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The youngest Germanic language
The name "Afrikaans" means literally "African". Afrikaans has its roots in 17th-century Dutch, but has since developed its own distinctive character and flavour in the three centuries that it developed mostly in South Africa and in parts of Namibia. Being a Germanic language, it is closely related to Dutch, English and to a lesser extent German. Compare the following:
- English: I eat an apple.
- Afrikaans: Ek eet 'n appel.
- Dutch: Ik eet een appel.
- German: Ich esse einen Apfel.
English has many more words of a Latin or French origin than Afrikaans, but a more archaic word can often show the similarities between the two languages.
- English: hound, fowl, house, milk
- Afrikaans: hond, voël, huis, melk
Most interestingly, consider these two sentences:
- My hand is in warm water.
- My pen is in my hand.
These two sentences can be either English or Afrikaans, and both have exactly the same meaning in both languages. But despite this, Afrikaans has significant differences from English. It might not be as easy to learn for an English speaker as, say, Esperanto, but it is still considered a relatively easy language to learn, and is advocated by some as a good introduction to learning Dutch and other Germanic languages in general.
Can Afrikaans people and Dutch people understand each other?
Afrikaans and Dutch are very closely related and are more or less mutually understandable. More about that here. Dutch's grammar is a bit more complex than Afrikaans', but they share a lot of the same vocabulary, albeit with slightly different spellings and pronunciations. Comparing Afrikaans and Dutch is somewhat like comparing Norwegian Bokmål and Danish.
It is a commonly held belief that Afrikaans people tend to understand Dutch quite well, and Dutch people generally need more time to understand Afrikaans. The truth of this claim may vary from individual to individual. Some Afrikaans people claim to understand written Dutch better than spoken Dutch.
Language of the oppressor?
Afrikaans is seen by some in a negative light because it was the language promoted by the apartheid regime. Some even claim that it should be forgotten. We acknowledge the terrible atrocities of that regime but still regard Afrikaans language and culture as beautiful and worthy of preservation. However, with regard to the sentiment of preservation of the language and culture, there remains an underlying tone of segregation as illustrated by the special interest groups: Afriforum; Solidariteit and the AfrikanerBond amongst others. The underlying segregationist sentiments of Afrikaner language and cultural proponents are along the lines of Hendrik Verwoerd's assertion of Apartheid as: 'Good Neighbourliness', which can be seen in the fact of the majority of Afrikaans Speakers being what, in South Africa, are called 'Coloured' people who are then represented as a minority in Afrikaans institutions and media such as the television channel KYKNET, radio RSG and newspapers like BEELD, Volksblad and magazines HUISGENOOT and ROOIROSE. What one sees then is that there is a concerted, if not wholly deliberate effort to present Afrikaans as the language of the majority of White South Africans in the same way that it had been prioritised in the 20th Century to aid the White Afrikaner Nationalism of the National Party; in its infancy in the 1910s to its introduction and preservation of Apartheid from 1948 until the introduction of the 1996 South African Constitution with its ideal of the equality of all languages.
Besides, more than half of the speakers of the language are not white and were victims of the regime's many manipulations, including ripping apart families and forcefully moving whole communities. As has been stated in the preceding paragraph, the complexity of understanding Afrikaans social presence in South Africa is dependent upon understanding what the language has been and what the attempts at it's rehabilitation are; while there remains an element of Afrikaner society that looks upon the history of Afrikaner people and the attending atrocities as something to look back upon, fondly, it is this aspect of the culture and the people that undercuts whatever is being done to disillusion afrikaans-speakers of claims of its superiority and importance over other South African languages if not English itself.
Additonally, some of the first literary works in Afrikaans were translations of holy Islamic texts by Abu Bakr Effendi that were used by the Muslim Cape slave population. Hence, the language can be equally be described as the language of the oppressed. Indeed, while there may be those who delude themselves in thinking that Afrikaans is the 'language of the oppressed', one cannot simply ignore the social environment in which 'the oppressed' came to speak Afrikaans in the first place as slaves who tried to manoeuvre their way across the Dutch language of their Slave masters. Afrikaans, then comes to be used as a way to distinguish those who created an identity out of propagating slavery and anti-equality in the Cape and further oppression down the centuries. How Afrikaans comes to be a Language in 21st Century South Africa is a fraught 200+ years history
- Several English words, such as "commando" and "aardvark", are of Afrikaans origin.
- The Arabic script has been used to write Afrikaans.
- Afrikaans is the only Indo-European language to have developed in Africa.
- Afrikaans is the most commonly used language among non-black South Africans.
On to Pronunciation!>>
Afrikaans uses the same alphabet as English. Notable differences include diacritics on the letters (like ê), while certain letters, such as c, exist but are infrequently used.
You'll soon find Afrikaans has a very phonetic (phonemic) spelling; that is, unlike in English, French or even its parent language Dutch, Afrikaans words are almost always spelled the way they sound.
This chart uses IPA - the international phonetic alphabet to show the exact Afrikaans pronunciation. You can read more about it here. The English words are only an approximate guide. Afrikaans pronunciation can be a bit tricky for English speakers because the language has quite a few sounds that don't exist in English. The best way to learn is to listen to native Afrikaans speakers. You can listen to streaming Afrikaans radio here and hear Afrikaans sound recordings at this site.
|Letter||IPA||English Approximation||Example Word|
|a||ʌ, a, ɑː||plus, jump, awesome||kap|
|b||b, p (final position)||bat, mapp||bevat|
|c||s (before e, i, and y), k||sun, kick||Celsius|
|d||d, t (final position)||dark, hat||daar|
|dj||c||no English approximation||djihad|
|e||ɛ, iˑǝ, ə, æ||bed, erie, about, cat||bed|
|ê||ɛː (final position), æ||hair, cat||hê|
|eeu||iːu||east + took||leeu|
|g||x, g, ç||loch, golf, hue||geld|
|gh||g, k (final position)||golf, kick||gholf|
|i||i, ə||see, about||idee|
|n||n, ŋ (before c, k, q, and x)||nice, sing||van|
|ns||the n is silent, and the previous vowel is nasalized||no English approximation||Afrikaans|
|o||ɔ, oˑǝ||bog, wisdom||obligasie|
|oi||oj||row + yes||boikot|
|tj||tʃ (initial position), kj||top + shin, kick + yes||tjek|
|û||œː||no English approximation||brûe|
|uy||œy||urn + east||ly|
|w||v, w (after consonant)||visit, winter||water|
Lesson One: The Basics #1 — Les Een: Die Grondbeginsels #1
Welcome to Afrikaans Lesson One. This course will focus heavily on translation and reading in order to further your knowledge in a shorter span of time. In far later lessons, we will start the lesson with the dialogues, but for now, we shall start with the grammar of the language. If you still need to practice basic Afrikaans pronunciation, we recommend using the Pronunciation page. This lesson will cover similarities between English and Afrikaans, the use of articles, subject and object pronouns, and infinitive and present tense verbs.
I. Similarities Between English and Afrikaans
As both Afrikaans and English stem from the West Germanic family, obvious similarities exist in syntax, vocabulary and word formation. This fortune allows for Afrikaans to be a simple language for English speakers to grasp.
Apart from direct cognates, spelling patterns can be ascertained too. Though none of these rules are etched in stone and each word should be studied carefully, these commonalities definitely make acquiring certain Afrikaans words much easier.
- The English suffix, -tion, often translates to the Afrikaans suffix, -sie.
- Examples: posisie (position), aksie (action), kondisie (condition)
- Some monosyllabic Afrikaans words containing the letter, g often correspond to an English, y. This trend continues with the particularly noticeable Afrikaans adjectival suffix, -ig.
- 'G' Examples: geel (Yellow), dag (day), weg (way), vlieg (to fly), oog (eye)
- '-ig' Examples: heilig (holy), sonnig (sunny), ysig (icy), besig (busy)
- Some Afrikaans words beginning with sk-, are akin to English, sh-.
- Examples: skip (ship), skaduwee (shadow), skoen (shoe)
- If there are words that are the same in both languages, an English hard c is usually equivalent to an Afrikaans k with few exceptions:
- Examples: kamoeflage (camouflage), kalamari (calamari)
The definite article in English is the, which in Afrikaans, is die.
- Examples: "Die man" ('The man'); "Die kind" ('The child'); "Die rivier in die woud." ('The river in the forest.')
English's indefinite article, a/an both become ŉ (pronounced as [ə]) in Afrikaans. Whenever a sentence begins with the indefinite article, the spelling rule associated declares that the noun, proper noun or adjective that directly follows must be capitalized.
- Examples: "ŉ Vrou" ('A woman'); "ŉ Tafel" ('A table'); "ŉ Seun en ŉ meisie." ('A boy and a girl.')
III. Pronouns: Subject and Object
A. Subject Pronouns (Nominative Case)
Afrikaans, like English, follows a simplistic SVO (Subject - Verb - Object) word order. The subject of a sentence refers to who/what is doing an action.
- I know him.' → "Ek ken hom."
Though the subject rules are essentially the same as in English, there are two things to note on formality of conversation:
- When in an informal context, julle and hulle can be shortened to jul and hul.
- 'They talk to him.' → "Hulle praat met hom." is the same as "Hul praat met hom.", though the latter is more informal.
- The formal, u (pronounced as [œ]), functions like a plural, but refers to both singular and plural. This form is used to show respect and is used toward one's superiors (a boss or teacher, for instance), to a stranger, to older people or to the Christian God. When in reference to the Christian God, it is capitalized as U.
B. Object Pronouns (Oblique Case)
The object of a sentence describes who/what the action is directed towards. Unlike German or Russian, Afrikaans, like English, does not distinguish between the Direct Object (Accusative Case) and Indirect Object (Dative Case). Thus, all objective pronouns remain the same.
- 'I know him.' → "Ek ken hom."
It should be noted that every plural object pronoun (including u) is the exact same as its subject form.
- 'She forgets you.' → "Sy vergeet u."
- 'He understands them.' → "Hy verstaan hulle/hul."
IV. Practicality: Greetings and Phrases
Afrikaans greetings are used in the exact same contexts as English ones, though with more attention to formality. When in an informal context, you might greet someone with a "haai" rather than a "hallo" or a "goeiedag". For instance, goeienaand is used when greeting a person during the evening while goeienag is used when leaving; No different from English.
A small thing to note is that the 'Good [x]' forms below exist as one word when posed as an interjection/greeting ('good afternoon!' = "Goeiemiddag!"), but the form becomes two words when talking about a good part of the day ('it was a good afternoon' = "Dit was ŉ goeie middag.").
|goodbye||totsiens||Literally a compound of tot (till) + sien (to see)|
|good day||goeiedag||A compound of goed (good) + dag (day)|
|good morning||goeiemôre||A compound of goed (good) + môre (morrow, morning)|
|good afternoon||goeiemiddag||A compound of goed (good) + middag (midday, afternoon)|
|good evening||goeienaand||A compound of goed (good) + aand (evening). Note the extra n in goeienaand.|
|goodnight||goeienag||A compound of goed (good) + nag (night)|
|How are you?||Hoe gaan dit (met jou/u/julle)?||Though this phrase can be shortened informally to "Hoe gaan dit?", the phrase in full is "Hoe gaan dit met jou/u/julle?", this dependent on person and formality.|
|I'm fine||Dit gaan goed (met my)||The phrase is a direct answer to "Hoe gaan dit?", the ending depending on formality again.|
|My name is...||My naam is...|
|(many) thanks||(baie) dankie|
|pleased to meet you||aangename kennis||The phrase is literally translated as aangenaam (pleasant) + kennis (knowledge)|
In later lessons, the different given forms in the notes will be expounded on and will make sense to the learner (eg. Why Good becomes Goeie). For now, just learn the forms as given.
V. Verbs: The Infinitive, Present Simple and Present Continuous
The infinitive, sometimes referred to as the verb's 'dictionary form', is formed in English by adding 'to' before the verb's present participle. The infinitive is the form of a verb without a subject or specific tense.
- to walk, to sleep, to eat.
In Afrikaans, the infinitive form is formed by adding 'om te' before the participle.
- om te loop, om te slaap, om te eet.
The Present Simple and Present Continuous
Fortunately, Afrikaans has extremely simple conjugation. If you look at every present form in every countable person, you will notice that the verb and its participle NEVER change. There is no direct distinction between verb forms of the present simple or present continuous.
- "Ek eet ŉ appel." → 'I eat an apple' or 'I am eating an apple.'
- "Ek slaap in die bed." → 'I sleep in the bed.' or 'I am sleeping in the bed.'
However, it must be noted that there are literal ways to describe the continuous, and we shall cover it in future lessons. Another thing to know is that there are two very common verbs that deviate completely from the conjugation's common ruleset: "om te wees" ('to be') and "om te hê" ('to have'), which we'll cover in the next lesson.
|Present Simple||Present Continuous|
|Present Simple||Present Continuous|
VI. Chapter Vocabulary
This is the chapter's main vocabulary, common ones that will appear in the dialogue section and following exercises. Still, one should take note of the example words used in the grammatical explanations and try to keep them in mind, as they will appear in the exercises too.
|Numerals: 0 - 10||Nouns, Adjectives & Conjunctions||Verbs and Adverbs|
|one||een||also||ook||to be (pres. am/are/is)||om te wees (pres. is)|
|two||twee||and||en||to eat||om te eet|
|three||drie||boss||baas||to have||om te hê (pres. het)|
|four||vier||food||kos||to live, to reside||om te woon|
|five||vyf||madam||mevrou||to see||om te sien|
|six||ses||mister; sir||meneer||to sleep||om te slaap|
|seven||sewe||night||nag||to think||om te dink|
|ten||tien||store||winkel||very; many; much||baie|
VII. Chapter Dialogues
Each lesson, two different dialogues related to the material of the lesson is provided to get the learner familiar with the material at hand. Having reviewed this lesson's notes, you should be able to understand the grammatical structure. If you must look at the vocabulary above or translation below, do so sparingly.
Dialogue 1: An Informal Conversation
|Johan||Haai, Sonja! Hoe gaan dit?|
|Sonja||Dit gaan goed, dankie. En met jou?|
|Johan||Ook goed. Die weer is goed vandag, né?|
|Sonja||Ja, ek dink so.|
|Sonja||Good morning, Johan!|
|Johan||Hi, Sonja! How are you?|
|Sonja||I'm fine, thanks. And you?|
|Johan||Also well. The weather is good today, huh?|
|Sonja||Yes, I think so.|
Dialogue 2: A Formal Conversation
|Die Baas||Goeiedag, Johan.|
|Johan||Goeiemôre, meneer. Hoe gaan dit met u?|
|Die Baas||Dit gaan goed met my, dankie. Waar is Japie?|
|Johan||Hy is besig in die winkel.|
|Die Baas||Baie dankie, Johan. Totsiens.|
|The Boss||Good day, Johan.|
|Johan||Good morning, sir. How are you?|
|The Boss||I'm fine, thanks. Where is Japie?|
|Johan||He is busy in the store.|
|The Boss||Thank you very much, Johan. Goodbye|
Exercise A: Translate into English:
Translate these sentences into English.
- Goeienaand en goeienag.
- Die dag is sonnig.
- Die woud is mooi in die somer.
- My naam is Japie, en hier is my vriend, Valerie.
- Hul werk op ŉ skip.
- Waar is my ander skoen?
- Een, Vyf, Nege, Ses, Sewe, Twee
Exercise B: Translate into Afrikaans:
Translate these sentences into Afrikaans.
- Hello, my name is Sally. Pleased to meet you.
- The river is icy in the winter.
- The madam lives here.
- You (plural) eat an apple.
- We are sleeping.
- Hi! Where is the boss?
- You (formal) see him.
The Next Lesson
In the next lesson, we shall cover months and seasons, plurals, the past tense, "om te wees" and "om te hê" and possessive pronouns. Good luck on your studies!
On to Lesson Two!>>
Afrikaans Les Twee: Descriptions
Definite and Indefinite Articles
Many languages will give words grammatical gender, but this is not the case for Afrikaans, just like English, there is no gender and thus nouns have no classification.
In English we use the word "the" to point out a specific thing. If someone says, "I ate all of the cake", they aren't referring to any cake, it's a specific one. Afrikaans has the same thing. In Afrikaans this word is "die", and just like in English, it can be used for the singular and the plural.
English: the dogs, the tree, the walls
Afrikaans: die honde, die boom, die mure.
The Afrikaans word for "a" or "an" is " 'n". This is called the indefinite article because it means one thing, but it cannot refer to a specific thing such as in the sentence "I ate a cake". This could be any cake. 'n Is always written with an apostrophe (') and is never capitalized, even if it starts a sentence. If it starts a sentence, then the first letter of the following word gets capitalized.
There are two main ways of forming question words: by starting out with a question word (What language are you learning?) or by turning a statement into a question (You are learning Afrikaans becomes Are you learning Afrikaans?).
|why||hoekom / waarom|
When making simple sentences, these questions will have question word-verb-object word order.
- English: Who is the president of South Africa?
- Afrikaans: Wie is die president van Suid-Afrika?
- English: Where do you live?
- Afrikaans: Waar woon jy?
Questions Beginning with Verbs
Often we ask questions that don't start with question words, but with verbs. Afrikaans does this too. The difference in word order: in English we say "Do you write letters?" but in Afrikaans it would read "Write you letters?". The verb comes first, followed by the subject, than the object. It is important to remember however that word order will change when we add more complex elements.
- English: Do you smoke cigars?
- Afrikaans: Rook julle sigare?
When adjectives are used with the verb wees ("She is sick", "He is blonde") you can use the form of the adjective you'll find in the dictionary. However, when an adjective is directly modifying a noun (as in "She is a sick girl", "He has blonde hair") their form usually alter somewhat. This change is called inflection. As a general rule, polysyllabic adjectives are normally inflected; monosyllabic adjectives may or may not be inflected though, depending mostly on a set of rather complex phonological rules. When an adjective is inflected, it usually takes the ending -e and a series of morphological changes may result. For example, the final t following an /x/ sound, which disappears in uninflected adjectives like reg, is restored when the adjective is inflected (regte). A similar phenomenon applies to the addition of t after /s/. For example, the adjective vas becomes vaste when inflected. Conversely, adjectives ending in -d (pronounced /t/) or -g (pronounced /x/) following a long vowel or diphthong, lose the -d and -g when inflected.
Adjectives come before nouns, like in English.
|Adjectives ending in a 'g' — add a 'te'|
|Adjectives ending in 'f' — change it to two 'w's|
- "mine" – "myne"
- "yours" (singular)- "jou" or "u" (joune?)
- "his" – "sy"
- "her" – "haar"
- "our" – "ons" (onse?)
- "yours" (plural) – "julle"
- "their" – "hulle"
Afrikaans Les Drie: Nommers
With this knowledge, you can count up to twenty.
To find other numbers, the format is <ONES> en <TENS>. Replace <ONES> with a number between one and nine. Replace <TENS> with twintig, dertig, veertig, vyftig, sestig, sewentig, tagtig, or negentig. For example, een en twintig translates to twenty one. Now you can count up to ninety nine!
| This page or section is an undeveloped draft or outline.
You can help to develop the work, or you can ask for assistance in the project room.
Here is a list of newspapers in South Africa and Namibia.
- https://www.netwerk24.com/beeld/ - Beeld
- http://www.dieburger.com/ - Die Burger
- https://www.netwerk24.com/volksblad - Volksblad
- https://www.netwerk24.com/rapport - Rapport
- http://www.dieson.co.za/ - Die son
- http://www.republikein.com.na/ -Republikein
| This page or section is an undeveloped draft or outline.
You can help to develop the work, or you can ask for assistance in the project room.
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- Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
- List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
- State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
- Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
- Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
- Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
- Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
- Include an unaltered copy of this License.
- Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
- Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
- For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
- Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
- Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified version.
- Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
- Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.
"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.
"CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.
"Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.
An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:
- Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
- Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
- under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
- or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
- with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
- A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
- Free Documentation License".
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
- with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
- Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.