US History/Presidents

Presidents of the United StatesEdit

Although Washington was a member of the Whig Party before the Revolution, after the war he was not a member of any party, though he tended to lean toward Federalist positions. Since the formation of the Democratic-Republican party and the Federalist Party, there has always been at least one viable political party. Today the United States has a two party system. There have been many third party movements, such as Ralph Nader, and Theodore Roosevelt, but these attempts to create a three-party system have, thus far, failed.

# President Years in Office Political Party Notes
1 George Washington 1789-1797 Unaffiliated British officer in the French and Indian War, American general, war hero in Revolution against the British. Robert E. Lee is a distant relative. The only President to have been elected without a political party. Reluctant to become president. Set many precedents in office.
2 John Adams 1797-1801 Federalist The only Federalist Party president. First president to live in the White House. President during the Quasi-War with France.
3 Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809 Democratic-Republican Author of the Declaration of Independence. The Louisiana Purchase occurred under his presidency.
4 James Madison 1809-1817 Democratic-Republican President during the War of 1812. His support for the colonists which would eventually found the African nation of Liberia lead those colonists to name their capital city, Monrovia, after him.
5 James Monroe 1817-1825 Democratic-Republican Opposed European involvement in the Americas with the Monroe Doctrine. Oversaw the Acquisition of Florida from Spain.
6 John Quincy Adams 1825-1829 Democratic-Republican Son of former President John Adams. A skilled diplomat who played a key role as secretary of state in the previous Monroe Administration. Lost the popular vote, but won the electoral college. As president he made trade deals which greatly helped grow the US economy. Advocated the abolition of slavery after his presidency.
7 Andrew Jackson 1829-1837 Democrat Promoted policies which lead to Indian Removal and the Trail of Tears.
8 Martin Van Buren 1837-1841 Democrat After his presidency he became a notable abolitionist.
9 William Henry Harrison 1841 Whig Died in office from disease on April 4th, 1841, making his presidency the shortest.
10 John Tyler 1841-1845 Democrat Succeeded President Harrison. Following his presidency he played an important early role in the government of the Confederate States of America.
11 James Knox Polk 1845-1849 Democrat Oversaw significant territorial expansion through the Mexican-American War and negotiations with Great Britain over the disputed Oregon territory.
12 Zachary Taylor 1849-1850 Whig Died in Office from disease. Attempted to compromise on Slavery.
13 Millard Fillmore 1850-1853 Whig Succeeded President Taylor. Last Whig president. Oversaw the Compromise of 1850 to attempt to ease tensions between free states and slave states. Following his presidency, he opposed secessionism.
14 Franklin Pierce 1853-1857 Democrat Oversaw the Gadsden Purchase of territory from Mexico and the Perry Expedition that opened up Japan to trade with the outside world. Oversaw the Kansas - Nebraska Act and the resulting Bleeding Kansas event which started under his administration.
15 James Buchanan 1857-1861 Democrat Dodged the issue of slavery and opposed a strong federal government in favor of strong state governments. Influenced the Dred Scott decision. President during the economic crisis caused by the Panic of 1857. Southern states began succeeding during his presidency, which he took little action against. The only president to have been a bachelor.[1]
16 Abraham Lincoln 1861-1865 Republican Attempted to preserve the Union. Lead the Union during the American Civil War. Issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Delivered the Gettysburg Address. Assassinated days after the wars end.
17 Andrew Johnson 1865-1869 Democrat Southern Unionist who succeeded President Lincoln. Finished adopting the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery except as punishment for a crime started under Lincoln's term. Attempted to end reconstruction quickly. Impeached by House, acquitted by one vote in the Senate.
18 Hiram Ulysses Grant 1869-1877 Republican Important Civil War general. Grant took important steps to safeguard the civil rights of African Americans during the reconstruction period, and fought against the rise of groups such as the Ku Klux Klan. Though he made strides to attempt to value merit rather over nepotism, Grant's presidency was marred by corrupt officials and an economic depression caused by the Panic of 1873. Grant also established Yellowstone as the first national park.
19 Rutherford Birchard Hayes 1877-1881 Republican Lost the popular vote but won the electoral college. He ended reconstruction and sought to make merit a key component of appointments. He tried to improve civil rights for African Americans. He attempted to assimilate Indians, which greatly damaged their culture and traditions. Did not run for re-election.
20 James Abram Garfield 1881 Republican Garfield attempted to improve the status of African Americans, education, and meritocracy in government. However shortly into his presidency he was assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau for not being awarded a consulship as a political favor.
21 Chester Alan Arthur 1881-1885 Republican Succeeded President Garfield. Compromised with hardliner anti-immigration members of congress to reduce the length of a ban on Chinese immigration. Attempted to improve civil rights and modernize the navy, but faced significant obstacles in doing so.
22 (Stephen) Grover Cleveland 1885-1889 Democrat The first Democrat to be elected since the civil war. Strove for merit, and notably kept Republican appointees from the previous administration who he thought were good at their job. His first term saw little concern for civil rights. Also served as the 24th President.
23 Benjamin Harrison 1889-1893 Republican Grandson of former President William Henry Harrison. Lost the popular vote but won the electoral college. He signed the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 into law. He also tried to strive for merit in governance, and attempted to safeguard the right of African Americans to vote.
24 (Stephen) Grover Cleveland 1893-1897 Democrat Also served as the 22nd President. The depression caused by the Panic of 1893 marred his second term. He took strong action against unions by sending the Army to end the Pullman Strike with violence.
25 William McKinley 1897-1901 Republican Last president to have served during the American Civil War. President during the Spanish - American War. Annexed Hawaii, as well as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines, as well as defacto control of Cuba. Oversaw economic growth. Assassinated by an anarchist.
26 Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909 Republican Succeeded President McKinley. Roosevelt had previously fought in the battle of San Juan hill. He promised Americans a "Square Deal", promoted Trust Busting, conservation of natural resources, landscapes, and historic areas, and safety in food and medical products. He successfully used gunboat diplomacy with his great white fleet to promote American Interests, and paved the way for the Panama Canal. He was Esperanto speaker, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, and on the staff of National Geographic while President.
27 William Howard Taft 1909-1913 Republican Unlike previous Republican presidents, he explicitly tried to keep African Americans out of politics. Tried to pursue "Dollar diplomacy" over military intervention. Continued Antitrust actions from Rosevelt. Many of his decisions incensed his predecessor Theodore Rosevelt, leading to the Progressives of the Republican party leaving to form the Bull Moose Party.
28 (Thomas) Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921 Democrat After committing to avoiding involvement in the Great War, diplomatic incidents lead to him serving as President during the First World War. As president he helped establish the League of Nations after the war to prevent another such conflict, for which he received the Nobel Peace Price. However he was not able to get the United States itself to join the League, weakening it substantially. He segregated previously integrated federal offices, and the second Ku Klux Klan gained significant power during his presidency.
29 Warren Gamaliel Harding 1921-1923 Republican Died in office
30 (John) Calvin Coolidge, Jr. 1923-1929 Republican Succeeded President Harding
31 Herbert Clark Hoover 1929-1933 Republican His term saw the end of the roaring twenties, and the start of the Great Depression.
32 Franklin Delano Roosevelt 1933-1945 Democrat Lead America to recovery from the great depression, and helped repeal Prohibition. Lead America through most of World War II. Only president to serve more than two terms (he served four); Died in office
33 Harry S Truman 1945-1953 Democrat Succeeded President Roosevelt during the final months of World War II.
34 Dwight David Eisenhower 1953-1961 Republican An important general during World War II. Eisenhower helped promote the creation of the interstate system.
35 John Fitzgerald Kennedy 1961-1963 Democrat Assassinated
36 Lyndon Baines Johnson 1963-1969 Democrat Succeeded President Kennedy. Escalated the Vietnam War. Promoted the "Great Society" and stronger civil rights protections.
37 Richard Milhous Nixon 1969-1974 Republican Eased relations between America and China. Established the Environmental Protection Agency. Resigned over the Watergate scandal. Author of No More Vietnams and The Real War
38 Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. 1974-1977 Republican Succeeded President Nixon, whom he controversially pardoned. The only man to become Vice President and President without involvement of the Electoral College. The Vietnam War fully ended under his presidency and he partially pardoned draft dodgers. Promoted detent with the Soviet Union and China. Though he attempted to reduce Inflation with his WIN program, the end of his presidency faced a very bad recession. Signed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, which helped guarantee equal access to education for students with disabilities. He supported the ultimately unsuccessful Equal Rights Amendment, which would have constitutionally guaranteed equal rights between women and men.
39 James Earl Carter, Jr. 1977-1981 Democrat The owner of a Peanut farm, he set aside his business in a blind trust to avoid conflicts of interest as president. Established the Department of Education, the Department of Energy, attempted to fight stagflation, and Fully pardoned Vietnam war draft dodgers. He promoted peace with the SALT II talks and the Camp David accords. The end of his presidential term was marked by multiple events, including The Energy Crisis, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, and the Iranian hostage crisis. After his presidency he became a proponent of humanitarian work, which earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.
40 Ronald Wilson Reagan 1981-1989 Republican A former Hollywood actor, nicknamed "The Gipper". His leadership lead to a fundamental shift in American conservatism. He was tough on the Soviet Union, participating in an arms race and famously demanded the Berlin wall be torn down. His economic policies reduced taxes and inflation, but significantly increased national debt. As president he took action against unions and escalated the war on drugs. HIV/AIDS became an important issue during his presidency.
41 George Herbert Walker Bush 1989-1993 Republican President during the reunification of Germany and the collapse of the Soviet Union. He signed the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 into law which helped those with disabilities greatly. He laid the groundwork for NAFTA. He was president during the Gulf War.
42 William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton 1993-2001 Democrat Oversaw NAFTA and reform on how the criminal justice system handled violent crimes. Oversaw US military intervention in Bosnia and Kosovo. Impeached by House, acquitted by Senate.
43 George Walker Bush 2001-2009 Republican Son of former President George Herbert Walker Bush. Lost the popular vote in the 2000 election, but won the electoral college. Led America during the horrific attacks on September 11th, 2001 and was president during the War on Terror. Near the end of his second presidential term the Great Recession began.
44 Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. 2009-2017 Democrat First African-American president. Won the Nobel Peace prize in 2009. He used economic stimulus to fight the Great Recession, and signed the Affordable Care Act into law. He attempted to take action against Global Warming. Under his administration LGBTQ rights improved.
45 Donald John Trump 2017-2021 Republican Lost the popular vote in the 2016 election, but won the electoral college. The only president to be impeached by House twice, and acquitted by the Senate twice. Replaced NAFTA with USMCA. Established the US Space Force. Was president during the start of the COVID-19 pandemic.
46 Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. 2021-Present Democrat Assumed Presidency during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Vice Presidents of the United States of AmericaEdit

# Vice President Years in Office Political Party Notes
1 John Adams 1789-1797 Federalist Second President
2 Thomas Jefferson 1797-1801 Democratic-Republican Founder of the Democratic-Republican Party
3 Aaron Burr 1801-1805 Democratic-Republican Shot Alexander Hamiltion in a duel. Bribed electors to vote for him, and ended up tied with Jefferson. Scandal resulted in the 12th Amendment.
4 George Clinton 1805-1812 Democratic-Republican Died in office.
5 Elbridge Gerry 1813-1814 Democratic-Republican Died in office.
6 Daniel D. Tompkins 1817-1825 Democratic-Republican An entrepreneur, jurist, Congressman and Governor of New York
7 John Caldwell Calhoun 1825-1832 Democratic-Republican Resigned
8 Martin Van Buren 1833-1837 Democrat
9 Richard Mentor Johnson 1837-1841 Democrat
10 John Tyler 1841 Whig Succeeded President Harrison
11 George Mifflin Dallas 1845-1849 Democrat Supported expansionist policies.
12 Millard Fillmore 1849-1850 Whig Succeeded President Taylor
13 William Rufus DeVane King 1853 Democrat Died in Office, strong believer in "Manifest Destiny."
14 John Cabell Breckinridge 1857-1861 Democrat A major candidate in the 1860 United States presidential election, and won most southern electoral college votes. Joined the Confederate army almost immediately following his vice presidency, and later served as the Confederate States Secretary of War at the end of the War.
15 Hannibal Hamlin 1861-1865 Republican First republican vice president. Believed his position as vice president should not exempt him from his duty in the Maine State Guard, and served during the Civil War while vice president.
16 Andrew Johnson 1865 Democrat Succeeded President Lincoln
17 Schuyler Colfax 1869-1873 Republican President Ulysses S. Grant and Vice President Colfax, both 46 at time of entering offices, were the youngest presidential team until election of Bill Clinton and Al Gore in 1992.
18 Henry Wilson 1873-1875 Republican Died in Office
19 William Almon Wheeler 1877-1881 Republican
20 Chester Alan Arthur 1881 Republican Succeeded President Garfield
21 Thomas Andrews Hendricks 1885 Democrat Died in office
22 Levi Parsons Morton 1889-1893 Republican Attempted to pass the Lodge Bill, which would have greatly improved access to voting for African Americans in the south. The bill was filibustered and failed to pass as a result.
23 Adlai Ewing Stevenson 1893-1897 Democrat
24 Garret Augustus Hobart 1897-1899 Republican Died in office
25 Theodore Roosevelt 1901 Republican Succeeded President McKinley
26 Charles Warren Fairbanks 1905-1909 Republican
27 James Schoolcraft Sherman 1909-1912 Republican Died in office
28 Thomas Riley Marshall 1913-1921 Democrat
29 John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. 1921-1923 Republican Succeeded President Harding
30 Charles Gates Dawes 1925-1929 Republican
31 Charles Curtis 1929-1933 Republican First vice president with American Indian ancestry through the Kaw people.
32 John Nance Garner 1933-1941 Democrat
33 Henry Agard Wallace 1941-1945 Democrat Worked closely with President Roosevelt on Economic and Military issues. Denounced racism and advocated good relations with the Soviet Union.
34 Harry S Truman 1945 Democrat Succeeded President Roosevelt
35 Alben William Barkley 1949-1953 Democrat The oldest vice president, elected at age 71. Popularized the term Veep.
36 Richard Milhous Nixon 1953-1961 Republican Would later run for president after his term as Vice President.
37 Lyndon Baines Johnson 1961-1963 Democrat Succeeded President Kennedy
38 Hubert Horatio Humphrey 1965-1969 Democrat
39 Spiro Theodore Agnew 1969-1973 Republican Resigned following a scandal unrelated to watergate.
40 Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. 1973-1974 Republican Succeeded President Nixon
41 Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller 1974-1977 Republican A grandson of John D. Rockefeller. The origin of the "Rockefeller Republican".
42 Walter Frederick Mondale 1977-1981 Democrat Pursued an active role as vice president.
43 George Herbert Walker Bush 1981-1989 Republican Would run and win election for President following his term as Vice President.
44 James Danforth "Dan" Quayle III 1989-1993 Republican Despite making a number of notable public speaking gaffes, his Murphy Brown speech was influential. A proponent of space exploration.
45 Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. 1993-2001 Democrat Labeled an "Atari Democrat" for his work promoting investment in emerging technologies, especially those related to computers. He ran unsuccessfully against Bush in 2000, and later won the Nobel Prize for the film "An Inconvenient Truth".
46 Richard Bruce Cheney 2001-2009 Republican Was very active and influential in the Bush administration. Advocated "Enhanced Interrogation" techniques during the war on terror, which critics called torture.[2] Notably broke ranks with President Bush to oppose his push to ban same sex marriage nationwide.[3]
47 Joseph Biden 2009-2017 Democrat Senator for the state of Delaware for 36 years. The first Roman Catholic vice president. Would later be elected as 46th President.
48 Michael Pence 2017-2021 Republican A major figure in the Trump Administration's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic. Publicly got a vaccine to encourage other Americans to also vaccinate. Narrowly escaped during the Capitol Riot of January 6th, 2021, safeguarding his aide carrying the backup nuclear football.[4][5]
49 Kamala Devi Harris 2021-Present Democrat First female vice president, first Asian American vice president and first African American vice president.

ReferencesEdit

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