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Thai Civilization

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Culture & Civilization

Chapter One Culture & Civilization

What's the difference between culture and civilization?Edit

Culture is the characteristics of people: the sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings, transmitted from one generation to another. Culture is manifested in human artifacts (An artifact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and later recovered by an archaeological endeavor) and activities such as music, literature, lifestyle, food, painting and sculpture, theater and film.

A civilization is a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations). In short, civilization is and advance state of human society --- the sum of cultures, science, industry, and government. So, you can have several cultures in one civilization. For example, you may say:

Some people argue that the Mon and Karen cultures in Thailand has been promoted for the sake of tourism campaigns.

This statement reflects that fact that there are several culture functioning in the kingdom of Thailand.

When we have a look at these two words in a dictionary, we will see that “culture” refers to the customs, beliefs, art, music, and all the other products of human thought made by a particular group of people at a particular time; and “civilization” means an advanced stage of human development marked by a high level of art, religion, science, and social and political organization.

Phraya Anumanrajathon, a famous Thai scholar, has defined “culture” as the human thought, concept, and belief appearing in four ways:

  • Social behavior
  • Common characteristics in society
  • Social activities, and
  • The creation in society

“Culture” in general may be divided into two main groups : - Material Culture : All the concrete things that were created by man, such as houses, clothes, instruments etc. - Non-material Culture : the quality concerning human mind, concept, emotion, philosophy, religion etc.

The term “civilization” has still another meaning. Since each culture has peculiar features of its own, and since some cultures are more highly developed than others, we can say that a civilization is a superior culture. A culture deserves to be called a “civilization” when it has reached a stage of advancement in which writing has come to be used to a considerable extent. Some progress has been made in the arts and sciences, and political, social, and economic institutions have developed sufficiently to conquer some of the problems of order, security, and efficiency in complex society.

Oswald Spengler, the German philosopher of history, viewed “civilizations” as decadent phases of highly developed cultures. When a great people or empire was in its prime, he characterized its social pattern and intellectual pattern as a “culture”. When it passed its prime (time) and became ossified or fixed, he called it a “civilization”. Thida Saraya says that we can judge a civilization of any society from the following criteria: Technological development; The development should fulfil its social need and have some exchange with other communities as well. With technological skills, the people could produce their social individualized characters.

Variety of professionals; The society should be composed of people in various professions.

The people who are responsible in any field of work, for example, administration, politics, economics, and society can set up systems for their social and cultural development until those systems are recognized.

Social institutions; The society can set up its own institutions to manage social affairs in stead of the kinship system, and

Integration of its own cultural characteristics; This may reflect on the patterns of art and the advancement of literature.

Factors leading to the rise of civilizationsEdit

When we start to study about civilizations, we should have at least three questions in our mind. They are:

  1. What causes the rise of civilizations?
  2. What factors support their growth? , and
  3. Why do some civilizations reach much higher levels of development than others?

Some social scientists decide that factors of geography are the most important (to the rise of civilization). Others stress economic resources, food supply, contact with older civilizations, and so on.

Under geographical conditions, Ellsworth Huntington, an American geographer, insisted that no nation rose to the highest cultural status except under the influence of a climatic stimulus. Related to the climatic hypothesis is the soil-exhaustion theory.

This group of theory believes that the majestic civilizations that once flourished in Mesopotamia, Palestine, Greece, Italy, China, and Mexico were ultimately doomed by the simple fact that their soil would no longer provide sufficient food for the population.

Another theory about the origin of civilizations is adversity. Arnold J. Toynbee, a British historian, said that conditions of hardship or adversity are the real causes which have brought into existence superior cultures. Such conditions constitute a :challenge” to stimulate men to try to overcome it and to generate additional energy for new achievements. The challenge may be in the form of a desert, a jungle area, rugged topography, or a grudging soil.

What makes a civilization is complexEdit

The majority of historians believe that the genesis of civilizations cannot be explained except on the basis of a complex of causes or a combination of factors. Among these factors, they place uppermost the geographic and economic elements of favorable climate, fertile soil, access to good harbors, and an abundance of mineral resources. They also accord a high place to opportunities for interchange of ideas with other people of a comparable level of advancement. Civilizations do not develop in isolated corners of the world.

Historical Development of the Thai Civilization

Historical Development of the Thai Civilization

Prehistoric ThailandEdit

Based on London (2008):

Archaeological evidence seems to suggest that the geographical area now known as "Thailand" has been inhabited since prehistoric times (between 6 million and 50,000 years ago).

(p. 24)

The Thai people (not just the Siamese Thais in Thailand) have inhabited the region of continental Southeast Asia for over 4,000 years.

Cam Troung (2007), the leading Vietnamese expert on Thai ethnic community, has quoted a chapter titled 'Vietnamese Folk Poetry' collected and translated by John Balaban (2003) to support his argument that the Thai people were here (Vietnam) in that distant past (p. ix.

The Thai people were in the region of continental South East Asia (esp. in Lao, Thailand, North of Myanmar, Southern part of China, and Vietnam) since the birth of the 40000-year Dong Song culture Cam troung (2006).

A study conducted by a team of Thai researchers (Lertrit et al, 2007) suggests that (DNA tests on ancient skeletons in the Northeast) the Thai people's ancestors may have migrated to this part of the region soon before previously thought.

This research rejected the long-held belief that Thai people migrated from China about 700 years ago. The results were published in American Journal of Physical Anthropology Volume 137, Issue 4. Here's the abstract:

" The 360 base-pair fragment in HVS-1 of the mitochondrial genome were determined from ancient human remains excavated at Noen U-loke and Ban Lum-Khao, two Bronze and Iron Age archaeological sites in Northeastern Thailand, radio-carbon dated to circa 3,500-1,500 years BP and 3,200-2,400 years BP, respectively. These two neighboring populations were parts of early agricultural communities prevailing in northeastern Thailand from the fourth millennium BP onwards. The nucleotide sequences of these ancient samples were compared with the sequences of modern samples from various ethnic populations of East and Southeast Asia, encompassing four major linguistic affiliations (Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai, and Austroasiatic), to investigate the genetic relationships and history among them. The two ancient samples were most closely related to each other, and next most closely related to the Chao-Bon, an Austroasiatic-speaking group living near the archaeological sites, suggesting that the genetic continuum may have persisted since prehistoric times in situ among the native, perhaps Austroasiatic-speaking population. Tai-Kadai groups formed close affinities among themselves, with a tendency to be more closely related to other Southeast Asian populations than to populations from further north. The Tai-Kadai groups were relatively distant from all groups that have presumably been in Southeast Asia for longer-that is, the two ancient groups and the Austroasiatic-speaking groups, with the exception of the Khmer group. This finding is compatible with the known history of the Thais: their late arrival in Southeast Asia from southern China after the 10th-11th century AD, followed by a period of subjugation under the Khmers."

Who were living in the region called 'Usa Kanay'?Edit

Prominent Thai historian Dr Charnvit Kasetsiri began with a question asking who the Thai people are, and where they came from.

"Students would answer that the Thai people are those who speak Thai, believe in Buddhism, love the Nation, Religion and Monarchy, and probably they would also add that Thai people are good and moral, and willing to sacrifice for the country. And they came down from the Altai Mountains, and formed the kingdoms of Nan Chao, Sukhothai, Ayutthaya, and then Rattanakosin," he said.

  • Did the Thais come from the Altai Mountains?

The Mons The Khmer The Siamese Tai

Theories on the Origins of the Tai PeopleEdit

Before discussing the relevant theories on the origins of the Thai people, let's look briefly at the summaries of other countries.


The History of Laos is conventionally traced to the establishment of the kingdom of Lan Xang by Fa Ngum in 1353. His successors, especially King Photisarath in the 16th century, helped stablish Theravada Buddhism as the predominant religion of the country. In the 17th century Lan Xang entered a period of decline and the late 18th century Siam (now Thailand) established control over much of what is now Laos.

The region was divided into three dependent states centered on Luang Prabang in the north, Vientiane in the center, and Champassak in the south. The Vientiane Lao rebelled in 1828 but were defeated, and the area incorporated into Siam. Following its occupation of Vietnam, France absorbed Laos into French Indochina via treaties with Siam in 1893 and 1904.



The first identifiable civilization is that of the Mon. The Mon probably began migrating into the area in about 300 BC, and their first kingdom Suwarnabhumi, was founded around the port of Thaton in about 300 BC.

The Pyu arrived in Myanmar in the 7th century and established city kingdoms at Binnaka, Mongamo, Sri Ksetra, and Halingyi. During this period, Myanmar was part of an overland trade route from China to India. By AD 849, the Burmans had founded a powerful kingdom centered on the city of Bagan and filled the void left by the Pyu. The kingdom grew in relative isolation until the reign of Anawrahta (1044 - 77) who successfully unified all of Myanmar by defeating the Mon city of Thaton in 1057.

After the collapse of Bagan authority, Myanmar was divided once again. The Burmans had restablished themselves at the city of Ava (Thai: อังวะ) by 1364, where Bagan culture was revived and a great age of Burmese literature ensued. The kingdom lacked easily defendable borders, however, and was overrun by the Shan in 1527. Surviors of the destruction of Inwa eventually established a new kingdom centered on Taungoo in 1531 led by Tabinshwehti (reigned 1531-50), who once again unified most of Myanmar. A popular Burmese leader named Alaungpaya drove the Bago forces out of northern Myanmar by 1753, and by 1759 he had once again conquered Pegu and southern Myanmar while also regaining control of Manipur. He established his capital at Rangoon, now known as Yangon.

Myanmar was known to the West ever since western explorers had heard of it. Marko Polo was the earliest known westerner who discovered Myanmar and introduced to the West.

Britain conquered Burma over a period of 62 years (1824-1886) and incorporated it into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a province of India until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony; independence from the Commonwealth was attained in 1948.

Myanmar has a long and complex history. Many peoples have lived in the region and the history began.



Cambodia is another of Thailand's neighbors. Its history has been tied closely with that of Thailand's.

The Funan Kingdom, believed to have started around the first century BC, is the first known kingdom of Cambodia. The kingdom was strongly influenced by Indian culture by shaping the culture, art and political system.

An alphabetical system, religions and architectural styles were also Indian contributions to the Funan Kingdom. There is archeological evidence of a commercial society in the Mekong Delta that prospered from the 1st to 6th centuries.

Returning from abroad, a Khmer prince declared himself the ruler of a new kingdom during the 9th century. Known as Jayavarman II, he started a cult that honored Shiva, a Hindu god, as a devaraja (god-king) which then linked the king to Shiva.

He also began the great achievements in architecture and sculpture while his successors built an immense irrigation system around Angkor. His successors (26 from the early 9th to the early 15th century), built a tremendous number of temples - of which there are over a thousand sites and stone inscriptions.

By the 12th century, Cambodia had spread into other areas, now known as Thailand, Laos, Myanmar and Malaysia (the peninsula). There is actually still evidence of Khmer inhabitance in Thailand and Laos to this day.

The 13th and 14th centuries were not as successful for Cambodia, some believe it was due to the increased power of (and wars with) Thai kingdoms that had at one time paid homage to Angkor. Others believe it was due to the induction of Theravada Buddhism, which was totally contrary to the Cambodian societal structure at that time. After this time historical records are rather sketchy at best regarding Cambodia and it is considered the "Dark Ages" of Cambodian history.

Cambodia was ravaged by Vietnamese and Thai invasions and wars up until the 19th century, when new dynasties in these countries fought over control of Cambodia. The war, that began in the 1830's almost destroyed Cambodia. King Norodom signed a treaty that enabled the French to be a protectorate, thus effectively stopping the Viet-Thai war within. For the next 90 years, France in essence ruled over Cambodia.

Although officially they were just advisors, it was known that the French had final say on all topics of interest. Although the French built roadways and made other improvements regarding trade and transportation, they sadly neglected the Cambodian educational system, which is still not effective to this day.


Theories/Stories about the origin of the Thai PeopleEdit

  1. The Altai Mountain Theory: This is perhaps the oldest theory. Thai people migrated south from Mongolia. Most people were skeptical about its validity.
  2. The Tibet Theory: Some scholars [citation needed] have argued that Thais came from Tibet.
  3. The China Theory: Thais migrated south (forced by stronger peoples such as the Huns)
  4. The Vietnam Theory: Thais came from the north of Vietnam.
  5. The South Theory: Thais were Polynesains and Malaynesians, gradually moved north to the continent.
  6. The "We Have Been Here" theory: This is the story supported by archeological evidences. The word 'here' refers to the area called 'Suwannabhumi' and the south of China, the north of Vietnam, the Shan state of Burma, The Assam of India, Laos, Cambodia, and the Melayu Peninsular.

Sukhothai Period (AD 1249-1463)Edit

According to the Encyclopedia for Thai Youths:

"The Sukhothai Kingdom became the center of the Siamese Thai in BE 1792 (AD 1249). It remained the center of the Siamese Thai until BE 2006 (1463) when it was integrated into the new Siamese kingdom, Ayudthaya".

The Sukhothai Kingdom was ruled by the Roung Dysnasty, entailing 9 kings.

  • Dawn of Happiness

Sukhothai (literally means “Dawn of Happiness” ) was the first truly independent Thai Kingdom.

Sukhothai is the first Siamese Thai kingdom. It is located near the river Nan.

Established in BE 1792; became part of the Ayudthaya Kingdom in BE 2006.

Sukhothai lasted for 214 years.

Sukhothai enjoyed a golden age under King Ramkhamhaeng.

  • Geography

Sukhothai is located on the lower edge of the northern region, 440 kilometres north of Bangkok or some 350 kilometres south of Chiang Mai. The province covers some 6,596 square kilometres and is divided into 9 Amphurs (districts): Muang Sukhothai, Sawankhalok, Sri Samrong, Si Satchanalai, Kong Krailat, Kirimas, Thung Saliam, Ban Dan Lan Hoi and Sri Nakhon.

Kings of the Sukhothai Kingdom

  1. Pho Khun Sri Indraditya (1249 (BE 1792)- c.a. 1257)
  2. Pho Khun Ban Muang (1257 - 1277)
  3. Pho Khun Ramkhamhaeng (Ramkhamhaeng the Great) (ruled 1277 - 1298 or 1317)
  4. Praya Loethai (1298 - 1347)
  5. Praya Nguanamthom (1347)
  6. King Lithai or Maha Thammaracha I (1347 - 1368/1374)
  7. King Maha Thammaracha II (1368/1374 - 1399)
  8. King Maha hammaracha III or Praya Saileuthai (1399 - 1419)
  9. King Thammaracha IV (Borommabal) (1419 - 1438)

Ayudthaya Period (AD 1350-1767)Edit

After the decline of Sukhothai (Nan River), Ayudthaya (Undefeatable) became the new power hub along the Chao Praya River in BE 1893 (AD 1350). It remained the center of the Siamese Thai for as long as 417 years. It declined in BE 2310 (AD 1767). Altogether five dynasties ruled the kingdom: (1) U-thong Dynasty, Supunnapoom Dynasty, Sukhothai Dynasty, Prasatthong Dynasty, and Ban Plooloung Dynasty.

  • Uthong Dynasty ราชวงศ์อู่ทอง (First reign, AD 1350 - AD 1370)

1. King Ramathibodi I (formerly Prince U Thong) (1350 - 1369)

It was uncertain to identify his former city (Lavo, Supanburi, Petchaburi, or simply the city across the river to the other side (the eastern side of the Chao Praya river).

during his reign, the administrative system was different from the Sukhothai period, as Ayudthaya adapted many aspects of the Khmere governing practices and traditions. The management of Ayudthaya was divided into four domains, Vien, Vang, Klang, and Na. (the capital, the palace, finance, and cultivation)

The king was regarded as ‘the reincarnation of a god’ or ‘devaraja’. However, the kings of Ayudthaya also followed to the teaching of Theravada Buddhism, similar to the practice of the Sukhothai period.

2. King Ramesuan (AD 1369 - 1370) (first rule, abdicated)

He was King U Thong's heir. However, about a year under the throne, he was forced by Khunluang pra Ngua from Supanburi to abdicate. He went to rule Lopburi. This was the end of the first rule of the U Thong Dynasty.

  • Suphannaphum Dynasty ราชวงศ์สุพรรณภูมิ (first reign, AD 1370-1388)

3. Somdej Pra Borommarachathiraj I (Khunluang Pha Ngua) (1370 - 1388)
Known as Khunluang Pha Ngua. He was the elder brother of the queen of the first monarch of Ayudthgaya (King U Thong). He was a strong military warrior. Many military campaigns during his reign brought Sukhothai under the rule of Ayudthaya in BE 1921. He then attacked Lan Na Kingdom.

4. King Thong Lan (1388)

Son of Khunluang Pha Ngua, ascending the throne when he was only 15. He ruled for only 7 days. Prince Ramesuan came down from Lopburi and decided to dethrone him.

Thonburi Period (AD 1767-1782 or 28 December 1767 - 6 April 1782)Edit

After the second fall of Ayudthaya in BE 2310, the capital of Siam was destroyed.

Ayudthaya was under the control of the Burmese authority for only 7 months.

King Thaksin the Great was the only king of this period.

We may not know what really happened. Some people say there is no 'if' in history. Whatever has happened happened.

WE know that in AD 1767 or BE 2310, Ayudthauya fell due to the invasion of the Burmese. There were, however, internal conflicts within the kingdom. After the brief fall, the Siamese Thais were determined to reclaim their sovereignty and freedom, reflecting the independent spirit of the people. Ayudthaya was sacked and most temples were burned down. The Siamese warriors, in a few months, managed to expel its invaders. Its territory occupied was reclaimed.

The kingdom broke up into many different groups. It was King Thaksin the Great who unified the kingdom. History has it that he founded the new capital in the area called 'Thonburi'.

The resistance to Burmese rule was led by a noble of Chinese descent, Taksin, a capable military leader. Initially based at Chanthaburi in the south-east, within a year he had defeated the Burmese occupation army and re-established a Siamese state with its capital at Thonburi on the west bank of the Chao Phraya.

In 1767 he was crowned as King Taksin. He rapidly re-united the central Thai heartlands under his rule.

King Taksin demanded more. He was not satisfied with the mere fact of expelling the Burmese. He also aimed higher --- to demand loyalty from the former colonies of the great Ayudthaya Kingdom. He determined to turn crises into opportunities.

In 1769 he marched west and occupied western Cambodia.

He then marched south and re-established Siamese rule over the Malay Peninsula as far south as Penang and Terengganu.

Having secured his base in Siam, Taksin attacked the Burmese in the north in AD 1774 and captured Chiang Mai in 1776, permanently uniting Siam and Lanna.

Taksin's leading general in this campaign was Thong Duang, known by the title Chaophraya Chakri.

In 1778 Chakri led a Siamese army which captured Vientiane and re-established Siamese domination over Laos.

Despite these successes, by 1779 Taksin was in political trouble at home. He seems to have developed a religious mania, alienating the powerful Buddhist monkhood by claiming to be a sotapanna or divine figure.

In 1782 Taksin sent his armies under Chakri to invade Cambodia, but while they were away a rebellion broke out in the area around the capital. The rebels, who had wide popular support, offered the throne to Chakri.

Chakri marched back from Cambodia and deposed Taksin, who was secretly executed shortly after. Chakri ruled under the name King Rama I, first king of the Chakri dynasty.

One of his first decisions was to move the capital across the river to the village of Bang Makok (meaning "place of olive plums"), which soon became the city of Bangkok. The new capital was located on the island of Rattanakosin, protected from attack by the river to the west and by a series of canals to the north, east and south. Siam thus acquired both its current dynasty and its current capital.

Even though many scholars consider this period to be transitional, the Thonburi Period is indeed the most important development of the Thai nationhood.

On reflection, Siam (Thailand's former name) could maintain its statehood due two several factors. The two factors were significant: Genious and Chance.

In War and Peace (Volume Four), Leo Tolstry has discussed the concepts of 'chance' and 'genius'.

Why did it come to pass in this way and no other? asked Tolstoy.
'Because it happened so.' was his ultimate answer.

Chance created the position; genius took advantage of it.

Rattana Kosin (Bangkok) Period (AD 1782 or BE 2325 - Today)Edit

King Rama I was the founder of the Chakri Dynasty.

World War I and World War II

After World War II

The present king of Thailand is King Rama IX.

Thailand TodayEdit

Today Thailand is one of the most prosperous nations in South East Asia.

The websites below give detailed information about Thailand today:

This is the summary found on the website:

" Thailand is a middle-income country that has seen remarkable progress in human development in the last twenty years. Thailand now has a Human Development Rating of 0.768 . It will achieve most if not all of the global Millennium Development Goals well in advance of 2015. Thailand has reduced poverty from 27% in 1990 to 9.8% in 2002, and the proportion of underweight children has fallen by nearly half. Most children are in school; universal primary school enrolment is likely to be achieved within a few years. Malaria is no longer a problem in most of the country. Annual new HIV infections have been reduced by more than 80% since 1991, the peak of the epidemic. Strides are being made toward gender equality."

  • Information about Thailand from CIA The World Fact Book, 2005:

The Kingdom of Thailand or Thailand (Former Siam) is "a unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II, Thailand became a US ally following the conflict. Thailand is currently facing armed violence in its three Muslim-majority southernmost provinces."

Socio-Political Background of the Thai Society

Socio-Political Background of the Thai Society

The king is the head of state. The prime minister or premier is the head of government.

The premier and other members of the Cabinet make the Government's policies and carry out the operations of the government.

Thailand is divided into 76 provinces. The capital city is Bangkok. In terms of its administrative divisions, the provinces are divided into 795 districts (amphoe), 81 subdistricts (king amphoe), 7,255 rural administrative subdistricts (tambon), and 69,866 villages (muban).

Social Structure of the Thai SocietyEdit

‘ village’ or ‘Moo Ban’ is the most basic unit of the structure. In the past, it was a self-contained community in terms of economy and basic needs.

In general, Thai people's ways of life and customs are based mainly on agricultural activities and religious activities. Most villages had a wat (Buddhist monastery). Most villages have a shrine for a village deity. Wats have been the spiritual and educational centers.

The Sakdina SystemEdit

Prai Sakdina System of the Ayudthaya Period

The Prai-Sakdinal system was a form of social system during the Ayudthaya period. It was established to serve the state as well as to function as a means to balance the power of the administration of the kingdom/government.

The Prai (commoners) Sakdina system was invented to support the power of the rulers. During that time, Thai society divided its Prais or commoners into three groups:

1) Prai Som, 2) Prai Suai, and 3) Prai Luang

1) Prai Som worked for the lords. Their wellbeings depended on their masters or lords. During the Ayudthaya period, this category of people worked for the state every other month (one month for the state - one month for the self). This system, perhaps, has created the concept of 'Nai' (Master) in Thai society (even today).

2) Prai Suai were war captives or labor given to the state by its vassal states.

3) Prai Luang served the king.

Economic Foundation of the Thai Society

Economic Foundation of the Thai SocietyEdit

Thailand has recognized itself as a country with agriculture-based society. In the past, most Thais were farmers.

The stone inscription says that Thailand is a fertile land --- there are fish in water and rice in the field pr "Nai Nam Mi Pla, Nai Na Mi Khao." Thailand has been a rice-growing society for many centuries. The Thai word for 'rice' is 'khao.'

Gradually, Thailand has developed into an industrialized state like many other countries in the world.

However, agriculture remains its back-bone of the economy. Its exports include rice, rubber, sugar, bananas, pineapples, and other agricultural products. In fact, the Thai government has branded Thailand as 'a great kitchen of the world.'

Political and Administrative Background of the Thai Society

The Administration Before the Reformation By King Rama VEdit

The kingdom of Thailand has its king as head of state.

Central AdministrationEdit

Provincial AdministrationEdit

Provincial administration is a part of the country’s administrative machines, allowing local communities a certain level of autonomy. The local powers are under the state powers; the local administrations are not independent bodies; they are under the national laws, set up for the benefit and well-being of the members of the community.

The website of Thailand's Election Commision has explained why the local administration is important:

       Powers and Duties of the Local Governmental Organisations

" Decentralisation is, amongst others, the fundamental principle of the local government to empower people of self-government according to their will. They will elect their representatives (members of the local assemblies or local administrators) to administer the local affairs instead of them with expectation of their better lives as well as protecting local interests and the country’s as a whole."

" Therefore, all the local governmental organisations shall enjoy autonomy in laying down policies for their governance, administration, finance, and shall have powers and duties particularly on their own part. Members of the local assemblies or local administrators shall hold office for the period of four years."

There are currently 5 kinds of Thailand’s local (provincial) administration.

1) Provincial Administration Organization is the largest body of Thailand’s provincial administration; each province has one, except Bangkok. The PAO covers the area of the whole province, set up with an aim to manage and provide public services within its province, helping the works of municipalities and the sub-district administrations; it does so by collaborating with other administrations within the same province to avoid power redundancy and appropriate budget allocation.

Provincial Administrative organization (PAO) consists of two administrations. The first is the administrative body led by the chair of the provincial administrative organization; he or she is responsible for all the administrative affairs of the province. The second is the legislative body where members of the provincial administrative organization issues rules and regulations as well as monitor the management of the provincial organization.

There is only one chair of each provincial administration organization; he or she is elected by the people in the province. The main duty is to monitor and manage the provincial administration organization led by the permanent secretary of the organization who functions as the top executive of the organization. The chair appoints his or her assistants who are not members of the provincial administration council to help him or her running the administrative affairs of the organization. The assistantship serves for four years. Their duties include managing and monitoring of the provincial administrative affairs, making sure that the administration is done in accordance with the provincial acts and regulations and the provincial development plan. Other duties include planning for the development of the province, setting up the annual budget to be submitted to the provincial administrative council, and reporting the performance and expenditures to the provincial administrative council.

Members of the PAO are directly elected by the people; they are elected to a four-year term. Their duties and responsibilities include enacting rules and regulations to be used within a particular province or district such as regulations on petrol and tobacco taxes, monitoring of the administration of the PAO, and monitoring and evaluation of projects’ expenditures. Their roles and responsibilities also include their roles in approving the provincial development plan which is a collection of plans and projects submitted from municipalities and sub-district administration organizations. The plan may entail road construction or other infrastructures. They also take part in approving the province’s annual budget, which is the management of the public money, managing the collected taxes levied from the public; the taxes include property tax and indirect taxes such as trade and business taxes. These collected taxes, in principle, would return for the development of the province or city.

2) Municipalities refer to provincial political units, such as a city or town. It has three categories: (1) sub-district (Tambon) municipality, district (Muang) municipality, and (33) city (Nakorn) municipality, depending on the number of population and the civility and development of that particular area.

Municipalities are set up to manage and provide basic infrastructures for people in local areas; they permeate the daily life of people from birth to death. In theory, a municipality has its autonomous administration. Municipal staff and the permanent secretary function as local government servants, carrying out their duties under the supervision of the municipal council directly elected by the people.

A municipality entails two bodies: legislative and administrative bodies. The legislative body’s main duty is to enact local regulations and monitor the administration of the municipal council; the administrative body manages the affaires of the municipality via the executive power of the mayor and the members of the municipal council.

The mayor is directly elected from the eligible people with a particular constituent, serving for the term of 4 years; each municipality entails 2 council members from each sub-district (Tambon), 3 council members from each district, and 4 council members from the province.

Members of the municipal council are directly elected from the eligible voters, serving the term of 4 years. The number of the council members depends on the type of the municipality. The number is 12 for the sub-district municipal council, 18 for the district municipal council and 24 for the city municipal council.

3) The Special Administration of Bangkok. The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration divides its administration into districts and sub-districts. The Bangkok Administration Council functions as the legislative body; the governor of Bangkok is the head of the administrative body. The governor and members of the Bangkok Administration Council are elected from the voters. The term for the members of the council is 4 years.

4) The Special Administration of Pattaya. This administration entails the city council as the legislative branch entailing the 24 elected members. The mayor of Pattaya is elected by the people, serving as the head of the executive branch.

5) The Sub-District Administration Organization is a local administrative organization under the Councils and Sub-district Administration Organization Act BE 2537, functioning as a local administrative organization at the sub-district (Tambon) level; it is, thus, very close to the people of the community. A Sub-district Administration Organization has developed from a Tambon Council with income up to a certain level. It is established to manage public services at the local level, villages and sub-districts, as it is impractical for the government to administer all of the villages in the country, the number of which is over 70000.

A sub-district administration organization entails two branches: the legislative branch and the executive branch. The legislative branch entails members of the organization; their main duties are to pass the local laws and monitor the administrative affaires of the sub-district. The executive branch is led by the president of the organization who chairs the sub-district administration organization. The chair of a sub-district administration organization is elected by the people functioning as the head of the administrative branch, and the term is 4 years.

Members of the sub-district administration organization are directly elected by the people of the community; their administrative term lasts for four years. The number of the members of for each sub-district varies, depending on the number of villages within a particular sub-district. The sub-district organization of only one village can only have 5 members. If the number of villages is two, each village is allowed to vote for three representatives. The organization with more than two villages is allowed to have two representatives for each village (See Thailand's Office of Election Commission [1].

Thai Arts (Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture)

Thai Arts (Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture)Edit


Prehistoric painting Thai painting Mural Paintings


  1. The Mon Dvaravati and Haripunjaya Period
  2. Srivijaya Art
  3. Lop Buri Art
  4. The Sukhothai Era
  5. The Ayudthaya Period
  6. The Rattanakosin Era


  1. Srivijaya Architecture
  2. The Sukhothai Era
  3. Ayudthaya Period

Women's Status in Thai Society

Traditionally, Thai women did not have the same rights as men's. They were not allowed to enter monkhoods, which means that they did not have access to education. their duties were limited to doing household chores such as cooking and doing dishes.

Thai men enjoyed better opportunities to develop themselves. They had access through monastic education.

Questions for Discussions

What were the key roles of Siamese women in the Ayudthaya and early Bangkok period?

Were the women's roles different from the men's roles? Discuss.

In the past, did Thai men and women have equal rights? Why?/Why not?

What were the key factors leading to changes in the status of Thai women during the early Rattanakorin (Bangkok) period?


Historical developmentEdit

The development of education in Thailand has stretched back along her history for nearly eight hundred years. It can be now divided into four main periods:

(1) traditional education, (2) education during the early Rattanakosin period (foundation of formal education), (3) education after the political reform of AD 1932(modernized education for national development), and (4) education in he early 21st century.

Thai Music and Dance

Thai Music and DanceEdit


Folk MusicEdit

The website of Thailand's Ministry of Culture shows the accurate information on the folk musical instruments. At [2].

Classical MusicEdit


Folk DanceEdit

Classical DanceEdit

Thai Literature

Thai LiteratureEdit

One of the British ambassadors to Thailand used to opine that Thailand is a country with no literature. Here's his exact language:

           "They (Thais) have no literature, no painting and only a very odd
            kind of music; their sculpture, ceramics and dancing are borrowed
            from others, and their architecture is monotonous and interior
            decoration hideous." 

Sir Antony Rumbold (British Ambassador to Thailand From 1965-1967)

The above quote has created a lot of comments in Thai society. Even though Sir Rumbold's comment was direct and personal, it is useful and should be viewed as a feedback from a true friend. For one thing, it helps Thais to investigate their own intellectual culture in relation with the world

Thai Literature can be divided into four periods:

Traditionally, Thai literature is an oral one.

        Mi Nam Chang Mi Moung;(If there is water, there is a town.)
        Mi Moung Chang Mi Tao.(When there is a town, there is a ruler.)

(Source, Cam Troung, 2007, p. 4)

The Sukhothai Period

The Ayudthaya Period

The Thonburi Period

The Bangkok Period

Five Thai Verse FormsEdit

1)โคลง 2) ร่าย 3) ฉันท์ 4) กาพย์ 5) กลอน

By Janpha Thadphoothon

1. Khlong Khlong can be termed as the earliest forms of Thai poetry. Educated and sophisticated people generally follow Khlong since it is considered as an intellectual form of poetry. Khlong has different and elaborate tonal and rhythmic constrains and has been developed on the basis of Thai language. Ex. เสียงลือเสียงเล่าอ้าง อันใด พี่เอย เสียงย่อมยอยศใคร ทั่วหล้า สองเขือพี่หลับใหล ลืมตื่น ฤๅพี่ สองพี่คิดเองอ้า อย่าได้ถามเผือ


โคลงกระทู้ (Khlong Poems by Topics or Themes) กวน ตะกอนสงบแล้ว กลับมา น้ำ ขุ่นคลักอีกครา สุดใช้ ให้ คนตัดปัญหา เหตุแห่ง เคืองแล ขุ่น ข่มจิตสงบไว้ อย่าได้ฟื้นความ

	 	ครูภาทิพ ศรีสุทธิ์

คน เกิดมามิได้ มีใคร กำหนด ดี ชั่วตัวทำไป ย่อมรู้ คน สูงต่ำดูใจ หาใช่ กายา เลว อย่าทำคือผู้ ทั่วหล้า นิยม

2. Raay ร่าย

พระสารประเสริฐ (ตรี นาคะประทีป) สันนิษฐานว่าร่ายเป็นของไทยแท้ มีมาแต่สมัยพ่อขุนรามคำแหง ด้วยปรากฏหลักฐานครั้งแรกในวรรณคดีสุโขทัยคือสุภาษิตพระร่วง และต่อมาจึงปรากฏเป็นรูปเป็นร่างขึ้นในวรรณคดีอยุธยาเรื่องโองการแช่งน้ำในสมัยสมเด็จพระรามาธิบดีที่ ๑

ร่ายเป็นร้อยกรองแบบหนึ่ง มีสี่ประเภทได้แก่ ร่ายยาว (Long) ร่ายสุภาพ (Courteous) ร่ายดั้น (Harsh) และร่ายโบราณ (Traditional) ร่าย คือ คำประพันธ์ประเภทร้อยกรองแบบหนึ่งที่แต่งง่ายที่สุด และมีฉันทลักษณ์น้อยกว่าร้อยกรองประเภทอื่น ถ้าพิจารณาให้ดีจะพบว่าร่ายมีลักษณะใกล้เคียงกับคำประพันธ์ประเภทร้อยแก้วมาก เพียงแต่กำหนดที่คล้องจองและบังคับวรรณยุกต์ในบางแห่ง

Raay is one of the oldest verse forms of Thai poetry generally used for drafting laws and chronicles. Raay typically contains a five-syllable group of sentence that is linked together by a rhyme. This form of poetry usually contains more than one sentence in a single stanza. Syllable number and tone placement are very much similar in Raay and Khlong. Lilit is another form of Thai poetry where raay and khloong are alternately used.


ร่ายยาว คือ ร่ายที่ไม่กำหนดจำนวนคำในวรรคหนึ่ง ๆ แต่ละวรรคจึงอาจมีคำน้อยมากแตกต่างกันไป การสัมผัส คำสุดท้ายของวรรคหน้าสัมผัสกับคำหนึ่งคำใดในวรรคถัดไป จะแต่งสั้นยาวเท่าไรเมื่อจบนิยมลงท้ายด้วยคำว่า แล้วแล นั้นแล นี้เถิด โน้นเถิด ฉะนี้ ฉะนั้น ฯลฯ เป็นต้น

ตัวอย่าง โพธิสตฺโต สมเด็จพระบรมโพธิสัตว์ อันสร้างสมดึงส์ปรมัตถบารมี เมื่อจะรับวโรรัตนเรืองศรีแปดประการ แด่สำนักนิท้าวมัฆวานเทเวศร์ ก็ทูลแก่ท้าวสหัสเนตรฉะนี้

Khloong and Raay are believed to be the original Thai forms of poetry.

3. Chan

This poetry contains two types of syllables called the light or lahu and heavy or kharu. These syllables are arranged in innumerable and different forms and sequences.

There are up to 108 varieties of Chan. ฉันท์ คือลักษณะถ้อยคำ ที่กวีได้ร้อยกรองขึ้น ไห้เกิดความไพเราะ ซาบซึ้ง โดยกำหนดคณะ ครุลหุ และสัมผัสไว้ เป็นมาตรฐาน ฉันท์นี้ไทยได้ถ่ายแบบมาจากอินเดีย ของเดิมแต่งเป็นภาษาบาลี และสันสกฤต จิตรปทาฉันท์ ๘ cittapathaachan 8


มาณวกฉันท์ ๘ maanawakkachan 8


4. Kaab

Kaap. It has a definite rhythm and requires a fixed number of syllables. Although the rhythm is similar to Chan form of poetry, Kaap does not require the use of lahu and kharu syllables for making tone. There are several variations inside Kaap depending on the number of syllables per line. The most common are the yaanii that contains eleven syllables per line, cha-bang that has sixteen syllables and suraangkhanaang having twenty-eight syllables per line.

วิชาเหมือนสินค้า อันมีค่าอยู่เมืองไกล ต้องยากลำบากไป จึงจะได้สินค้ามา จงตั้งเอากายเจ้า เป็นสำเภาอันโสภา ความเพียรเป็นโยธา แขนซ้ายขวาเป็นเสาใบ

5. Klon The most popular or the poetic form for the mass. A klon poem consists of 4 lines. Each line must have 6-8 syllables.

แต่ปางหลังยังมีกรุงกษัตริย์ สมมุติวงศ์ทรงนามท้าวสุทัศน์ ผ่านสมบัติรัตนานามธานี อันกรุงไกรใหญ่ยาวสิบเก้าโยชน์ ภูเขาโขดเป็นกำแพงบูรีศรี สะพรึบพร้อมไพร่ฟ้าประชาชี ชาวบูรีหรรษาสถาวร มีเอกองค์นงลักษณ์อรรคราช พระนางนาฏนามประทุมเกสร สนมนางแสนสุรางคนิกร ดังกินนรน่ารักลักขณา มีโอรสสององค์ล้วนทรงลักษณ์ ประไพพักตรเพียงเทพเลขา ชื่ออภัยมณีเป็นพี่ยา พึ่งแรกรุ่นชันษาสิบห้าปี อันกุมารศรีสุวรรณนั้นเป็นน้อง เนื้อดังทองนพคุณจำรุณศรี พึ่งโสกันต์ชันษาสิบสามปี พระชนนีรักใคร่ดังนัยนาฯ

บัดนั้น พระยาพิเภกยักษี เห็นพระองค์ทรงโศกโศกี อสุรีกราบลงกับบาทา ทูลว่าพระลักษณ์สุริยวงศ์ ยังไม่ปลงชีวังสังขาร์ อันโมกขศักดิ์อสุรา พรหมาประสิทธิ์ประสาทไว้

ทรงอานุภาพฤทธิรุทร ต้องใครจะฉุดนั้นไม่ไหว แต่มียาคู่หอกชัย ให้ไว้สำหรับแก้กัน แม้นละไว้จนรุ่งราตรี ต้องแสงพระระวีจะอาสัญ ขอให้ลูกพระพายเทวัญ ไปห้ามพระสุริยันในชั้นฟ้า อย่าเพ่อรีบรถบทจร ข้ามยุคนธรภูผา แล้วให้ไปเก็บตรีชวา ทั้งยาชื่อสังขรณี ยังเขาสรรพยาบรรพต ปรากฏอยู่ยอดคีรีศรี กับปัญจมหานที สรรพยาทั้งนี้มาให้ทัน แม้นว่าได้บดชโลมลง องค์พระอนุชาไม่อาสัญ จะดำรงคงชีพชีวัน หอกนั้นก็จะหลุดขึ้นมา

จากเรื่อง รามเกียรติ์ พระราชนิพนธ์ในรัชกาลที่ 1

จะกล่าวถึงพลายแก้วแววไว เมื่อบิดาบรรลัยแม่พาหนี ไปอาศัยอยู่ในกาญจนบุรี กับนางทองประศรีผู้มารดา อยู่มาจนเจ้าเจริญวัย อายุนั้นได้ถึงสิบห้า ไม่วายคิดถึงพ่อที่มรณา แต่นึกตรึกตรามากว่าปี อยากจะเป็นทหารชาญชัย ให้เหมือนพ่อขุนไกรที่เป็นผี จึงอ้อนวอนมารดาให้ปราณี ลูกนี้จะใคร่รู้วิชาการ

This is another example of a 8-syllable klon.






ฉันท์ [14 January 2010]

Types of Thai Poetry [14 January 2010]

ร่าย [14 January 2010]

Current Problems Thailand Is Facing

Big ProblemsEdit

Thailand, like some other countries, is facing several problems. Many are trivial; some are significant or BIG. I have reflected on the big problems, as a Thai fellow, that I think are challenging the well-being of Thailand.

In fact, a small-scale survey conducted by one of my students revealed that the five big problems were ranked as follows:

  1. Economic Problems
  2. Red-Yellow Groups
  3. The Deep South
  4. Environment-related
  5. Racism

It was found that the environment-related problems (such as global warming or rising sea-level) were ranked lower.

This finding confirms the findings reported by the Thai government and the World Bank. This is what the summary of the report has stated:

"The overall environment for investment in Thailand got slightly worse in 2007 when compared with 2004. Moreover, future investment decisions by Thai companies could well be affected by the uncertain economic and political environment".

The big three problems are as follows:Edit

  • Economic-related Problems

Economic problems persist. Poor people remain. Poverty can hardly be eradicated. Economic crises may be something that cannot be easily eradicated.

Recently, a group of farmers came out and demanded that the authority help them by shoring up the lower rice prices.

  • The Colors Problems (Political Problems)

Red and Yellow (Political-Motivated Problems)

These people are making Thailand move backward. So we can solve this problem by waiting until they and their thinking gone from Thailand and insert a real better thinking to the next generation.

  • Violence in the deep south of Thailand, namely, in the provinces of Narathiwat, Patani, Songkhla and Yala.

This is a big problem, which may not relate to the two-afore mentioned problem areas. Many people, military officers, mostly civilians, were killed.

How to end the violence?

The simplest answer is to resort to the political means, not the use of force, alone.

Political and Economic ProblemsEdit

It should be noted that there is a relationship between the two areas: economy and political health. World Bank, for example, has noted that "Thailand’s economic growth has been slowing down because of weak private consumption and investment demand, following the September 2006 coup and subsequent political uncertainty". There are many problems here.

Environmental ProblemsEdit

The eastern seaboard project has created several environmental problems since its inception twenty years ago.

There are also pollution problems in several big cities like Bangkok and Chaingmai.

Social ProblemsEdit



Corruption is common in many parts of the world, including in Thailand. It has evolved into many different forms, some are not recognized by existing systems.

Another issue related to corruption is cronyism or favoring one's friends. Cronyism is common in Asia, as it is rooted in their cultural values. Who else would you help, they may argue, if not your friends, relatives, and families?

Unemployment Among Thai Youths

Youths have dreams, ambitions, and energy. However, they have been affected by the economic problems, There are not enough job opportunities for them.


Many Burmese and tourists are targeted by authorities or used to blame problems on. From island gang rapes and murders to collecting extra revenue and overcharging tourists as well as targeting them for various obscure reasons.

The Strengths and Weaknesses of Thailand

The Strengths and Weaknesses of ThailandEdit

"Thailand" or the land of the Thai people, formerly known as Siam, has several strengths and weaknesses.

==Weaknesses== olok


The Strengths of Thai Culture

Like any other nation states, Thailand has both strengths and weaknesses. There are several strengths, and some of which are:

1. Thai people are morally civilized. They have built their civilization based on the teachings of Lord Buddha. Since the influence of Buddhism, the teachings of Lord Buddha and His disciples (Buddhist monks and believers) have been implemented, it can safely be said that today Buddhism has permeated into almost all fabrics of Thai society.

Many aspects of the teachings are eco-friendly, as discussed by Rom Avudhkom. Many articles of Pra Vinai (the Disciplinary Text) states what should be done to live harmony with nature.

They are non-violent people as they prefer to live in peace.

2. Thais are people who care about their cultural identities. Another strength lies in the practice of the Thai people passed down generation after generation. Cam Troung has noted that:

" However, wet paddy cultivation has been the driving force of the long historical development of the Thai community. It must not be forgotten on the other hand, that they have continued to maintain their links with upland forest areas through hunting and gathering activities. Their settlement and migration patterns are determined by this factor".

"One of the interesting features of their (The Thais) use of land resources is the division of the territory controlled by each village into reserved sections, reflecting a strong sense of ecological management, something that has been an intergral part of community traditions for a long time" (p. 2).

"The ancient laws of the Thai establish a classification of special areas which include sacred forests (where the Deities of Land and Water are warshipped); rivers and streams which are essential for community life and agriculture areas..."

3. Thailand has several c****** geographical advantages. In the past, the land was called "Suwanna Bhumi" or "The Land of Gold", reflecting the richness and fertility of the land.

Evidence of the land of plenty can ne found inscribed on the stone discovered by King Monkut, which says that Siam is a land of plenty and bountiful. "In the water there are fish' There is rice in the paddy."

Positive 'Good' Findings on ThailandEdit

A recent report released by the OECD finds that Thai people are satisfied with their lives. With a score of 7.2 on a scale of 1 to 10 (low to high satisfaction), "Thai people (citizens) rank the country among the top four countries in terms of quality of life, just behind high-income countries such as Singapore, Australia, and New Zealand. The average life satisfaction score for 30 OECD countries is 6.7". [3]

Thailand as a Member of the International Communities

Thailand as a Member of the International CommunitiesEdit

Thailand is a member of the United nations. It's also a member of ASEAN.

Thailand as a Member of ASEANEdit

For the record, Thailand is one of the founding fathers of ASEAN. Others include Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The information below is from the official ASEAN website at


ASEAN or The Association of Southeast Asian Nations was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the Founding Fathers of ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.

Brunei Darussalam then joined on 8 January 1984, Viet Nam on 28 July 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999, making up what is today the ten Member States of ASEAN.


As set out in the ASEAN Declaration, the aims and purposes of ASEAN are:

  1. To accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nations;
  2. To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries of the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter;
  3. To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest in the economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields;
  4. To provide assistance to each other in the form of training and research facilities in the educational, professional, technical and administrative spheres;
  5. To collaborate more effectively for the greater utilisation of their agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade, including the study of the problems of international commodity trade, the improvement of their transportation and communications facilities and the raising of the living standards of their peoples;
  6. To promote Southeast Asian studies; and
  7. To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with existing international and regional organisations with similar aims and purposes, and explore all avenues for even closer cooperation among themselves.


In their relations with one another, the ASEAN Member States have adopted the following fundamental principles, as contained in the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC) of 1976:

  • Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all nations;
  • The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion;
  • Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another;
  • Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner;
  • Renunciation of the threat or use of force; and
  • Effective cooperation among themselves.

Thailand has prepared itself to integrate with ASEAN, Asean friends (+3+6+00000) to develop its citizens and the global citizens.

Thailand as a Member of the United NationsEdit

This is an interesting news article about the relationship between Thailand and the UN found in the Nation, dated 27 October 2009.

   The United nations yesterday marked its 60th year in Thailand and the growth of Bangkok as  
   a regional hub of the UN system. ... in 1949 Bangkok became home to the Economic Commission
   for Asia and the Far East, which later became the Economic and Social Commission for Asia
   and the Pacific (Escap.)




  1. สารานุกรมไทยสำหรับเยาวชน โดยพระราชประสงค์ในพระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัว ฉบับเสริมการเรียนรู้ เล่ม ๓
  2. พงศาวดารชาติไทย โดย พระบริหารเทพธานี กรุงเทพ สำนักพิมพ์ประจักษ์วิทยา (เล่ม ๑-๒).
  3. อิฌิอิ โยเนะโอะ (2550) กึ่งศตวรรษบนเส้นทางไทยศึกษา (แปลโดย ชวาลิน เศวตนันท์ และ กนกวรรณ เกตุชัยมาศ). กรุงเทพฯ มูลนิธิโตโยต้าประเทศไทย.


  1. Gerson, Ruth. (1996). Traditional Festivals in Thailand. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  2. London, Ellen. (2008). Thailand Condensed: 2000 Years of History and Culture. London: Marshall Cavendish.
  3. Cam Trong. (2007). The Thai Ethnic Community in Vietnam. The Goi Publishers.
  4. Kheourai, Wandee (1998). Thai Studies Through Games (Books I and II). Published by The Girl Guides Association of Thailand Under the Royal Patronage of Her Majesty the Queen.

Electronic Sources:

The Thailand Investment Climate Assessment Update.,,contentMDK:22279910~menuPK:2246553~pagePK:2865106~piPK:2865128~theSitePK:226301,00.html