel generally pluralize with the final consonant doubling with the addition of the -e.
    • pan ('pan') → ˈpanne
    • vlam ('flame') → ˈvlamme
    • vis ('fish') → ˈvisse
    • rok ('dress') → ˈrokke
  • As you are aware already, long vowels in Afrikaans are shown through the doubling of a vowel. However, when we pluralize these words, the second vowel falls away with the -e plural added (however, note that the long vowel pronunciation remains).
    • uur ('hour') → ure
    • week ('week') → ˈweke
    • boom ('tree') → ˈbome
    • droom ('dream') → ˈdrome
    • muur ('wall') → ˈmure
    • naam ('name') → ˈname
  • Diphthongs are a combination of two different vowel sounds, distinguished in Afrikaans with two different vowels (eg. aai, eu, ie, oe, ou). The majority of the time, monosyllabic words containing diphthongs pluralize with an -e.
    • deur ('door') → deure
    • boer ('farmer') → boere
    • koek ('cake') → koeke
    • woud ('forest') → woude
    • dier ('animal') → diere

GENERAL RULE 2: Words Ending in -f

  • Short Vowel nouns ending in an -f change to a -wwe when they are pluralized.
    • staf ('wooden staff') → ˈstawwe
    • straf ('punishment') → ˈstrawwe
  • For nouns containing long vowels, diphthongs and the vowel, y, these have their -f become a -we when pluralized.
    • graaf ('shovel') → ˈgrawe
    • kloof ('ravine') → ˈklowe
    • druif ('grape') → ˈdruiwe
    • brief ('letter') → ˈbriewe
    • olˈyf ('olive') → olˈywe

GENERAL RULE 3: Words Ending in "-ie" & -"ee"

  • Nouns ending in an -ie almost always have their plural as an -s.
    • horˈlosie ('watch') → horlosies
    • poˈsisie ('position') → posisies
    • akaˈdemie ('academy') → akademies
  • Monosyllabic words ending in -ee pluralize with the final e becoming an ë.
    • see ('sea') → seë
    • fee ('fairy') → feë
    • tree ('pace') → treë

GENERAL RULE 4: Suffixes 1

  • The suffix -heid always pluralizes as -hede, no matter the circumstances.
    • ˈskoonheid ('beauty') → skoonhede
    • ˈbesigheid ('business') → besighede
    • ˈkleinigheid ('trifle') → kleinighede
  • When referring to an inanimate object, the suffix, -us always pluralizes as -kusse. However, when the object is animate (referring to a human), an alternate plural is available in which the -kus changes to a -ci.
    • ˈsirkus ('circus') → sirkusse
    • ˈfisikus ('physicist') → fisikusse OR fisici
    • poˈlitikus ('politician') → politici (for this word, the "-ci" ending is more common)
    • ˈmusikus ('musician') → musici (for this word, the "-ci" ending is more common)


  • Conveniently, any noun that refers to a family member pluralizes with an -s, no matter its vowels. This is pleasant as the word list contains some irregularities (seun, broer, oom).
    • ˈvader ('father') → vaders
    • ˈmoeder ('mother') → moeders
    • broer ('brother') → broers
    • ˈsuster ('sister') → susters
    • seun ('son'; also 'boy') → seuns
    • ˈdogter ('daughter') → dogters
    • neef ('male cousin'; also 'nephew') → neefs
    • nigˈgie ('female cousin'; also 'niece) → niggies
    • ˈoupa ('grandfather') → oupas
    • ˈouma ('grandmother') → oumas
    • oom ('uncle') → ooms
    • ˈtante ('aunt') → tantes

Verbs: Sentence Structure, The Simple Past, Past Perfect and Simple Future

Sentence structure in Afrikaans functions quite differently to English. Whenever we start the sentence with the subject, and that sentence contains two (or more) verbs, the general idea is that one of those verbs must be shifted to the end of the sentence. This means that there will only ever be a single verb before a noun phrase. While this seems daunting, the rules are steadfast in formation. The past and future tenses both require auxiliary verbs, and utilize this movement of the second verb in simple sentences. For triple verb sentences, the Afrikaans word order is:

Subject Verb 1
{Noun Phrase}
Verb 2
{Main Verb}
Verb 3→

Though the first two verbs can be any type of verb, the third verb and any verb following is always an infinitive. This will be useful to know for when you will get to the usage of auxiliaries in Afrikaans.

The Simple Past

The formation of Afrikaans simple past is the only time that the verb form is modified. Though there are a set of prefixes that absolve its usage, the general affix, ge is tacked to the verb root, the root maintaining its stress pattern. Another prerequisite of forming the past tense in Afrikaans is always to have the auxiliary verb, "het" ('have') as the first verb. This may seem familiar to the English past perfect ('I had...'). And so, to summarize, the general rule of the past tense is {het + geˈ[INF.]}.

  • I drink the juice. → Ek drink die sap.
  • I drank the juice. → Ek het die sap geˈdrink. (note both second verb placement and suffix)

One thing to note is that verbs beginning with the letter, "e" must have the first letter of the root receive a diaeresis.

  • I eat sausage. → Ek eet wors.
  • I ate sausage. → Ek het wors geˈëet.

As stated before, not all verb forms can take the ge affix. In words beginning with the prefixes, be-; ge-; er-; her-; mis-; ont-; ver-, these forms remain the EXACT same when in the past tense.

  • I understand him. → Ek verˈstaan hom.
  • I understood him. → Ek het hom verˈstaan. (note the sentence structure)

The Simple Future

While the Afrikaans future tense requires that the word order change and that an auxiliary verb be used, the actual verb form itself does not change. So, in order to form the future tense, one must use "sal" ('will' and 'shall') and need only use the present participle of the verb. So, the rule of the future tense is {sal + [INF]}

  • I drink the juice. → Ek drink die sap.
  • I will drink the juice. → Ek sal die sap drink.
  • I eat sausage. → Ek eet wors.
  • I will eat sausage. → Ek sal wors eet.
  • I understand him. → Ek verˈstaan hom.
  • I will understand him. → Ek sal hom verˈstaan.

Verbs: "om te wees" and "om te hê"

KEEP IN MIND: The auxiliary "have to" cannot be constructed with "om te hê" in Afrikaans.
As we had noted in the previous lesson, the verbs "om te wees" ('to be') and "om te hê" ('to have') both have unique conjugations per the Afrikaans standard. Despite this, they are still quite simple to grasp.

For the sake of convenience, the future tense has been included to familiarize the learner. As "om te wees" is technically an auxiliary, it comes before "om te hê" in the place of the second verb. Below is a mixture of the two verbs used together. One can simply memorize the forms below in order to describe time of occurrence.

om te wees om te hê
  • I am. → Ek is.

  • I was. → Ek was.
    • I have been. → Ek was. (BE CAREFUL!)
    • I had been. → Ek was geˈwees. (BE CAREFUL!)

  • I will be. → Ek sal wees.
    • I will have been. → Ek sal geˈwees het.
  • I have. → Ek het.

  • I had. → Ek het geˈhad.
    • I have had. → Ek het geˈhad.
    • I had had. → Ek het geˈhad.

  • I will have. → Ek sal .
    • I will have had. → Ek sal geˈhad het.
I am here. I have a fish.
  • I am here. → Ek is hier.

  • I was here. → Ek was hier.
    • I have been here. → Ek was hier.
    • I had been here. → Ek was hier geˈwees.

  • I will be here. → Ek sal hier wees.
    • I will have been here. → Ek sal hier geˈwees het.
  • I have a fish. → Ek het ʼn vis.

  • I had a fish. → Ek het ʼn vis geˈhad.
    • I have had a fish. → Ek het ʼn vis geˈhad.
    • I had had a fish. → Ek het ʼn vis geˈhad.

  • I will have a fish. → Ek sal ʼn vis hê.
    • I will have had a fish. → Ek sal ʼn vis geˈhad het.

Pronouns: Possessive Determiners and Pronouns

Subject Pronouns: Dummy Pronoun and Items

We will quickly go over another aspect of subject pronouns. When referring to an object as it or they, these are always referred to as dit, no matter the number, though it is common to collectivize such.

  • 'It is a shoe.' = "Dit is ʼn skoen."
  • 'They are shoes.' = "Dit is ˈskoene."

The same applies to the 'Weather "It"', a dummy pronoun.

  • 'It is sunny.' = "Dit is ˈsonnig."

Pronouns: Multiple Subject Pronouns

One area in which the languages differ is in when there are multiple subject pronouns one after the other. Whereas English always has 'I' come after any other subject pronoun, it is the opposite in Afrikaans where ek comes first.

  • You and I eat cake. → Ek and jy eet koek.
  • He, she and I think so. → Ek, hy en sy dink so.

Possessive Determiners

Person English Afrikaans English Afrikaans English Afrikaans
Singular Plural Formal
1st Pers. my my our ons
2nd Pers. your jou your ˈjulle your u
3rd Pers. his/its her sy haar they ˈhulle

The structure works as English does. Pleasantly, the plural and ("u") possessive determiners remain the exact same as their subject and object forms.

  • It is your hat. → Dit is jou hoed.
  • It is her dress. → Dit is haar rok.

In a sentence referring to possession, one must be careful not to confuse "Sy" as 'She'. Obviously note the word following the use.

  • It is his pencil. → Dit is sy ˈpotˌlood.

When forming the possessive demonstrative with a noun, the particle "se" is used to denote such.

  • They are the girl's shoes. → Dit is die ˈmeisie se skoene.
  • It is the woman's jewel. → Dit is die vrou se juˈweel.

Possessive Pronouns (Genitive Case)

Person English Afrikaans English Afrikaans English Afrikaans
Singular Plural Formal
1st Pers. mine ˈmyne ours ons s'n
2nd Pers. yours ˈjoune yours ˈjulle s'n your u s'n
van u
3rd Pers. his/its hers ˈsyne ˈhare theirs ˈhulle s'n

Again, there are no real differences in usage of the genitive pronouns between the two languages.

  • The hat is yours. → Die hoed is ˈjoune.
  • The dress is hers. → Die rok is ˈhare.
  • The pencil is his. → Die potlood is ˈsyne.

However, there is a small difference if to couple with the preposition, 'of'. For this purpose, English would use the construction {of + genitive prn.}. Instead, Afrikaans uses the construction {van + object prn.}.

  • The hat of mine. → Die hoed van my. (van myne)
  • The dress of yours. → Die rok van jou.
  • The pencil of his. → Die potlood van hom.

Though all plural forms take "s'n", "u" is more open to using the aforementioned 'of'. This ends up creating a somewhat nonstandard construction of "van u" ('of you').

  • The cake is yours. → (standard) Die koek is u s'n; (nonstandard) Die koek is van u.

The particle "s'n" remains as the possessor with a noun.

  • The shoes are the girl's. → Die skoene is die meisie s'n.
  • The jewel is the woman's. → Die juweel is die vrou s'n.

Chapter Vocabulary

As many words were introduced via examples, the 'chapter vocabulary' will be short, and so, one should learn all of the words that were previously showcased in the plural section. Many of those words are commonplace, and to know them will be very helpful.

Nouns and Adjectives Verbs and Adverbs Numerals: 11 - 20
English Afrikaans English Afrikaans English Afrikaans
autumn herfs to believe om te glo eleven elf
book boek (-e) to come om te kom twelve twaalf
café kaˈfee (-s) to do om te doen thirteen ˈdertien
cinema bioˈskoop (bioskope) to drink om te drink fourteen ˈveertien
document geˈskrif (-te) to go om te gaan fifteen ˈvyftien
dog hond (-e) to make om te maak sixteen ˈsestien
film; movie fliek (-e) to write om te skryf seventeen ˈsewentien
food kos now nou eighteen ˈagttien
spring lente nineteen ˈnegentien
twenty ˈtwintig


Exercise A: Plural Forms

Below are words you have not yet encountered. However, using the plural rules above, you can determine which fits what. After completion of the exercise, try to put these words to memory.

  • boot
  • bal
  • ˈkoppie
  • voet
  • sif
  • vuur
  • kat
  • pen
  • dief
  • ˈstasie
  • kleur
  • boot ('boat') → ˈbote
  • bal ('ball') → ˈballe
  • koppie ('cup') → ˈkoppies
  • voet ('foot') → ˈvoete
  • sif ('sieve') → ˈsiwwe
  • vuur ('fire') → ˈvure
  • kat ('cat') → ˈkatte
  • pen ('pen') → ˈpenne
  • dief ('thief') → ˈdiewe
  • stasie ('station') → ˈstasies
  • kleur ('colour') → ˈkleure

Exercise B: Forming Tenses

You will be given very basic sentences that you must first form in the past tense and then the future.

  • Sy slaap.
  • Ek eet.
  • Dit is jou kat.
  • Waar is Jan?
  • Jy verstaan my.
  • Sy het ʼn rok.
  • Julle skryf die geskrif.
  • Ek glo haar broer.
  • Die vrou het baie juwele.
  • Sy slaap.
    • Sy het geslaap.
    • Sy sal slaap.
  • Ek eet.
    • Ek het geëet.
    • Ek sal eet.
  • Dit is jou kat.
    • Dit was jou kat gewees.
    • Dit sal jou kat wees.
  • Waar is Jan?
    • Waar was Jan gewees?
    • Waar sal Jan wees?
  • Jy verstaan my.
    • Jy het my verstaan.
    • Jy sal my verstaan.
  • Sy het ʼn rok
    • Sy het ʼn rok gehad.
    • Sy sal ʼn rok hê.
  • Julle skryf die geskrif.
    • Julle het die geskrif geskryf.
    • Julle sal die geskrif skryf.
  • Ek glo sy broer.
    • Ek het sy broer geglo.
    • Ek sal sy broer glo.
  • Die vrou het baie juwele
    • Die vrou het baie juwele gehad.
    • Die vrou sal baie juwele hê

Exercise C: Translate into English

  • Mag ons gaan?
  • Ek sal die fliek kyk.
  • Dit is sy broer se horlosie.
  • Sy het met haar skoene aan geslaap.
  • Dit was sonnig.
  • Ja, ek het ʼn hond gehad.
  • May we go?
  • I will be watching the film.
  • It is his brother's watch.
  • She slept with her shoes on.
  • It has been sunny.
  • Yes, I have had a dog.

Exercise D: Translate into Afrikaans

  • Where are her brothers?
  • I will go make food.
  • They could have been here.
  • Oh, the book is theirs.
  • He will have eaten the cake.
  • Thirteen, Fourteen, Nineteen, Sixteen, Twelve, Eighteen
  • Waar is haar broers?
  • Ek sal kos gaan maak.
  • Hulle kon hier gewees het.
  • O, die boek is hulle s'n.
  • Hy sal die koek geëet het.
  • Dertien, Veertien, Negentien, Sestien, Twaalf, Agtien

The Next Lesson

Between this and lesson one, you have been handed a great many words to learn. In the next lesson, we shall cover more plural forms, the infinitive modifier, demonstratives and some practical description. Good luck on your studies!

On to Lesson Three!>>

If you're still feeling shaky or want to review the previous chapter:

<<Back to Lesson One.

Lesson Three

Lesson Three: The Basics #3 — Les Drie: Die Grondbeginsels #3

Welcome to Afrikaans Lesson Three. Dialogues will be skipped again this lesson to save such for when we have enough grammatical concepts covered. This lesson will continue plural forms and cover the infinitive modifier, determiners and practical description.

Plurals: "-g", Suffixes Cont., and Unpredictable Plurals

Continuing from the last lesson, we will provide the rest of the necessary rules and from then on out, there will be very few words you will be unable to pluralize. For a more in-depth list of irregulars, you can go here.

GENERAL RULE 1: Words Ending in "-g"

There are multiple vowel combinations with the letter "-g", each with their own standard rule:

  • -ag changes to -ae. If it is a double "a", one of them falls away.
    • vlag ('flag') → vlae
    • dag ('day') → dae
    • plaag ('plague') → plae
  • -ig adds to the suffix a -te.
    • lig ('light') → ligte
    • geˈdig ('poem') → gedigte
    • geˈsig ('face') → gesigte
  • -og changes to a -oë. If it is a double "o", one of them falls away.
    • oog ('eye') → oë
    • boog ('bow') → b
    • ˈoorlog ('war') → oorloë
    • bioˈloog ('biologist') → biol
  • -oeg and -ieg change to -oeë and -ieë.
    • ploeg ('plough') → ploeë
    • kroeg ('pub'; 'bar') → kroeë
    • wieg ('cradle') → wieë
  • -uig changes to a -uie.
    • tuig ('harness') → tuie
    • ˈvliegtuig ('aeroplane') → vliegtuie

GENERAL RULE 2: Words Ending in Doubled Consonants

  • For words that end in double consonants (eg. -ng, -nd, -rk, -rd), these pluralize with an -e.
    • hand ('hand') → ˈhande
    • ring ('ring') → ˈringe
    • vlerk ('wing') → ˈvlerke
    • wolk ('cloud') → wolke
    • swaard ('sword') → swaarde

GENERAL RULE 3: Polysyllabic Words

  • Polysyllabic words that don't have their stress on the final syllable usually pluralize with an -s (as usual, there are exceptions). This explains why words you had seen last lesson ('ˈvader', 'ˈmoeder', 'ˈdogter'), had -s as their plural. This also includes words that end in -ing pluralize with an -s.
    • ˈwortel ('carrot, root') → ˈwortels
    • ˈvenster ('window') → ˈvensters
    • ˈkoning ('king') → ˈkonings
    • ˈhoring ('horn') → ˈhorings
  • Contrast this with words who's stress does fall on the final syllable.
    • riˈvier ('river') → riviere
    • ingeˈwand ('gut, intestine') → ingewande
    • kampiˈoen ('champion') → kampiˈoene

GENERAL RULE 4: Suffixes 2

  • The suffix -ding has the odd property of pluralizing as -goed.
    • ˈspeelding ('toy') → ˈspeelgoed
    • ˈeetding ('snack') → ˈeetgoed
    • ˈslagding ('animal for slaughter') → ˈslaggoed
  • The -man suffix can be quite unpredictable.
    • On one hand, some words have the -man suffix disappear completely, and the root itself pluralizes.
      • ˈbuurman ('neighbour') → ˈbure
      • ˈEngelsˌman ('Englishman') → ˈEngelse ('English')
      • ˈFransˌman ('Frenchman') → ˈFranse ('French')
    • On the other hand, there are words (especially occupations) in which the suffix remains and pluralizes as a short vowel would ("-man" → "-manne'").
      • ˈsakeˌman ('businessman') → ˈsakeˌmanne
      • ˈbrandweerˌman ('fireman') → ˈbrandweermanne

Plurals: Unpredictable Forms

These are specific forms that have no real pattern in the formation.

Plurals as -te

  • Though a lot of the time, the rules given so far work in many instances, there are many, many words that pluralize with -te. The unfortunate part is that one just has to capitulate and learn them by heart.
    • nag ('night') → nagte (not nae)
    • vrug ('fruit') → vrugte
    • bas ('tree bark') → baste
    • lug ('sky') → lugte
    • bors ('chest'; 'breast') → borste

Words Ending in -d

  • As mentioned before, words ending in -d can be very unpredictable and there is no general rule as to how they work. In such instances, it's best to learn each individual word's plural form. Below are the types of plural formations.
    • There are words that retain the -d and add an -e (however, some words may leave out pronunciation of -d in informal speech).
      • ˈeiland ('island') → eilande
      • hond ('dog') → honde
      • aand ('evening') → aande
      • daad ('deed') → dade
    • There are words that lose the -d.
      • tyd ('time') → tye
      • kruid ('herb') → kruie
    • Words that change the vowels are all irregular in form.
      • stad ('city') → ˈstede
      • god ('god') → ˈgode
      • lid ('member') → ˈlede
      • geˈbed ('prayer') → geˈbede
      • blad ('page') → ˈblaaie
      • pad ('road') → ˈpaaie

Plurals as "-ens", "-ere" and "-ers"

  • There are really only a handful of nouns that end in -ens, and so, listed below are the most common and non-informal of terms.
    • bed ('bed') → ˈbeddens
    • bad ('bathtub') → ˈbaddens
    • geˈvoel ('feeling') → geˈvoelens
    • nooi ('sweetheart') → ˈnooiens
    • wa ('wagon') → ˈwaens
  • There are only four words that end in -ere.
    • goed ('goods') → ˈgoedere
    • lied ('song') → ˈliedere
    • geˈmoed ('state of mind and heart') → geˈmoedere
    • volk ('nation, peoples') → ˈvolkere (but the more common plural is ˈvolke)
  • "Kind" and "Kalf" are the ONLY words in the language that pluralizes with -ers.
    • kind ('child') → ˈkinders
    • kalf ('calf') → kalwers

Verbs: The Infinitive Modifier

One thing you should be aware of is that when an infinitive directly modifies a noun phrase, there is a certain structure one must use. The "om te" is split apart, and so, the structure used is {om [noun phrase] te [verb]}.

  • to run a mile. → om ʼn myl te ˈhardˌloop.
  • to drink water. → om ˈwater te drink.

Determiners and Pronouns: Demonstratives

Demonstratives reference people or things based on location without directly referring to them. In basic terms, you will know them in English as 'this', 'these', 'that' and 'those'. When they act as determiners (i.e. a noun directly follows the demonstrative), hierdie ('this/these') and daardie ('that/those') are used, both of which refer to the singular and plural, the key difference lying in the number of the noun. When pronouncing "hierdie" and "daardie", the d is silent.

  • This dog. → Hierdie hond.
  • These dogs. → Hierdie honde.
  • That dog. → Daardie hond.
  • Those dogs. → Daardie honde.
  • 'This bicycle is mine.' → "Hierdie fiets is myne."

One area in which you cannot use "hierdie" is when in reference to times of the day and with "year".

  • This morning. → Vanoggend (However, daardie oggend)
  • This afternoon. → Vanmiddag (However, daardie middag)
  • This evening. (also "Tonight") → Vanaand (However, daardie nag)
  • This day. (also "Today") → Vandag (However, daardie dag)
  • This year. → Vanjaar (However, daardie jaar)

When the demonstratives act as pronouns (i.e. on their own), there are two different terms:

  • "Dit" is by far the most commonly used in this role and refers to all four English demonstratives.
    • 'This/That is my dog.' = "Dit is my hond."
    • 'These/Those are my dogs.' = "Dit is my honde."
    • 'This is my bicycle.' = "Dit is my fiets."
    • 'He had cooked these. = "Hy het dit geˈkook."
  • The other two terms are "dié" and "daai". "Dié" is somewhat formal, but can still be used in a pejorative context to refer to a person without mentioning them. "Daai" on the other hand is very common in informal (and only informal) settings to replace both "dit" and "daardie".
    • 'This/That is my uncle.' = "Dié/Daai is my oom."
    • 'These/Those are my uncles.' = "Dié/Daai is my ooms."
    • 'You can cook these. = "Jy kan dié/daai kook."
    • 'He spoils everything!' = "Dié beˈderf ˈalles!"

Practicality: "I Like/Love..." and "I Need..."

This section serves to fill out the practical language you may encounter or use in your daily life as well as unique constructions that Afrikaans speakers use in contrast to Anglophones.

I Like/Love

In approaching affection for something, English speakers use the verbs, "like" and "love". Rather than a verb, Afrikaans uses phrases to structure these. Don't forget that the phrase structure will change if the tense does. 'To like' has the basic form of {[PRN.] hou (daar)van...}.

  • I like [noun]. → Ek hou van [noun].
    • I like her music. → Ek hou van haar musiek.
  • I like [infinitive]. → Ek hou ˈdaarvan [infinitive].
    • I like to travel. → Ek hou ˈdaarvan om te reis.
  • I like [infinitive] [noun]. → Ek hou ˈdaarvan [infinitive + noun].
    • I like to walk in the garden. → Ek hou ˈdaarvan om in die tuin te loop.

'To love' has the basic form of {[PRN.] is lief (vir)...}.

  • I love [noun]. → Ek is lief vir [noun].
    • I love her music. → Ek is lief vir haar musiek.
  • I love [infinitive]. → Ek is lief [infinitive].  OR  Ek is lief ˈdaarˌvoor [infinitive].
    • I love to travel. → Ek is lief om te reis.  OR  Ek is lief ˈdaarˌvoor om te reis.
  • I love [infinitive] [noun]. → Ek is lief [infinitive + noun].  OR  Ek is lief ˈdaarˌvoor [infinitive + noun].
    • I love to walk in the garden. → Ek is lief om in die tuin te loop.  OR  Ek is lief ˈdaarˌvoor om in die tuin te loop.

I Need...

There are two possible constructions. These are used only for nouns and not the modal construction for verbs.

  • The first construction, {[PRN.] het [noun] ˈnodig...}.
    • I need a doctor! → Ek het ʼn dokter ˈnodig!
    • He needs you to help him. → Hy het jou ˈnodig om hom te help.
  • As for the second construction, {[PRN.] beˈnodig [noun]}, one could rather think of "benodig" as 'in need of'.
    • I (am in) need (of) a doctor! → Ek beˈnodig ʼn ˈdokter!
    • We (are in) need (of) textbooks. → Ons beˈnodig handboeke.

Chapter Vocabulary

There are very few words this lesson. After all, the examples have been quite numerous.

Nouns and Adjectives Verbs and Adverbs
English Afrikaans English Afrikaans
bathroom ˈbadˌkamer to use om te geˈbruik
cricket ˈkrieket to play om te speel
difficult ˈmoeilik
love ˈliefde (-s)
toilet ˈtoilet (-te)


Exercise A: Swadesh Plurals

This exercise will be very hefty, but it provides a lot of practice. Below is listed all of the countable nouns found in the Swadesh list, and your task is to pluralize them all. You are certainly not obligated to learn all of the words below, rather just follow the exercise's instruction.

  • vrou
  • man
  • mens
  • kind
  • ˈmoeder
  • ˈvader
  • dier
  • vis
  • voël
  • hond
  • luis
  • slang
  • wurm
  • boom
  • woud
  • stok
  • vrug
  • saad
  • blaar
  • ˈwortel
  • bas
  • blom
  • gras
  • tou
  • been
  • ˈeier
  • ˈhoring
  • stert
  • veer
  • haar
  • kop
  • oor
  • oog
  • neus
  • mond
  • tand
  • tong
  • nael
  • voet
  • knie
  • hand
  • vlerk
  • maag
  • ingeˈwand
  • nek
  • rug
  • bors
  • hart
  • ˈlewer
  • son
  • maan
  • ster
  • reën
  • riˈvier
  • meer
  • see
  • sout
  • klip
  • grond
  • wolk
  • lug
  • wind
  • vuur
  • as
  • pad
  • berg
  • nag
  • dag
  • jaar
  • naam
  • vrou ('woman') → ˈvroue
  • man ('man') → ˈmanne
  • mens ('person') → ˈmense
  • kind ('child') → ˈkinders
  • moeder ('mother') → 'ˈmoeders
  • vader ('father') → ˈvaders
  • dier ('animal') → ˈdiere
  • vis ('fish') → ˈvisse
  • voël ('bird') → voëls
  • hond ('dog') → ˈhonde
  • luis ('louse') → ˈluise
  • slang ('snake') → ˈslange
  • wurm ('worm') → wurms
  • boom ('tree') → ˈbome
  • woud ('forest') → ˈwoude
  • stok ('stick') → ˈstokke
  • vrug ('fruit') → ˈvrugte
  • saad ('seed') → ˈsade
  • blaar ('leaf') → ˈblare
  • wortel ('carrot, root') → ˈwortels
  • bas ('tree bark') → ˈbaste
  • blom ('flower') → ˈblomme
  • gras ('grass') → ˈgrasse
  • tou ('rope') → ˈtoue
  • been ('leg, bone') → ˈbene
  • eier ('egg') → ˈeiers
  • horing ('horn') → ˈbote
  • stert ('tail') → ˈsterte
  • veer ('feather') → ˈvere
  • haar ('hair') → ˈhare
  • kop ('head') → ˈkoppe
  • oor ('ear') → ˈore
  • oog ('eye') → ˈoë
  • neus ('nose') → ˈneuse
  • mond ('mouth') → ˈmonde
  • tand ('tooth') → ˈtande
  • tong ('tongue') → ˈtonge
  • nael ('fingernail') → ˈnaele
  • voet ('foot') → ˈvoete
  • knie ('knee') → ˈknieë
  • hand ('hand') → ˈhande
  • vlerk ('wing') → ˈvlerke
  • maag ('stomach') → ˈmae
  • ingeˈwand ('gut') → ingeˈwande
  • nek ('neck') → nekke
  • rug ('back') → rûe
  • bors ('chest, breast') → ˈborste
  • hart ('heart') → ˈharte
  • lewer ('liver') → ˈlewers
  • son ('sun') → ˈsonne
  • maan ('moon') → ˈmane
  • ster ('star') → ˈsterre
  • reën ('rain') → ˈreëns
  • rivier ('river') → ˈriviere
  • meer ('lake') → ˈmere
  • see ('sea') → ˈseë
  • sout ('salt') → ˈsoute
  • klip ('rock') → ˈklippe
  • grond ('earth') → ˈgronde
  • wolk ('cloud') → ˈwolke
  • lug ('sky, air') → lugte
  • wind ('wind') → ˈwinde
  • vuur ('fire') → vure
  • as ('ash') → ˈasse
  • pad ('road') → ˈpaaie
  • berg ('mountain') → ˈberge
  • nag ('night') → ˈnagte
  • dag ('day') → ˈdae
  • jaar ('year') → ˈjare
  • naam ('name') → ˈname

Exercise B: Demonstratives

Determine which demonstrative would most suit the situation based on both grammar and formality.

  • En ___ is my ˈoupa. ('And this is my grandfather.')
  • Ja boet, ___ is my ˈmotor. ('Yeah bro, this is my car.')
  • ___ tye is wild, ja? ('These times are wild, huh?')
  • Waar is Japie!? ___ ˈbeter ˈoppas! ('Where is Japie? He better watch out!')
  • ___ hoede is duur! ('Those hats are expensive!')
  • ___ kat is baie mooi. ('This cat is very pretty.')
  • En dit is my oupa.
  • Ja boet, daai is my motor.
  • Hierdie tye is wild, ja?
  • Waar is Japie!? Dié beter oppas!
  • Daardie hoede is duur!
  • Hierdie kat is baie mooi.

Exercise C: Practical Language

Translate below .

  • Jy hou van my kat.
  • Hy is lief daarvoor om krieket te speel.
  • Ek het my vriende nodig.
  • I need the toilet. Where is it?
  • She loves him very much.
  • I like to eat apples.
  • You like my cat.
  • He loves to play cricket.
  • I needed my friends.
  • Ek het die toiˈlet nodig. Waar is dit?
  • Sy is baie lief vir hom.
  • Ek hou van appels te eet.

Exercise D: Translate Into English

  • To buy many rings for her.
  • The bow has been used in many wars.
  • Those clouds in the sky.
  • I liked the food.
  • Jacobus has fifteen toys. Marie has one toy.
  • The cities were on the island.
  • Om vir haar baie ringe te koop.
  • Die boog was in baie oorloë gebruik.
  • Daardie wolke in die lug.
  • Ek het van die kos gehou.
  • Jacobus het vyftien speelgoed. Marie het een speelding.
  • Die stede was op die eiland.

Exercise E: Translate Into Afrikaans

  • Die vliegtuig het twee vlerke.
  • Daardie honde het my gebyt!
  • Ek is lief vir katte, honde, slange en al die diere.
  • Hier is kruie vir die kos.
  • Sy moeder gee baie liefde.
  • Dit is moeilik om hierdie briewe te skryf!
  • The aeroplane has two wings.
  • Those dog bit me!
  • I love cats, dogs, snakes and all the animals.
  • Here are herbs for the food.
  • His mother gives much love.
  • It is difficult to write these letters!

The Next Lesson

Between this and lesson one, you have been handed a great many words to learn. In the next lesson, we shall cover auxiliary verbs and a general word order. Good luck on your studies!

On to Lesson Four!>>

If you're still feeling shaky or want to review the previous chapter:

<<Back to Lesson Two.

External Links

Afrikaans/External Links


Here is a list of newspapers in South Africa and Namibia.

  Suid-Afrikaanse koerante (Afrikaans), South African newspapers

  Namibiese koerante (Afrikaans), Namibian newspapers


The Afrikaans Language textbook was first started on June 12, 2005. Add yourself to the list below if you feel you've made a significant contribution to this textbook.


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